Free Essay

Explain Freud’s Views on the Source of Moral Awareness (25)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By chazlinds220
Words 1012
Pages 5
Unlike a lot of philosophers and theologians who claim that the source of God is moral awareness, Freud believed that we get our sense of morality from ourselves, most notably from the way in which we are brought up and the pressures that are influenced upon us by society. He believed that our minds our made up of three different parts, the id, the superego and the ego. The id is the part of our brain and consciousness that acts on impulse, and is responsible for some of the more rash and animalistic decisions that we make. The superego is the part of our subconscious that has been shaped by society to fit humanities morals that have evolved over the years in order to be best suited to our ultimate survival. The ego is the part of our brain that has developed in order to mediate decisions between our animalistic id and our superego that ensures we make the right decisions based on ‘morality’. Freud believed that a lot of our personal ideas of morality and subconscious believes stems from childhood trauma, which can be discovered and cured through therapy. Most of what we know about Freud’s views on moral awareness comes from his two books Beyond the pleasure principle, and The ego and the id, written in 1920 and 1923 respectively.

The id is the most primitive and old part of our brain, that is responsible for the animalistic and impulsive nature that humans sometimes display. In a situation where one has to make a sub conscious split second decision, the id is the area of the brain that is responsible for this, and it is this that keeps us alive. When we are born only the id is present, and the superego and ego develop later in life as we are exposed to the pressures of society. The id contains personality that is inherited from our parents, and may make us particularly prone to anger or addiction. People that have a dominant id, and are not as bound by the stigmas of society, are more likely to take risks such as committing crime or taking drugs. Our libido (sex drive) is also contained within the id, as breeding and passing on our DNA is perhaps the most important function of a being. As our superego has developed this has become less important, with more and more people choosing not to have children now. The id is only focused on achieving immediate pleasure, meaning that a decision that we may regret later on may sometimes be made by our id in order to achieve that pleasure in the present. An example of this may be not doing some homework and going out with your friends instead, whilst your superego might tell you that you should have done it and will regret the decision.

The superego is the area in the brain which contains all of societies values, stigmas and expectations that we have learnt and acted in accordance with other the years. According to Freud the superego starts to develop when you are 3, as you begin to become more aware of what is going on around you. The superego is very important because it keeps the impulses of the id under control, allowing us to live and thrive in societies with one another. If we acted on the id’s aggression and sexual desire the whole time then society would not survive, meaning that humanity would be nowhere near as successful as we are today. If we give into the desires of our id then our superego sends feelings of guilt to our ego, as we have fallen short of what we know we should be doing. However if we do the right thing according to societal stigmas and values then our superego will reward us and make us feel content and happy with what we have done. The concept of the ideal self is the idea of how we ought to be, and how we would behave if we were the perfect member of society. If one has an ideal self that is too unrealistic then this often stems from how we were brought up, and childhood trauma can result in one never feeling that we have achieved our ideal self.

Freud believed that our ego is actually a part of our id that has been changed by the pressures of society. It is the part of our brain and source of moral awareness that is most like ourselves, and is a very important part of how we act. It is important that we have this as we have to strike a balance between the animalistic id, and performing within the rules of society. It uses reason to make decisions, and decision making is its primary function. It considers societal realities and rules, as well as trying to achieve pleasure for the id, usually striking a balance between the two. The ego does not consider right and wrong but rather tries to make the decision that is the most satisfying to the id whilst still performing within in social pressures and ideals. Freud uses an analogy of a horse and rider to describe the id and the ego. The id is the horse which has to be controlled by the more rational ego (rider), but still wants to go fast and enjoy life.

To conclude Freud claimed that the brain is made up of three different parts, the id, the ego and the superego. Our moral awareness stems mostly from the superego, which starts to develop at around three. He claimed that actual morality did not exist, but rather we learn from the values and conventions of society in order to fit in and thrive with others. However the id sometimes can prevent this, by making us give way to animalistic pleasures such as sex and violence. The ego is the decision making area which considers both the id and the superego, trying to reach a compromise which both gives us pleasure and does not alienate us from society.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Not an Essay

...The modules and their weightings are: |AS: |Unit Code |Unit Title |% of AS |(% of A Level) | | |G571 |AS Philosophy of Religion |50% |(25%) | | |G572 |AS Religious Ethics |50% |(25%) | If you decide to study for the full A Level you will have to study the following modules at A2: |A2: |Unit Code |Unit Title |(% of A Level) | | |G581 |A2 Philosophy of Religion |(25%) | | |G582 |A2 Religious Ethics |(25%) | Grading | |E |D | |G571: AS Philosophy of Religion |70% |30% | |G572: AS Religious Ethics |70% |30%...

Words: 13036 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Psycholagical

...Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory B. Divisions of the Mind C. Developmental Stages D. Freud’s Followers & Critics E. Humanistic Theories Concept Review F. Cultural Diversity: Unexpected High Achievement G. Research Focus: Shyness 434 436 438 440 442 447 H. Application: Assessment—Projective Tests Summary Test Critical Thinking Can Personality Explain Obesity? Links to Learning 450 452 454 Introduction Personality Ted Haggard founded New Life Church in the basement of his house 25 years ago and became a prominent author and national evangelical Christian leader with a congregation of 14,000 worshippers in the largest church in Colorado. He is married with five children and has boyish dimples and a warm smile. In 2006, at the peak of his career, a male prostitute accused Haggard of having a three-year sexual affair with him and of using drugs. is accusation was alarming not only because Haggard was a married pastor, but also because he publicly supported a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage. When the accusations were first broadcast on the news, Haggard confessed to church officials, saying, “Ninety-eight percent of what you know of me was the real me. Two percent of me would rise up, and I couldn’t overcome At the height of his career, it” (Haggard, 2006a). Then, in Ted Haggard, well-known pastor, a television news interview the confessed to “sexual immorality.” next morning, Haggard denied ever having sex with a male prostitute and ever using drugs....

Words: 30527 - Pages: 123

Premium Essay

Love

...What is Love? A Conceptual Analysis of "Love", focusing on the Love Theories of Plato, St. Augustine and Freud Nico Nuyens GRIPh Working Papers No. 0901 This paper can be downloaded without charge from the GRIPh Working Paper Series website: http//www.rug.nl/filosofie/GRIPh/workingpapers What is love? A Conceptual Analysis of “Love”, focusing on the Love Theories of Plato, St. Augustine and Freud CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1 1. FORMAL ANALYSIS OF LOVE............................................................................... 3 2. SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF LOVE........................................................................... 6 3. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF LOVE....................................................................... 9 3.1 ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY: PLATO ..................................................................... 11 3.2 CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY: SAINT AUGUSTINE............................................................ 18 3.3 MODERN PHILOSOPHY: FREUD ................................................................................. 27 4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION............................................................................ 37 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................. 40......

Words: 19634 - Pages: 79

Premium Essay

Psychology

...9 CHAPTER PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 348 CHAPTER OUTLINE module 29 Psychodynamic Approaches to Personality Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Mapping the Unconscious Mind The Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts: Building on Freud Try It! The Life Orientation Test Projective Methods Behavioral Assessment Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology: Assessing Personality Assessments module 30 Trait, Learning, Biological and Evolutionary, and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Trait Approaches: Placing Labels on Personality Learning Approaches: We Are What We’ve Learned Biological and Evolutionary Approaches: Are We Born with Personality? Humanistic Approaches: The Uniqueness of You Try It! Assessing Your Real and Ideal Self-Concept Comparing Approaches to Personality module 32 Intelligence Theories of Intelligence: Are There Different Kinds of Intelligence? Practical Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence: Toward a More Intelligent View of Intelligence Assessing Intelligence Variations in Intellectual Ability Exploring Diversity: The Relative Influence of Genetics and Environment: Nature, Nurture, and IQ Psychology on the Web The Case of . . . Mike and Marty Scanlon, the Unlikely Twins Profiles of Success: Raymond J. Matlock Full Circle: Personality and Individual Differences module 31 Assessing Personality: Determining What Makes Us Distinctive Self-Report Measures of Personality Who was the Real Bernie Madoff? To some, Bernard L....

Words: 22921 - Pages: 92

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Student Learning Guide Counselling Methods 1 © South African College of Applied Psychology (Pty) Ltd Developed and produced by the South African College of Applied Psychology Sunclare building, Claremont, Cape Town, 7708, South Africa. 2012. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by means of electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher. Copyrighted materials reproduced herein are used under the provision of the South African Copyright Act 98 of 1978 section 12 (1) (a)(b) (3), for private study only by students. STUDENT LEARNING GUIDE: COUNSELLING METHODS 1 2 Table of contents How this guide works ........................................................................................................................ 10 Module Readings .............................................................................................................................. 11 Prescribed text book ......................................................................................................................... 11 Prescribed and recommended readings ........................................................................................... 11 Session One: An Overview of Theories of Psychotherapy and Counselling ..................................... 14 Reading for the session......

Words: 21776 - Pages: 88

Free Essay

Personality Theory

...Theories of Personality 12-116 Psychoanalytic Theory 12-25 Humanistic Theory 25-43 Trait and Factor Theories- Big Five Factors 43-57 Biological and Genetic Theories 58-62 Social Cognitive Theory 62-87 Holistic-Dynamic Theory 88-116 III. Conclusion 116-117 Final Thoughts 116 Summary 117 Back Matter 118 References 118 PREFACE What makes people behave as they do? Are people ordinarily aware of what they are doing, or are their behaviors the result of hidden, unconscious motives? Are some people naturally good and others basically evil? Is human conduct largely a product of nature, or is it shaped mostly by...

Words: 39340 - Pages: 158

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...Most of Freud’s theory was developed from contact he had with patients seen in his private practice in Vienna. This type of “clinical” work was a radical departure from the laboratory research that was practiced by most leading psychologists of the day. When Freud first presented his ideas in the 1890s, many of his contemporaries reacted with hostility. In fact, throughout his career, Freud faced enormous opposition to many of his ideas. Those especially controversial included notions about the role of the unconscious in behavior, childhood sexuality, and how the mind was governed (id, ego, and superego). But despite the opposition, Freud eventually attracted a group of followers that included well-known theorists 1856–1939 AUSTRIAN PHYSICIAN, PSYCHIATRIST VIENNA UNIVERSITY, M.D., 1881 1 4 5 S i g m u n d S c h l o m o F r e u d social relationships are patterned after his or her early family relationships. BIOGRAPHY Early years Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in a small town in Freiberg, Moravia, located in what is now the Czech Republic. Freud’s father Jacob was 40 when...

Words: 21427 - Pages: 86

Premium Essay

Uiop

...pap32045_ch02_022-053.indd Page 22 8/6/10 9:38 AM user-f469 2 CHAPTER TWO /Volumes/201/MHSF210/pap32045_disk1of1/pap32045_pagefiles pap32045_ch02_022-053.indd Page 23 8/6/10 9:38 AM user-f469 /Volumes/201/MHSF210/pap32045_disk1of1/pap32045_pagefiles A Child’s World: How We Discover It There is one thing even more vital to science than intelligent methods; and that is,the sincere desire to find out the truth, whatever it may be. —Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Papers, vol. 5 Did You Know . . . Basic Theoretical Issues Issue 1: Is Development Active or Reactive? Issue 2: Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? Theoretical Perspectives * Theories are never “set in stone”; they are always open to change as a result of new findings? * Children shape their world as it shapes them? * Cross-cultural research enables us to determine which aspects of development are universal and which are culturally influenced? * An experiment is the most definitive way to demonstrate that one event causes another? * The results of laboratory experiments may be less applicable to real life than experiments carried out in a home, school, or public setting? These are just a few of the interesting and important topics we will cover in this chapter. Here, we present an overview both of major theories of human development and of research methods used to study it. In the first part of the chapter, we explore major issues and theoretical perspectives......

Words: 21135 - Pages: 85

Free Essay

Examine the Use David Simpson Makes of Ẑiẑek’s Theoretical Work in His Study 9/11: the Culture of Commemoration.

...Examine the use David Simpson makes of Ẑiẑek’s theoretical work in his study 9/11: The Culture of Commemoration. “The routines of commemorative culture, whether private or public, exist to mediate and accommodate the unbearably dissonant agonies of the survivors into a larger picture that can be metaphysical or national-political and is often both at once.” (Simpson 2) David Simpson’s study 9/11: The Culture of Commemoration published in 2006 focuses on a post-9/11 America wracked by fear and paranoia. The “war against terror” implacably positions the American nation against vengeful messianic Islamist “terrorists” who represent the other, the enemy, and are identifiable en masse as “the culture of terror”. The tragic events of the day known globally as 9/11 shattered any illusion Americans might have had about an ethic of tolerance operating both within and without their borders. But Simpson notes in his introductory arguments that while that day has been represented as a rupture with known reality it had a familiarity about it that can be traced over time to the influence of television and film, and was thus already embedded within American culture as a shocking explosive tragedy waiting to happen. Simpson states unequivocally that it’s time we turned to “those who speak for theory” to guide and lead us towards a new cultural understanding of 9/11, mentioning the Slovenian philosopher and cultural theorist Slavoj Ẑiẑek as part of a respected cohort of......

Words: 9727 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Sun Zhi

...Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 563-576 This article is © Emerald Group Publishing and permission has been granted for this version to appear here (https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/index.jsp). Emerald does not grant permission for this article to be further copied/distributed or hosted elsewhere without the express permission from Emerald Group Publishing Limited. www.emeraldinsight.com A Dynamic Theory of Leadership Development Abstract Purpose - The paper offers a dynamic theory of leadership development. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines selected leadership literature through the lens of theory building blocks. It identifies the role of the ideal goal in leadership and its importance in developing the psychological aspect of leadership. Findings – The paper posits that leadership is a developmental process, which is based on the type of choice a leader makes. While choice implies that two good options are always available from which to select, one should make choices in accordance with his worldview, looking for affiliation (i.e. the Theta worldview), or looking for achievement (i.e. the Lambda worldview). Consequently, leaders need to recognise that the choices they make for organisational activities have to fit their own worldview. Pursuing the fit between one’s worldview and planned organisational activities ensures that leaders continuously improve their ethical behaviour. The paper concludes with the......

Words: 6701 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

What Is Philosophy

...Source: http://philosophy.fsu.edu/content/view/full/36588 2. What are the benefits of Studying Philosophy? Studying philosophy improves reasoning and critical skills. Skills gained by philosophy majors are useful in almost any career. * The ability to think logically * The ability to analyze and solve problems * The ability to assess proposed solutions * The ability to write and speak clearly, attending to details Students learn about questions. How to ask good questions and distinguish the worthwhile from the worthless questions. How to divide, prioritize, and simplify questions. Students are affected by learning about questions. * Studying questions liberates us from prejudice * It helps us to think independently, thus, promoting autonomy, self-government, and individuation * It broadens our perspective on life The study of philosophy benefits students intellectually, spiritually, and morally.  * Students learn about the origins of those ideas and concepts that are our common intellectual vocabulary. * They learn that there is remarkable intellectual and spiritual connection between themselves and people from different times and places. They see firsthand a common and rich humanity. Source:...

Words: 8049 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

General Psychology

...Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalism also emphasized individual differences, which had a profound impact on education. While Wundt's work helped to establish psychology as a separate science and contributed methods to experimental psychology and Titchener development of structuralism...

Words: 20821 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

Mahek

...Although Freud’s ambition from childhood was a career in law, he decided to enter the field of medicine. In 1873, at the age of seventeen, Freud enrolled in the university as a medical student. During his days in the university, he did his research on the Central Nervous System under the guidance of German physician `Ernst Wilhelm Von Brucke’. Freud received his medical degree in 1881and later in 1883 he began to work in Vienna General Hospital. Freud spent three years working in various departments of the hospital and in 1885 he left his post at the hospital to join the University of Vienna as a lecturer in Neuropathology. Following his appointment as a lecturer, he got the opportunity to work under French neurologist Jean Charcot at Salpetriere, the famous Paris hospital for nervous diseases. So far Freud’s work had been entirely concentrated on physical sciences but Charcot’s work, at that time, concentrated more on hysteria and hypnotism. Freud’s studies under Charcot, which centered largely on hysteria, influenced him greatly in channelising his interests to psychopathology. In 1886, Freud established his private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous diseases and soon afterwards got to his fiancée Martha Bernays, who came from a well-known Jewish family in Hamburg. In 1888, Freud started using hypnotism in his practice. But, later he dropped it and started using a method, which was being used by Dr. Josef Breuer....

Words: 155674 - Pages: 623

Premium Essay

The Secret Life of Satan

...Explain E. B. Tylor's theory concerning the origin and evolution of religion. What is animism, and to what, "ultimately" and "finally," did Tylor think it evolved? a) E.B. Tylor’s theory regarding the origin and evolution of religion is that primitive people developed a sense of other or soul from their experiences with death and dreams. Animism is the belief that nature, natural phenomena and the universe itself all possess some kind of soul. Tylor believes animism evolved into polytheistic views and ultimately into monotheism. 5. To what does the term "mana" refer?...

Words: 17463 - Pages: 70

Premium Essay

The Case of Mike and Marty Scanlon

...OBJECTIVES When you complete this course, you’ll be able to ■ Describe the science and methodologies of psychology in the context of its historical origins and major perspectives Outline the fundamental structure of the human nervous system and explain how it relates to the organization of human sensory perception Relate altered states of consciousness to sleep, hypnosis, meditation, sensory deprivation, and physiological responses to psychoactive drugs Discuss the basic concepts of behavioral psychology, including classical...

Words: 49230 - Pages: 197