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Final Project

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T EAM T HUMB S TART
A keyless ignition system using a fingerprint scanner for motorcycles

Brandon Aldecoa Robert Rebich Anas Husain

Table of Contents
1. Background……………………………………………………………………………...1 2. System Architecture……………………………………………………………….....…...2 3. Concepts Considered………………………………………………………………….....4 3.1 Fingerprint Scanner…………………………………………………………….4 3.2 Radio Frequency Link…………………………………………………….…….4 4. Concepts Chosen………………………………………………………………….……..5 4.1 Fingerprint Module……………………………………………………….…….5 4.2 Microcontroller………………………………………………………….……...6 4.3 Transmitter…………………………………………………………….……….7 4.4 Receiver……………………………………………………………….………..8 4.5 Encoder/Decoder……………………………………………………..………..9 4.6 ATTINY45/Relay…………………………………………………….……….10 4. Future Work……………………………………………………………………….…....11 Appendix A…………………………………………………………………………….…13 Table 1. Backup system decision matrix……………………………………….…..13 Table 2. Budget breakdown………………………………………………….……13 Table 3. List of part for transmitter circuitry………………………………….…...14 Table 4. List of part for receiver circuitry…………………………………….…....15 Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………….…16 Figure 8. Transmitter schematic……………………………………………….…..16 Figure 9. Receiver schematic………………………………………………….…...17 Appendix C………………………………………………………………………….……18 Final board layout Appendix D…………………………………………………………………………..…...19 Code for ATMEGA48 in transmitter circuit Appendix E………………………………………………………………………...……...29 Code for ATTINY45 in receiver circuit Important Data Sheets…………………………………………………………………….30

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1. BACKGROUND
Biketronics Inc, a local company in Moscow Specializing in motorcycle electronics requested the help of a senior design team from the University of Idaho. Team ThumbStart has been chosen to research and design a fingerprint scanner system that can replace the traditional key ignition system that is commonly used on motorcycles. The integration of a keyless ignition system using a fingerprint scanner into existing motorcycle technologies is possible. There are many different design considerations that have been taken into account. We have proposed a design and have a working final prototype that can successfully implement the fingerprint system into a wide variety of motorcycles. This system uses fingerprint data and allows the vehicle owner to operate the motorcycle without the need of keys. The system requires no hardware to be carried, but must maintain the same or higher level of security than the key ignition. The design only allows authenticated users to enroll a new fingerprint as well as start and operate the bike. The system will not activate if an authorized user is not authenticated. A method to train at least two sets of unique fingerprint has been implemented. Bikes have very little open space to store things. The entire package is small enough to fit on a wide variety of motorcycle designs. The final product must be reliable enough to withstand the harsh conditions of the road. The final product will be backed by a lifetime company warranty, which means the final design must be reliable and robust. This project consists of combining of the shelf technologies together in a new way that can be beneficial to motorcyclists and possibly others. Currently, all the main hardware components of our project have been developed by companies and are readily available for purchase. The circuitry and algorithm for the Suprema fingerprint scanner has been purchased in a stand-alone module. Other major components such as the ATMEL
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microprocessor and the keypad are also available and have been purchased. A large portion of the overall design is coding an algorithm to implement the desired functions between each hardware block. Other major design criteria are the environmental conditions that the system will be exposed to. This means that the device will be exposed to rain, heat, cold, grease, dirt and many other harmful and possibly damaging factors. The device is designed so it can be mounted almost anywhere on the motorcycle. It is also small enough so it can be hidden under other parts of the motorcycle. The integration of this design required knowledge of laboratory equipment, C programming, circuit level board design and chip level communication.

2. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Fingerprint Scanner Module

Microcontroller
Keypad

Radio Frequency (RF)

Receiver Circuitry/Relay

Figure 1. System Architecture

Above is a top-level block diagram of the system architecture. The design is relatively simple composing of five main components. The main components consist of a microcontroller, a fingerprint scanner module, a keypad, a radio frequency (RF) linkage, and
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a relay that is controlled through another microprocessor. Some of the main components require external lower-level circuitry for practical operation, which is not depicted in the toplevel diagram. The heart of the system is the microcontroller that is capable of handling communications between the fingerprint scanner module, keypad and transmitter. All operations are controlled though the microcontroller. The microcontroller stores the main C program onboard, which is responsible for the entire system operation. Nothing will function independently of the microcontroller. The fingerprint scanner module is responsible for detecting the thermal signature of the fingerprint into a useable template image. The onboard computer determines if the scan was valid or not and relays that information to the microcontroller. There is two-way communication between the microcontroller and the fingerprint scanner module. The keypad is the only input to the system that the user will have. The keypad is connected directly into the microcontroller, which processes all button inputs. Every system will come with a default code. One first use the user must reset the code to ensure the code is unique to their system. This user code unlocks the system so that new fingerprint can be added to the system. The RF linkage takes place between the microcontroller and the motorcycle’s starter relay. The RF block consists of an encoder and transmitter pair and a receiver and decoder pair. The microcontroller communicates through the transmitter, letting the receiver know that a valid scan occurred. The encoder and decoder are used to convert a digital signal into a RF signal and also to encrypt the RF transmission using KEELOQ. When a valid scan occurs the microprocessor on the receiver will engage the relay.
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3. CONCEPTS CONSIDERED
Among many different ideas that were considered over the scope of the project the following are the major considerations that we took into account when selecting the major components of the project.

3.1

Fingerprint Scanner
There are many different options for fingerprint scanners that could have met the

needs of this project. We researched various types of scanners, their reliability, and temperature range. Suprema Inc. offers many different solutions with products that offer thermal, optical, capacitive or electromagnetic scanners. Each scanner had it benefits and down sides whether it was fingerprint recognition speed, temperature range, or scanner footprint. All of these factors were taken into consideration when selecting a scanner. Some of the came with DSP that had the fingerprint algorithms already programmed onto them while others just offered the scanner as a stand alone module. We looked at some of the common algorithm methods used for pattern recognition. Though some seemed manageable to possibly implement this seemed unnecessary when there were products that already had the algorithm implemented with the scanner.

3.2 Radio Frequency Link
There are many different companies that produce small RF receivers and transmitters. We were looking for a simple, reliable, easy to implement transmitter and receiver that would meet our needs. Micrel Inc. produced a wide variety of transmitters and receivers. They have simple transmitters that are similar to garage door openers to transmitters that can transmit serial data and all the matching receiver packages. A low cost
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and low power consumption unit that can transmit an on off signal are going to be the main factors for our selection. Another option is also available. A company produces wireless relays that are turned on using a key fob. We could use this to be our RF link to a relay. The draw back to this is that it is much more expensive. A circuit designed and built by us will be about a quarter of the cost of the wireless relay produced by this company.

4. CONCEPTS CHOSEN
4.1 Fingerprint Module

A company called Suprema Inc offers a stand-alone embedded fingerprint module. The module is comprised of scanner that is controlled directly though a digital signal processor (DSP). Suprema offers four different types of scanners that can be attached to the DSP. The thermal scanner has many advantages over the other scanner technologies. The thermal scanner is very simple with a robust design that can withstand the road conditions. The thermal scanner naturally cleans itself after each swipe, making it ideal for the situation. The DSP contains a built in fingerprint recognition algorithm. The algorithm can process a single fingerprint in less than one second and has the ability to read finger swipes from up to a 45-degree finger rotation. The on-board memory can store almost two
Figure 2 Suprema Scanner Module

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thousand different fingerprint templates, which allows more than enough users to be enrolled into the system. The orange ribbon cable that connects the DSP with the scanner is only a few inches in length. The cable cannot be lengthened because of the serial communication that happens on the traces. If the cable is longer, the serial communication may become unrecognizable from cross talk and other forms of distortion. The two components are packaged together. The thermal scanner is folded over the bottom of the DSP and mechanically mounted together.

4.2 Microcontroller
There are many different types of microcontroller available for purchase. Biketronics has been using a microcontroller from Atmel in many of their other products. The decision to use an Atmel microcontroller was strongly suggested because of their wide range of chips that vary in memory size, capability and speed.

Figure 3 ATMEGA48 Layout

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The ATMEGA48 microprocessor from the Atmel AVR family is chosen because it satisfied every need of the design. The 28-pin package is small in size, has industrial temperature ratings and can handle up to 23 input-output pins (I/O’s). Although not all the I/O’s are used, further expansion if the design can be easily implemented. The chip also has two forms of onboard memory: 4Kb Flash and 256b EEPROM. The C code is stored into Flash memory and the unique user code is stored into the EEPROM. The chip also supports serial communication. The universal synchronous asynchronous receiver/transmitter (USART) serial protocol is used to communicate between the fingerprint scanner DSP and the microcontroller. The onboard RC oscillator on the microcontroller cannot be calibrated well enough to maintain precise USART communication; an external crystal oscillator is used for the precise clocking. The operating voltage of this chip is between 3 and 5 volts. The fingerprint scanner module operates at 3.3 volts; the Atmel chip is also being operated at the same potential. The pins on the microcontroller supply up to 40mA of output current that are used to supply onsite power to other board components.

4.3

Transmitter
A transmitter is needed to send the radio frequency transmission to the starter relay

device to engage it.

Micrel Inc provides a wide variety of transmitters for easy

implementation. The MICRF113 is the ideal transmitter for our needs and is the chosen model. This transmitter has an operating voltage range from 1.8 to 3.3 volts and very low current consumption, typically 12.3mA. The device powers from an IO pin on the

microcontroller so that the device is only consuming power when there is a transmission. This keeps the power consumption of the entire system to a minimum. External resistors, capacitors and inductor are used to build a matching network for the antenna.

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The MICRF113 transmits at a range of frequencies depending on the value of the crystal oscillator as well as capacitors connected to pins 1 and 4. We set our transmitter to transmit at 315MHz using a 9.84375MHz crystal oscillator. It operates with amplitude shift keying/on-off keyed protocol (ASK/OOK). This transmitter transmits up to 200m if
!"#$%&'

properly matched to the antenna. For this application, transmission is a maximum of 5m so '
'

'

antenna matching is not important and a simple Configuration Pin wire antenna is used. The small 6-pin SIOC package is the simplest transmitter produced by Micrel. In the pin layout the ASK pin is the input data pin.
'

Figure 4 Standard 8-Pin SOIC (M)
'

The oscillator and capacitors are connected MICRF010 Receiver Layout Pin Description
Pin pin is Pin Name across pins XTLIN and XTLOUT. The PAOUTNumberconnected to thePin Function antenna. -' 1' ;/0?'$%@/$0'@>'@D%'A>E% #KAK#"@>$'?%@K"&FH'

4.4 Receiver

J0@%00K'7(0A/@:B''$MK@">0N'L> A%$L>$MK0#%'@D%'K0@%00K'"MA%?K0#%'FD>/&?'O%'M

6'

S>E%$'F"@"T%'$'@D #KAK#"@>$'L$>M'@D"F'@>';0F'(0L>$MK@">0N'L>$'F%&%#@">0H'

transmitter.

The MICRF010 we selected on recommendation R"C"@K&']/@A/@'7]/@A/@:B')!]MAK@"O&%'? from a technical 2' R]'
5' _' 9' C"#4&%T%&'#>0

"F'A/&&%?4/A'"0@%$0K&&G'@>';RRH' representative from Micrel. This is also a small 8-pin SIOC package that operates at 5V.

This part also runs on a very low current, 2.9mA typically. The receiver is highly sensitive (104dBm) and has automatic tuning so there is no need to manually do this. An oscillator,

J=)')KAK#"@>$'7U\@%$0K&')>MA>0%0@:B''(0@%C$K@"0 $MK@">0N'L>$'#KAK#"@>$'F%&%#

*%L%$%0#%']F#"&&K@>$'7U\@%$0K&')>MA>0%0@'>$'(0A/ K&"C0M%0@H'

capacitors and inductors are used to set the center frequency at 315 MHz to match with the transmitter. The oscillator is connected to the REFOSC pin. The frequency is set by the values of inductors and capacitors connected to CTH, SHUT, and CAGC. The antenna on the receiver is connected to the ANT pin and again no matching between the antenna and chip

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because the short distant these devices are transmitting over. The DO pin is the data out

pin. The data put into the ASK pin on the transmitter is the output on the DO pin on the receiver package.

HCS300

KEELOQ® Code Hopping Encoder
DESCRIPTION
The HCS300 from Microchip Technology Inc. is a code hopping encoder designed for secure Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) systems. The HCS300 utilizes the KEELOQ code hopping technology, incorporating high security, a of these fingerprint scanner systems. ThereThe HCS300 is a small package outline and low cost. needs perfect solution for unidirectional remote keyless entry receiver for systems and access control a receiver will security reasons so that systems.

FEATURES

4.5 Encoder/Decoder Security

• Programmable 28-bit serial number • Programmable 64-bit encryption key Biketronics will be producing many • Each transmission is unique • 66-bit transmission code length •to be a hopping code one transmitter to one 32-bit way to pair • 28-bit serial number, 4-bit button code, 2-bit status •engagekeys relay only when it receives a transmission Crypt the are read protected

PACKAGE TYPES from PDIP, SOIC

HCS515
HCS300

Operating its paired transmitter. An encoder OQdecoder are used to EE and ®

8 VDD • 2.0V - 6.3V operation LED 7 2 S1 •ensurebutton inputs Four pairing between only the two devices. Microchip FEATURES DESCRIPTION • No additional circuitry required 6 PWM 3 S2 The Microchip Technology Inc. HCS515 is a code hop•sells functions available 15 a variety of encoder and decoders that are very Security VSS ping decoder designed for secure Remote Keyless S3 4 5 • Selectable baud rate • Encrypted storage of manufacturer’s code Entry (RKE) systems. The HCS515 utilizes the pat•inexpensive; each unit is less that $2.00. Automatic code word completion ented code hopping system and high security learning • Encrypted storage of encoder decryption keys • Low battery signal transmitted to receiver mechanisms to make this a canned HCS300 BLOCK DIAGRAMsolution when used • Up to seven transmitters can be learned code • Non-volatile encoders anddata This synchronization decoders use a protocol with the HCS encoders to implement a unidirectional called hopping technology remote and Oscillator control systems. The HCS515 can access Figure 6 Power • Normal and secure learning mechanisms latching Other be are as a stand-alone decoder or in conjunction used and Controller KEELOQ to encrypt and decrypt data. The encoder we RESET circuit switching with a microcontroller. • Easy-to-use programming interface

K

L

Code HoppingS0Decoder 1

Operating

LED

HCS300 Encoder Layout

LED driver •using is the HCS300. It has an input voltage of 3.3V and also On-chip EEPROM PACKAGE TYPE • 4.5V – 5.5V operation • On-chip oscillator and timing components • Internal oscillator PDIP, SOIC •draws very low current when it is idle. This encoder has Button inputs have internal pull-down resistors EEPROM • Auto bit rate detection • Current limiting on LED output NC 1 •four input pins that are pulled high or low for input states. Low external component cost Other PWM

Encoder

14

NC NC

NC

• Stand-alone decoder Typical Applications

13 2 32-bit shift register

12 Vss VDD 3 These pins are for connectedstorage the ATMEGA48 to • Internal EEPROM transmitter The HCS300 is ideal for Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) VSS S1 • Synchronous serial interface 4 Button input11 port RF_IN applications. These applications include: • 1 Kbit user EEPROM microprocessor. The KEELOQ protocol encrypts these VDD 10 S_CLK 5 S0 • Automotive RKE systems • 14-pin DIP/SOIC package • Automotive alarm systems 9 S_DAT into a different unique 64-bit packet that it sends out on the MCLR 6 S3 S2 S1 S0 • Automotive immobilizers Typical Applications 8 NC 7 NC • Gate and garage door openers • Automotive remote entry systems The HCS300 combines a 32-bit hopping code, PWM line. Even for the same input the 64-bit packet is • Identity tokens generated by a nonlinear encryption algorithm, with a • Automotive alarm systems Figure 6 • Burglar alarm systems 28-bit serial number and 6 information bits to create a • Automotive immobilizers unique for every transmission. The PWM pin is connected word. The code word length eliminates the BLOCK DIAGRAM 66-bit code HCS515 Decoder Layout • Gate and garage openers threat of code scanning and the code hopping mechaElectronic door RFIN to• the ASK inputlocks on the transmitter. pin nism makes each transmission unique, thus rendering Reception Register • Identity tokens code capture and resend schemes useless. • Burglar alarm systems DECRYPTOR

HCS515

EE_DAT

Compatible Encoders
! 2001 Microchip Technology Inc.

Internal EEPROM

CONTROL EE_CLK

All encoders and transponders configured for the following setting: • PWM modulation format (1/3-2/3)
OSCILLATOR

S_DAT S_CLK S0 9 S1 MCLR DS21137F-page 1

The decoder, HCS515, is connected to the MICRF010 receiver. This also operates at 5V just like all the circuitry in the receiver module. The DO pin on the receiver is connected to the RF_IN pin on the decoder. This data is still encrypted and the KEELOQ protocol decodes the data stream and then outputs it on pins S0 and S1. The data has now traveled from the microprocessor, been encrypted, transmitted, received and then decrypted again. The HCS515 is not the smallest decoder Microchip manufactures but it is the smallest chip that has the data out pins S0 and S1. The smaller modules only output serial data, which is more complex and unnecessary for our application. An encoder and decoder are paired together. There are several different pairing techniques and we are using the most basic pair method. To do this we have purchased a KEELOQ Evaluation Kit. The decoder is put into a learn mode and then the encoder sends it a data stream. The decoder then knows the unique seed for the encoder and the two devices are paired and only work with each other.

4.6

ATTINY45/Relay
Each motorcycle has several relays that control different electronics, lights or ignition

of the bike. We modified the relay that controls the ignition so that a microprocessor controls when the relay is engaged. The microprocessor selected was the Atmel ATTINY45 due to the small package. There are 8 pins on the package and only 6 I/O’s. This is the smallest package Atmel produces.

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When the receiver receives a good scan signal, an input pin is pulled high on the ATTINY45 for 50ms. The ATTINY45 then pulls an output pin high turning on a Nchannel enhancement mode MOSFET. The code on the microprocessor is very basic. It loops and waits for an input on one pin and when it gets an input on that pin it pulls a different pin high to turn on the MOSFTET. The MOSFET is connected and used as the switch is in Figure 7 to turn on the relay. The gate of the MOSFET is connected to the output from the ATTINY45, the drain is connected to relay and the source is connected to ground. The relay will not be able to be turned on until the MOSFET is turned on.
Figure 7 Bike Relay Circuit

5. FUTURE WORK
A working prototype of this product was produced and confirmed by starting a motorcycle. The user was able to set a new unique user code, enroll new fingerprints, delete all the fingerprints currently on the system and most important start the motorcycle. Though the prototype did function areas of the design still need to be improved before it can be sold as a reliable final product. The microcontrollers on both the receiver and transmitters have working code. The code for ATMEGA48 microcontroller on the transmitter needs to be expanded. The user needs to have a user code they program into the system when they first receive it. This user code needs to be stored to EEPROM so that it will not be lost when power to the system is

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lost. The menu for a user to input a unique code is in place it only needs to be modified to store the value into the non-volatile memory. The RF link is functional and has shown to have a much greater range than is necessary for this application. When testing the RF we found that it is much more sensitive than we expected. The parts had to be handled with care not to damage any of them. For this reason a package that is very protective for the circuit is extremely necessary to minimize the amount of vibration, temperature swings, and overvoltage to the part. If these items are taken into consideration for the packaging the device should operate properly over the short distance range. The packaging for the entire transmitter module must also be considered. Though this module has shown to be more rugged than the receiver module this is still subject to temperature and other weather conditions. The enclosure holding the scanner module as well as the other transmitter circuitry also needs to be aesthetically pleasing on a motorcycle.

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Appendix A Pros Key fob (RF)
·Wireless ·Already using RF for starter relay ·Need to have device with you

Keypad
·No hardware to carry ·Cheap, simple ·Universal: stock or custom ·Extra piece of hardware to implement

Handle bar combo
·No external device needed

Smart card
·Cheap ·Small, light

Bluetooth
·Ubiquity of Bluetooth phones

Cons

·Complicated to implement ·Near impossible to implement on a stock bike

·Smart card required

·Need cell phone with Bluetooth capability ·A diff. transceiver ·Licensing expensive

Table 1 Budget Part
Atmel AVR PIC Suprema SFM3010-FC Keypad Relay Oscillators All LED's, Capacitors, and Inductors Voltage regulators MICRF010 Receiver MICRF113 Transmitter HCS300 Encoder HCS515 Decoder Total Cost

Cost
$2.50 $125.00 $10 $15 $1.50 $5.00 $0.78 $2.21 $0.88 $1.63 $3.35 $152.85

Order size
1 1 1 1 1 20 of each 20 10 10 10 10 -

Table 2 Cost breakdown of various components

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Part name
Suprema Abracon C1 C1_T C10_T C13_T ,C14_T C2 C2_T C3 , C4 C5_T C7_T Encoder I_lim1,2,3 IC1 L1_T

Value
N/A 1.8432 22 10 0.1 18 10 100 18 10 6.8 HCS300 147 MIRCF113 470

Unit
N/A MHz uF uF uf pF uF pF pF pF pF Encoder Ohm Transmitter nH

Package/Footprint
SFM 3010-FC HC49/U Threw hole 1.00mm _0805 _0603 _0603 _0805 _0603 _0603 _0603 _0603 8-SOIC _0603 SOT23-6 _0805

Manufacturer
Suprema INC Abracon Corporation Panasonic - ECG muRata muRata muRata muRata muRata muRata muRata muRata Microchip Technology Panasonic - ECG Micrel Inc Toko America Inc JW Miller A Bourns Company Micrel Inc

Digi‐key Part number
N/A 535-9009-ND P950-ND 490-1717-1-ND 490-1519-1-ND 490-3573-1-ND 490-1717-1-ND 490-1427-1-ND 490-3573-1-ND 490-3570-1-ND 490-3563-1-ND HCS300/SN-ND P147HCT-ND 576-3229-1-ND LLQ2012-ER47J-ND

L4_T LM340MP-05

150 5 ATMEGA 48 N-Channel 100 9.84375

nH V

_0603 SOT223

M1257CT-ND MIC2920A-5.0BS-ND

MEGA-48 Q4 - MOSFET R2_T Y1

N/A N/A kOhm MHz

28-DIP SOT 23-3 _0603 HC49/US

Atmel STMicroelectronics Vishay/Dale Abracon Corporation

ATMEGA48-20PI-ND 497-3111-1-ND 541-100KHCT-ND 535-9689-1-ND

Table 3 Parts List for the Transmitter side

14

Part name
C2_R C3_R C5_R, C10_R C7_R C8_R C9_R D1 Decoder IC2 L3_R L5_R L6_R, L7_R, L9_R Q3 Q4 MOSFET

Value
1.8 6.8 4.7 100 0.47 100 5.1V Zener HCS515 ATTINY45 51 39

Unit pF pF uF pF uF nF Diode Decoder N/A nH nH

Package
_0603 _0603 _0603 _0603 _0603 _0603 DO-214AC 14-SOIC 8 - DIP _0603 _0603

Manufacturer muRata Electronics muRata Electronics muRata Electronics muRata Electronics muRata Electronics muRata Electronics Micro Commercial Co Microchip Technology Atmel Taiyo Yuden muRata Electronics

Digi‐key Part number
490-1378-1-ND 490-3563-1-ND 490-3297-1-ND 490-1427-1-ND 490-3291-2-ND 490-1519-1-ND SMAZ5V1-TPMSCT-ND HCS515-I/SL-ND ATTINY45-20PU-ND 587-2057-1-ND 490-1176-1-ND

Ferrite bead 9.7941MHz

N/A Oscillator

_0603 HC49

muRata Electronics Abracon Corporation

240-2377-1-ND 535-9694-1-ND

N-Channel

N/A

SOT 23-3

STMicroelectronics Stackpole Electronics Inc

497-3111-1-ND RMCF1/24705%RDKRND

R2 R4_R, R6, PULLUP U1

470

Ohm

_2010

100 MIRCF010

kOhm Receiver

_0603 8-SOIC

Vishay/Dale Micrel Inc

541-100KHCT-ND 576-1962-5-ND

Table 4. Parts List for the Receiver side

15

APPENDIX B

Figure 8 Transmitter Circuit Schematic

16

Figure 9 Receiver Circuit Schematic

17

APPENDIX C

Figure 10 Final Board Layout (transmitting side)

18

APPENDIX D
/********************************************* * Team ThumbStart Univeristy of Idaho * Code Date: 12/07/2008 * Chip type : ATmega48 * Clock frequency : 1.843200 MHz * * PD0 RX PB1 Row 1 * PD1 TX PB2 Row 2 * PD2 COL1 PB3 Row 3 * PD3 COL2 PB4 Row 4 * PD4 COL3 PB5 Button for scanner * PD5 Power for Suprema PB6 XTAL1 * PC0 green LED PB7 XTAL2 * PC1 yellow LED * PC2 red LED * PC4 So for transmitter * PC5 Power for transmitter *********************************************/ #include #include #include #include #include #define F_OSC 1843200 #define baud 9600 #define baudnum F_OSC/16/baud-1 #define keyport PORTD #define keyportddr #define keyportpin PIND #define col1 #define col2 #define col3 #define TRUE #define FALSE #define RETRY #define EXIT #define LOCK #define UNLOCK #define EX #define OK //Clock Speed //Baud Rate //baudnum calculation //Keypad Port //Data Direction Register //Keypad Port Pins //Column1 PD2 //Column2 PD3 //Column3 PD4

DDRD PD2 PD3 PD4 1 0 2 3 0 1 2 3

//void led_on(int); int getkey(void); void setulock(void); void store_code(void); void keypad_init(void); void delayus(unsigned char); void delayms(unsigned char); void send_bytes(char *, int); char getinput(unsigned char); void init_usart(unsigned int);

//get input from keypad and buttons //used to set a new user code //stores the new user code //initializes all the ports

//initializes the USART serial communication

19

unsigned char usart_receive(void); void usart_transmit(unsigned char); unsigned char translate(unsigned char);//translates the key inputs to values int check(unsigned char *,unsigned char *,unsigned char); void reset_receive(void); //resets the receive array after receiving a string void get_scan(void); //decodes received string void transmit_signal(void); //turns on all transmitter parts and send data pulse unsigned char input[10], userlock[5], defaultulock[5], masterlock[10]; unsigned char masterlock[10]="1234554321", defaultulock[5]="96543", userlock[5], input[10]; char enroll[15] = {0x41,0x01,0x00,0x05,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x79,0xC0,0x0A}; //enroll char del[15] = {0x41,0x01,0x00,0x17,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x59,0x0A}; //delete char identify[15] = {0x41,0x01,0x00,0x11,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x53,0x0A}; //identify char en_no_scan[15] = {0x41,0x01,0x00,0x05,0x02,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x6C,0xB5,0x0A}; char no_snan[15] = {0x41,0x01,0x00,0x11,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x6C,0xBF,0x0A}; volatile char receive[29]; char EEMEM storEEPROM[15]={0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; char hex = 0xB5; char hex1 = 0xBC; char hex2 = 0xBE; char hex3 = 0xB6; char hex4 = 0x6C; char hex5 = 0xBF; char hex6 = 0x05; char hex7 = 0xB6; char hex8 = 0x11; char hex9 = 0x6B; char hex10 = 0xB9; char hex11 = 0x61; char hex12 = 0x41; //Hex values to decode the received signal from Suprema

int lockstatus, keystatus=FALSE, newlock=FALSE, keyval; //declares/initializes int global variables unsigned char status; //declares unsigned char global variable volatile int z=0;//declares z volatile int, z is counter in the receive array void main() { init_usart(baudnum); UCSR0B |=(18); //set baud rate UBRR0L = (unsigned char)ubrr; //set baud rate UCSR0B = (1…...

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...and/or expenses timetable. The company’s interests in these cash flows are on an after-tax basis since they are part of the shareholders dividends. Additionally, the additional cash flows are of important, because, after analyzing the project while viewing the company as a whole, the additional cash flows are seen as minimal benefits and will show the elevated value to the company if the decision is made to implement the project. B. Since depreciation is not considered a cash flow item, it does affect the balance of the differential cash flows during the course of the project's run cycle due to the amount of taxes to be paid by the company. Depreciation is in fact an expense item. If the company records more depreciation has incurred, the more they will have in expenses. Hence, the profits will be lower and so will the taxes paid out which are cash flow items. C. While assessing the possible budgeting proposal, any unrecoverable costs are disregarded. The company needs place more interest in the cumulative after-tax cash flows by viewing the company has as a whole. Even if the company decide to investment the sunk costs will have already appeared, which means they are not additional cash flows and are not relevant. D. The projects Initial Cash Outlay can be calculated by using: Initial Cash Outlay = Cost of New Plant & Equipment + Shipping & Installation Costs + Increase in Working Capital Initial Cash Outlay = $7,900,000 + $100,000 +......

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...Axia College Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview Create a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation of information about the fictional company that you created in Week Four. Use text, charts, tables, visuals, etc., to detail the different areas of business found within your company. Include information on the following topics: • Business organization • Potential legal or ethical issues • Business culture • Types of motivation • Human resource management • Technology • Operations and materials management Final Project Timeline You should budget your time wisely and work on your project throughout the course. As outlined below, some CheckPoints and Assignments in the course are designed to assist you in creating your final project. If you complete your course activities and use the feedback provided by the instructor, you will be on the right track to complete your project successfully. □ Suggested in Week Three: Consider how a code of ethics will affect the creation of the company you will describe in your Final Project. □ Suggested in Week Four: Create a fictional company that you will explore for your Final Project due in Week Nine. Begin to explore the roles and behaviors that you would like the key players of your company to possess. □ Suggested in Week Six: Use your completed Job Fair brochure to generate ideas about the types of motivation you would......

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...Rayvon Collins Andrea Hines Cornelius Williams Isauro Valdez Steve Miltenberger Group dynamics Class project This project will show group cohesiveness and it will show group communication. You will have to rely on your group to come up with the answer and you will have to trust you group and group members. GROUP FEUD 1. Everyone will get into their permanent groups for the game. 2. One person will be elected to answer for their group; this person has the final say for the group when answering the questions. 3. Groups have a set time limit to come up with the answer to the question. 4. When the time is up no one is to speak but the person answering the question. If your group is still talking after the time allotted time there will be a 20 point deduction for that group. 5. Questions will have a set point value for each round. 6. The final and bonus questions will be valued by how many points your group agrees to wager, BUT you will be asked to wager points before you hear the question. 7. If you would like to challenge whether or not an answer is right you can do so but, yonika will have the final say, any group can challenge at any time. 8. The group with the most points WINS. Questions First round questions are worth 50 points. 1. Point value 50: In class we talked about primary and secondary group, give me an example of a primary group. Answer: family, church, work, any group that is permanent in their life. ...

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...Address, City, State, Zip No practicum projects can be approved if they are based in Maryland, Tennessee, or Washington State, USA. No RN MSN mentors can be approved if they live and/or work in Maryland, Tennessee, or Washington State, USA. Stephanie Johnson EdD©, MSN,RN Morehead State University 150 University Boulevard Morehead, Ky 40351 Mentor’s Name and Educational Credentials Mentor’s Agency (Minimum of RN MSN required) Clinical Nursing Instructor 606-836-0202 sj.johnson@moreheadstate.edu Mentor’s Job Title Mentor’s Phone E-mail Maryland, Tennessee, and Washington, USA Students Students cannot complete ground-based clinical hours within the states of Maryland, Tennessee, or Washington, USA. Residents of these states must contact their instructor for further direction. |Practicum Goal: | |To analyze, develop, implement, and evaluate an educational learning curriculum for staff that increases their knowledge and addresses the current evidence based practice standards of safe mixing,| |and administration of chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. | |Project must be done with staff – no......

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...2008, p.302). Coordinated team member work is required for productive systems development. End users, systems analysts, technical specialists and programmers all have to work in concert with one another to make a development project successful. There are three main advantages to systems development. These are error detection, accountability, and control. The systems development model also has disadvantages. SDLC is not flexible due to its inherent structure and it is expensive since it is time-consuming. The first phase of SDLC is system investigation. A feasibility study is undertaken to define the options that are possible solutions for the problem at hand and the best option is determined. With this study in hand, a committee will determine whether the project will go forward from that point. Systems analysis takes place after that determination. Detailed information is acquired regarding the system requirements. The developers will then move to the systems design stage in which they will detail the system description and its functions. SDLC tasks also encompass programming which entails the translation of design specifications into a new computer code. Testing, implementation, operation, and maintenance are the final phases of the project development (Rained & Turban, 2008). Executive Dashboard Products Digital dashboards, which are also known as executive dashboards or management cockpits are designed to provide “rapid access to timely information and......

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...Final Project- Week 9 Even though has its share of problems, the United States is a diverse country because it has a multitude of people in all backgrounds and it is a melting pot with lots to offer all races and ethnicities. There are so many different ethnicities and cultures that live in the United States, that there should be no reason for people to get bored with each other. Learning the ways of others is something that everyone should be open to. The United States has Whites, Blacks, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics and many ethnic groups such as; Jewish, Irish, English, and Italian among others. Taking this course has taught me that everyone is human no matter what their background is, and that we should not stereotype against people because of something that someone else did from that group of people. We have to learn to appreciate other cultures and take value in what they have to give. Realizing that other races and ethnicities live among us should give us the opportunity to grow and learn new things in life. This course has taught me that it is not all about White or Black and that there is so much more out there to be discovered about the other cultures in the United States and we just need to embrace them. In the year 2050 we may have such a diverse population because the United States is already a large melting pot of humanity. The United States is the home to many races and ethnic groups and will continue to grow and multiply to......

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... FINAL PROJECT: Chapter 1: Page: 23 Case Study: National Air Express 1. Is the productivity measure of shipments per day per truck still useful? Are there alternatives that might be effective? The productivity can be measured by the number of stops covered by each driver. I think measuring shipments per day per truck is still useful. It helps to keep on track with the amount of services that can be offer on every day basis and with the area covered by each driver. By doing that, the company can tell how many areas have been covered by a driver per day; therefore productivity can be assessed in measurable way. 2. What, if anything, can be done to reduce the daily variability in pickup call-ins? Can the driver be expected to be at several locations at once at 5pm? To reduce daily variability in pickup call-ins, the company should avoid call-ins during peak time; what I mean is that the company can offer to its customer’s deals to call at maybe nights when the network is not that busy so people for important calls only can use and benefit from the network. By offering deals to clients that call at night times the driver might be able to make to several place before peak time which is 5pm. This strategy can be apply in order to reduce the business during the day time so the driver can easily and correctly do their job. 3. How should package pickup performance be measured? Are standards useful in an environment that is affected by weather, traffic, and other random......

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...Discussion Questions for Gillette Case (Final Project) Adv. Topics in Int. Biz 1. What were the possible synergies and forces propelling the merger between P&G and Gillette – as well as the history of other takeover attempts for Gillette? 2. In light of Gillette’s large increase in value during James Kilt’s tenure, was his compensation reasonable? Was his pay package in the best interest of shareholders? 3. Evaluate the P&G offer. Make a list of the positive and negative aspects of receiving shares or cash from both the perspective of P&G and Gillette shareholders. 4. Compare the valuation analyses in Case Exhibits 6 and 7. Why are they different? Support and defend the validity of using each valuation method. 5. Should investment bankers and companies spend their time appeasing politicians worried about the effects of possible merger? Are politicians representing the interests of the American public when they question the merits of a deal? Also evaluate the role played by federal and international regulators. Is there any better solution to the complicated regulatory process? 6. Evaluate the role played by Warren Buffet in the merger. Should the support of one investor be a deciding factor in the completion of an M&A transaction? * You are required to answer these discussion questions. The due date for this case analysis is by Dec. 16 by 5 PM (in class). The length of the report is expected to be 8-10 pages (excluding......

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...April 26, 2015 BUS-260-WA-Final Project Describe your company: La Boutique chic I am the owner of a chain of boutiques that specializes in catering to the taste of sophisticated, higher income women. My boutiques carry expensive jewelry, purses, shoes and clothing that appeals to the taste of _____________. Some of the boutiques even include spa services. My company has become successful and profitable enough to open 15 stores in the last ten years, and currently employ over 100 employees in both North and South Carolina. Without the hard work and dedication of my employees, we would not be successful. My employees are given extensive training on how to cater to and satisfy our customers to keep them coming back again and again. Write a memo to your employees: To the employees of La Boutique chic: Let me begin by saying that because of your hard work and commitment to the company, we have had a very successful year. We have not only met the goals set for this year but we have exceeded them. Our company’s success is all due to your hard work and dedication. Because of our current success we are looking to open two new stores in the next 15 months. We could not do this without you! Our employees are our greatest asset! We want to thank you for all that you do for us by giving you a token of our appreciation. We are pleased to announce that we will be giving each employee a Christmas bonus this year. Your bonus will be included with your first paycheck in December......

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...Project Final Proposal Document Project Proposal This is the project proposal from Team EMC to Best Buy Bonsai for Website Project. Requirements from Best Buy Bonsai: The project proposal is based upon the requirements provided by Best Buy Bonsai as follows: Create an online website that provides online ordering and payment option, Online inventory list with photos and price Contact information and store locations listed Proposal from Team EMC Team EMC proposes to provide a website to Best Buy Bonsai by providing the following: Creating a public facing website for the company that allows online view of inventory and purchasing of products and payment option through PayPal. Provide Contact information and location of physical Stores Option for company to pay for online advertising of website Design Methodology: Team EMC will provide an Agile approach to the project with weekly iterations for Best Buy Bonsai to review each phase of the build out of the product for approval. Website Overview and Layout The URL to the website will be: http://www.bestbuybonsai.com/Index.html The website will show the following links: Home Page Link : http://www.bestbuybonsai.com/index.html The home page has links to Inventory, About Us, Payment Center and Contact us link The home page will show the name of the company Best Buy Bonsai, main phone number for the business and a Welcome message.est Buy Bonsai © 20 | 2007. Let us help you Inventory Link : ......

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...ACC 610 Milestone One Guidelines and Rubric This is the first of three milestone assignments that will lead to completion of your course project. In this assignment, you will complete Critical Element III: GAAP vs. IFRS. Recall that, due to the sequencing of content for the modules, the critical elements are being prepared out of order. For the complete sequence, see the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document. This milestone addresses the following course outcome:  Differentiate between the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and the International Financial Reporting Standards for their impact on financial statements. If you have not already done so, select the company that you will use to build your portfolio. For detailed instructions, see the ACC 610 Final Project Document located in your Blackboard course. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: III. GAAP vs. IFRS A. Explain the steps that would be needed for your selected portfolio company to transition from GAAP to IFRS. For example, what would this transition entail? What would your chosen company need to do? B. Explain how a financial statement would differ under IFRS as opposed to GAAP. i. How is a financial statement under IFRS different from GAAP? How is it the same? ii. What would the statements for your chosen company look like? Guidelines for Submission: Prepare your paper using Microsoft Word. It should be 2 to 3 pages in length, not including the...

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...IT 510 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric Overview The final project for this course is the creation of a System Proposal Document. In any modern enterprise, it is crucial that all of the different stakeholders, users, inputs, and outputs that relate to the business’s IT systems coalesce in a logical and cohesive way for the systems to be effective. As a member of an IT team, your overarching goal is to ensure that the IT systems ultimately do what the business needs them to do. In this course, you have learned about the key principles and practices underlying the analysis, design, implementation, and management of IT systems. In this final project, you will apply this knowledge by creating a systems proposal document. The project is divided into four milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Module Two, Module Four, Module Six, and Module Eight. The final submission will occur in Module Nine. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:     Assess the relationship of systems analysis, design, implementation, and development processes as they relate to the management of information technology systems Communicate the paradigms, processes, and activities of systems development to diverse audiences Apply structure and object oriented analysis modeling techniques to analyze, design,......

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...Date: [2/23/2012] To: Lead Economist Laura From: [Tony Randall] Subject: Final Project Paper After completing this course in Microeconomics, I have learned quite a few things about this subject. It is my hope that what I have learned can be relayed to others and be beneficial to whoever decides to take this subject. I have learned how our economy works on a small scale and a large scale. There are many different kinds of economies in our world and each have an important role for running their respective countries. The first is the Centrally planned economy in which the government of that respective country decides how economic resources will be allocated. The second economy is a market economy in which the decisions of households and firms interacting in markets allocate economic resource. The third and final in the mixed economy in which most economic decisions come from buyers and sellers in markets but where the government plays a major role in allocating resources. our economy is slightly a mixed one .(Hubbard,R& O Brian,A, 2009) Supply and demand is one of the most basic Ideas of economics and it is the core of the market economy. Demand simply means how of a product or service is wanted by a consumer. The quantity demanded is the amount that people are willing to buy at a given cost. Supply represents how much the market can offer. The quantity supplied refers to the amount of a certain good producers are willing to supply when receiving a......

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