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Finland Pestle


Submitted By RAJIE
Words 6519
Pages 27
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement under Semester Based Credit
And Grading System for Post Graduates (PG)
Program me under Faculty of Commerce
Ms. Shradha Jain
K.P.B. Hinduja Collage Of Commerce, 315 New Charni Road,
Mumbai 400004.



This is to certify that Ms. Rajeshree Patel of M. Com. Business Management Semester 3rd [2013-2014] has successfully completed the project on ‘PESTLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF FINLAND’

|Project Guide |________________________________ |
|Course Coordinator |________________________________ |
|Internal Examiner |________________________________ |
|External Examiner |________________________________ |
|Principal |________________________________ |

Date: ____________

Place: Mumbai

I Ms. Rajeshree Patel the student of M.Com (Business Management) 3rd Semester (2013-2014), hereby declare that I have complete the project on PESTLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF FINLAND’
The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Rajeshree N. Patel (Signature)

I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me. My deepest thanks to Lecturer, MS. Shradha Jain, the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.

I would also like to thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my brother and to all my well wishers for their help and care.

|Sr. No |Table Of Content |Pages |
|8. |CONCLUSION |37 |
|9. |BIBLOGRAPHY |38 |

Finland is three times the size of Ohio. It is heavily forested and contains thousands of lakes, numerous rivers, and extensive areas of marshland. Except for a small highland region in the extreme northwest, the country is a lowland less than 600 ft (180 m) above sea level. Off the southwest coast are the Swedish-populated Å land Islands (581 sq mi; 1,505 sq km), which have had an autonomous status since 1921.

The first inhabitants of Finland were the Sami (Lapp) people. When Finnish speakers migrated to Finland in the first millennium B.C., the Sami were forced to move northward to the arctic regions, with which they are traditionally associated. The Finns' repeated raids on the Scandinavian coast impelled Eric IX, the Swedish king, to conquer the country in 1157. It was made a part of the Swedish kingdom and converted to Christianity.
By 1809 the whole of Finland was conquered by Alexander I of Russia, who set up Finland as a grand duchy. The period of Russification (1809–1914) sapped Finnish political power and made Russian the country's official language. When Russia became engulfed by the March Revolution of 1917, Finland seized the opportunity to declare independence on Dec. 6, 1917.
The USSR attacked Finland on Nov. 30, 1939, after Finland refused to give in to Soviet territorial demands. The Finns staged a strong defense for three months before being forced to cede to the Soviets 16,000 sq mi (41,440 sq km). Under German pressure, the Finns joined the Nazis against Russia in 1941, but they were defeated again and forced to cede the Petsamo area to the USSR. In 1948, a treaty of friendship and mutual assistance was signed by the two nations. Finland continued to pursue a foreign policy of nonalignment throughout the cold-war era.
Running on a platform to revitalize the economy, Martti Ahtisaari, a Social Democrat, won the country's first direct presidential election in a runoff in Feb. 1994. Previously, presidents had been chosen by electors. Finland became a member of the European Union in Jan. 1995. On Jan. 1, 1999, Finland, along with ten other European countries, adopted the euro as its currency. In 2000, Tarja Halonen, who had been Finland's foreign minister, became its first woman president.
Finland Becomes First European Country to Have Female President and Prime Minister
Since 1998, Finland has been judged to be the world's least corrupt country, according to the annual survey by the Berlin-based organization Transparency International. In April 2003, Finland appointed its first female prime minister, making it the only country in Europe with both a female president and prime minister. But Prime Minister Jaatteenmaki resigned after only two months in office when it was revealed that she had used leaked classified information against her rival in the election (she was acquitted of the charges the following year). In June, Defense Minister Matti Vanhanen was selected by parliament to replace her. In Jan. 2006, President Halonen was reelected. Vanhanen's Centre Party narrowly won parliamentary elections in March 2007, and he was reelected to a second term

Finland Pestle Analysis
We could never choose the place we born but we could always dream the place we live which a place that we all are aspire to. As the reason, “Newsweek” a second largest news weekly magazine in America has study a special issue for the purpose of the best countries in the world to fulfill the need of the world audience
Therefore, where is the place that people are aspiring to? The answer is base on a country that provide many factors to ensure the national well being which people are healthy, educated, have a high quality living condition, nation are enjoy the economic competitive and also a stable political environment. All these 5 categories are the measurable of the best country of the world that set out by the Newsweek magazine and also had been study across 100 nations in the world. So, it means that it was an applicable data that represent all to conclude one country as the place that every people are looking for and every nation should be learning for.

P.E.S.T.E.L Analysis ---- Finland
By using PESTEL analysis, we will able to realized and find out the opportunity and threat lie in the Finland. PESTEL is a useful and orientation tool for us to enlarge the “big picture” of the environment in Finland. Therefore, we are able to understand the sustainability, potential and prospect, risk and threats, challenges of Finland.
Political Factor
Finland is a parliamentary republic country and conducts a semi-presidential parliamentary system. Every resident has their right to vote in municipal election and in the European Union election. Finland has a central government based in Helsinki. Besides that, it has local governments locate in 342 municipalities.
Finland’s president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008. It had proved that Finland is a cooperative model state. The award is strengthening Finland’s image and reputation of their stability political system. Moreover, it has builds a strong confidence to all the foreign investors and motivate them to invest in Finland. The award will bring long run profitability to Finland as well.
Political risk comprises the stability of the government and stability, the effectiveness if the government economy policies, the efficiency of the government bureaucracy and appropriateness, the effectiveness international relationship, and the reliability and integrity of legal system.

In a research conduct by A.M. Best Company (2009), it had show that the political risk in Finland is very low. There is because The European Central Bank had cut down the interest rates to Finland. The purpose of this action is to spur the economy activities and raise the demand in Finland. Besides that, the Finnish government is conducting fiscal policy in same time. By this way, Finland will able to afford this level of economy stimulus and avoid of large deficits. This is very important for a country to lower down their political risk. This is because an inefficiencies government, inadequate legal system, societal tensions or international tensions will cause adversely developments for a country.

Economic Factor
Helsinki is the central government in Finland and almost one million of Finns live at there. Moreover, third of the country’s GDP is produced from there.
Economic risk can be assess by evaluate the weaknesses in a country’s economy. The domestic economic, government finances, international transaction, prospects for growth and stability of the country might affect the development of the country’s economy.
Finland’s economy is primary supported by manufacturing field including woods, metal and electronics. Another main economy activity to support Finland economy is Export. Finland has own high technologies knowledge and produces a lot of high-tech products, especially mobile phones. It is one of the main high-tech products producers in the world as well.
Most of the Europe is experiencing economy contraction. Since the global economy has slow down, the occurrence of negative performance of Finland in the economy fields was affected by this as well. The demand of Finnish exports have decline and loss of profitability has affect many of local business and also foreign investors. Most of the economists have expected that the current recession is considered to be long and sharp.
The economy of Finland is expect to be continuing contract and might not return until 2011. However, the economic risk of Finland is still low while comparing with other developed countries.

Social Factor
The social security of Finland is well known in the world. All of their residents are guarantee with decent living condition. Finland had one of the world’s most extensive welfare systems for all of their residents in the late of 1980s. However, the social security had been cut back nowadays. It still consider as the most comprehensive social security in the world.
In the other hand, the health care system provides by Finnish government is one of the most decentralized and highest level in the world. It is quite closest to all other Nordic countries and UK. The health care system covers the whole country’s population. In additional, the health care service are mainly provided by government and the public sector and all the financed through general taxation. The municipalities will take the responsibility for arranging and taking all the financial responsibility for whole range of “municipal health services”. Therefore, all the residents in Finland no need worry about their financial problem for their health services.

The performance of education system in Finland is well and springs directly from education system as well. Finland government will prepare sustainable funding to ensure free education for all the students. For example, the government will took care of all the tuition fees, warm school meals, learning material, textbook, transportation, new equipment and new facilities. Besides that, all the teachers must qualify a master degree. Finnish government believes that “Investment in people is the best investment” and educational is the critical driver of economic growth. Finnish government is substantially investing a lump sum of money in education and research to foster innovation and cutting-edge development. Their purpose is to make their country become more competitiveness.

Technological Factor
Since and Technologic of Finland is very well known and very high level in the world. Finland can be described as the Europe’s technologic leader. It moved from playing catch-up to being the forefront of development in the Technologic field over the past 10 years.
Finland was gave birth of the mobile phone leader, Nokia. It has also emerged as a place where multinationals like to recruit and erect labs. Nowadays, the government and local entrepreneur has preparing for the development of clean technology.
The Prime Minister of Finland, Matti Vanhanen (2008), had explained that they cannot compete with other Asia company with low wages, but they will move faster than them and make the possibility to stay a few steps forwards. He has also said that Finland had spent almost 3.5% of their gross domestic product in the development of R&D. It is to ensure they always be the first developer and forwarder and be more competitive.
Moreover, Finland maintains a good relationship between public and private funding. Two-third of the R&D funds in Finland come from private sector and one-third come from the government. However, there is not existing of state’s role to determine where the money should go. It has to be market oriental. Finland has a well management in their development funds and use it widely in developing their country’s Technology.

Environment Factor
Finland, officially Republic of Finland is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of the Northern Europe. Finland is the eighth largest area of country in Europe. However, it is the most sparsely populated country in the European Union and only around 5.4 million people reside at there.
Finland is very well known and provides many good examples in protection of nature environment. High level of technologic skills and wide raging and detail environment data of Finland is the main reason of their success in protecting nature environment. These had help Finland in forming their country’s environmental protection policies and be more effective in functioning.
Finland is the world’s wealthiest industrialized country. Therefore, they have enough funds and able to afford the costs for vital environmental investment. Finnish government had put in a lot of effort in solving pollution problems. Many polluted lakes and rivers had been cleaned up. Moreover, the air quality around the industrial area had been improved greatly. In the other hand, the forests in Finland are treating as their most valuable and treasure resource in their countries. So, they put a lot of effort to sustain the natural resources. As a result, the overall annual growth rate of the forest had exceeds the total timbers harvest.

However, the greenhouse gas emission had quickly warming up the climate in Finland. The occurrence of cold winter in southern Finland was becoming a rare phenomenon in Finland as well. Some of the scenarios have expected that the mean degree in Finland will be increased by 3 to 7 degrees Celsius before 2100s.

Moreover, they also anticipated that the temperature in winter will rise more than in summer. Finland will have less snow but more rain. Therefore, Finnish’s environment administration will suggest forming a new regulation on requirements for exhaust gases for heavy vehicles, a reform of requirements from emissions from large combustion plants, and a proposal on national upper limits for certain emissions.

Legal Factor
The Constitution in Finland has state that everyone has the right to have their case heard by the court or an authority appropriately without any undue delay. The Finnish court is divided into two courts, which are general court and administrative court.
The general court is mainly deal with civil suits and criminal case. In the other hand, the administrative court is regulating the actions of the administration and litigations between individuals and administration. These two courts was divide in 1918s and also be the two highest courts in the Finland.
Finnish laws has no imposes general restriction on foreign investment. Foreign entities are able to acquire the shares and assets in Finnish company without any permission and approval from Finnish authorities.
In the other hand, Finnish will apply Finnish Employment law for all the employment in Finland. Employment Contract Act has regulate the all the matters between employers and employees. It wills interpretation of individual employment contracts, claims based on individual contracts, the rules on the job protection and numbers of basic rights and duties of the parties, such as equal treatment, transfer of undertaking, family leaves, payment of wages, compensation for groundless termination and many more.


This article is about the demographic features of the population of Finland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Finland numbers some 5.4 million and has an average population density of 17 inhabitants per square kilometre. This makes it the third most sparsely populated country in Europe, after Iceland and Norway. Population distribution is very uneven: the population is concentrated on the small southwestern coastal plain. About 64% live in towns and cities, with one million living in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area alone. In Arctic Lapland, on the other hand, there are only 2 people to every square kilometer.
The country is ethnically homogeneous, the dominant ethnicity being Finnish people. The official languages are Finnish and Swedish, the latter being the native language of about five per cent of the Finnish population.

With 79 percent of Finns in its congregation, the Lutheran Church is the largest religious group in the country.The earliest inhabitants of most of the land area that makes up today's Finland and Scandinavia were in all likehood hunter-gatherers whose closest successors in modern terms would probably be the Sami people (formerly known as the Lapps).
There are 4,500 of them living in Finland today and they are recognised as a minority and speak three distinct languages: Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. They have been living north of the Arctic Circle for more than 7,000 years now, but today are a 5% minority in their native Lapland Province. During the late 19th and 20th century there was significant emigration, particularly from rural areas to Sweden and North America, while most immigrants into Finland itself come from other European countries.

The profound demographic and economic changes that occurred in Finland after World War II affected the Finnish family. Families became smaller, dropping from an average of 3.6 persons in 1950 to an average of 2.7 by 1975. Family composition did not change much in that quarter of a century, however, and in 1975 the percentage of families that consisted of a man and a woman was 24.4; of a couple and children, 61.9; of a woman with offspring, 11.8; of a man and offspring, 1.9.

These percentages are not markedly different from those of 1950. Change was seen in the number of children per family, which fell from an average of 2.24 in 1950 to an average of 1.7 in the mid-1980s, and large families were rare. Only 2 percent of families had four or more children, while 51 percent had one child; 38 percent, two children; and 9 percent, three children. The number of Finns under the age of 18 dropped from 1.5 million in 1960 to 1.2 million in 1980.
Life expectancy at birth
Attitudes toward marriage have changed substantially since World War II. Most obvious was the declining marriage rate, which dropped from 8.5 marriages per 1,000 Finns in 1950 to 5.8, in 1984, a decline great enough to mean a drop also in absolute numbers. In 1950 there were 34,000 marriages, while in 1984 only 28,500 were registered, despite a growth in population of 800,000.
An explanation for the decline was that there was an unprecedented number of unmarried couples. Since the late 1960s, the practice of cohabitation had become increasingly common, so much so that by the late 1970s most marriages in urban areas grew out of what Finns called "open unions." In the 1980s, it was estimated that about 8 percent of couples who lived together, approximately 200,000 people, did so without benefit of marriage.

Partners of such unions usually married because of the arrival of offspring or the acquisition of property. A result of the frequency of cohabitation was that marriages were postponed, and the average age for marriage, which had been falling, began to rise in the 1970s. By 1982 the average marriage age was 24.8 years for women and 26.8 years for men, several years higher for both sexes than had been true a decade earlier.
The overwhelming majority of Finns did marry, however. About 90 percent of the women had been married by the age of forty, and spinsterhood was rare. A shortage of women in rural regions, however, meant that some farmers were forced into bachelorhood.
While the number of marriages was declining, divorce became more common, increasing 250 percent between 1950 and 1980. In 1952 there were 3,500 divorces. The 1960s saw a steady increase in this rate, which averaged about 5,000 divorces a year. A high of 10,191 was reached in 1979; afterwards the divorce rate stabilized at about 9,500 per year during the first half of the 1980s.
A number of factors caused the increased frequency of divorce. One was that an increasingly secularized society viewed marriage, more often than before, as an arrangement that could be ended if it did not satisfy its partners. Another reason was that a gradually expanding welfare system could manage an ever greater portion of the family's traditional tasks, and it made couples less dependent on the institution of marriage.

Government provisions for parental leave, child allowances, child care programs, and much improved health and pension plans meant that the family was no longer essential for the care of children and aged relatives. A further cause for weakened family and marital ties was seen in the unsettling effects of the Great Migration and in the economic transformation Finland experienced during the 1960s and the 1970s. The rupture of established social patterns brought uncertainty and an increased potential for conflict into personal relationships.
According to Statistics Finland's statistics on the population structure, the official total population of Finland at the end of 2012 was 5,426,674, of whom 2,666,622 were men and 2,760,052 women. In the course of 2012, Finlands population grew by 25,407 persons. The number of people whose native language is a foreign language grew by 22,122, which represented 87 per cent of the population growth. The number of people whose native language is Finnish grew by 3,497, those with Swedish as their native language decreased by 242 and the number of people that speak Sami as their native language grew by 30.
The number of families with at least four underage children has remained quite stable in recent years and annual changes are small, a few hundred either way. In 2012, the number of families with at least four children grew by around one hundred families from the year before. The trend of the number of families with two and three children is falling and the number of families with one child has remained almost unchanged. At the end of 2012, an average of 1.83 underage children were living in families with children. The family statistics describe the size of families in Finland at a given moment and thus do not concern with the eventual number of children in families.
According to Statistics Finland, Finnish citizenship was granted in 2012 to 9,090 foreign citizens permanently resident in Finland. This is the highest figure during Finland's independence and as much as 4,530 higher than in 2011. Ninety-four per cent of those having been granted Finnish citizenship retained their former citizenship. Of the persons receiving Finnish citizenship, 4,970 were women and 4,120 men. Among the persons having been granted Finnish citizenship, 2,510 were aged 14 or under and 170 were aged 65 or over.
Next release:

According to Statistics Finland's preliminary data, Finland's population at the end of August was 5,442,322. Over the January to August period, Finland's population increased by 15,650 persons, which is 1,150 persons less than in the corresponding period of the year before. The main reason for the population increase was migration gain from abroad: the number of immigrants was 10,750 higher than that of emigrants. Natural population growth, or excess of births to deaths, was 4,900 persons.

According to Statistics Finland, 31,280 persons immigrated to Finland from foreign countries during 2012. The number is 1,800 higher than in the previous year and the highest during Finland's independence. Emigration from Finland also increased slightly and was 13,850 persons. During 2012, net immigration totalled 17,430 persons, which is 610 up on the year before. Net immigration by foreign citizens increased clearly, or by 2,030 persons.
The number of deaths in 2012 was 51,710, which figure was last higher than this in the 1920s if the war years are not taken into account. The number of deaths was 1,120 higher in 2012 than in 2011. The number of deaths increased by 290 among men and by 830 among women. The number of deaths among women was last higher than this twenty years ago. If the war years are not taken into consideration, the number of deaths among men was last higher than this in 1929.

HELSINKI: Keen to expand its trade relations with India, Finland will send its Foreign Trade Minister to the country to explore business opportunities to further boost bilateral ties with its fourth largest trading partner in Asia. "India has multitude of business opportunities to offer to Finland," Alexander Stubb, the Foreign Trade and European Affairs Minister, told PTI.

Stubb will be travelling to India with a business delegation in October and he will visit New Delhi and Mumbai."Trade has grown vigorously in the 21st century but remains modest in the light of the potential volumes. About 120 Finnish companies have established operations in India and about 100 trade with Indian businesses through local arrangements," he said, adding that about 24 Indian companies have established operations in Finland.

"We hope to have many more (Indian companies)," he said. During the last decade trade between the two countries increased significantly making India Finland's fourth largest trading partner in Asia. The main Finnish exports to India comprise electrical machinery along with machinery for special industries, and paper products. The Finnish imports from India principally include textile products, clothing and machinery instruments.

"We have planned the focus being on the following sectors: Energy, Environment, Cleantech (Clean Industrial Products), Life Sciences (Diagnostics and Medical Equipment) and ICT but we shall see what will be the final composition of the delegation," Stubb said.
Talking about the much discussed India-EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA), Stubb said, "We are very much in favour of concluding an FTA with India as soon as possible. However, in order to satisfy the expectations of our companies active in the Indian market, the level of ambition of the agreement needs to be sufficiently high."
"The agreement would bring substantial benefits to both parties, in terms of a stable investment environment, lower tariffs for goods and better market access for key services sectors. Having an agreement in place would also be helpful in the elimination of trade barriers," he added.

Finland’s India Action Plan
India has never been so close
Finland’s new India Action Plan strives to expand cooperation in various sectors and encourages companies to take advantage of India’s growing business opportunities. India’s international role has become stronger and the country has enormous economic potential.
Aladiyan Manickam, India’s Ambassador based in Helsinki, at present sees the greatest potential for cooperation in environmental technology. Photo: Eero Kuosmanen
Relations between Finland and India have diversified considerably in the past decade. Finland's new India Action Plan charts cooperation in various sectors and sets goals for its expansion in future. At the same time, there is the wish to encourage Finnish companies to capitalise on India’s growing business opportunities.
According to Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja, who presented the action plan, Finland and India have never before been so close to each other. Finnair’s direct flight to Delhi takes only 6.5 hours and has meant appreciable increases both in tourism and in contacts of all sorts.

In 2011, India rose to become Finland’s third largest trading partner in Asia, after China and Japan. Last year, however, saw a slump in trade. The importance of India to Finland is many times greater than trade statistics when one considers the trade in services between the two countries, investments from Finland to India as well as Finnish companies’ production operations situated in India. In addition, Finnish companies operating in India engage in trade with third countries.
Although the level of trade is still modest in relation to its potential, 120 Finnish companies already operate in India and another 100 trade with Indian companies. Finland, in turn, is the domicile of 24 Indian-owned companies.
Environmental technology offers considerable opportunities for cooperation
Mutual increases in trade and investments, however, are not the only goal. According to Foreign Minister Tuomioja, Finland also wants to deepen scientific, technological and innovation cooperation as well as cooperation in foreign and security policy. Indians have for their part been very interested in the Finnish vocational education and training system.

In his comments, Ambassador Aladiyan Manickam, India’s Ambassador to Finland, stated that Finland is well known in India, in particular thanks to Nokia and Kone. During the years he has spent in Finland, Ambassador Manickam has focused on the promotion of trade. At present he sees the greatest potential for environmental technology. India’s needs in solutions for energy efficiency and energy conservation, waste treatment, water purification, biofuels and environmental measurement technology are increasing continuously.
Finland’s India Action Plan was launched at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs on 18 April 2013. Similar action plans have previously been prepared with regard to China, Russia, the United States, Canada and Latin America.

This monograph is a collection of articles or presentations made by invited speakers from Finland and India at the workshop on Social well-being and gender equity in a globalizing world: Dialogue between India and Finland held during 27-28 November, 2007 at Helsinki, Finland. This was the first workshop of its kind organized jointly by Väestöliitto, Helsinki, Finland and Indic Society for Education and Development, Nasik, India.

Finland is a welfare society while India is a kinship-based society. Despite vast differences between Finnish and Indian societies, the two societies are similar with respect to the history since both were ruled by an imperial power. The trade, tourism and migration between the two courtiers have also increased in the last decade.

Familial and gender relations are undergoing thorough changes both in the developed, post-industrial welfare societies such as Finland, and in fast developing societies where social security relies on kinship relations, such as India. In both societies, the family is pivotal for people's well-being and the future of the society, although the challenges are different.

Despite being utterly different, India and Finland share certain fundamental similarities concerning political-historical background. They both were ruled by an imperial power; they gained independence without bloodshed and after independence, they both experienced atrocities (partition of India and Pakistan leading to a pogrom sometimes referred to as a genocide, Finland suffered the bloody civil war).

These processes led to a kind of national inferiority complex as well as deep wounds for the national unity to overcome. How Finland has managed to rise from such a situation to one of the leading information and communications technology (ICT) powers in the world and gained all-encompassing social security systems as well as social stability and relatively balanced gender relations, would have a lesson to teach to India, struggling with many hurdles Finland has managed to overcome during the past decades.

Gender relations are among the most important factors influencing well-being in its many manifestations in any particular society. Unequal opportunities of men and women deeply affect family relations and through the family they are reflected in the socialization of new generations. Finland is renowned for relatively good gender equity. In terms of the most quantitative indicators, Finnish women are faring well: they are highly educated; they have a longer life expectancy than men; they have nearly as high labour participation rate as men; and maternal mortality is among the lowest in the world.

The history of how Finnish society has managed to improve gender equity and social welfare especially when in the transition to today's industrialized nation could be instructive for the Indian side in its struggle with many problems: how to gain universal literacy and encourage girls' education; how to improve reproductive and sexual health; and how to combat a worsening sex ratio that reflects daughter aversion. The Finnish case could show how intentional social policies have been used to improve the well-being of men, women and families.

Although women suffer in India from many disadvantages, strong kin networks and social connectedness also create an advantage for women in some respects. When an Indian woman ages, her social value and power improves, while in Finland, where a woman's social worth is based on conjugality, sexual attractiveness and working roles, the class of ageing women experiences cultural devaluation.

In India, kin networks that support in child care enable women's work outside the family sphere, while in Finland the nucleated family of small children commonly suffers from shallow social support networks. Finnish society could be said to suffer from a tendency to instrumentalization of social relations. Finnish society would fruitfully benefit from understanding how Indian society has managed to keep up with binding family networks even in conditions of modernity and growing influence of global capitalism.

Till the last decade, Finland and India seem rather unknown to each other, far and unreachable, unheard of! In the recent years, the information technology development has brought these two countries closer. There are more and more young professionals moving to Finland for collaborative work. Finland being close country in many ways, foreigners usually remain unaware of the local ways and then there are clear groups formed separating locals from the outsiders.

The distance between the two countries is further narrowed down because of the direct flight started by Finnair which connects Helsinki and Mumbai/Delhi in just six and half hours. This will surely increase the trade and movement between the two countries. People of both the countries need to know more about each other (history and developmental phases) so as to interact easily. A study comparing various aspects of society in India and in Finland will provide a great resource for this.

This comparison would be instructive of the ways global interconnectedness is evolving, also to other parts of the world. In the classical manner of socio-cultural anthropology, comparison helps to conceptualize and bring forward issues that would remain unnoticed and taken for granted without the comparative effort.

Because Indian and Finnish societies can be compared from so many different points of view and concerning so many themes, starting from historical and political developments and ending to the adoption of IT technologies, here we narrow down the themes and consider following five themes aiming at more popularized and more general impact, to benefit both decision-makers and the informed common men and women in our societies. * Social security * Education * Sexual health * Social responsibility and change * Migration
We also give accounts of our personal encounters since we both have lived in both the societies. These personal accounts are not based on any scientific research or data and hence, can not be generalised or supported scientifically. They should be read as our personal views only.

|Country |
| [pic] | [pic] |
|Finland |India |
|Leader PM |
|[pic] |[pic] |
|President: Sauli Niinisto |President: Pranab Mukherjee |
|Population |
|5,266,114 |1,220,800,359 |
|Life Expectancy |
|79.550 years |67.480 years |
|Capital City |
|Helsinki |New Delhi |
|Largest city |
|Helsinki (population: 558,457) |Mumbai (population: 12,691,800) |
|Human Development Index |
|0.954 |0.609 |
|GDP per capita |
|$37,000 US |$3,900 US |
|Literacy Rate |
|100% |61% |
|Corruption Perception Index |
|9 |3.4 |
|Percentage of Women in Parliament |
|41.5% |9.2% |
|Wealthiest Citizens |
|NA |Mukesh Ambani ($19.5bn US) |
|Unemployment Rate |
|7.800% |8.500% |
|Death Penalty |
|Abolished |Legal |
| |
|Political System |
|Republic |federal republic |
|Independence date |
|6 December 1917 (from Russia) |15 August 1947 (from UK) |
|Religions |
|Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%,|Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% |
|other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006) |(2001 census) |
|Languages |
|Finnish 91.5% (official), Swedish 5.5% (official), |Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati |
|other 3% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) |4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, |
|(2006) |Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% |
| |note: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for |
| |national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language |
| |and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: |
| |Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, |
| |Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant |
| |of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official |
| |language (2001 census) |
|Exports |
|electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport |petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, |
|equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; |leather manufactures |
|timber | |
|External Debt |
|$599,300,000,000 $ |$376,300,000,000 US |
|Exchange Rate |
|euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6799 (2008 est.), 0.7345 |Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar - 43.319 (2008 est.), 41.487 (2007), 45.3 (2006),|
|(2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004) |44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004) |
|Military Budget as percentage of GDP |
|2.000% |1.800% |
|Beijing Olympics Medal Count |
|4 |3 |
|Location |
|Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of |Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and |
|Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia|Pakistan |
|Area |
|338,145 km sq |3,287,263 km sq |
|Coastline |
|1,250 km |7,000 km |
|Climate |
|cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively|varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north |
|mild because of moderating influence of the North | |
|Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 | |
|lakes | |


• After analyzing the PESTLE & Demographic condition of Finland it was noticed that from Business point of view there are opportunities available in the Finns market. • All ready there are Companies that operate in Finland and vise versa this is helping to increase the transaction of business from one country to another. • Both the countries are planning for new business opportunities in coming future. • What attracts both the nation is that the Governmental factor and Demographic condition in both the countries. • More and more business opportunities are awaiting for easy trade fairs and good relations among both the nations.

BIBLOGRAPHY Reference from project on slide share
Wikiepedia of Finland
Online comparison between two countries

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