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# Force Field Analysis

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What is force field Analysis?
Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for diagnosing situations. It will be useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and implementing a change program and will undoubtedly be of use in team building projects, when attempting to overcome resistance to change.
Kurt Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur.

Driving Forces:
Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. In terms of improving productivity in a work group, pressure from a supervisor, incentive earnings, and competition may be examples of driving forces. Restraining Forces:
Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. Apathy, hostility, and poor maintenance of equipment may be examples of restraining forces against increased production. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces. In our example, equilibrium represents the present level of productivity, as shown below.

Steps involved in Force Field Analysis
Step-1 : Prepare the statement of the problem or issues under study (note : make sure that the statement is indicative and provide clear understanding and perspective regarding the cause variables).

Step-2 : Identify as much as possible the restraining and driving forces involved in problems scenario.

Step-3 : Put appropriate weight to each of the restraining and driving forces according to their intensity and magnitute (In scale of 1-10).

Step-4 : Indentify the degree of influence for each of the restraining and driving forces (In Scale of 1-10).

Step-5 : Get the score of intensity and degree of influence for each of restraining and driving force.

Step-6 : Prepare a Rank order for each of the restraining and driving force. Omit the variable if it records zero score in degree of influence.

Step 7: Prepare a Cross-Corelation Grid taking top four variables from both restraining and driving forces. Put value acording to the following: 5 for high corelation, 3 for moderate corelation, 2 for low corelation, 0 for no corelation.

Step-8 : Identify the top 3 or 4 factors/variables that record high score in order as intervention variables/factors irrespective of their nature (i.e. Whether driving or restraining).

Step -9 : After selecting the intervention factors or variables/factors draw action plan according to the following formate :

What-what is the intervention, make statement of the intervention strategy.
Who- who will be involved in carrying out the strategy?
How- how the strategy will be implemented?
When- that is what will be the time frame for the implementation of the strategy. Monitoring and follow up- Who will do that and how.

Equilibrium
This equilibrium, or present level of productivity, can be raised or lowered by changes in the relationship between the driving and the restraining forces.

Step-1
Statement of the Reforming student politics in Bangladesh
Background of the Issue:
Student politics traces its origin to the political reign of this subcontinent as one of many hallmark characteristics and the student organizations had, especially in Bangladesh, historic as well as epoch-making roles played. Differences in ideology, objective, agendum and procedure among different political parties are very typical to exist. In line with such normalcy, there are different ideology-oriented political parties here together with many ‘satellite’ student organizations embodied therein.

In Bangladesh, student organizations continue to hold out, the roots whereof are to be traced back to the Pakistani regime and, besides, there are such as came into being in the post-independence era.
From the Language Movement of 1952 to the establishment of Parliamentary Democracy in 1991, students have been the vanguards in protecting the freedom and upholding the democratic aspirations of people of Bangladesh. Unfortunately, in recent times the trend has been so negative that there have been calls from different quarters to ban student politics itself.

Youth under the age of 25 years make up more than half of the population in Bangladesh. The country is yet to tap into the potential of its youth segment with most becoming averse to student politics.

A recent study reveals that more than 80% of the youth disapprove of student politics. The plight of student politics cannot be treated in isolation from the looming broader crisis of weak governance, unhealthy political culture, and poor leadership.
That is why reformation of student politics is needed.

Step-2
Driving and Restraining Forces of the Problem:

The Driving forces/Factors for the reform of the quota system in BCS * Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. * Creating brilliant future leader. * Reducing pilitical parties influence on student politics. * Reducing illegal power of plitical studennts in the campus. * Making campus violence free. * Ensuring democratic system in student politics.

The Restraining Forces/Factors for the reform of students politics: * To creat future leaders. * To ensure the benifit of students. * The Voice of generel student. * Movement for any problem of the country. * Making generel student part of politics. * Acheiving practical knowledge of politics.

Step-3
Weighting each of the Driving and Restraining factors according to their intensity:

Driving Forces | Degree of Intensity (1-10) | * Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. | 8.5 | * Creating brilliant future leader. | 8 | * Reducing pilitical parties influence on student politics. | 7 | * Reducing illegal power of plitical studennts in the campus. | 6.5 | * Making campus violence free. | 6 | * Ensuring democratic system in student politics. | 7.5 |

Restraining Forces | Degree of Intensity (1-10) | * To creat future leaders. | 8 | * To ensure the benifit of students. | 6.5 | * The Voice of generel student. | 6 | * Movement for any problem of the country. | 7 | * Making generel student part of politics. | 6 | * Acheiving practical knowledge of politics. | 7.5 |

Step-4
Degree of influence for each of the Restraining and Driving Forces/Factors

Driving Forces | Degree of Influence (1-10) | * Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. | 7.5 | * Creating brilliant future leader. | 7 | * Reducing pilitical parties influence on student politics. | 6.5 | * Reducing illegal power of plitical studennts in the campus. | 8 | * Making campus violence free. | 6 | * Ensuring democratic system in student politics. | 5.5 |

Restraining Forces | Degree of Influence (1-10) | * To creat future leaders. | 7.5 | * To ensure the benifit of students. | 6 | * The Voice of generel student. | 8 | * Movement for any problem of the country. | 7 | * Making generel student part of politics. | 5.5 | * Acheiving practical knowledge of politics. | 6.5 |

Step-5
Scoring of Degree of intensity & degree of influence for the Restraining & Driving Forces:

Driving Forces | Total Score (Degree of Intensity × Degree of Influence) | * Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. | 8.5×7.5= 63.75 | * Creating brilliant future leader. | 8×7= 56 | * Reducing pilitical parties influence on student politics. | 7×6.5= 45.5 | * Reducing illegal power of plitical studennts in the campus. | 6.5×6.5= 42.25 | * Making campus violence free. | 6×8= 48 | * Ensuring democratic system in student politics. | 7.5× 5.5 = 41.25 |

Restraining Forces | Degree of Intensity (1-10) | * To creat future leaders. | 7×7.5= 52.5 | * To ensure the benifit of students. | 6.5×6= 39 | * The Voice of generel student. | 6×8= 48 | * Movement for any problem of the country. | 8×7= 56 | * Making generel student part of politics. | 7×5.5= 38.5 | * Acheiving practical knowledge of politics. | 6×8.5= 51 |

Step-6
Ranking in order for each of the Driving & Restraining Forces:

Driving Forces | Rank | * Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. | 1st | * Creating brilliant future leader. | 2nd | * Reducing pilitical parties influence on student politics. | 4th | * Reducing illegal power of plitical studennts in the campus. | 5th | * Making campus violence free. | 3rd | * Ensuring democratic system in student politics. | 6th |

Restraining Forces | Degree of Intensity (1-10) | * To creat future leaders. | 2nd | * To ensure the benifit of students. | 5th | * The Voice of generel student. | 4th | * Movement for any problem of the country. | 1st | * Making generel student part of politics. | 6th | * Acheiving practical knowledge of politics. | 3rd |

Step-7:
Cross-Corelation grid for the top 3 variables from both Driving & Restraining Forces:

Restraining Forces Driving Forces | 1. Movement for any problem of the country. | 2. To creat future leaders. | 3. Acheiving practical knowledge of politics. | Total (Summation of Driving Forces) | 1. Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. | 4.5 | 4 | 3.5 | 12 | 2. Creating brilliant future leader. | 3.5 | 3 | 2 | 8.5 | 3. Making campus violence free. | 3 | 3.5 | 2.5 | 9.5 | Total(Summation Of Restraining forces) | 11 | 10.5 | 8 | |

Step-8: The top 3 variables in order as intervention variables/factors irrespective or their nature (i.e whether driving or restraining):

1. Encourising the meriterious student in the politics. 2. Movement for any problem of the country. 3. Making campus violence free.

Step-9 Action Plan for `Reforming students politics’ in Bangladesh Action/Activities(What) | Responsibilities & Formation for necessary arrangements(HOW) | Responsible/Implementing Authority or organization (WHO) | Time Frame or the Time Scale(WHEN) | Finalcial or resource requirement or estimation | 1.Political Parties Should not influence Student politics | Every political parties should refrain from backing student politics. Student politics should be for the student. | Every Political party | Within next 5 years (2014- 2019) | To do some research on this issue some reserachers is needed. It may cost about 15lak tk. | 2.Taking Steps to involve brilliant student in politics. | Those who will be the top ten student of every batch they should take part in politics as mandatory. | University Authority and Political parties. | Within next 5 years (2014-2019) | It may cost 25 lakhs tk. to encouring brilliant student. | 3.Stoping Campus Violence | Examplanary punishment & strict decision of Universities can stop this. | Government & Universities authority | Within next 5 Years | It may cost 20 lakh tk. |

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