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Formal and Informal Group

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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO. | CONTENT | PAGE | 1. | TASK 1Roles of Formal and Informal Group in The Organisation 1.1. Formal Group 1.2. Informal Group | 2 | 2. | TASK 2 Factors That Llead To An Effective Teamwork | 7 | 3. | TASK 3 Problems and Solution | 10 | 4. | TASK 4Latest Technologies That Can Implement By A Team | 13 | 5. | REFFERENCES | 16 |

TASK 1 1.0. Roles of Formal and Informal Group in The Organisation
According to the BusinessDictionary.com. group is defines as a collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goal. Based on my understanding, group is a group of people that consist two or more people. This group is made have as they have goal that they want to achieve. 2.1. Formal Group
Formal group is refer to group that created to achieve a specific organisation objective or goal and really concern about the coordination of the work activities (Pathak). Usually, formal group is created by the formal authority for some purpose. There are two type of formal group which are command group and task group. 2.2.1. Type Of Formal Group 2.2.2.1. Command Group Also known as the functional group which relatively permanent that have decide by the manager. The manager and the subordinates usually meet to discuss general problems and ask for opinion in improve their productivity. As example, the LNG Head Finance & administrative Division required to meet meet his/her subordinates to collect the financial statement of the company. Figure 1 : Functional Group 2.2.2.2. Task Group
Task group is defined as a group that have been mad for the specific task or project. This type of group is usually temporary as the members will corporate and work together to finish the project and after the project finish the group will be disbanded. Or also, they can be permanent if they need to follow up the project. Task group have some flexibility over method of work.

In the LNG Group company, this task group will occur when the company have the special project to handle. For example, LNG Group create a group to conduct a research on its employees on what they will may concern about their employees. So, this group have make a research and the result shows that the company must being able to balance demanding job with outside commitment.

Below is the example of group in Honda Company.

Figure 2 : Honda R&D Department

As you can see above, that is the Honda R&D Department that every of part of R&D such as, motorcycle, automobile and so on, they have they own task which is they need to achieve. As example, Motorcycle R&D need to produce the motorcycle that save fuel and have smooth and remarkable quiet starting. The members of Motorcycle R&D have made the an experiment and struggle to produce that type of product. They finally success find the way which they realized that to make the smooth and quiet starting, they need to use the electronically-controlled ACG starter, which serves as both a self-starter and a dynamo. This group continuing on following up this project and search for the customer response (Honda , 2014). 2.2.2. Function or roles of formal group
There are many function of this formal group in the LNG Group. One of them is, provide the basic structure of division of work and responsibilities. This make the employees know what their roles in working hours as they have been at permanent working group such as marketing department, financial department and many more. This will make the work more effective have every department have their own manager that will guide them to do their work. Their work will more specific. Usually, in the formal group, there will be a due date to submit every work, so this will make the worker to do their work on time and try to finish it early. As example, in order to make the annual general report, the Financial department are required to prepare all the financial statement of the company. So, the financial department members must work together in order to prepare that requirement. This shows that they know their job and try to settle this work.
Next, formal group generate a good discipline in the LNG Group. every company have the rules and regulation that we must follow. Therefore, discipline is required in the formal group as it will affect the productivity of our work. If the attitude of the employees are terrible, this will make the result of the task is less than what is expected by the manager. For example, you are required to finish the sales report on the date that have been fixed by the manager, so, the punctuality is needed in order to make sure the effectiveness of the work can be obtain.
Lastly, the formal group also can avoid overlapping. Overlapping brings the menaing of the job responsibilities of two different workers collide each other. If this happen, there will be the problem in the LNG Group. Formal structure brings the well-organised where can avoid the overlapping of work by systematically dividing responsibilities, job and task. If this can avoid, the LNG group’s cost of operation can be lower and bring the high profit.

2.2. INFORMAL GROUP
According to the businessdictionary.com, informal group bring meaning a group which emerge naturally due to the response and common interests of members of an organisation who can easily identify with the goals or independent activities of the group. This means that a group of people occur when they have similar interest. Due to the psychological and social forces, the pattern of activities interactions and human relationship will occur spontaneously. This may related with work, or maybe not. As example, on the workplace, there are a group of tennis club which involved a certain of company members that have same interest in that tennis group. 2.3.3. Function or Roles of informal group
There are many function of informal group. First thing first, this kind of group can fulfil the social need that cannot be fulfil in the formal group. when the social need of members can be achieve, this will increase the motivation and their satisfaction. This happen as they share the same goal, interest, and lifestyle that lead them willingly to help each other. Usually, in working hour, the workers are busily manage their work, they do not have the leisure time to spend together with others and maybe some of them have different interest with us. So, by making the informal group, they can share their interest and fulfil their social needs with others. As example, LNG group has detect that the employees want to balance a demanding job with outside commitment such as the family life, hobbies and leisure activities. The company can set up the proposal to make a Family day. As the Family Day begin, there will occur the informal group such as a group of kids that playing together.
The other function of informal group is can develop communication channel. Actually, with the informal group, the communication can delivered fast as they can inform in various way. The members is not necessary to give the information formally by using an email, notes or letter. The information can just sent by the informal message from other member to another members or just telling them by our own. As example, the company tennis club want to held a training or game on tomorrow evening, they just can reach the message by using the latest technology application such as Whatsapp. So, the process of delivering the information not take time too long or afraid that members not realize there were notice or email about this. Besides, communication style the informal group is sound more friendly than formal as there have the position and work ethics that we must apply. But it is different in informal group which they can be friendly and free to communicate. As example, in office, the worker must called another people with title such as, Sir, Miss or Madam and so on but, if during we attend an informal group like Tennis Club, we can called according what they are comfort with.
Lastly, the compensate the shortcoming of formal organization. informal group can This is because, the formal group are very rigid, tiresome and accommodating for employees. This will lead to the employees depression. When people get demotivated and dissatisfied with the formal structures, the informal organization will comfort them. This will reduce the employees depression (Meer, 2013). This can

2.0. Factors that lead to an effective teamwork
Every company dream of being an effective company. Therefore, the effectiveness of work is depend on the teamwork itself. According to the BusinessDictionary.com, effectiveness is defined as doing the right thing which a degree to which the objective are achieved and targeted to be solve. As the LNG Group is typically involve the activities that need the teamwork, the effectiveness of the team is really needed by them. Teamwork is essential for effective decision making. If there is no teamwork, the good decision making cannot be make.
In order to get excellent decision making, the team must have good communication skills. Good communication will lead the team members do not have misunderstood with what have been explain. We must understand that people’s understanding is different. We cannot assume that every members can understand with us. Maybe certain members can understand quickly and no need to elaborate further, and certain must to tell the detail of the opinion. So, we must use various way in explain our opinion. For example, in present the idea for the project, the members can use a figure, slides, charts and many more to make the explanation to be clear. Good communication also brings meaning the way we are talking with other people. We need to use the suitable voice tones such as, we need to talk smoothly if we want to admonish other people. We cannot shout people out with the irritating words or with sarcastic sentences. This will make the other people feels not appreciated and that sentences will disturbing the members. As example, if the team members have make a mistakes in doing the paperwork or something, try do not yell at them but teach them with the right way in making the paperwork. If we yell at them this will make the worker’s mentality will broke and disturb. Most important, in have a good communication, the team members need to learn to accept or listen to others’ ideas. This is one way that make us getting the good decision making. Everybody in a team maybe have the different ideas. So, that is better if we try to listen others’ opinion and maybe their opinion is better than before. As example, LNG Group have asked a group of employees to find a way to achieve a better work-life balance. In that team, maybe have many suggestion that have been made, but they are deciding in constructing new working policy that are most stable known as Work Option. This decision can be made as they are listening others’ opinion and evaluate that suggestion in many aspect. Another group that shows good communication is the Fuji Xerox Co. which according to Masashi Honda, he prefer to have face-to-face meetings than communicate via E-mail or Facebook. Even though it takes time, he believe that through meetings it members through face-to-face will make the communication clear. That is the key why this company have such a good reputation and great decision making (Nunis, 2014).
Next, an effective teamwork also can be obtain by able to identify the root cause of the problem and understand the symptoms. As we want to make best decision, the team must identify the main problem that actually happen in the organisation. Then, we must understand why that symptoms occur. All of this need the deep investigation to make sure we do not miss any single things in evaluate the problems. Without the ability in identify the problem, the decision making cannot be make because the good result for decision only can get with problems’ understanding. There are many ways to identify the causes of the problem and one of them is trough questionnaire, which need us to prepared a set of question. The questionnaire can be distribute to whole people in the building, in order to look at all people opinion about the problems. As all questionnaire have been collected, now is time for whole the team members corporate to find the answer from that questionnaire. The team members need to working together in order to collect all information based on that questionnaire. Assumes that the LNG Group do not have any idea why the employees attendance are very bad. Therefore, a group of employees is made and the manager asked them to find the root or the reason why this problems happen. That group are responsible to find the main reason of employees being like that. This can be shown in the Coca-Cola company which they are wonder they are number one soft drink but the slit been narrowed significantly. After they have investigate this case, they know that this is because the public does not like the taste of the new product. They conducted a thousands of taste test and the public shows that the new product is not tasty. This is the expensive lesson for Coca-Cola. (Uni Assignment Centre)
Working in teams create a sense of excitement. When we are working in a team, the relationship each other will be closer like brothers and sisters. They like to be creative as they can throwing up their ideas without any fear as they are comfort to share their opinion. This make an effective teamwork. Working together allows them bounce idea each other. The productivity of work will increase as their relationship is good. the environment of the meeting can be more fun but at the same time they still serious with their work. Besides, the good work environment also can creates that excitement during making the work. This will increase their effectiveness as they work in the conducive workplace. Usually, the big company have a conducive workplace as they are really care about their employees and I believes that LNG also have the better workplace for employees. This excitement also can be shows by Tesco employees in their comment. Most of the employees says that they have an excitement during work as they have an awesome co-workers.

Figure 3 : Teco employees Reviews. (Indeed.com)

3.0. Problems in managing a team and solutions 4.3. Flexible working policy
In order to balance a demanding job with outside commitment, the group designing and introducing a unique flexible working policy, called Work Option. There are many types of the flexible working policy but in the LNG Group matter, they are using the Flextime system which they can request different working pattern from the standard 9.00 a.m to 5.00 p.m. This flexible time of work will make the employees having the time management problem. This is because, it will be hard in make a meeting as they have different time of work. This make the meeting delay as they need to wait until all people are coming for that meeting. Besides, hard to manage the employees’ course and training. This flextime system actually cannot maintain the LNG’s employees punctuality. Flextime system also make the LNG Group have lack staff maintenance. This happen as the lack of supervision of employees who work non-traditional hours which this refer to the flextime employees. Lack of supervision may also create a problem if a customer issues arise, the employees in charge is not available to resolve the problems or in other word, the person in charge do not come office yet.

In order to overcome this problems, I suggest the LNG Group to make salaries according to working credit hours. This will reduce the dissatisfaction of the employees that worked full of working hours. Besides, through this way, the LNG’s employees are motivated to come to office and try to maximum their working hour. This is because the employees want to achieve the basic salaries for living. Next, scheduling the course and meeting. In order to make a meeting or course, the company must find the suitable time to make the meeting and try to oblige the employees to come to the meeting and the most important thing, the meeting schedule must be inform early as this will allow the employees can manage their time. Lack of supervision can be handle by using the using the latest software which is Flextime Software where there have the application that can look at the time of the employees in charge come to office. Through this software, the administrative department can tell the customers to wait until that the that time. At the same time, try to serve the best for the customers that come to the office.

Actually this problems happen in the Yahoo company. CEO of Yahoo, Marissa Mayer requires that Yahoo employees who work remotely relocate to company facilities. She said that speed and quality of work are often sacrificed when they work from home. This is because, according to her in order to achieve absolute palace to work, communication and collaboration will be important, so, they need to work side-by-side. She want Yahoo become one and united. The Yahoo companies encourage workers to stay on their campuses, offering free food and other perks (Kara, 2013).

4.4. Communication through the technology
There are advantage by using the technology in communication but, it will give the bad affect also to us. There is no wrong using the technology for the communication because it will make us easier but at the same time will give some problems to us. One of the problem is the information cannot be explain briefly. This is because by using the technology, we do not know either the other members understand or not. This is one of the barrier in communication which the level of understanding of others member cannot be measured. When this situational occur, this will lead to misunderstanding. This is the most problem that all member want to avoid as if misunderstanding occur, this will lead to the unfavourable condition which the employees will have an argue about the matter that they have discuss. The interruption will occur when using the technology. As example, LNG’s employees are more like to use information technology to make a discussion, but the communication will be not organised. When they are communicate using Whatssapp, Wechat, Telegram, or others maybe the communication will be not effective because, when someone asked the question, the others give the answer but at the same time the others members give other opinion, arguing the answer and the communication will look very mess.
In order to manage the good communication I suggest to LNG’s employees to use the right communication media in explaining something. The media that an make us communicate lively such as make a video conference. By doing this, this will look more organise and if have misunderstanding or questions, the presenter can explain briefly through the video and this will make the interruption of communication will reduce as the presenter can be explain one by one. This will make the communication will going well. Besides, using visual aids such as the figure, chart, graph or any else aids in order to make the others members can understand easily.

4.5. Different language
LNG Group is a large organisation, that employs over 60,000 people in United Kingdom and in 27 countries worldwide. Usually, there must have an engagement or meeting that will be held that gathering all the representative for every 27 countries. In order to communicate each other in every countries, the understanding of language are the major barrier. This is because, they have their own language and their own accent in pronounce the sentences.

So, for this problem, I suggest that LNG Group must fixed the uses of international language which is English as the intermediaries language. For those representative that have the problem with speaking in English, they can bring their own translator to translate what have been explain by others. Or LNG Group can use the technology which the audio language translator that it functioning to change the language into the selection language. This will make the others members what is the presenter is talking about. For example, if the LNG Group representative from the Japan, the other members can use this audio language translator in order to understand what is he or she trying to say.

4.0. Latest technologies and impact on team functioning

There are many latest technology that we can implement in a team. One of the technology that I have found that can be used in the team is VisionTime Software. This software have been creates by the FlexTime company. This technology can help the LNG Group in manage the employees attendance and can detect the employees working hours. VisionTime is the attendance system that accommodates three approach to the monitoring of working time which is flexible hours, shift arrangements and hourly paid staff. this software enables the LNG Group to deploy flexible working hours giving employees greater control both of their job work or life balance. This software need internet or intranet for running this software and the most best part is the employees can check in and out by locally or remotely using the time terminals, mobile, tablet, PC PIN pad or Access control readers. The system is capable of capturing miscellaneous recording during the day as there is no limit to the number of times a person can check in and out.

There are advantage by using this VisionTime Software. Through this software technology, it also have can make the employees submit their updates via PC which is approved electronically by the supervisor. This will save the working time as the employees no need to walk to see the supervisor and this will make the employees will be more effective. The employees also can calling up their own activity report and know where they are going and when they we will back. This make the employees are prepared and no need to ask the administrative about that. Lastly, through this software, they can swap the shift with other members. The staff maintenance can be improve as they have the replacement.

There also have the bad impact to the LNG Group such as the relationship with others members will decrease as they are not always meet face-to-face. This is because, by using this technology every document can sent via PC, the courses that need to attend can be check in the PC and they no need to meet the supervisor to ask. Everything is only at PC. This technologies will affect to the generation X which is the old fashioned worker that not really up-to-date with the technologies. This will lead them into depression as they need to learn about it.

This software also have been implement by other financial services such as Sunderland Marine which is an organisation that leading mutual marine insurance. The Sunderland Marine have admits that this software give lots of benefits to the company as they able to manage the absence of the employees if they are request annual or sick leave. According to Elaine Middlemiss, HR manager of Sunderland Marine, since implementing Flextime’s VisionTime, their staff have more control over their work hours and have enjoyed the flexibility it gives them (FlexTime).

Figure 4: Sunderland Marine the user of FlexTime
Next, the another technologies that I think that can be implement in a team is Google Drive. Google Drive was establish in 24 April 2012 which its allow the users cloud storage, file sharing and collaborative editing. This will make the others members easier to access the document that they have been made. Besides, by using Drive, they can together editing the document. The investigation has state that Google Drive have 240 million monthly active users on October 2014. Drive is home for all document that will be save such as Google Docs, Sheets and Slides. This application is suitable for office user. As the LNG Group have emerge in flexible working hours maybe this will make the team members are hard to finish the work together. By using this Drive, they can together editing in the same time. This will make the employees more effective as they no need to wait until all the team members come to office and do it together. As long as they have the internet connection, they can log in using the Google account and access the document that they have shared together. From this, we can see what is other members editing for that documents.

There are advantage by using this application which is this will make the employees save more time in editing the task. They no need to take the document from others and then compile to one computer. They just need to edit in the Google Drive and everyone in team can access this file. Besides, this help the team have a backup document. As this will save in the Cloud Storage. The storage was 15 GB free and want to add up the storage the user must pay for it. This storage make the employees have the safe place to save the documents.

The disadvantage of this application, the originality of work maybe cannot be known. As example, we cannot tell that people that edit the document was our team members. Maybe team members asked someone else to try to help them. Besides, as this application need the internet connection, this will may affect the team if one of them do not have internet connection or have internet connection problems.

Figure 5: Google drive

REFFERENCES

FlexTime. (n.d.). Sunderland Marine Provides Staff with Flexible Working Tools. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from VisionTime : http://flextime.ie/files/5514/0188/1656/CS_Sunderland_Marine.pdf
Honda . (2014). Motorcycle R&D Center. Retrieved November 4, 2014, from Honda Worldwide: http://world.honda.com/RandD/asaka/
Indeed.com. (n.d.). Indeed. Retrieved from Tesco Employer Reviews: http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Tesco/reviews
Kara, S. (2013, February 22). “Physically Together”: Here’s the Internal Yahoo No-Work-From-Home Memo for Remote Workers and Maybe More. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from All Things D: http://allthingsd.com/20130222/physically-together-heres-the-internal-yahoo-no-work-from-home-memo-which-extends-beyond-remote-workers/
Meer, H. (2013, November 16). Advantages and Disadvantages of Informal Organizations. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from Study OB: http://studyob.com/advantages-disadvantages-informal-organizations/
Nunis, S. J. (2014). Viewpoints of a Leader: Mr Masashi Honda. Retrieved November 5, 2014, from SIM Management 360: http://m360.sim.edu.sg/article/Pages/Masashi-Honda.aspx
Pathak, S. R. (n.d.). Group, Formal and Informal group, Importance of group values an norms, Characteristics of an effective group. Retrieved November 3, 2014, from MBA: http://mbastudymaterial4u.blogspot.com/2011/07/group-formal-and-informal.html
Uni Assignment Centre. (n.d.). How to identify the strategic marketing problems of a company. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from Custome Essys and Model Answer Service: http://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/marketing/identify-the-strategic-marketing-problems.php

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