Free Essay



Submitted By kartikohri
Words 211294
Pages 846

English Grammar & Composition
(With New Appendices)

Page i
New Edition

P.C. WREN, MA. (OXON) and H. MARTIN, M.A. (OXON), O.B.E.
Revised By
Dear Students,
Beware of fake/pirated editions. Many of our best selling titles have been unlawfully printed by unscrupulous persons. Your sincere effort in this direction may stop piracy and save intellectuals' rights.
For the genuine book check the 3-D hologram which gives a rainbow effect.

Page iii

Wren and Martin's monumental work High School English Grammar and Composition now appears in two editions. One is a de luxe edition, illustrated in full-colour, and the other is an ordinary edition without illustrations.
The material in the book has been further updated where called for. It has been felt necessary in particular to revise some material in the chapters dealing with adjectives, active and passive voice, articles and prepositions. Appendix I, which deals with
American English, has been expanded. Appendix II has been replaced with a newer set of tests covering the important areas of grammar.
It was in the year 1972 that the shrewd visionary Mr. Shyam Lai Gupta obtained the permission of Manecji Cooper Education Trust for the revision of this book and commissioned me to revise it thoroughly. The revised edition came out in 1973 and was well received. One of the main features of the revised edition was the addition of a great deal of new material (such as the three chapters on structures) based on the new developments in the study of English structure and usage. Subsequently the book was revised every four or five years and most extensively in 1999.
Unlike many traditional grammar books, the book in the present form helps the student to use the language as well as giving detailed information about the language. It provides ample guidance and practice in sentence building, correct usage, comprehension, written composition and other allied areas so as to equip the student with the ability to communicate effectively in English.
It is gratifying to learn that this classic work, though primarily intended for use in the
Indian subcontinent, is also used in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, etc. It is hoped that the book will be found useful in many more countries where English is used as a second or foreign language.
N.D.V. Prasada Rao
Your Attention Please
In this work, on some pages, the Publishers have stated between parallel lines, “A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.” This has been done to establish that this is a genuine edition of the work.

Page iv


8. THE NOUN: CASE -- 15
14. ARTICLES -- 37
20. THE VERB -- 65
23. MOOD -- 75
26. THE FUTURE -- 86
30. THE GERUND -- 99
34. THE ADVERB -- 118


Exercise 1-7 -- 170

Page v
2. PHRASES -- 179-185
Adjective Phrases -- 179
Exercises 8-12 -- 179
Adverb Phrases -- 181
Exercises 13-19 -- 182
Noun Phrases -- 184
Exercises 20-22 -- 184
3. CLAUSES -- 185-193
Adverb Clauses -- 185
Exercises 23-26 -- 186
Adjective Clauses -- 188
Exercises 27-30 -- 188
Noun Clauses -- 190
Exercises 31-34 -- 190
Exercises 35-36 -- 192
Exercise 37 -- 195
Exercises 38-39 -- 197
Exercises 40-42 -- 200
Adverb clauses of Time -- 201
Exercise 43 -- 201
Adverb clauses of Place -- 201
Exercise 44 -- 202
Adverb Clauses of Purpose -- 202
Exercise 45 -- 202
Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason -- 202
Exercise 46 -- 202
Adverb Clauses of Condition -- 202
Exercise 47 -- 203
Adverb Clauses of Result and Consequence -- 203
Exercise 48 -- 204
Adverb Clauses of Comparison -- 204
Exercises 49-50 -- 204
Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession -- 204
Exercise 51 -- 205
Exercises 52-55 -- 205

8. ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SENTENCES (Clause Analysis) -- 208-211
Exercise 56 -- 210
9. ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND SENTENCES (Clause Analysis) -- 211-215
Exercise 57 -- 213
Exercise 58 (Miscellaneous) -- 214
Sentences containing the Adverb "too" -- 215
Exercise 59 -- 215
Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison -- 216
Exercise 60 -- 216
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice -- 217
Exercises 61-63 -- 218
Interchange of Affirmative and Negative sentences -- 219
Exercises 64-65 -- 219
Interchange of Interrogative and Assertive sentences -- 220
Exercises 66-67 -- 220
Interchange of Exclamatory and Assertive sentences -- 221
Exercises 68-69 -- 221

Page vi
Interchange of one Part of Speech for another -- 221
Exercise 70 -- 222
Conversion of Simple sentences to Compound (Double) sentences -- 223
Exercises 71-72 -- 223
Conversion of Compound (Double) sentences to Simple sentences -- 224
Exercises 73-74 -- 225
Conversion of Simple sentences to Complex -- 226
Exercises 75-78 -- 227
Conversion of Complex sentences to Simple sentences -- 230
Exercises 79-82 -- 230
Conversion of Compound sentences to Complex -- 235
Exercises 83-84 -- 235
Conversion of Complex sentences to Compound -- 237
Exercises 85-86 -- 237
Exercise 87 (Miscellaneous) -- 239
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single Simple sentence -- 240
Exercises 88-93 -- 241
Exercise 94 (Miscellaneous) -- 244
13. SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES (Contd.) -- 246-248
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single Compound sentence -- 246
Exercise 95 -- 247
14. SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES (Contd.) -- 249-255
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single Complex sentence -- 249
Exercises 96-100 -- 250
Exercises 101-103 -- 256
Exercises 104-109 -- 261

Exercise 110 -- 269
18. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS -- 270-275

Exercises 111-114 -- 273
19. ADJECTIVES -- 275-278
20. VERBS -- 278-282
Exercise 115 -- 281
21. ADVERBS -- 282-284
Exercise 116 -- 283
22. CONJUNCTIONS -- 284-285
23. ORDER OF WORDS -- 285-287
Exercises 117-118 -- 286
24. IDIOMS -- 288-294
25. IDIOMS (Contd.) -- 294-311
26. PUNCTUATION -- 312-319
Exercises 119-122 -- 316
27. SPELLING RULES -- 319-320

Page vii
29. FIGURES OF SPEECH -- 333-344
Exercise 125 -- 339

30. VERB PATTERNS -- 341-347
Exercise 126 -- 347
Exercises 127-130
32. MORE STRUCTURES -- 351-354
Exercise 131 -- 354

33. PARAGRAPH-WRITING -- 355-358
Introductory Remarks -- 353
Principles -- 355
Examples -- 356
The Writing of Single Paragraphs -- 357
Exercise 132 -- 358
34. STORY-WRITING -- 359-363
Introductory Remarks -- 359
Hints -- 359
Specimen -- 359
Exercise 133 -- 360
Introductory Remarks -- 363
Hints -- 363
Specimens -- 363
Exercise 134 -- 366
36. LETTER-WRITING -- 367-389
Introductory Remarks -- 367
The form of Letters -- 367
Classification of letters -- 370
Social Letters -- 370
Friendly Letters -- 370
Specimens -- 371

Exercise 135 -- 372
Specimens -- 373
Exercise 136 -- 374
Specimens -- 374
Exercises 137-139 -- 375
Specimens -- 376
Exercises 140-141 -- 378
Notes of Invitations -- 379
Specimens -- 379
Business Letters -- 380
Specimens -- 381
Exercise 142 -- 384
Letters of Application -- 384
Specimens -- 389
Exercise 143 -- 385
Official Letters -- 385
Specimens -- 385
Exercise 144 -- 386
Letters to Newspapers -- 386
Specimens -- 386
Exercise 145 -- 387
Specimens -- 387
Exercise 146 -- 388

Page viii
37. COMPREHENSION -- 389-403
Introductory Remarks -- 389
Specimen -- 389
Exercise 147 -- 390
38. PRECIS-WRITING -- 404-420
Introductory Remarks -- 404
Uses of Precis-Writing -- 404
Method of procedure -- 405
To Sum up -- 408
Specimens -- 408
Exercise 148 -- 409
Introductory Remarks -- 420
Method of procedure -- 420
Specimens -- 421
Exercise 149 -- 422
40. ESSAY-WRITING -- 423-436
Introductory Remarks -- 423
Characteristics of a good School Essay -- 424
Classification of Essays -- 425
Hints on Essay-writing -- 426
Method of Collecting Materials -- 427
Bare Outline -- 429
Full Outline -- 430
Writing the Essay -- 430
Specimens -- 432
Exercises 150-151 -- 435
41. AUTOBIOGRAPHIES -- 436-438
Introductory Remarks -- 436
Specimens -- 436
Exercises 152-154 -- 437
42. DIALOGUE-WRITING -- 438-447
Introductory Remarks -- 438
Method of Procedure -- 439
Special Hints -- 439
Specimens -- 440
Exercises 155-162 -- 445

Introductory Remarks -- 447
Specimens -- 454
Exercise 163 -- 456
44. PARAPHRASING -- 459-470
Introductory Remarks -- 459
Uses of Paraphrasing -- 459
Characteristics of a good Paraphrase -- 459
The Paraphrase of Poetry -- 462
Special Hints -- 464
Method of Procedure -- 464
Specimens -- 466
Exercise 164 -- 467
APPENDICES -- 471-482
Appendix -1
Differences between British and American English -- 471
Appendix - II
General Review of Grammar -- 475
An authentic and useful solution of this book entitled. "A Key to Wren and Martin's High
School English Grammar and Composition " is also available,

Page 1

1. When we speak or write we use words. We generally use these words in groups; as,
Little Jack Homer sat in a corner.
A group of words like this, which makes complete sense, is called a Sentence.

Kinds of Sentences
2. Sentences are of four kinds:
(1) Those which make statements or assertions; as, Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
(2) Those which ask questions; as Where do you live?
(3) Those which express commands, requests, or entreaties; as,
Be quiet.
Have mercy upon us.
(4) Those which express strong feelings; as,
How cold the night is!
What a shame!
A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a Declarative or Assertive sentence. A sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative sentence.
A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an Imperative sentence.
A sentence that expresses strong feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence.

3. When we make a sentence:
(1) We name some person or thing; and
(2) Say something about that person or thing.

Page 2
In other words, we must have a subject to speak about and we must say or predicate something about that subject.
Hence every sentence has two parts:
(1) The part which names the person or thing we are speaking about. This is called the
Subject of the sentence.
(2) The part which tells something about the Subject. This is called the Predicate of the sentence. 4. The Subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it is put after the
Predicate; as,
Here comes the bus.
Sweet are the uses of adversity.
5. In Imperative sentences the Subject is left out; as,
Sit down. [Here the Subject You is understood].
Thank him. [Here too the Subject You is understood.]

Exercise in Grammar 1
In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate:
1. The cackling of geese saved Rome.
2. The boy stood on the burning deck.
3. Tubal Cain was a man of might.
4. Stone walls do not make a prison.
5. The singing of the birds delights us.
6. Miss Kitty was rude at the table one day
7. He has a good memory.
8. Bad habits grow unconsciously.
9. The earth revolves round the sun.
10. Nature is the best physician.
11. Edison invented the phonograph.
12. The sea hath many thousand sands.
13. We cannot pump the ocean dry.
14. Borrowed garments never fit well.
15. The early bird catches the worm.
16. All matter is indestructible.
17. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
18. We should profit by experience.
19. All roads lead to Rome.
20. A guilty conscience needs no excuse.
21. The beautiful rainbow soon faded away.
22. No man can serve two masters.
23. A sick room should be well aired.
24. The dewdrops glitter in the sunshine.

25. I shot an arrow into the air.
26. A barking sound the shepherd hears.
27. On the top of the hill lives a hermit.

6. Examine the group of words “in a corner”. It makes sense, but not complete sense.
Such a group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase.
In the following sentences, the groups of words in italics are Phrases:
The sun rises in the east.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
There came a giant to my door.

Page 3
It was a sunset of great beauty.
The tops of the mountains were covered with snow.
Show me how to do it.
7. Examine the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:
He has a chain of gold.
He has a chain which is made of gold.
We recognize the first group of words as a Phrase.
The second group of words, unlike the Phrase of gold, contains a Subject (which) and a
Predicate (is made of gold).
Such a group of words which forms part of a sentence, and contains a Subject and a
Predicate, is called a Clause.
In the following sentences, the groups of words in italics are Clauses:
People who pay their debts are trusted.
We cannot start while it is raining.
I think that, you have made a mistake.

8. Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in a sentence. The parts of speech are eight in number:
1. Noun.
2. Adjective.
3. Pronoun.
4. Verb.
5. Adverb.
6. Preposition.
7. Conjunction.
8. Interjection.
9. A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing; as, Akbar was a great
Kolkata is on the Hooghly.
The rose smells sweet.
The sun shines bright.
His courage won him honour.

Note: The word thing includes (i) all objects that we can see, hear, taste, touch, or smell; and (ii) something that we can think of, but cannot perceive by the senses.
10. An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun; as,
He is a brave boy.
There are twenty boys in this class.
11. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; as,
John is absent, because he is ill.
The book are where you left them

Page 4
12. A Verb is a word used lo express an action or state; as
The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
Kolkata is a big city.
Iron and copper are useful metals.
13. An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as,
He worked the sum quickly.
This flower is very beautiful.
She pronounced the word quite correctly.
14. A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else; as,
There is a cow in the garden.
The girl is fond of music.
A fair little girl sat under a tree.
15. A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences; as,
Rama and Hari are cousins.
Two and two make four.
I ran fast, but missed the train.
16. An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feel ing; as,
Hurrah! We have won the game. Alas! She is dead.
17. Some modern grammars include determiners among the parts of speech. Determiners are words like a, an, the, this, that, these, those, every, each, some, any, my, his, one, two, etc., which determine or limit the meaning of the nouns that follow. In this book, as in many traditional grammars, all determiners except a, an and the are classed among adjectives. 18. As words are divided into different classes according to the work they do in sentences, it is clear that we cannot say to which part of speech a word belongs unless we see it used in a sentence.
They arrived soon after. (Adverb)
They arrived after us. (Preposition)
They arrived after we had left. (Conjunction)

From the above examples we see that the same word can be used as different parts of speech. Exercise in Grammar 2
Name the part of speech of each italicized word in the following sentences, giving in each case your reason for the classification:
1. Still waters run deep.
2. He still lives in that house
3. After the storm comes the calm
4. The after effects of the drug are bad.
5. The up train is late.
6. It weights about a pound.

Page 5
7. He told us all about the battle.
8. He was only a yard off me.
9. Suddenly one of the wheels came off.
10. Mohammedans fast in the month of Ramzan.
11. He kept the fast for a week.
12. He is on the committee.
13. Let us move on.
14. Sit down and rest a while.
15. I will watch while you sleep.
16. They while away their evenings with books and games.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

19. A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Note: The word thing is used to mean anything that we can think of.
20. Look at the following sentence:
Asoka was a wise king.
The noun Asoka refers to a particular king, but the noun king might be applied to any other king as well as to Asoka. We call Asoka a Proper Noun, and king a Common Noun.
Sita is a Proper Noun, while girl is a Common Noun.
Hart is a Proper Noun, while boy is a Common Noun.
Kolkata is a Proper Noun, while city is a Common Noun.
India is a Proper Noun, while country is a Common Noun.
The word girl is a Common Noun, because it is a name common to all girls, while Sita is a Proper Noun because it is the name of a particular girl.
Def. - A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
[Common here means shared by all.]
Def. - A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person or place,
[Proper means one's own. Hence a Proper Name is a person's own name.]
Note 1 - Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.

Note 2 - Proper Nouns are sometimes used as Common Nouns; as,
1. He was the Lukman (= the wisest man) of his age.
2. Kalidas is often called the Shakespeare (= the greatest dramatist) of India.
Common Nouns include what are called Collective Nouns and Abstract Nouns

Page 6
21. A Collective Noun is the name of a number (or collection) of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole; as,
Crowd, mob, team, flock, herd, army, fleet, jury, family, nation, parliament, committee.
A fleet = a collection of ships or vessels.
An army = a collection of soldiers.
A crowd = a collection of people.
The police dispersed the crowd.
The French army was defeated at Waterloo.
The jury found the prisoner guilty.
A herd of cattle is passing.
22. An Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs; as.
Quality - Goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness, hardness, brightness, honesty, wisdom, bravery.
Action - Laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred.
State - Childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, death, poverty.
The names of the Arts and Science (e.g., grammar, music, chemistry, etc.) are also
Abstract Nouns.
[We can speak of a brave soldier, a strong man, a beautiful flower. But we can also think of these qualities apart from any particular person or thing, and speak of bravery, strength, beauty by themselves. So also we can speak of what persons do or feel apart from the persons themselves, and give it a name. The word abstract means drawn off.]
23. Abstract Nouns are formed:
(1) From Adjectives; as,
Kindness from kind; honesty from honest.
[Most abstract nouns are formed thus.]
(2) From Verbs: as,
Obedience from obey; growth from grow.
(3) From Common Nouns; as,
Childhood from child; slavery from slave.
24. Another classification of nouns is whether they are “countable” or “uncountable”.
Countable nouns (or countables) are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count,
e.g., book, pen, apple, boy, sister, doctor, horse.

Uncountable nouns (or uncountables) are the names of things which we cannot count,
e.g., milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty. They mainly denote substances and abstract things.
Countable nouns have plural forms while uncountable nouns do not. For example, we say
“books” but we cannot say “milks”.

Exercise in Grammar 3
Point out the Nouns in the following sentences, and say whether they are Common,
Proper, Collective or Abstract:

Page 7
1. The crowd was very big.
2. Always speak the truth.
3. We all love honesty.
4. Our class consists of twenty pupils.
5. The elephant has great strength.
6. Solomon was famous for his wisdom.
7. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
8. We saw a fleet of ships in the harbour.
9. The class is studying grammar.
10. The Godavary overflows its banks every year.
11. A committee of five was appointed.
12. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India.
13. The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
14.Without health there is no happiness.
15. He gave me a bunch of grapes.
16. I recognized your voice at once.
17. Our team is better than theirs.
18. Never tell a lie.
19. Wisdom is better than strength.
20. He sets a high value on his time.
21. I believe in his innocence.
22. This room is thirty feet in length.
23. I often think of the happy days of childhood.
24. The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness.
25. What is your verdict, gentlemen of the jury?

Exercise in Composition 4
Write the Collective Nouns used to describe a number of
(1) Cattle;
(2) Soldiers;
(3) Sailors.
Write the qualities that belong to boys who are
(1) Lazy;
(2) Cruel;
(3) Brave;
(4) Foolish.

Exercise in Composition 5
Form Abstract Nouns from the following Adjectives:
young, humble, decent,

cruel, bitter, strong, true, short, prudent, dark, deep, wide, wise, good, vacant, sweet, human, broad, free, proud, brave, novel, quick, high, poor, just, vain, sane, ignorant. Form Abstract Nouns from the following Verbs:
obey, live, expect, excel, know, steal. Believe,

Form Abstract Nouns from the following Common Nouns:
man, thief, woman, bankrupt, infant, owner, rogue, regent, author, mother, agent, hero, beggar, coward, priest, boy, bond, pirate, pilgrim, friend, caption, rascal, patriot, glutton. Page 8

25. You know that living beings are of either the male or the female sex. Now compare the words in the following pairs:
Boy (Lion, Hero, Cock-sparrow)
Girl (Lioness, Heroine, Hen-sparrow)
What do you notice?
The first word of each pair is the name of a male animal.
The second word of each pair is the name of a female animal.
A noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender. [Gender comes from Latin genus, kind or sort.]
A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the Feminine Gender.
26. A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the Common Gender; as
Parent, child, friend, pupil, servant, thief, relation, enemy, cousin, person, orphan, student, baby, monarch, neighbour, infant.
27. A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor female (i.e., thing without life) is said to be of the Neuter Gender; as,
Book, pen, room, tree.
[Neater means neither, that is, neither male nor female]
It will be thus seen that in Modern English the Gender of a noun is entirely a matter of sex or the absence of sex. It has nothing to do with the form of a noun, which determines its gender in many other languages, e.g., in Urdu where bagiche is masculine and lakri is feminine. 28. Objects without life are often personified, that is, spoken of as if they were living beings. We then regard them as males or females.
The Masculine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for strength and violence; as, The Sun, Summer, Winter, Time, Death,
The sun sheds his beams on rich and poor alike.
The Feminine Gender is sometimes applied to objects remarkable for beauty, gentleness, and gracefulness; as,
The Moon, the Earth, Spring, Autumn, Nature, Liberty, Justice, Mercy, Peace, Hope,
The moon has hidden her face behind a cloud.
Spring has spread her mantle of green over the earth.

Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war.
This use is most common in poetry but certain nouns are personified in nrose too. A shin is often spoken of as she; as,
The ship lost her boats in the storm.

Page 9

Ways of Forming the Feminine of Nouns
29. There are three ways of forming the Feminine of Nouns:

(1) By using an entirely different word; as
Masculine -- Feminine
Bachelor -- maid, spinster
Boy -- girl
Brother -- sister
Buck -- doe
Bull (or ox) -- cow
Bullock -- heifer
Cock -- hen
Colt -- filly
Dog -- bitch
Drake -- duck
Drone -- bee
Earl -- countess
Father -- mother
Gander -- goose
Gentleman -- lady
Hart -- roe
Horse -- mare
Husband -- wife
King -- queen
Lord -- lady
Man -- woman
Monk (or friar) -- nun
Nephew -- niece
Papa -- mamma
Ram -- ewe
Sir -- madam
Son -- daughter
Stag -- hind
Uncle -- aunt
Wizard -- witch

(2) By adding a syllable (-ess, -ine, -trix, -a, etc) as,
Masculine -- Feminine
Author -- authoress
Baron -- baroness
Count -- countess
Giant -- giantess

Heir -- heiress
Host -- hostess
Jew -- Jewess
Lion -- lioness
Manager -- manageress
Mayor -- mayoress
Patron -- patroness
Peer -- peeress
Poet -- poetess
Priest -- priestess
Prophet -- prophetess
Shepherd -- shepherdess
Steward -- stewardess
Viscount -- viscountess
[Note that in the following -ess is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending] Masculine -- Feminine
Actor -- actress
Benefactor -- benefactress
Conductor -- conductress
Enchanter -- enchantress
Founder -- foundress
Hunter -- huntress
Instructor -- instructress
Negro -- negress
Abbot -- abbess
Duke -- duchess
Emperor -- empress
Preceptor -- preceptress
Prince -- princess
Songster -- songstress
Tempter -- temptress
Seamster -- seamstress
Tiger -- tigress
Traitor -- traitress
Waiter -- waitress
Master -- mistress
Murderer -- murderess
Sorcerer -- sorceress
Note:- The suffix -ess is the commonest suffix used to form feminine nouns, from the masculine, and is the only one which we now use in forming a new feminine noun.

Page 10

Masculine -- Feminine
Hero -- heroine
Testator -- testatrix
Czar -- czarina
Sultan -- sultana
Signor -- signora
Fox -- vixen
(3) By placing a word before or after; as,

Masculine -- Feminine
Grandfather -- grandmother
Greatuncle -- greataunt
Manservant -- maidservant
Landlord -- landlady milkman -- milkwoman peacock -- peahen salesman -- saleswoman washerman -- washerwoman

30. Notice the change of form in the second word of each pair:
Tree (Box, Fox, Man)
Trees (Boxes, Oxen, Men)
The first word of each pair denotes one thing, the second word of each pair denotes more than one.
A Noun that denotes one person or thing, is said to be in the Singular Number; as,
Boy, girl, cow, bird, tree, book, pen.
A Noun that denotes more than one person or thing, is said to be in the Plural Number; as, Boys, girls, cows, birds, trees, books, pens.
Thus there are two Numbers in English-the Singular and the Plural.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

How Plurals are Formed
31. (i) The Plural of nouns is generally formed by adding -s to the singular ; as,

boy, boys; pen, pens; girl, girls; desk, desks; book, books; cow, cows.
(ii) But Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch (soft), or -x form the plural by adding -es to the singular; as, class, classes; kiss, kisses; dish, dishes; brush, brushes; match, matches; watch, watches; branch, branches; tax, taxes; box, boxes.
(iii) Most Nouns ending in -o also form the plural by adding -es to the singular ; as, buffalo, buffaloes; mango, mangoes; hero, heroes; potato, potatoes; cargo, cargoes, echo, echoes; negro, negroes; volcano, valcanoes.
(iv) A few nouns ending in -o merely add -s; as,

Page 11 dynamo, dynamos; solo, solos; ratio, ratios; canto, cantos; memento, mementos; quarto, quartos; piano, pianos; photo, photos; stereo, siereos. kilo, kilos; logo, logos; commando, commandos
(v) Nouns ending in -y, preceded by a consonant, form their plural by changing -y into -i and adding -es; as, baby, babies; lady, ladies; city, cities; army, armies; story, stories; pony, ponies.
(vi) The following nouns ending in -f or -fe form their plural by changing -for -fe into v and adding -es ; as, thief, thieves; wife, wives; wolf, wolves; life, lives; calf, calves; leaf, leaves; loaf, loaves; knife, knives; shelf, shelves, half, halves; elf, elves; self, selves; sheaf, sheaves.
The nouns dwarf, hoof, scarf and wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural. dwarfs or dwarves; hoofs or hooves;

scarfs or scarves; wharfs or wharves
Other words ending in -for -fe add -s; as, chief, chiefs; safe, safes; proof, proofs gulf, gulfs; cliff, cliffs; handkerchief, handkerchiefs
32. A few nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singlar; as, man, men; woman, women; foot, feet; tooth, teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse, lice.
33. There are a few nouns that form their plural by adding -en to the singular; as, ox, oxen; child, children.
The plural offish is fish or fishes. The form fishes is less usual.
34. Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike; as,
Swine, sheep, deer; cod, trout, salmon; aircraft, spacecraft, series, species.
Pair, dozen, score, gross, hundred, thousand (when used after numerals),
I bought three dozen oranges.
Some people reach the age of three score and ten.
The sari cost me five thousand rupees.
Stone, hundredweight.
He weighs above nine stone.
Twenty hundredweight make one ton.
35. Some nouns are used only in the plural.
(1) Names of instruments which have two parts forming a kind of pair; as,
Bellows, scissors, tongs, pincers, spectacles.

Page 12
(2) Names of certain articles of dress; as,
Trousers, drawers, breeches, jeans, tights, shorts, pyjamas.
(3) Certain other nouns; as,
Annals, thanks, proceeds (of a sale), tidings, environs, nuptials, obsequies, assets, chatels.
36. Some nouns originally singular are now generally used in the plural; as,
Alms, riches, eaves.
Riches do many things.
37. The following nouns look plural but are in fact singular:
(1) Names of subjects mathematics, physics, electronics, etc.
(2) The word news
(3) Names of some common diseases measles, mumps, rickets
(4) Names of some games billiards, draughts
Mathematics is his favourite study.
No news is good news.
India won by an innings and three runs.
Measles is infectious.
Billiards is my favourite game.
‘Means’ is used either as singular or plural. But when it has the meaning of ‘wealth’ it is always plural; as,
He succeeded by this means (or, by these means) in passing the examination.
His means are small, but he has incurred no debt.
38. Certain Collective Nouns, though singular in form, are always used as plurals; as,
Poultry, cattle, vermin, people, gentry.
These poultry are mine.
Whose are these cattle?
Vermin destroy our property and carry disease.
Who are those people (= persons)?
There are few gentry in this town.
Note:- As a Common Noun 'people' means a 'nation' and is used in both singular and plural; as,

The Japanese are a hard-working people.
There are many different peoples in Europe.
39. A Compound Noun generally forms its plural by adding -s to the principal word; as,

Singular -- Plural
Commander-in-chief -- commanders-in-chief
Coat-of-mail -- coats-of-mail
Son-in-Law -- sons-in-law

Page 13
Daughter-in-law -- daughters-in-law
Step-son -- step-sons
Step-daughter -- step-daughters
Maid-servant -- maid-servants (but man-servant, plural men-servants)
Passer-by -- passers-by
Looker-on -- lookers-on
Man-of-war -- men-of-war.
We say spoonfuls and handfuls, because spoonful and handful are regarded as one word.
Note that the Proper Nouns Brahman and Mussulman are not compounds of man; therefore their plurals are Brahmans and Mussulmans.
40. Many nouns taken from foreign languages keep their original plural form; as,
Form LatinErratum, errata; -- formula, formulae (or formulas): index, indices; -- memorandum, memoranda; radius, radii; -- terminus, termini (or terminuses).
From GreekAxis, axes; -- parenthesis, parentheses; crisis, crises; -- hypothesis, hypotheses; basis, bases; -- phenomenon, phenomena; analysis, analyses; -- criterion, criteria.
From ItalianBandit, banditti, (or bandits)
From FrenchMadame (madam), mesdames; monsieur, messieurs.
From HebrewCherub, cherubim (or cherubs); seraph, seraphim (or seraphs).
41. Some nouns have two forms for the plural, each with a some what different meaning.

Singular -- Plural
Brother -- brothers, sons of the same parent. brethren, members of a society or a community.
Cloth -- cloths, kinds or pieces of cloth, clothes, garments.
Die -- dies, stamps for coining, dice, small cubes used in games.
Index -- indexes, tables of contents to books, indices, signs used in algebra.

Page 14
Penny pennies, number of coins, pence, amount in value.
42. Some nouns have two meanings in the singular but only one in the plural.

Singular -- Plural
Light: (1) radiance, (2) a lamp -- Lights: lamps.
People: (1) nation, (2) men and women -- Peoples: nations.
Powder: (1)dust, (2) a dose of medicine in fine grains like dust -- Powders: doses of medicine. Practice: (1) habit (2) exercise of a profession -- Practices: habits.
43. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular, two in the plural.

Singular -- Plural
Colour: hue. -- Colours: (1) hues, (2) the flag of a regiment.
Custom: habit. -- Customs: (1) habits, (2) duties levied on imports.
Effect: result -- Effects: (1) results, (2) property.
Manner: method. -- Manners: (1) methods, (2) correct behaviour.
Moral: a moral lesson. -- Morals: (1) moral lessons, (2) conduct
Number: a quantity. -- Numbers: (1) quantities, (2) verses.
Pain: suffering. -- Pains : (1) sufferings, (2) care, exertion.
Premise: proposition -- Premises: (1) propositions; (2) buildings.
Quarter: fourth part. -- Quarters: (1) fourth parts; (2) lodgings.
Spectacle: a sight. -- Spectacles: (1) sights; (2) eye-glasses.
Letter: (1) letter of the alphabet; (2) epistle -- Letters: (1) letters of the alphabet; (2) epistle; (3) literature.
Ground: (1) earth; (2) reason -- Grounds: (1) enclosed land attached to house. (2) reason;
(2) reasons; (3) dregs.
44. Some nouns have different meanings in the singular and the plural.

Singular -- Plural
Advice: counsel. -- Advices: information.
Air: atmosphere. -- Airs: affected manners.
Good: benefit, well-being. -- Goods: merchandise.
Compass: extent, range. -- Compasses: an instrument for drawing circles.
Respect: regard. -- Respects: compliments.

Page 15
Physic: medicine. -- Physics: natural science.
Iron: a kind of metal. -- Irons: fetters.
Force: strength. -- Forces: troops.
45. Letters, figures and other symbols are made plural by adding an apostrophe and s; as,
There are more e's than a's in this page.
Dot your i's and cross your t's.
Add two 5's and four 2's.
46. It is usual to sayThe Miss Smiths. (Singular, Miss Smith.)
47. Abstract Nouns have no plural. They are uncountable.
Hope, charity, love, kindness.
When such words do appear in the plural, they are used as countables; as
Provocations = instances or cases of provocation.
Kindnesses = acts of kindness.
Names of substances are also uncountables and are not therefore used in the plural.
Copper, iron, tin, wood.
When such words are used in the plural, they become countables with changed meanings; as, Coppers = copper coins; irons = fetters; tins = cans made of tin; woods = forests.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

48. Examine these sentences:1. John threw a stone.
2. The horse kicked the boy.
In sentence 1, the noun John is the Subject. It is the answer to the question, “Who threw a stone?” The group of words threw a stone is the Predicate.
The Predicate contains the verb threw.
What did John throw?-A stone. Stone is the object which John threw. The noun stone is therefore called the Object.

In sentence 2, the noun horse is the Subject. It is the answer to the question, 'Who kicked the boy?”
The noun boy is the Object. It is the answer to the question, 'Whom did the horse kick?”
49. When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the Subject of a verb, it is said to be in the
Nominative Case.

Page 16
When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the Object of a verb, it is said to be in the Objective
(or Accusative) Case.
Note-To find the Nominative, put Who? or What? before the verb.
To find the Accusative put, Whom? or What? before the verb and its subject.
50. A noun which comes after a preposition is also said to be in the Accusative Case; as,
The book is in the desk.
The noun desk is in the Accusative Case, governed by the preposition in.
51. Read the following sentences:Hari broke the window. (Object)
The window was broken. (Subject)
It will be seen that Nouns in English have the same form for the Nominative and the
The Nominative generally comes before the verb, and the Accusative after the verb.
Hence they are distinguished by the order of words, or by the sense.
52. Compare:1. Rama gave a ball.
2. Rama gave Hari a ball.
In each of these sentences the noun ball is the Object of gave.
In the second sentence we are told that Hari was the person to whom Rama gave a ball.
The noun Hari is called the Indirect Object of the verb gave.
The noun ball, the ordinary Object, is called the Direct Object.
It will be noticed that the position of the Indirect Object is immediately after the verb and before the Direct Object.
Rama gave Hari a ball = Rama gave a ball to Hari.
Will you do me a favour? = Will you do a favour to me?
I bought Rama a ball = I bought a ball for Rama.
Fetch the boy a book = Fetch a book for the boy.
She made Ruth a new dress = She made a new dress for Ruth.
Get me a taxi = Get a taxi for me.
We see that the Indirect Object of a verb denotes the person to whom something is given, or for whom something is done.
53. Examine the sentence:-

This is Ram's umbrella.
Ram's umbrella = the umbrella belonging to Rama.
The form of the noun Rama is changed to Rama's to show ownership of possession. The
Noun Rama’s is therefore said to be in the possessive (or Genitive) Case

Page 17
The Possessive answers the question, ‘Whose?’
Whose umbrella? - Rama's.
54. The Possessive Case does not always denote possession. It is used to denote authorship, origin, kind, etc. as,
Shakespeare's plays = the plays written by Shakespeare.
A mother's love = the love felt by a mother.
The President's speech = the speech delivered by the President.
Mr. Aggarwal's house = the house where Mr. Aggarwal lives.
Ashok's school = the school where Ashok goes.
A children's playground = a playground for children.
A week's holiday = a holiday which lasts a week.

Formation of the Possessive Case
55. (1) When the noun is Singular, the Possessive Case is formed by adding ‘s to the noun; as,
The boy's book; the king's crown.
Note:- The letter s is omitted in a few words where too many hissing sounds would come together; as,
For conscience' sake; for goodness' sake;
For justice' sake; for Jesus' sake; Moses' laws.
(2) When the noun is Plural, and ends in s, the Possessive Case is formed by adding only an apostrophe; as,
Boys' school; girls' school; horses' tails.
(3) When the noun is Plural but does not end in s, the Possessive sign is formed by adding 's as,
Men's club; children's books.
56. When a noun or a title consists of several words, the Posses sive sign is attached only to the last word; as,
The King of Bhutan's visit.
The Prime Minister of Mauritius's speech.
57. When two nouns are in apposition, the possessive sign is put to the latter only; as,
That is Tagore the poet's house.
58. Also when two nouns are closely connected, the possessive is put to the latter; as,
Karim and Salim's bakery.
William and Mary's reign.

59. Each of two or more connected nouns implying separate possession must take the possessive sign; as,
Raja Rao's and R.K. Narayan's novels.
Goldsmith's and Cowper's poems.

Use of the Possessive Case
60. The Possessive Case is now used chiefly with the names of living thing; as,
The Governor’s bodyguard; the lion’s mane.

Page 18
So we must say:
The leg of the table [not, the table's leg].
The cover of the book [not, the book's cover].
The roof of the house [not, the house's roof).
61. But the Possessive is used with the names of personified (When n inanimate thing has ascribed to it the attributes of a person it is said to be personified. (See § 28)) objects; as,
India's heroes; Nature's laws; Fortune's favourite; at duty's call; at death's door.
62. The Possessive is also used with nouns denoting time, space or weight; as,
A day's march; a week's holiday; in a year's time; a stone's throw; a foot's length; a pound's weight.
63. The following phrases are also in common use:At his fingers' ends; for mercy's sake; to his heart's content; at his wit's end; a boat's crew.
64. The possessive of a proper name or of a noun denoting a trade, profession, or relationship may be used to denote a building or place of business (church, house, school, college, shop, hospital, the atre; etc.) as,
She has gone to the baker's ( = baker's shop).
Tonight I am dining at my uncle's ( = uncle's house).
Can you tell me the way to St .Paul's ( ='St. Paul's church)?
I attend the Town High School but my cousin attends St. Xavier's.
He was educated ai St. Joseph's.
65. When you are in doubt whether to use a noun in the possessive case or with the preposition of, remember that, as a general rule, the possessive case is used to denote possession or ownership. Thus it is better to say 'the defeat of the enemy' than 'the enemy's defeat', even though no doubt as to the meaning would arise.
Sometimes, however, a noun in the possessive case has a different meaning from a noun used with the preposition of; as,
‘The Prime Minister's reception in Delhi’ means a reception held by the
Prime Minister in Delhi.
‘The reception of the Prime Minister in Delhi’ means the manner in which the people welcomed him when he entered Delhi.
The phrase 'the love of a father' may mean either 'a father's love of his child' or 'a child's love of his father'.

Nouns in Apposition
66. Read the following sentence:-

Rama, our captain, made fifty runs.
We see that Rama and our captain are one and the same person. The noun captain follows the noun Rama simply to explain which Rama is referred to.

Page 19
When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it.
[Apposition means placing near.]
A noun in apposition is in the same case as the noun which it explains.
In the above sentence the noun captain is in apposition to the noun Rama, and is in the
Nominative Case (because Rama is in the Nominative Case.)
Further examples:1. Kabir, the great reformer, was a weaver.
2. Yesterday I met your uncle, the doctor.
3. Have you seen Ganguli, the artist's drawings?
In sentence 1, the noun in apposition is in the Nominative Case.
In sentence 2, the noun in apposition is in the Accusative Case. [Why?]
In sentence 3, the noun in apposition is in the Genitive Case. [Why?]

67. Read the following sentences :1. Sita is a clever girl. (Girl of what kind1?)
2. I don't like that boy, (Which boy ?)
3. He gave me five mangoes. (How many mangoes?)
4. There is little time for preparation. (How much time ?)
In sentence 1, ‘clever’ shows what kind of girl Sita is; or, in other words, ‘clever’ describes the girl Sita.
In sentence 2, ‘that’ points out which boy is meant.
In sentence 3, ‘five’ shows how many mangoes he gave me.
In sentence 4, ‘little’ shows how much time there is for preparation.
A word used with a noun to describe or point out, the person, animal, place or thing which the noun names, or to tell the number or quantity, is called an Adjective.
So we may define an Adjective as a word used with a noun to add something for its meaning. [Adjective means added to.]
68. Look at the following sentences:1. The lazy boy was punished.
2. The boy is lazy.

In sentence 1, the Adjective lazy is used along with the noun boy as an epithet or attribute. It is, therefore, said to be used Attributively.
In sentence 2, the Adjective lazy is used along with the verb is,

Page 20 and forms part of the Predicate. It is, therefore, said to be used Predicatively.
Some Adjectives can be used only Predicatively; as,
She is afraid of ghosts.
I am quite well.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Kinds of Adjectives
Adjectives may be divided into the following classes:69. Adjectives of Quality (or Descriptive Adjective) show the kind or quality of a person or thing; as,
Kolkata is a large city.
He is an honest man.
The foolish old crow tried to sing.
This is a Grammar of the English
(Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns (e.g., French wines, Turkish tobacco, Indian tea, etc.) are sometimes called Proper Adjectives. They are generally classed with Adjectives of Quality) language.
Adjectives of Quality answer the question : Of what kind ?
70. Adjectives of Quantity show how much of a thing is meant as,
I ate some rice.
He showed much patience.
He has little intelligence.
We have had enough exercise.
He has lost all his wealth.
You have no sense.
He did not eat any rice.
Take great care of your health.
He claimed his half share of the booty.
There has not been sufficient rain this year.
The whole sum was expended.
Adjectives of Quantity answer the question: How much?
71. Adjectives of Number (or Numeral Adjectives) show how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or thing stands; as,

The hand has five fingers.
Few cats like cold water.
There are no pictures in this book.
I have taught you many things.
All men must die.
Here are some ripe mangoes.
Most boys like cricket.
There are several mistakes in your exercise.
Sunday is the first day of the week

Page 21
72. Adjectives of Number (or Numeral Adjectives) are of three kinds:(i) Definite Numeral Adjectives, which denote an exact number; as,
One, two, three, etc. -- These are called Cardinals.
First, second, third, etc. -- These are called Ordinals.
[A Cardinal denotes how many, and an Ordinal the order of things in a series. It will be seen that Ordinals really do the work of Demonstrative Adjectives. See 74]
(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjectives, which do not denote an exact number; as,
All, no; many, few; some, any; certain, several, sundry.
(iii) Distributive Numeral Adjectives, which refer to each one of a number; as.,
Each boy must take his turn.
India expects every man to do his duty.
Every word of it is false.
Either pen will do.
On either side is a narrow lane.
Neither accusation is true.
73. The same Adjective may be classed as of Quantity or Number, according to its use.

Adjectives of Quantity -- Adjectives of Number
I ate some rice. -- Some boys are clever.
He has lost all his wealth. -- All men must die.
You have no sense. -- There are no pictures in this book.
He did not eat any rice. -- Are there any mango-trees in this garden?
I have enough sugar. -- There are not enough spoons.
74. Demonstrative Adjectives point out which person or thing is meant; as,
This boy is stronger than Hari.
That boy is industrious.
These mangoes are sour.
Those rascals must be punished.
Yonder fort once belonged to Shivaji.
Don't be in such a hurry.
I hate such things.
Demonstrative Adjectives answer the question: Which ?
[It will be noticed that this and that are used with Singular nouns and these and those with
Plural nouns.]
75. What, which and whose, when they are used with nouns toask questions, are called
Interrogative Adjectives; as,

What manner of man is he?
Which way shall we go?
Whose book is this?
[It will be seen that what is used in a general sense, and which in a selective sense.]

Page 22

Exercise in Grammar 6
Pick out all the Adjectives in the following sentences, and say to which class each of them belongs:1. The ship sustained heavy damage.
2. I have called several times.
3. Every dog has his day.
4. A live ass is better than a dead lion,
5. Every man has his duties.
6. Say the same thing twice over.
7. Several persons were present at the time,
8. He is a man of few words.
9. Neither party is quite in the right.
10. What time is if?
11. Which pen do you prefer?
12. The way was long, the wind was cold, the minstrel was infirm and old.
13. He comes here every day.
14. I have not seen him for several days.
15. There should not be much talk and little work.
16. Abdul won the second prize.
17. The child fell down from a great height.
18. He was absent last week.
19. He died a glorious death.
20. A small leak may sink a great ship.
21. Good wine needs no bush.
22. I like the little pedlar who has a crooked nose.
23. King Francis was a hearty King and loved a royal sport.
24. In the furrowed land the toilsome patient oxen stand.
25. My uncle lives in the next house.
26. Some dreams are like reality.
27. A cross child is not liked.
28. It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good.
76. In the following sentences the words own and very are used as Emphasizing
Adjectives:I saw it with my own eyes.
He was beaten at his own game.
Mind your own business.
He is his own master.
That is the very thing we want.
“When all else left my cause.
My very adversary took my part”.
77. The word what is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective; as.

What genius!
What folly!
What an idea!
What a blessing!
What a piece of work is man!
78. As already pointed out (§ 74) this and that are the only Adjectives which are inflected or changed in form to show number.
This girl sings.
These girls sing.
That boy plays.
Those boys play.
This, these indicate something near to the speaker.
That, those indicate more distant objects.

Formation of Adjectives
79. (i) Many Adjectives are formed from Nouns.

Noun -- Adjective
Boy -- boyish
Fool -- foolish
Dirt -- dirty
Storm -- stormy

Page 23
Care -- careful
-- pardonable
Play -- playful
Laugh -- laughable
Hope -- hopeful
Outrage -- outrageous
Venture -- venturesome
Courage -- courageous
Trouble -- troublesome
Glory -- glorious
Shame -- shameless
Envy -- envious
Sense -- senseless
Man -- manly
Silk -- silken
King -- kingly
Gold -- golden
Gift -- gifted
(ii) Some Adjectives are formed from Verbs.

Verb -- Adjective
Tire -- tireless
Cease -- ceaseless
Talk -- talkative
Move -- moveable
(iii) Some Adjectives are formed from other Adjectives.

Adjective -- Adjective
Tragic -- tragical
Black -- blackish
Whole -- wholesome
White -- whitish
Three -- threefold
Sick -- sickly

Exercise in Composition 7
Supply suitable Adjectives:1. The town stood a --- siege.
2. The --- prize was won by a Hindu.
3. The --- woman lives in a wretched hut.
4. This is a very --- matter.
5. The battle of Waterloo ended in a --- victory.
6. Suddenly there arose a --- storm.

7. It is a --- lie.
8. The --- tidings were a heavy blow to the old man.
9. Here is a rupee: pay the fare and keep the --- money.
10. His reading is of a very --- range.
11. The injured man wants --- advice.
12. You cannot have it --- ways.
13. India expects --- man to do his duty.
14. The --- bird catches the worm.
15. Have you any --- reason to give?
16. ---anxiety has undermined his health.
17. There were riots in --- places.
18. An --- man will not reason calmly.
19. He stands --- feet in his stockings.
20. Nelson won for himself --- fame.
21. I have no --- cash.
22. He always walks with a --- step.
23. --- errors are not easily corrected.
24. Every cloud has a --- lining.
25. He was a man of --- ambition.
26. He was listened to in --- silence.

Exercise in Composition 8
Form Adjectives from the following Nouns:
[Attach each Adjective to a suitable noun.]
Ease, pity, time, heaven, health, wealth, love, hill, need, green, room, cost.

Page 24 pain, doubt, wonder, peace, child, prince, mountain, ridicule, picture, labour, wood, pomp, artist, progress, slave, contempt, tempest, sense, quarrel,
thought, hope, friend.

Exercise in Composition 9
Use each of the following Adjectives in a sentence:
[Models.- A soft answer turneth away wrath.
His polite manners have endeared him to all.
Swimming is a healthy exercise.
A certain man fell among thieves.]
Happy, sad, industrious, lazy, big, small, soft, harsh, hard, polite, rude, wise, foolish, rich, poor, young, new, old, long, short, quick, slow, strong, weak, handsome, ugly, clever, dull, kind, cruel, healthy, dutiful, distant, certain.

Exercise in Composition 10
Use a suitable Adjective with each of the following Nouns :
[Models.- A violent storm.
A long siege.
A decisive victory.
A populous city.
A devoted husband.
Storm, siege, sleep, victory, advice, blow, silence, hands, water, servant, flower, city, artist, dealer, voice, husband, subject, child, king, dog.

Exercise in Composition 11
Use as many suitable Adjectives as you can with each of the following Nouns:
[Models. - A narrow street, a wide street, a crooked street, a dirty street A clean street.
A deliberate lie, a black lie, a white lie.] Fortune, man, news, storm, health, noveh progress, room, incident.

Exercise in Composition 12
Write down the Adjectives opposite in meaning to the following:Courageous, many, wild, hot, lean, heavy, costly, barren, beautiful, patient, honest, civilized, careful, strong, experienced, slow, friendly, cruel, soft.

80. Read these sentences:

1. Rama's mango is sweet.
2. Hari's mango is sweeter than Rama's.
3. Govind's mango is the sweetest of all.

Page 25
In sentence 1, the adjective sweet merely tells us that Rama's mango has the quality of sweetness, without saying how much of this quality it has.
In sentence 2, the adjective sweeter tells us that Hari's mango, compared with Rama's, has more of the quality of sweetness.
In sentence 3, the adjective sweetest tells us that of all these mangoes Govind's mango has the greatest amount or highest degree of the quality of sweetness.
We thus see that Adjectives change in form (sweet, sweeter, sweetest) to show comparison. They are called the three Degrees of Comparison.
The Adjective sweet is said to be in the Positive Degree.
The Adjective sweeter is said to be in the Comparative Degree.
The Adjective sweetest is said to be in the Superlative Degree.
The Positive Degree of an Adjective is the Adjective in its simple form. It is used to denote the mere existence of some quality of what we speak about. It is used when no comparison is made.
The Comparative Degree of an Adjective denotes a higher degree of the quality than the
Positive, and is used when two things (or sets of things) are compared; as,
This boy is stronger than that.
Which of these two pens is the better?
Apples are dearer than oranges.
The Superlative Degree of an Adjective denotes the highest degree of the quality, and is used when more than two things (or sets of things) are compared; as,
This boy is the strongest in the class.
Note 1:- There is another way in which we can compare things. Instead of saying 'Rama is stronger than Balu we can say 'Balu is less strong than Rama'. Instead of saying 'Hari is the laziest boy in the class', we can say 'Hari is the least industrious boy in the class7.
Note 2:- The Superlative with most is sometimes used where there is no idea of comparison, but merely a desire to indicate the possession of a quality in a very high degree; as,
This is most unfortunate.
It was a most eloquent speech.
Truly, a most ingenious device!
This usage has been called the Superlative of Eminence, or the Absolute Superlative.

Formation of Comparative and Superlative
81. Most Adjectives of one syllable, and some of more than one, form the Comparative by adding er and the Superlative by adding est to the positive.

Page 26

Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative
Sweet -- sweeter -- sweetest
Small -- smaller -- smallest
Tall -- taller -- tallest
Bold -- bolder -- boldest
Clever -- cleverer -- cleverest
Kind -- kinder -- kindest
Young -- younger -- youngest
Great -- greater -- greatest
When the Positive ends in e, only r and st are added.
Brave -- braver -- bravest
Fine -- finer -- finest
White -- whiter -- whitest
Large -- larger -- largest
Able -- abler -- ablest
Noble -- nobler -- noblest
Wise -- wiser -- wisest
When the Positive ends in j, preceded by a consonant, the y is changed into i before adding er and est.
Happy -- happier -- happiest
Easy -- easier -- easiest
Heavy -- heavier -- heaviest
Merry -- merrier -- merriest
Wealthy -- wealthier -- wealthiest
When the Positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel, this consonant is doubled before adding er and est.
Red -- redder -- reddest
Big -- bigger -- biggest
Hot -- hotter -- hottest
Thin -- thinner -- thinnest
Sad -- sadder -- saddest
Fat -- fatter -- fattest
82. Adjectives of more than two syllables form the Comparative and Superlative by putting more and most before the Positive.

Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative
Beautiful -- more beautiful -- most beautiful
Difficult -- more difficult -- most difficult
Industrious -- more industrious -- most industrious
Courageous -- more courageous -- most courageous

Two-syllable adjectives ending infill (e.g. useful), less (e.g. hope less), ing (e.g. boring) and ed (e.g. surprised) and many others (e.g. modern, recent, foolish, famous, certain) take more and most.
The following take either er and est or more and most. : polite simple feeble gentle narrow cruel common handsome pleasant stupid
She is politer/more polite than her sister.
He is the politest/most polite of them.
83. The-Comparative-in er is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person or thing. If we wish to say that the courage of Rama is greater than the courage of Balu, we say

Page 27
Rama is braver than Balu.
But if we wish to say that the courage of Rama is greater than his prudence, we must say,
Rama is more brave than prudent.
84. When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former; as,
Iron is more useful than any other metal.
If we say,
Iron is more useful than any metal, that is the same thing as saying 'Iron is more useful than iron' since iron is itself a metal.

Irregular Comparison
85. The following Adjectives are compared irregularly, that is, their Comparative and
Superlative are not formed from the Positive:-

Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative
Good, well -- better -- best
Bad, evil, ill -- worse -- worst
Little -- less, lesser -- least
Much -- more -- most (quantity)
Many -- more -- most (number)
Late -- later, latter -- latest, last
Old -- older, elder -- oldest, eldest
Far -- farther -- farthest
(Nigh) -- (nigher) -- (nighest), next
(Fore) -- (former) -- foremost, first
(Fore) -- further -- furthest
(In) -- inner -- inmost, innermost
(Up) -- upper -- upmost, uppermost
(Out) -- outer, (utter) -- utmost, uttermost
Note:- The forms nigh, nigher, nighest, fore and utter are outdated.

Exercise in Grammar 13
Compare the following Adjectives:Black, excellent, ill, gloomy, mad, safe, bad, unjust, gay, able, dry, timid, ugly, true, severe, exact, agreeable, difficult, little, few, numerous, merry.
86. The double forms of the Comparative and Superlative of the Adjectives given in § 85 are used in different ways.
Later, latter; latest, last. - Later and latest refer to time; latter and last refer to position.

He is later than I expected.
I have not heard the latest news.
The latter chapters are lacking in interest.
The last chapter is carelesslv written
Ours is the last house in the street.

Page 28
Elder, older; eldest, oldest.- Elder and eldest are used only of persons, not of animals or things; and are now confined to members of the same family. Elder is not used with than following. Older and oldest are used of both persons and things.
John is my elder brother.
Tom is my eldest son.
He is older than his sister.
Rama is the oldest boy in the eleven.
This is the oldest temple in Kolkata.
Farther, further.- Both farther and further are used to express distance. Further, not farther, is used to mean “additional”.
Kolkata is farther/further from the equator than Colombo.
After this he made no further remarks.
I must have a reply without further delay.
Nearest, next.- Nearest means the shortest distance away. Next refers to one of a sequence of things coming one after the other.
Mumbai is the seaport nearest to Europe.
Where is the nearest phone box?
Karim's shop is next to the Post Office.
My uncle lives in the next house.

Exercise in Composition 14
(a) Fill the blank spaces with 'later' or 'latter' :1. The majority accepted the --- proposal.
2. The --- part of the book shows signs of hurry.
3. At a --- date, he was placed in charge of the whole taluka.
4. I prefer the --- proposition to the former.
5. Is there no --- news than last week's?
(b) Fill the blank spaces with ‘older’ or ‘elder’ :1. I have an --- sister.
2. Rama is --- than Had by two years.
3. His --- brother is in the Indian Police Service.
4. She is the --- of the two sisters.
5. The nephew is --- than his uncle.
(c) Fill the blank spaces with 'oldest' and 'eldest' :1. Rustam is the --- of my uncle's five sons.
2. He is the --- member of the School Committee.
3. That is Antonio, the duke's --- son.
4. The --- mosque in the town is near the railway station.
5. Mr. Smith is the --- teacher in the school.

(d) Fill the blank spaces with 'farther' or 'further':1. I can't walk any ---.
2. No --- reasons were given.
3. He walked off without --- ceremony.
4. Until --- orders Mr. K.S. Dave will act as Headmaster of Nira High School.
5. To let, a bungalow at Ridge Road. For --- particulars apply to Box. No. 65.

Page 29
(e) Fill the blank spaces with 'latest' or 'last':1. The --- news from China is very disquieting.
2. The --- time I saw him, he was in high spirits.
3. To-day is the --- day for receiving lenders.
4. We expect to get the --- news in a few hours.
5. The --- Moghul Emperor came to an ignominious end.
(j) Fill the blank spaces with 'nearest' or 'next':1. This is the --- post office to my house.
2. The pillar-box is --- to my house.
3. The burglar was taken to the --- police station.
4. His house is --- to mine.
5. The --- railway station is two miles from here.
87. Certain English Comparatives have lost their comparative meaning and are used as
Positive. They cannot be followed by than. These are:Former, latter, elder, upper, inner, outer, utter.
Both the tiger and (he leopard are cats; the former animal is much larger than the latter.
The inner meaning of this letter is not clear.
The soldiers ran to defend the outer wall.
My elder brother is an engineer.
This man is an utter fool.
88. Certain Comparatives borrowed from Latin have no Positive or Superlative degree.
They all end in or, not er. They are twelve in all. Five of them have lost their
Comparative meaning, and are used as Positive Adjectives. These are:Interior, exterior, ulterior, major, minor.
The exterior wall of the house is made of stone; the interior walls are of wood.
His age is a matter of minor importance.
I have no ulterior motive in offering you help.
The other seven are used as Comparative Adjectives but are followed by to instead of than (See § 89)
89. The comparative degree is generally followed by than; but Comparative Adjectives ending in -or are followed by the preposition to; as,
Inferior, superior, prior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior.
Hari is inferior to Ram in intelligence.
Rama's intelligence is superior to Hari's.

His marriage was prior to his father's death.
He is junior to all his colleagues.
All his colleagues are senior to him.
90. Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot, strictly speaking, be compared; as,
Square, round, perfect, eternal, universal, unique. Strictly speaking, a thing cannot be more square, more round, more perfect. But we say, for instance,

Page 30

Exercise in Grammar 15
Point out the Adjectives and name the Degree of Comparison of each:1. The poor woman had seen happier days.
2. Do not talk such nonsense.
3. Make less noise.
4. That child has a slight cold.
5. A live ass is stranger than a dead lion.
6. Say the same thing twice over.
7. Soloman was one of the wisest men.
8. Hunger is the best sauce.
9. His simple word is as good as an oath.
10. There was not the slightest excuse for it.
11. My knife is sharper than yours.
12. Small people love to talk of great men.
13. Of two evils choose the less.
14. I hope the matter will be cleared up some day.
15. Your son makes no progress in his studies.
16. Open rebuke is better than secret love.
17. We never had such sport.
18. I have other things to attend lo.
19. Hari is the idlest boy in the class.
20. I promise you a fair hearing.
21. There is much to be said on both sides.
22. He gave the boys much wholesome advice.
23. He thinks he is wiser than his father.
24. No news is good news.
25. Bangladesh has the largest tea garden in the world.
26. Lead is heavier than any other metal.
27. I congratulated him on his good fortune.
28. He has many powerful friends.
29. The longest lane has a turning.

Exercise in Grammar 16
Make three columns, and write the following Adjectives in the Positive, Comparative and
Superlative Degrees:[Be careful to use the form of comparison that is pleasing to the ear.]
Shameful, clever, pretty, interesting, hopeful, honest, important, patient, rude, delightful, stupid, attractive, heavy, beautiful, fortunate, pleasant.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Composition 17
Supply the proper form (Comparative or Superlative) of the Adjective:[Note:-The Comparative and not the Superlative should be used to compare two things.]
1. Good - How is your brother to-day? Is he ---?
2. Hot - May is --- here than any other month.
3. Pretty - Her doll is --- than yours.
4. Idle - Hari is the --- boy in the class.
5. Sharp - Your knife is sharp, but mine is ---.
6. Dear - Honour is --- to him than life.
7. Rich - He is the --- man in our town.
8. Old - Mani is two years --- than Rati.
9. Large - Name the --- city in the world.
10. Good - He is the --- friend I have.

Page 31
11. Bad - He is the --- boy of the two.
12. Bad - Raman's work is bad, Hari's is ---, but Govind's is the ---.
13. Ferocious - There is no animal --- than the tiger.
14. Bad - The trade is in a --- condition to-day than it was a year ago.
15. Tall - He is the --- of the two.
16. Dry - Sind is the --- part of Pakistan.
17. Useful - Iron is --- than any other metal.
18. Useful - Iron is the --- of all metals.
19. Great - Who is the --- living poet ?
20. Nutritious - I think he requires a --- diet.
21. Proud - It was the --- moment of his life.
22. Good -The public is the --- judge.
23. Little - That is the --- price I can take.
24. Light - Silver is --- than gold.

Exercise in Composition 18
Supply appropriate Comparatives or Superlatives to each of the following:1. Prevention is --- than cure.
2. Akbar had a --- region than Babar.
3. Sachin Tendulkar is the --- batsman in the world.
4. The pen is --- than the sword.
5. The --- buildings are found in America.
6. The Pacific is --- than any other ocean.
7. Which of the two girls has the --- dress?
8. Honour is --- to him than life.
9. This pen is --- than the other.
10. Who is the --- boy in the class ?
11. The Eiffel Tower is --- than Qutab Minar.
12. My uncle is --- than my father.
13. The multi-millionaire Mr. Sen is the --- in this town.
14. Wordsworth is a --- poet than Cowper.
15. Balu is the --- bowler in the eleven.
16. The streets of Mumbai are --- than those of Ahmedabad.
17. Ooty is --- than Chennai.
18. The piano was knocked down to the --- bidder.
19. Mount Everest is the --- peak of the Himalayas.
20. He writes a --- hand than his brother.
21. He writes the --- hand in his class.
22. He is one of the --- speakers in Punjab.
23. Who was the --- general, Alexander or Caesar?
24. The --- fables are those attributed to j45sop.
25. The Arabian Nights is perhaps the --- story-book,
26. Shakespeare is --- than any other English poet.

27. Of all countries, China has the --- population in the world.
28. Clouds float in the sky because they are --- than the air.
29. There are two ways of doing the sum, but this one is the ---.
30. It is good to be clever, but it is --- to be industrious.
31. This is the --- of my two sons.
32. This is the --- that I can do?

Page 32

Exercise in Composition 19
Change the following sentences by using 'less' or 'least' without changing the meaning:1. The mango is sweeter than the pine-apple.
2. Silver is more plentiful than gold.
3. This is the most useless of all my books.
4. Wolfram is one of the rarest minerals.
5. The wild-apple is the sourest of all fruits.
6. Iron is more useful than copper.

Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison
91. As the following examples show, it is possible to change the Degree of Comparison of an Adjective in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence:Superlative - Lead is the heaviest of all metals.
Comparative - Lead is heavier than all other metals.
Comparative - Mahabaleshwar is cooler than Panchgani.
Positive - Panchgani is not so cool as Mahabaleshwar.
Positive - He is as wise as Solomon.
Comparative - Soloman was not wiser than he is.
Superlative - Shakuntala is the best drama in Sanskrit.
Comparative - Shakuntala is better than any other drama in Sanskrit.
Positive - No other drama in Sanskrit is so good as Shakuntala.
Superlative - Chennai is one of the biggest of Indian cities.
Comparative - Chennai is bigger than most other Indian cities.
Positive - Very few Indian cities are as big as Chennai.
Positive - Some poets are at least as great as Tennyson.
Comparative - Tennyson is not greater than some other poets, I Some poets are not less great than Tennyson.
Superlative - Tennyson is not the greatest of all poets.

Exercise in Composition 20
Change the Degree of Comparison, without changing the meaning:1. Malacca is the oldest town in Malaysia.
2. Soya beans are at least as nutritious as meat.
3. No other planet is so big as Jupiter.
4. Very few boys are as industrious as Latif.
5. He would sooner die than tell a lie.
6. India is the largest democracy in the world.
7. Shakespeare is greater than any other English poet.
8. Samudra Gupta was one of the greatest of Indian Kings.
9. The tiger is the most ferocious of all animals.
10. Australia is the largest island in the world.
11. Lead is heavier than any other metal.
12. Some people have more money than brains.

13. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.
14. The Marwaries are not less enterprising than any other community in India.
15. I know him quite as well as you do.
16. You do not know him better than I do.
17. No other man was as strong as Bhim.
18. Some boys are the list as industrious as Suresh.
19. Mount Everest is the highest peak of the Himalayas.

Page 33
20. Very few animals are as useful as the cow.
21. America is the richest country in the world.
22. It is easier to preach than to practise.
23. Iron is more useful than all the other metals.
24. Open rebuke is better than secret love.
25. The Sears Tower is the tallest building in the world.
26. Sir Surendranath was at least as great an orator as any other Indian.
27. Ooty is as healthy as any resort in India.
28. The pen is mightier than the sword.

92. Adjectives are often used as Nouns.
(1) As Plural Nouns denoting a class of persons; as,
The cautious (= cautious persons) are not always cowards.
The rich (= rich people) know not how the poor (= poor people) live. The wicked (= wicked people) flee when no man pursueth, but the righteous (= righteous people) are bold as a lion. Blessed are the meek.
(2) As Singular Nouns denoting some abstract quality; as,
The future (= futurity) is unknown to us.
He is a lover of the beautiful (= beauty in general)
(3) Some Adjectives actually become Nouns, and are hence used in both numbers:(a) Those derived from Proper Nouns; as, Australians, Canadians, Italians.(b) Some denoting persons; as, juniors, seniors, mortals, inferiors, superiors, nobles, criminals, savages, elders, minors.
(c) A few denoting things generally; as. secrets, totals, liquids, solids, valuables.
[Some adjectives arc used as Nouns only in (he plural; as, valuables, eatables]
(4) In certain phrases; as,
In general; in future; in short; in secret; before long; at present; for good; at best; through thick and thin; for better or for worse; in black and white; right or wrong; from bad to worse; the long and short.
In future I shall charge you for medical advice. In short, we know nothing.
The negotiations were carried on in secret.
I shall see you before long. Before long, he will be appointed to a higher post.
At present, he is in pecuniary difficulties.
I do not want any more at present.
He has left India for good.
At best we shall get no more dividend than five paise in a rupee.

At best he is a clever versifier : but a poet he is certainly not.
It must be said to his credit that he stood by his friend through thick and thin.
I must have your teams down in black and white.

Page 34
Right or wrong, my country.
I am afraid the young man is going from bad to worse.
The long and short of it is that I distrust you.

Nouns used as Adjectives
93. The use of Nouns as Adjectives is very common in English; as,
I met a little cottage girl.
He is always playing computer games.

94. An Adjective used attributively is generally placed immediately before the noun; as,
King Francis was a hearty king, and loved a royal sport.
Where are you going, my pretty maid, with your rosy cheeks and golden hair?
O Captain ! my Captain ! our fearful trip is done.
Observe the difference in meaning between:(i) a great nobleman's son, and
(ii) a nobleman's great son.
95. In poetry, however, the Adjective is frequently placed after the noun; as.
Children dear, was it yesterday.
We heard the sweet bells over the bay. man with sisters dear!
96. When several Adjectives are attached to one noun they are sometimes placed after it for emphasis; as
There dwelt a miller hale and bold.
The King, fearless and resolute, at once advanced.
Franklin had a great genius, original, sagacious, and inventive.
97. When some word or phrase is joined to the Adjective to explain its meaning, the
Adjective is placed after its noun; as,
He was a man fertile in resource.
A Sikh, taller than any of his comrades, rushed forward.
98. In certain phrases the Adjective always comes after the noun; as
Heir apparent, time immemorial, lord paramount, viceroy elect, letters, patent, knights temporal, notary public, body politic, God Almighty.

99. Some, any- To express quantity or degree some is used normally in affirmative sentences, any in negative or interrogative sentences.

Page 35
I will buy some mangoes.
I will not buy any mangoes.
Have you bought any mangoes?
But any can be used after if in affirmative sentences.
If you need any money I will help you.
Some is used in questions which are really offers/requests or which expect the answer
Will you have some ice-cream? (Offer)
Could you lend me some money? (Request)
Did you buy some clothes? (= I expect you did.)
100. Each, every.- Each and every are similar in meaning, but every is a stronger word than each; it means, 'each without exception'. Each is used in speaking of two or more things; every is used only in speaking of more than two. Each directs attention to the individuals forming any group, every to the total group. Each is used only when the number in the group is limited and definite; every when the number is indefinite.
Every seat was taken.
Five boys were seated on each bench.
Every one of these chairs is broken.
Leap year falls in every fourth year.
He came to see us every three days [i.e., once in every period of three days].
It rained every day during my holidays.
I was away ten days and it rained each day.
101. Little, a little, the little.- Note carefully the use of(1) little,
(2) a little,
(3) the little.
Little = not much (i.e., hardly any). Thus, the adjective little has a negative meaning.
There is little hope of his recovery, i.e., he is not likely to recover.
He showed little concern for his nephew.
He has little influence with his old followers.
He showed little mercy to the vanquished.
He has little appreciation of good poetry.
A little = some though not much. 'A little' has a positive meaningThere is a little hope of his recovery, i.e., he may possibly recover.
A little tact would have saved the situation.
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

The little = not much, but all there is.
The little information he had was not quite reliable.
The little knowledge of carpentry that he possessed stood him in good stead.
[The sentence means-The knowledge of carpentry he possessed was not much; but all that knowledge stood him in good stead.]

Page 36

Exercise in Composition 21
Insert 'a little', or 'the little' whichever is suitable:1. --- grain they had was damaged by sea water.
2. --- precaution is necessary in handling that machine.
3. --- care could have prevented the catastrophe.
4. --- influence that he has, he uses to the best advantage.
5. --- knowledge of French that he has is likely to be very useful to him on the Continent.
102. Few, a few, the few. Note carefully the use of :(1) few,
(2) a few,
(3) the few.
Few = not many, hardly any, 'Few' has a negative meaning.
Few persons can keep a secret.
Few people are so hopeless as drunkards.
Few towns in India have public libraries.
Few works of reference are so valuable as the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Few men are free from faults.
Few men reach the age of one hundred years.
Few Parsees write Gujarati correctly.
A few = some. 'A few' has a positive meaning, and is opposed to 'none'.
A few words spoken in earnest will convince him.
A few Parsees write Gujarati correctly.
The few = not many, but all there are.
The few remarks that he made were very suggestive.
[The sentence means- The remarks that he made were not many; but all those remarks were very suggestive.]
The few friends he has are all very poor.
The few clothes they had were all tattered and torn.

Exercise in Composition 22
Insert 'a few' or 'the few' whichever is suitable:1. --- public libraries that we have are not well equipped.
2. --- days that are left to him he spends in solitude and meditation.
3. Many Hindus study Sanskrit, but only --- Parsees study Avesta.
4. --- days' rest is all that is needed.
5. Have you got --- potatoes left?
6. It is a question of spending --- rupees.
7. --- hints on essay-writing are quite to the point.

8. --- months that he spent in Ooty did him a lot of good.
9. When I met him --- years after, he looked old and haggard.
10. --- short poems in the volume show signs of genius.
11. In --- words he expressed his gratitude to his friends.
12. --- Americans have their offices in Kolkata.
13. --- trinkets she has are not worth much.
14. --- poems he has written are all of great excellence.

Page 37

103. The words a or an and the are called Articles. They come before nouns.
104. There are two Articles - a (or an) and the.
105. A or an is called the Indefinite Article, because it usually leaves indefinite the person or thing spoken of; as, A doctor; that is, any doctor.
106. The is called the Definite Article, because it normally points out some particular person or thing; as,
He saw the doctor; meaning some particular doctor. The indefinite article is used before singular countable nouns, e.g.
A book, art orange, a girl
The definite article is used before singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns, e.g., The book, the books, the milk

A or An
107. The choice between a and an is determined by sound. Before a word beginning with a vowel sound an is used; as,
An ass, an enemy, an ink-pad, an orange, an umbrella, an hour, an honest man. An heir.
It will be noticed that the words hour, honest, heir begin with a vowel sound, as the initial consonant h is not pronounced,
108. Before a word beginning with a consonant sound a is used; as,
A boy, a reindeer, a woman, a yard, a horse, a hole, also a university,, a union, a
European, a ewe, a unicorn, a useful article. because these words (university, union, etc.) begin with a consonant sound, that of yu.
Similarly we say,
A one-rupee note, such a one, a one-eyed man. because one begins with the consonant sound of w.
109. Some native speakers use an before words beginning with h if the first syllable is not stressed An hotel (More common: a hotel) an historical novel (More common: a historical novel)

Use of the Definite Article
110. The Definite Article the is used(1) When we talk about a particular person or thing, or one already referred to (that is, when it is clear from the context which one already referred to (that is, when it is clear from the constant which one we mean); as,

Page 38
The book you want is out of print. (Which book? The one you want.)
Let's go to the park. (= the park in this town)
The girl cried, (the girl = the girl already talked about)
(2) When a singular noun is meant to represent a whole class; as,
The cow is a useful animal.
[Or we may say, "Cows are useful animals."]
The horse is a noble animal.
The cat loves comfort.
The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
The banyan is a kind of fig tree.
[Do not say, "a kind of a fig tree". This is a common error.]
The two nouns man and woman can be used in a general sense without either article.
Man is the only animal that uses fire.
Woman is man's mate.
But in present-day English a man and a woman (or men and women) are more usual.
A woman is more sensitive than a man.
(3) Before some proper names, viz., these kinds of place-names:
(a) oceans and seas, e.g. the Pacific, the black Sea
(b) rivers, e.g. the Ganga, the Nile
(c) canals, e.g. the Suez Canal
(d) deserts, e.g. the Sahara
(e) groups of islands, e.g. the West Indies
(f) mountain-ranges, e.g. the Himalayas, the Alps
(g) a very few names of countries, which include words like republic and kingdom (e.g. the Irish Republic, the United Kingdom) also: the Ukraine, the Netherlands (and its seat of government the Hague)
(4) Before the names of certain books; as,
The Vedas, the Puranas, the Iliad, the Ramayana.
But we sayHomer's Iliad, Valmiki's Ramayana.
(5) Before names of things unique of their kind; as,
The sun, the sky, the ocean, the sea, the earth.
[Note-Sometimes the is placed before aCommon noun to give it the meaning of an
Abstract noun; as, At last the wamor(the warlike or martial spirit) in him was thoroughly aroused.] (6) Before a Proper noun when it is qualified by an adjective or a defining adjectival clause; as,
The great Caesar : the immortal Shakespeare.
The Mr. Roy whom you met last night is my uncle.
(7) With Superlatives; as,
The darkest cloud has a silver lining.
This is the best book of elementary chemistry.
(8) With ordinals; as,
He was the first man to arrive;l

Page 39
(9) Before musical instruments; as,
He can play the flute.
(10) Before an adjective when the noun is understood; as,
The poor are always with us.
(11) Before a noun (with emphasis) to give the force of a Super lative; as,
The Verb is the word (= the chief word) in a sentence.
(12) As an Adverb with Comparatives; as,
The more the merrier.
(= by how much more, by so much the merrier)
The more they get, the more they want.

Use of the Indefinite Article
111. The Indefinite Article is used(1) In its original numerical sense of one; as,
Twelve inches make a foot.
Not a word was said.
A word to the wise is sufficient.
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
(2) In the vague sense of a certain; as,
A Kishore Kumar (= a certain person named Kishore Kumar) is suspected by the police.
One evening a beggar came to my door.
(3) In the sense of any, to single out an individual as the representative of a class; as,
A pupil should obey his teacher.
A cow is a useful animal.
(4) To make a common noun of a proper noun; as,
A Daniel comes to judgement! (A Daniel = a very wise man)

Omission of the Article
112. The Article is omitted(1) Before names of substances and abstract nouns (i.e. uncountable nouns) used in a general sense; as,
Sugar is bad for your teeth.
Gold is a precious metal.
Wisdom is the gift of heaven.
Honesty is the best policy.
Virtue is its own reward.

Note:- Uncountable nouns take the when used in a particular sense (especially when qualified by an adjective or adjectival phrase or clause); as,
Would you pass me the sugar? (= the sugar on the table)
The wisdom of Solomon is great.
I can't forget the kindness with which he treated me.
(2) Before plural countable nouns used in a general sense; as,
Children like chocolates.
Computers are used in many offices.

Page 40
Note that such nouns take the when used with a particular meaning; as,
Where arc the children? (= our children)
(3) Before most proper nouns (except those referred to earlier), namely, names of people
(e.g. Gopal, Rahim), names of continents, countries, cities, etc. (e.g. Europe, Pakistan,
Nagpur), names of individual mountains (e.g. Mount Everest), individual islands, lakes, hills, etc.
(4) Before names of meals (used in a general sense); as,
What time do you have lunch?
Dinner is ready.
Note: We use a when there is an adjective before breakfast, lunch, dinner, etc. We use the when we specify.
I had a late lunch today.
The dinner we had at the Tourist Hotel was very nice
(5) Before languages; as,
We are studying English.
They speak Punjabi at home.
(6) Before school, college, university, church, bed, hospital, prison, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose; as,
I learnt French at school.
We go to church on Sundays.
He stays in bed till nine every morning.
My uncle is still in hospital.
Note- The is used with these words when we refer to them as a definite place, building or object rather than to the normal activity that goes on there; as,
The school is very near my home.
I met him at the church.
The bed is broken.
I went to the hospital to see my uncle.
(7) Before names of relations, like father, mother, aunt, uncle, and also cook and nurse, meaning 'our cook', 'our nurse', as,
Father has returned.
Aunt wants you to see her.
Cook has given notice.

(8) Before predicative nouns denoting a unique position, i.e., a position that is normally held at one time by one person only; as,
He was elected chairman of the Board.
Mr. Banerji became Principal of the College in 1995.
(9) In certain phrases consisting of a transitive verb followed by its object; as, to catch fire, to take breath, to give battle, to cast anchor, to send word, to bring word, to give ear, to lay siege, to set sail, to lose heart, to set foot, to leave home, to strike root, to take offence.
A work forms S.CHANDA & COMPANY LTD.

Page 41
(10) In certain phrases consisting of a preposition followed by its object; as, at home, in hand, in debt, by day, by night, at daybreak, at sunrise, at noon, at sunset, at night, at anchor, at sight, on demand, at interest, on earth, by land, by water, by river, by train, by steamer, by name, on horseback, on foot, on deck, in jest, at dinner, at ease, under ground, above ground.

Exercise in Composition 23
Complete the following sentences by filling in a or an or the as may be suitable:1. Copper is --- useful metal.
2. He is not --- honorable man.
3. --- able man has not always a distinguished look.
4. --- reindeer is a native of Norway.
5. Honest men speak --- truth.
6. Rustum is ---.
7. Do you see --- blue sky.
8. Varanasi is --- holy city.
9. Aladdin had --- wonderful lamp.
10. The world is --- happy place.
11. He returned after --- hour.
12. --- school will shortly close for the Puja holidays.
13. --- sun shines brightly.
14. I first met him --- year ago.
15. Yesterday --- European called at my office.
16. Sanskrit is --- difficult language.
17. --- Ganga is --- sacred river.
18. --- lion is --- king of beasts.
19. You are --- fool to say that.
20. French is --- easy language.
21. Who is --- girl sitting there?
22. Which is --- longest river in India?
23. Rama has come without --- umbrella.
24. Mumbai is --- very dear place to live in.
25. She is --- untidy girl.
26. The children found --- egg in the nest.
27. I bought horse, ox, and --- buffalo.
28. If you see him, give him --- message.
29. English is language of --- people of England.
30. The guide knows --- way.
31. Sri Lanka is --- island.
32. Let us discuss --- matter seriously.
33. John got --- best present.
34. Man, thou art --- animal.

35. India is one of --- most industrial countries in Asia.
36. He looks as stupid as --- owl.
37. He is --- honour to this profession.

Exercise in Composition 24
Insert Articles where necessary:1. While there is life there is hope.
2. Her knowledge of medicine had been acquired under aged Jewess.
3. Sun rises in east.
4. The brave soldier lost arm in battle.
5. The doctor says it is hopeless case. .
6. I like to live in open air.
7. Get pound of sugar from nearest grocer.
8. Set back clock; it is hour too fast.
9. The poor woman has no rupee.
10. You must take care.
11. Eskimos make houses of snow.
12. Where did you buy umbrella?
13. Have you never seen elephant?
14. Draw map of India.
15. Do not look gift horse in mouth.
16. Have you told him about accident?
17. Tagore was great poet.
18. How blue sky looks!
19. Who wishes to take walk with me?
20. What beautiful scene this is!
21. The musician was old Mussalman.
22.The river was spanned by iron bridge.
23. Moon did not rise till after ten.

Page 42
24. Like true sportsmen they would give enemy fair play.
25. They never fail who die in great cause.
26. There is nothing like staying at home for comfort.
27. He likes to picture himself as original thinker.
28. It is never thankful office to offer advice.
29. Umbrella is of no avail against thunderstorm.
30. I have not seen him since he was child.
31. For Brutus is honourable man.
32. Neil Armstrong was first man to walk on moon.
33. Man has no more right to say uncivil thing than to act one.
34. We started late in afternoon.
35. It is a strange thing how little, in general, people know about sky.
36. Scheme failed for want of support.
37. Tiger, animal equal to lion in size, is native of Asia.
38. Time makes worst enemies friends.
39. My favourite flower is rose.
40. Time we live ought not to be computed by number of years, but by use that has been made of them.
41. Mumbai is largest cotton textile centre in country.
42. Men are too often led by astrayed- prejudice.
43. Only best quality is sold by us.
44. What kind of bird is that ?
45. Wild animals suffer when kept in captivity.
46. May we have pleasure of your company?
47. It was proudest moment of my life.
48. Andamans are group of islands in Bay of Bengal.
49. He started school when he was six years old.
50. He neglects attending church, though church is only few yards from his house.
51. March is third month of year.
52. Dr. Arnold was headmaster of Rugby.
53. Man cannot live by bread alone.
54. When will father be back?
55. Appenines are in Italy.

Repetition of the Article
113. If I sayI have a black and white dog.
I mean a dog that is partly black and partly white.
But if I sayI have a black and a white dog,
I mean two dogs, one black and the other white.

Hence when two or more adjectives qualify the same noun, the Article is used before the first adjective only; but when they qualify different nouns, expressed or understood, the
Article is normally used before each adjective.
114. Compare:1. The Secretary and Treasurer is absent.
2. The Secretary and the Treasurer are absent.
The first sentence clearly indicates that the posts of Secretary and Treasurer are held by one person.
The repetition of the article in the second sentence indicates that the two posts are held by two different persons.
Hence we see that when two or more connected nouns refer to the same person or thing, the article is ordinarily used before the

Page 43 first only; but when two or more connected nouns refer to different persons or things, the
Article is used before each.
Also examine the following sentences :Sir Surendranath was a great orator and statesman.
There are on the committee among others a great economist and a great lawyer.
115. We may either sayThe third and the fourth chapter.
[Or] The third and fourth chapters.
116. In expressing a comparison, if two nouns refer to the same person or thing, the
Article is used before the first noun only; as,
He is a better mechanic than clerk.
He is a better poet than novelist.
He is a better thinker than debater.
He would make a better engineer than lawyer.
But if they refer to different persons or things, the Article must be used with each noun; as, He is a better mechanic than a clerk (would make).
He would make a better statesman than a philosopher (would make).

117. We may sayHari is absent, because Hari is ill.
But it is better to avoid the repetition of the Noun Hari, and sayHari is absent, because he is ill.
A word that is thus used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun {Pronoun means for-anoun.]
Def.- A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun.
118. Read the following sentences :I am young.
We are young.
You are young.
They are young.
He (she, it) is young.
I, we, you, he, (she, it), they are called Personal Pronouns because they stand for the three persons. (i) the person speaking.

(ii) the person spoken to, and
(iii) the person spoken of.
The Pronouns I and we, which denote the person or persons speak-mg, are said to be
Personal Pronouns of the First Person
The Pronoun you, which denotes the person or persons spoken to, is said to be a Personal
Pronoun of the Second Person.
You is used both in the singular and plural

Page 44
The pronouns he (she) and they, which denote the person or persons spoken of, are said to be Personal Pronouns of the Third Person. It, although it denotes the thing spoken of, is also called a Personal Pronoun of the Third Person. [The Personal Pronouns of the
Third Person are, strictly speaking, Demonstrative Pronouns.]

Forms of the Personal Pronouns
119. The following are the different forms of the Personal Pronouns :FIRST PERSON (Masculine or Feminine)
Nominative -- I -- We
Possessive -- my, mine -- our, ours
Accusative -- me -- us
SECOND PERSON (Masculine or Feminine)
Nominative -- You
Possessive -- Your, Yours
Accusative -- You
Masculine -- Feminine -- Neuter -- All Genders
Nominative -- he -- she -- it -- they
Possessive -- his -- her, hers -- its -- their, theirs
Accusative -- him -- her -- it -- them
Note 1.- It will be seen that the Possessive Cases of most of the Personal Pronouns have two forms. Of these the forms my, our, your, her, their, are called Possessive Adjectives because they are used with nouns and do the work of Adjectives; as,
This is my book.
Those are your books.
That is her book.
Possessive Adjectives are somethings called Pronominal Adjectives, as they are formed from Pronouns.
Note 2.- The word his is used both as an Adjective and as a Pronoun; as
This is his book. (Possessive Adjective)
This book is his. (Possessive Pronoun)
In the following sentences the words in italics are Possessive Pronouns:This book is mine.
Those books are yours.

That book is hers.
That idea of yours is excellent.
120. The pronoun of the Third Person has three Genders :Masculine -- he
Feminine -- she
Neuter -- it
121. It- The Pronoun it is used(1) For things without life; as,
Here is your book; take it away.
(2) For animals, unless we clearly wish to speak of them as male and female; as,
He loves his dog and cannot do without it. The horse fell and broke its leg.
(3) For a young child, unless we clearly wish to refer to the sex; as,
When I saw the child it was crying.
That baby has torn its clothes.
(4) To refer to some statement going before; as,
He is telling what is not true; as he knows it.
He deserved his punishment; as he knew it.
(5) As a provisional and temporary subject before the verb to be when the real subject follows; as,
It is easy to find fault. [To find fault is easy.]
It is doubtful whether he will come.
It is certain that you are wrong.
(6) To give emphasis to the noun or pronoun following; as,
It was you who began the quarrel.
It was I who first protested.
It was at Versailles that the treaty was made.
It is a silly fish that is caught twice with the same bail.
It is an ill wind [hat blows nobody good.
(7) As an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb; as,
It rains.
It snows.
It thunders.
The Pronoun it here seems to stand for no noun whatever, though this can be readily supplied from the verb. Thus, 'It rains' means 'The rain rains.'
It so used is called an Impersonal Pronoun. So also the verb rains is here called an
Impersonal Verb.

(8) In speaking of the weather or the time; as,
It is fine.
It is winter.
It is ten o'clock.
122. Since a Personal Pronoun is used instead of a Noun, it must be of the same number, gender and person as the Noun for which it stands; as,
Rama is a kind boy. He has lent his bicycle lo Govind.
Sita helps her mother in household work. She also does her lesson.
Those beggars are idle. They refuse to work for their living.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 46
123. When a Pronoun (It will be noted that we use the word 'Pronoun' in § 123-128 without observing the distinction pointed out in § 119 between the forms, my, they, her, our, your, their (which are called Possessive Adjectives) and the forms mine, thine, hers, ours, yours, theirs (which are called Possessive Pronouns)) stands for a Collective Noun, it must be in the Singular Number (and Neuter Gender) if the Collective Noun is viewed as a whole; as,
The army had to suffer terrible privations in its march.
The fleet will reach its destination in a week.
The crew mutinied and murdered its officers.
After a few minutes the jury gave its verdict.
If the Collective Noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the
Pronoun standing for it must be of the Plural Number; as,
The jury were divided in their opinions.
The committee decided the matter without leaving their seats.
124. When two or more Singular Nouns are joined by and, the Pronoun used for them must be Plural; as,
Rama and Had work hard. They are praised by their teacher.
Both Sita and Savitri are tired; they have gone home.
But when two Singular Nouns joined by and refer to the same person or thing, the
Pronoun used must of course be Singular; as,
The Secretary and Treasurer is negligent of his duty.
125. When two Singular Nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every, the Pronoun must be Singular; as,
Every soldier and every sailor was in his place.
126. When two or more Singular Nouns are joined by or or either...or, neither... nor, the
Pronoun is generally Singular; as,
Rama or Hari must lend his hand.
Either Sita or Amina forgot to take her parasol.
Neither Abdul nor Karim has done his lesson.
127. When a Plural Noun and a Singular Noun are joined by or or nor, the Pronoun must be in the Plural; as
Either the manager or his assistants failed in their duty.
128. When a pronoun refers to more than one noun or pronoun of different persons, it must be of the first person plural in preference to the third; as,
You and I have done our duty.
You and Hari have idled away your time.
129. Good manners require that we should say-

'You and I' not 'I and you'.
'You and he' not 'he and you'.
'Hari and I' not 'I and Hari'.
'He and F not T and he'.
You and I must work together.
You and he must mend your ways.

Page 47.
Hari and I are old school friends.
He and I can never pull on together.
130. Each of the personal pronouns, I, he, she, we, they, has a different form for the accusative case, namely, me, him, her, us, them. It is a common mistake to use / for me, when the pronoun is connected by a conjunction (and, or) with some other word in the accusative case.
Study the following correct sentences :The presents are for you and me (Not, I)
My uncle asked my brother and me to dinner..
131. Note that but is a preposition in the following sentence:
Nobody will help you but me. (not: I) Take care to use the accusative form after but in such cases.

Exercise in Grammar 25
In the following sentences point out the Pronouns and say for what each stands:1. Alice was not a bit hurt, and she jumped up on to her feet in a moment.
2. There were doors all round the hall, but they were all locked.
3. Alice opened the door and found that it led into a small passage.
4. “I wish I hadn't cried so much,” said Alice.
5. “You are not attending”, said the Mouse to Alice severely. “What are you thinking of?” 6. “Come back!” the Caterpillar called after her. Alice turned and came back again.
7. Hari brought his book and laid it on the table.
8. Karim has lost his dog and cannot find it.
9. Suresh is at the head of his class, for he studies hard.
10. Rama, you are a lazy boy.
11. The camel is a beast of burden. It is used to carry goods across the desert.
12. The female lion is called a lioness. She has no mane.
13. The horse fell down and broke its leg.
14. Birds build their nests in trees.
15. If the thief is caught, he will be punished.
16. Train up a child in the way he should go.
17. And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man.

Exercise in Composition 26
In the following sentences use Pronouns in place of nouns wherever you can :1. Rama had taken his watch out of his pocket, and was looking at the watch uneasily, shaking the watch every now and then, and holding the watch to his ear.
2. The boys went into the garden, where the boys saw a snake.

3. Very soon the Rabbit noticed Alice as Alice went hunting about, and called out to Alice in an angry tone.

Page 48

Exercise in Composition 27
Write the correct form of pronoun in the following :1. We scored as many goals as ---. (They, them)
2. Rama and --- were present. (I, me)
3. Can you sing as well as ---? (They, them)
4. Let you and --- try what we can do. (I, me)
5. Wait for Hari and ---. (I, me)
6. You know that as well as ---. (I, me)
7. It was --- that gave you the alarm. (I, me)
8. Between you and ---, I do not believe him. (I, me)
9. We are not so poor as --- . (They, them)
10. Rama is as old as ---. (I, me)
11. He is known to my brother and ---. (I, me)
12. He is as good as ---. (I, am)
13. Nobody but --- was present, (He, him)
14. He and --- were great friends. (I, me)
15. Whom can I trust, if not ---? (He, him)
16. Let --- who can answer this question. (He, him)
17. There isn't much difference between you and ---. (He, him)
18. None so blind as --- that will not see. (They, them)
19. It isn't for such as --- to dictate to us. (They, them)

132. When -self is added to my, your, him, her, it, and -selves to our, your, them, we get what are called Compound Personal Pronouns.
They are called Reflexive Pronouns when the action done by the subject turns back
(reflects) upon the subject; as,
I hurt myself.
We hurt ourselves.
You will hurt yourself.
You hurt yourselves.
He hurt himself.
She hurt herself.
They hurt themselves.
The horse hurt itself.
It will be noticed that each of these Reflexive Pronouns is used as the Object of a verb, and refers to the same person or thing as that denoted by the Subject of the verb.
133. Sometimes, in older English, especially in poetry, a simple pronoun was used reflexively; as;

Now I lay me down to sleep.
134. The word self is sometimes used as a Noun; as,
To thine own self be true.
He cares for nothing but self.
He thinks much for self.

Page 49

Emphatic Pronouns
135. Now look at the following sentences:I will do it myself.
I myself saw him do it.
We will see to it ourselves.
You yourself can best explain.
He himself said so.
She herself says so.
It was told so by the teacher himself.
We saw the Prime Minister himself.
The town itself is not very large.
They themselves admitted their guilt.
It will be seen that here Compound Personal Pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis, and are therefore called Emphatic Pronouns.

Exercise in Grammar 28
Tell which Pronouns in the following sentences are Reflexive and which Emphatic:[Emphatic Pronouns are also called Emphasizing Pronouns.]
1. I will go myself.
2. Rama has hurt himself.
3. We often deceive ourselves.
4. I myself heard the remark.
5. You express yourself very imperfectly.
6. I wash myself when I get up.
7. The boys hid themselves.
8. They have got themselves into a mess.
9. Boadicea poisoned herself.
10. They loved themselves so much that they thought of no one else.
11. The prisoner hanged himself.
12. The poor widow poisoned herself.
13. They enjoyed themselves.
14. Don't you deceive yourself?
15. I myself heard the remark.
16. He set himself a hard task.
17. We exerted ourselves.
18. The dog choked itself.
19. They gave themselves a lot of trouble.
20. We seldom see ourselves as others see us.
21. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
22. He that wrongs his friend wrongs himself more.
23. Some people are always talking about themselves.

24. Xerxes himself was the last to cross the Hellespont,
25. He has landed himself in difficulties.
26. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
27. Quit yourselves like men.
28. Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased.
29. Sinai itself trembled at the presence of, God.
30. I cannot bring myself to do it.
31. Pray do not inconvenience yourself.
32. I was sitting by myself.
33. And sometimes I do hate myself.

136. Consider the following sentences:This is a present from my uncle.

Page 50
These are merely excuses,
Both cars are good; but this is better than that
Mumbai mangoes are better than those of Bangalore.
Make haste, that's a good boy. [Here that - one who makes haste.]
There is no period in ancient-Indian history so glorious as that of the Guptas. [Do not write, “as the Guptas”]
My views are quite in accordance with those of the University Commission.
I may have offended, but such was not my intention.
He was the representative of the King, and as such (= the representative of the King) they honoured him.
The stranger is welcomed as such.
That is the Red Fort.
It will be noticed that the Pronouns in italics are used to point out the objects to which they refer, and are, therefore, called Demonstrative Pronouns. (Latin demonstrare, to show clearly).
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.
137. This, that, etc. are (Demonstrative) Adjectives when they are used with nouns; as,
This book is mine.
That pen is yours.
These books are mine.
Those pens are yours.
What was that noise?
This horse is better than that horse.,
All such people ought to be avoided.
138. This refers to what is close at hand, and nearest to the thought or person of the speaker; that refers to what is 'over there', farther] away, and more remote.
This is better than that.
139. That, with its plural those, is used to avoid the repetition of a preceding Noun; as,
The climate of Belgaum is like that of Pune.
The streets of this city are worse than those of Ahmedabad.
Our soldiers were better drilled than those of enemies.
The rivers of America are larger than those of Europe.
140. When two things which have been already mentioned are referred to, this refers to the thing last mentioned, that to the thing first mentioned; as,
Virtue and vice offer themselves for your choice; this (i.e., vice) leads to misery, that
(i.e., virtue) to happiness,
Alcohol and tobacco are both injurious; this perhaps, less than that.

Indefinite Pronouns
141. Consider the following sentences:
One hardly knows what to do.

Page 51
One does not like to say so, but it is only too true.
One cannot be too careful of one's (not, his) good name.
One must not boast of one's own success.
One must use one's best efforts if one wishes to succeed.
One must not praise one's self.
None of his poems are well known.
None but fools have ever believed it.
[None is a shortened form of not one; yet it is commonly used with plural verbs].
They (= people in general) say he has lost heavily.
They say that one of the local banks has stopped payment. [They say = it is said by some persons.] All were drowned.
Some are born great.
Some say he is a sharper.
Somebody has stolen my watch.
Nobody was there to rescue the child.
Few escaped unhurt.
Many of them were Gurkhas.
We did not see any of them again.
One or other of us will be there.
Do good to others.
Did you ask anybody to come?
What is everybody's business is nobody's business.
His words are in everyone's mouth.
All these Pronouns in italics refer to persons or things in a general way, but do not refer to any person or thing in particular. They are, therefore, called Indefinite Pronouns.
142. Most of these words may also be used as Adjectives.
• I will take you there one day.
• Any fool can do that.
• He is a man of few words.
• Some milk was spilt.
143. In referring to anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each etc., the pronoun he or she is used according to the context; as,
I shall be glad to help everyone of my boys in his studies.
Note that today it is more usual to use a plural pronoun (they/ them/their) except in very formal English.
Anybody can do it if they try.
Each of them had their share.

Distributive Pronouns
144. Consider the following sentences:• Each of the boys gets a prize.
• Each took it in turn.
• Either of these roads leads to the railway station.
• Either of you can go.
• Neither of the accusations is true.
Each, either, neither are called Distributive Pronouns because they refer to persons or things one at a time. For this reason they are always singular and as such followed by the verb in the singular.

Page 52
Note:- Each is used to denote every one of a number of persons or things taken singly.

Either means the one or the other of two.
Neither means not the one nor the other of two. It is the negative of either.

Hence either and neither should be used only in speaking of two persons or things. When more than two are spoken of, any, no one, none should be used.
145. The position of the pronoun each should be noticed. It may have three positions.
1. Each of the men received a reward.
Each of these horses cost five thousand rupees.
I bought each of these mangoes for three rupees.
2. These men received each a reward.
These horses cost each five thousand rupees.
3. These horses cost five thousand rupees each.
I bought these mangoes for three rupees each.
The third order is usual after a numeral. We do not say, 'The men received a reward each'; but we say, 'The men received five hundred rupees each'.
146. In the following sentences, each, either and neither are used as Adjectives; they are followed by nouns of the singular number:Each boy took his turn. Neither accusation is true.
At either end was a marble statue. (Here either = each or both.)
147. Study the following sentences :1. The two men hate each other.
2. They cheated one another.
If we analyse them, they mean1. The two men hate, each hates the other.
2. They cheated, one cheated another.
Each and one really belong to the subject, other and another are objects. But each other and one another have become in practice compound pronouns (called Reciprocal
Pronouns) and are rarely separated even by a preposition. Thus we say:
The brothers quarrelled with each other.
They all gave evidence against one another.

Note - The one-time rule that each other should be used in speaking of two persons or things, one another in speaking of more than two is no longer strictly observed. 'The three brothers quarrelled with each other' is now accepted as idiomatic.

148. Read the following pairs of sentences:
1. I met Hari. Hari had just returned.
2. I have found the pen. I lost the pen.
3. Here is the book. You lent me the book.

Page 53
Let us now combine each of the above pairs into one sentence. Thus :1. I met Hari who had just returned.
2. I have found the pen which I lost.
3. Here is the book that you lent me.
Now let us examine the work done by each of the words, who, which and that.
The word who is used instead of the noun Hari. It, therefore, does the work of a Pronoun.
The word who joins or connects two statements. It, therefore, does the work of a
The word who, therefore, does double work-the work of a Pronoun and also the work of a
We might, therefore, call it a Conjunctive Pronoun.
It is, however, called a Relative Pronoun because it refers or relates (Le., carries us back) to some noun going before (here, the noun Hari), which is called its Antecedent.
Let the pupil show why which and that are also Relative Pronouns in the second and third sentences. •

What is the Antecedent of which in the second sentence?
What is the Antecedent of that in the third sentence?

Forms of the Relative Pronouns
149. The Relative Pronoun who has different forms for Accusative and Genitive.
--- Singular and Plural
Nominative -- who
Genitive -- whose
Accusative -- whom/who (who replaces whom in informal English.)

This is the boy (or girl) who works hard.
This is the boy (or girl) whose exercise is done well.
This is the boy (or girl) whom / who all praise.
These are the boys (or girls) who work hard.
These are the boys (or giris) whose exercises are done well.
These are the boys (or girls) whom / who all praise.

It will be noticed that the forms are the same for singular and plural, masculine and feminine. 150. The Relative Pronoun which has the same form for the Nominative and Accusative cases. •

This is the house which belongs to my uncle.
The house which my uncle built cost him Rs. 3,50,000

The Relative Pronoun which has no Genitive Case, but whose is used as a substitute for
'of which'; as
A triangle whose three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle.

Page 54
151. The Relative Pronoun that has the same form in the Singular and Plural, and in the
Nominative and Accusative. It has no Genitive case.
He that is content is rich.
They that touch pitch will be defiled.
Take anything that you like.
152. The Relative Pronoun what is used only in the Singular, and has the same form in the Nominative and Accusative.
• What has happened is not clear.
• I say what I mean.
• He failed in what he attempted.

Use of the Relative Pronouns
153. As a general rule, who is used for persons only. It may refer to a Singular or a Plural
• The man who is honest is trusted.
• Blessed is he who has found his work.
• He prayeth best who loveth best.
• He who hesitates is lost.
• They never fail who die in a great cause.
• They are slaves Who dare not be
• In the right with two or three.
Who is sometimes used in referring to animals.
Whose (the Possessive form of who) is used in speaking of persons, animals and also things without life (see § 150); as,
The sun, whose rays give life to the earth, is regarded by some people as a god.
This is the question whose solution has baffled philosophers of all ages.
[More properly, 'This is the question the solution of which has baffled philosophers of all ages'.] 154. Which is used for things without life and for animals. It may refer to a Singular or
Plural Noun.
• The moment which is lost is lost for ever.
• The books which help you most are those which make you think most.
• The horse which I recently bought is an Arab.
Which was formerly used to refer to persons; as,
Our Father, which art in heaven.

Which may also refer to a sentence; as,
The man was said to be drunk, which was not the case.
He said he saw me there, which was a lie.
He is here, which is fortunate.
Note- The relative pronouns who and which can be used(i) To restrict, limit, or define more clearly the antecedent; that is; where the clause introduced by a relative pronoun is restrictive or non-defining; as,

Page 55
The man who had cheated me was yesterday arrested by the police.
The book which you see on the table cost me ninety rupees.
(ii) To give some additional information about the antecedent; that is, where the clause introduced by a relative pronoun is continuative or defining; as,
The teacher sent for the boy, who (= and he) came at once.
I gave him a rupee, which (= and it) was all I had with me.
Note that non-defining clauses are separated from the main clause by commas. Compare:
• My brother who is a doctor has gone to America.
• My brother, who is a doctor, has gone to America.
The first sentence implies that the speaker has several brothers, and the clause who is a doctor distinguishes a particular one of them. In the second, the clause does not define and the implication is that the speaker has only one brother.
155. That is used for persons and things. It may refer to a Singular or a Plural Noun. (See
§ 151).
That has no genitive case and it is never used with a preposition preceding.

This is the boy that I told you of.
I know the house that he lives in.
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
I have lost the watch that you gave me.
Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.
A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
He that is not with me is against me.
Happy is the man that findeth wisdom.
He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty.
The crowd that gathered cheered him to the echo.
Who that has met him can escape his influence ?
All that I said had no effect on him.
He was the most eloquent speaker that I ever heard.

It will be noticed that the relative pronoun that is used only in defining clauses, i.e., clauses that restrict, limit, or define the antecedent.
156. That may be used as an adverbial accusative = on which, in which, at which; as,
I remember the day that he came.
On the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

157. As the Relative Pronoun that has a restrictive force it sometimes becomes unsuitable as the substitute for who or which. Thus I cannot sayMy father that is a schoolmaster is fifty years old.
I must sayMy father who is schoolmaster, is fifty years old.

Page 56
But if I happen to have more than one sister, I can sayMy sister that has been adopted by my uncle is ill.
158. The Relative Pronoun that is used in preference to who or which(1) After Adjectives in the Superlative Degree; as,
• He was the most eloquent speaker that I ever heard.
• The wisest man that ever lived made mistakes.
• This is the best that we can do.
(2) After the words all, same, any, none, nothing, (the) only; as,
• All is not gold that glitters.
• He is the same man that he has been.
• It is only donkeys that bray.
• It was not for nothing that he studied philosophy.
• Man is the only animal that can talk.
(3) After the Interrogative Pronouns who, what; as,
• Who that saw her did not pity her?
• Who am I that I should object?
• What is it that troubles you so much?
• What is there that I do not know ?
(4) After two antecedents, one denoting a person and the other denoting an animal or a thing; as,
The boy and his dog that had trespassed on the club premises were turned out.
159. What refers to things only. It is used without an antecedent expressed, and is equivalent to that which (or the thing which).
What (= that which) cannot be cured must be endured.
I say what (= that which) T mean.
T mean what I say.
What is done cannot be undone.
What man has done man can do.
What is one man's meat is another man's poison.
Give careful heed to what I say.
What I have written, I have written.
He found what he was looking for.
It will be noticed that what is used in the Nominative and Accusative singular only.
160. In older English the word as was used as a relative pronoun after such; as,
Tears such as angels weep burst forth.
These mangoes are not such as I bought yesterday.
He is such a man as I honour.

We have never had such a time as the present.
His answer was such as I expected him to give.
The word as can be used as a relative pronoun after same; as,
My trouble is the same as yours [is].
This is not the same as that [is].
[But] I played with the same bat that you did.

Page 57
‘The same as’ usually means ‘of the same kind’.
‘The same...that’ means ‘one and the same’.
The word as is also used as a Relative Pronoun after as followed by an adjective; as,
I collected as many specimens as I could find.
[Note.- The first as is here an Adverb.]
161. In older English the word but was used as a relative pronoun after a negative; it often had the force of a relative pronoun..
There is none but will agree with me. (but will agree = who will not agree).
There is no Hindu but knows the story of the Ramayana. (That is, there is no Hindu who does not know, etc.)
There is no man but wishes to live.
There is no rose but has some thorn, (but =
There is scarcely a child but likes candy.
There is no man but knows these things, (but = who does not.)
It will be seen that the pronoun but is here equivalent to who...not, which...not.

Omission of the Relative Pronoun
162. The Relative Pronoun is generally omitted when it would be in the accusative case ; as, Few and short were the prayers -- we said.
A contented mind is the greatest blessing -- a man can enjoy in the world.
I am monarch of all -- I survey.
Men must reap the things -- they sow.
“That is used preferably with reference to persons. Thus we tend to say ‘the meeting which I attended yesterday,’ rather than ‘the meeting that I attended yesterday.’ But more frequently still do we say ‘the meeting I attended yesterday,’ the Accusative Relative being as a rule omitted altogether.” -Onions.
This tendency to omit the Accussative Relative is more marked in the spoken language.
In the written language its omission is often felt to be undignified.
163. In the following examples from poetry a Relative Pronoun in the nominative case is omitted :“Tis distance -- lends enchantment to the view.”
“I have a brother -- is condemned to die.”
Note.- The omission of a Relative Pronoun in the nominative case is now quite exceptional except in colloquial speech. There's somebody at the door A wants to see you. Omission of the Antecedent
164. In older English the Antecedent of a Relative Pronoun was

Page 58 sometimes left out ; as,
Who works not shall not eat.
= (He) who works shall not cat.
Whom the gods love, die young.
= (Those) whom the gods love die young.
Who steals my purse, steals trash.
Who laughs last laughs best.
Who has lost all hope has also lost all fear.
Be good, sweet maid, and let who will be clever.

Agreement of the Relative Pronoun and its Antecedent
165. As the Relative Pronoun refers to a Noun or Pronoun (called its Antecedent) it must be of the same number and person as its Antecedent. [Remember that the verb shows the number and person of the Relative Pronoun.]
• The boy who was lazy was punished.
• The boys who were lazy were punished.
• I, who am your king, will lead you.
• I am the person that is to blame.
• We who seek your protection, are strangers here.
• thou that leadest Israel !
• You who arc mighty, should be merciful.
• You who seek wisdom, should be humble.
• He that is not with me is against me.
• He that is down, needs fear no fall.
• He that eats till he is sick must fast till he is well.
• They who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
• They who seek only for faults see nothing else.
• The flowers which grow in our gardens are not for sale.
• This is the only one of his poems that is worth reading.
[= Of his poems this is the only one that is worth reading.]
But the case of the Relative Pronoun depends upon its relation to the verb in the clause in which it occurs.
• Rama is the boy who did it.
• Rama is the boy whom I want.
• Rama is the boy whose pencil I have.
• Rama is the boy to whom 1 spoke.
• He whom we worship, by whose gift we live, is the Lord.

Position of the Relative Pronoun
166. To prevent ambiguity, the Relative Pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its Antecedent; as,
The boy who won the first prize in English is the son. of my friend,

Mr. Joshi.
It would mean something quite different if we separate the Relative Pronoun from its
Antecedent and sayThe boy is the son of my friend Mr. Joshi who won the first prize.
Again such a sentence as “I have read Gokhale's speeches, who was a disciple of Ranade” would be improved if changed to “I have read Gokhale’s speeches, who was a disciple of
So also the following sentence requires to be rearranged:-

Page 59
I with my family reside in a village near Pune which consists of my wife and three children. Compound Relative Pronouns
167. Pronouns formed by adding ever, so, or soever to who, which and what are called
Compound Relative Pronouns. They are:Whoever, whoso, whosoever; whichever; whatever, whatsoever.
These Relatives have no antecedent expressed.
Whosoever (= any and every person who) exalteth himself shall be abased.
Whoso diggeth a pit shall fall therein.
Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might.
168. The forms whoever, whichever, and whatever are now ordinarily used; as,
Whoever (i.e., any person who) comes is welcome.
Take whichever lie., any which) you like.
I will take with me whomsoever you choose.
Whatever (i.e, anything which) he does, he does well.

Exercise in Grammar 29
Name the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, tell the case of each, and mention its antecedent:1. The pen that you gave me is a very good one.
2. The answer which you gave is not right.
3. I know the woman whose child was hurt.
4. Bring me the letters which the postman left.
5. This is the house that Jack built.
6. Hari saw the man who had been hurt.
7. We met the sailors whose ship was wrecked.
8. Here are the books which I found.
9. The cat killed the rat that ate the com.
10. Bring me the books which lie on the table.
11. Here is the book that you lent me.
12. I hate children who are cruel.
13. Show me the knife that you have bought.
14. He has not brought the knife that I asked for.
15. Dogs soon know the persons by whom they are kindly treated.
16. This is the juggler whom we saw yesterday.
17. They that seek wisdom will be wise

Exercise in Composition 30
Fill the blanks with suitable Relative Pronouns:1. We always like boys --- speak the truth.
2. We saw the dog --- worried the cat.

3. He ---, does his best shall be praised.
4. I know ---. you mean.
5. She has gone to Chennai, --- is her birthplace.
6. I have seen the bird --- you describe.
7. I do not know the man --- hit the boy.

Page 60
10. Here is the pen --- you lost.
11. Most people get --- they deserve.
12. Time --- is lost is never found again.
13. I did not know the person --- called.
14. He is a man --- you can trust.
15. Where is the book --- I gave you?
16. Is this the street --- leads to the station? .
17. The letter --- you wrote never arrived.
18. Listen to --- I say.
19. He --- is merciful shall meet mercy.
20. Did you receive the letter --- I sent yesterday?
21. --- I have said, I have said.
22. --- he was I could never find out.
23. --- do you believe him to be?
24. Do you know --- has happened?
25. --- is done cannot be undone.
26. Do the same --- I do.
27. For my purpose I need such a man --- he is.
28. God helps those --- help themselves.
29. No man can lose --- he never had.
30.You should not imitate such a boy --- he.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Composition 31
Fill the blanks with suitable Relative Pronouns:1. That man --- wilt not work must starve.
2. Such a man --- he should be honoured.
3. These mangoes are not such --- I bought yesterday.
4. It is not such a pretty place --- I had expected.
5. We have need of more such men --- he.
6. He plays the game --- he likes best.
7. I do not believe --- you say.
8. My uncle, --- I loved, is dead.
9. The farmer is cutting the corn--- has ripened.
10. --- you say is not true.
11. A lady --- I know nursed the child.
12. He says--- he means, and means --- he says.
13. --- pleases you wilt please me.
14. I gave it to the man --- I saw there.
15. I know --- you are seeking.
16. They --- touch pitch will be defiled.
17. You have not brought the book --- I asked for.

18. Only he --- bears the burden knows its weight.
19. Such books --- you read are not worth reading.
20. When you speak to him remember to --- you are speaking.
21. I regard that man as lost --- has lost his sense of shame.
22. Wealth is not his --- has it, but his --- enjoys it.
23. People --- are too sharp cut their own fingers.
24. Truth provokes those --- it does not convert.
25. We do not know --- he intends to do.
26. It is an ill wind --- blows nobody good,
27. Is this a dagger --- I see before me?
28. I know to --- you are alluding.
29. --- the gods would destroy they first make mad.
30. He is the very man --- we want.
31. Place recite --- you have learned.

Page 61
32. They always talk --- never think.
33. Such --- have pure hearts shall inherit the kingdom of heaven.

Exercise in Composition 32
Join together each of the following pairs of sentences by means of a Connective:1. I know a man. The man has been to Iceland.
2. The thief stole the watch. The thief was punished.
3. Show the road. The road leads to Delhi.
4. Here is the doctor. The doctor cured me of malaria.
5. J met a boy. He was very cruel.
6. He does his best. He should be praised.
7. The man is honest. The man is trusted.
8. My father is dead. I loved my father.
9. The teacher sent for the boy. The boy came at once.
10. Wellington was a great general. He defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.
11. The dog bit the burglar. The burglar had broken into the house.
12. Once upon a time there lived a giant. The giant was very powerful and cruel.
13. We met a girl. The girl had lost her way.
14. Kalidas is famous. He wrote some fine dramas.
15. He is a rogue. No one trusts him.
16. The child is dead. The child came here yesterday.
17. The child is dead. I saw the child yesterday.
18. I know the man. He stole the bicycle.
19. The man stole the bicycle. He has been arrested.
20. I have found the umbrella. I lost it.
21. I saw a soldier. He had lost an arm.
22. This is the path. He came by this path.
23. The horse was lame. We saw the horse.
. .
24. Those boys were kept in. They had been very lazy.
25. I saw a girl. She was singing.
26. That boy bowls very well. You see him there.
27. Here is the book. You were asking for the book.
28. Here is the pencil. You lost it yesterday. .
29. The man is deaf. You spoke to the man.
30. Coal is found in Bengal. It is a very useful mineral.

Exercise in Composition 33
Join together each of the following pairs of sentences by means of a Connective:1. This is the building. It was built in a single month.
2. The letter reached me this morning. You sent the letter.
3. Karim is always idle. He was punished.
4. I met my uncle. He had just arrived.
5. This is the house. Jack built it.
6. The boy is my cousin. You see him there.

7. The ladies have arrived. I was speaking of them.
8. The boys clapped heartily. They were watching the match.
9. The boy tells lies. He deserves to be punished.
10. I heard a song. The song pleased me.

Page 62
13. Here is a book. The book contains pictures.
14. Give me the ruler. The ruler ts on the desk.
15. The bicycle is a new one. Hari rode it.
16. We got into a bus. It was full of people.
17. He has a friend. He is a clever artist.
18. He is a well-known man. His generosity is the talk of the town.
19. The cat caught the mouse. The cat was pursuing the mouse.
20. Can I borrow the book? You are reading it.
21. The boy was very proud. He had won the first prize.
22. Little Red Riding Hood went lo visit her grandmother. Her grand mother was ill in bed. 23. This is my cousin. I was speaking of him.
24. We all despise a cowardly boy. He is one.
25. This is the cat. It killed the rat.
26. Those grapes were very sweet. You brought them.
27. Hari spoke to the soldier. The soldier's arm was in a sling.
28. The captain praised Balu. Balu's bowling was very good.
29. A man came running up. He heard me calling.

Exercise in Composition 34
Split each of the following sentences into two:1. The boys gave a loud shout, which was heard across the river.
2. Bring me the book that is on the table.
3. It was a wretched hut in which she lived.
4. The boy who fell off his bicycle has hurt his leg.
5. The elephant 'hat was sick died.
6. The farmer is cutting the corn which has ripened.
7. Napoleon, whom (he French honour, died at St. Helena.
8. The crow dropped the cheese, which the fox immediately snapped up.
9. John, who is my cousin, is a diligent boy.
10. Where is the parcel that I left here yesterday?
11. I have found the book which I lost.
12. We visited Cox's Bazar, which is the most attractive spot in Bangladesh.
13. The boy whom you see there made the top score in the last match.
14. Dadabhai Naoroji, who was the First Indian to enter the British Parliament, was a
15. He is a poet whose works arc widely known.
16. The Taj Mahal, which was built by Shah Jahan, is the finest mausoleum in the world.
17. Last year we visited the Moti Masjid. which is a mosque of great architectural beauty.
18. The meeting, which was held in the Town Hall, was a great success.
19. The rope, which was old, snapped.
20. The task which you have to do is easy.
21. People who live in glass houses must not throw stones.

169. Consider the following sentences :Who is there? Who are you?
About whom you are thinking? / Who are you thinking about?

Page 63
Whom do you want? / Who do you want?
Whose is this book?
Which is the house?
Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
What is the matter?
What do you want?
What will all (he neighbours say?
It will be noticed that the Pronouns in italics are similar in form to Relative Pronouns.
But the work which they do is different. They are here used for asking questions, and are, therefore, called Interrogative Pronouns.
170. In the following sentences the Interrogative Pronouns are used in asking indirect questions. I asked who was speaking.
I do not know who is there.
Tell me what you have done.
Ask what he wants.
Say which you would tike best.
171. Again consider the following sentences: Who gave you that knife? (Nominative)
Whose is this book? (Possessive)
Whom did you see? / Who did you see?, To whom were you speaking? / Who were you speaking to? (Accusative)
What is that? (Nominative)
What do you want? (Accusative)
Which is he? (Nominative)
Which do you prefer? (Accusative)
Nominative: who, Possessive: whose, Accusative: whom/who --Masc. and Fem. Singular and Plural.
Today the accusative who is more usual than whom, especially in spoken English.
What and which do not have different forms for different cases.
172. Who is used of persons only.
Who spoke? (We expect the answer to be the name of a person.)
Who goes there? Who made the top score? Who is knocking at the door? Who says so?
Whose is this umbrella? Whom did you see?
173. Which is used of both persons and things. It implies selection, that is, it implies a question concerning a limited number.
Which is your friend? Which are your books?

Which of the boys saw him?
Which of you has done this?
Which of these books is yours?
Which of the pictures do you like best?
Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature? Which will you take?
174. What is used of things only.
What have you found? (We expect the answer to be the name of a thing.)
What do you want? What did you say?

Page 64.
What was it all about?
What is sweeter than honey?
What are those marks on your coat?
175. In such expressions as, 'What are you?' 'What is he?' What is this man?' the word what does not refer to the person but to his profession or employment (Today it is more usual to say, ‘What do you do?’ etc).
What are you? --- I am a doctor.
What is he? --- He is an engineer.
ButWho is he? (= What is his name and family?) -He is Mr. K.P. Roy.
176. In the following sentences which and what are used as Interrogative Adjectives:• Which book are your reading?
• Which way shall we go?
• What books have you read?
• What pranks are you playing?
• What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?
177. In the following sentences the words in italics are used as Compound Interrogative
Pronouns :Whoever told you so?
Whatever are you doing?
Note.- The forms whoever, whichever, whatever, are intensive.

Exercise in Composition 35
Use the correct form of the Interrogative Pronoun in the following:1. --- wishes to see you?
2. --- do you wish to see?
3. --- did she say was the winner?
4. --- did he invite?
5. --- shall I give this to?
6. --- do men say that I am?
7. --- do you believe did this?
8. About --- are you speaking?
9. --- did you see?
10. --- do you mean?
11. To --- did you give the key?
12. --- of the girls can sew the best?
13. By --- was the book written?

14. --- are you seeking?
15. --- of you has done this?
16. --- have you seen?
17. --- of our dogs is ill?
18. --- do you think they are?
19. ---do you think I am?
20. --- did you find there?
21. --- was that speaking to you?
22. --- came here yesterday?
23. --- do you consider in the right?
24. --- , do you consider, is right?
25. --- did you speak to?
26. --- is life worth?
27. --- of these bats will you take?
28. --- did he say?
29. --- is that for?
30. --- have you decided to do?
31. --- stole the bird's nest?
32. --- do you prefer?
33. --- are you doing?
34. --- has my book?
35. --- is an Island?
36. --- is your book?
37. --- do you want?
38. With --- were you talking?
39. --- did they fight each other for?
40. --- is better, honour or riches?
41. --- am I speaking to, please?

Page 65
178. A Pronoun used as an exclamation is called an Exclamatory Pronoun ; as,
What! Still here ! I thought you had gone home long ago.
What! You don't know Rama?

THE VERB Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
179; A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. Verb comes from the Latin verbum, a word. It is so called because it is the most important word in a sentence. A Verb may tell us(1) What a person or thing does; as,
Hari laughs.
The clock strikes.
(2) What is done to a person or thing ; as,
Hari is scolded.
The window is broken.
(3) What a person or thing is; as,
The cat is dead.
Glass is brittle.
I feel sorry.
Def:- A Verb is a word used to tell or assert something about some person or thing.
180. A Verb often consists of more than one word; as,
The girls were singing.
I have learnt my lesson.
The watch has been found.
181. Read these sentences:1. The boy kicks the football.
2. The boy laughs loudly.
In sentence 1, the action denoted by the verb kicks passes over from the doer or subject boy to some Object football. The verb kicks is, therefore, called a Transitive Verb.
(Transitive means passing over.)
In sentence 2, the action denoted by the verb laughs stops with the doer or Subject boy and does not pass over to an Object, The verb laughs is, therefore, called an Intransitive
Verb. (Intransitive means not passing over.)

Def.- A Transitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or Subject to an object.
Def.- An Intransitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being ; as,
He ran a long distance. (Action)
The baby sleeps. (State)
There is a flaw in this diamond. (Being)
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 66
Note.- Intransitive Verbs expressing being take the same cases after them as before them.
182. Most Transitive Verbs take a single object. But such Transitive Verbs as give, ask, offer, promise, tell, etc., take two objects after them - an Indirect Object which denotes the person to whom some thing is given or for whom something is done, and a Direct
Object which is usually the name of some thing, as,
His father gave him (Indirect) a watch (Direct).
He told me (Indirect) a secret (Direct).
183. Most verbs can be used both as Transitive and as Intransitive verbs. It is, therefore, better to say that a verb is used Transitively or Intransitively rather than that it is
Transitive or Intransitive.

Used Transitively
1. The ants fought the wasps.
2. The shot sank the ship.
3. Ring the bell, Rama.
4. The driver stopped the train.
5. He spoke the truth.
6. The horse kicked the man.
7. I feel a severe pain in my head.

Used Intransitively
1. Some ants fight very fiercely.
2. The ship sank rapidly.
3. The bell rang loudly.
4. The train stopped suddenly
5. He spoke haughtily.
6. This horse never kicks.
7. How do you feel?
Note.-Some Verbs, e.g., come, go, fall, die, sleep, lie, denote actions which cannot be done to anything ; they can, therefore, never be used Transitively.
184. In such a sentence as The man killed himself ' where the Subject and the Object both refer to the same person, the verb is said to be used reflexively.
Sometimes, though the verb is used reflexively. the Object is not expressed. In the following examples the reflexive pronoun understood is put in brackets:• The bubble burst [itself].
• The guests made [themselves] merry,
• Please keep [yourselves] quiet.
• With these words he turned [himself] to the door.

The Japanese feed [themselves] chiefly on rice.
These verbs may, however, be regarded as pure Intransitives without any reflexive force whatever. 185. Certain verbs can be used reflexively and also as ordinary transitive verbs; as,
• Do not forget his name.
• I forget his name.
• Acquit yourself as man.
The magistrate acquitted him of the charge against him.
• I enjoy myself sitting alone.
• He enjoys good health.
• He interested himself in his friend's welfare.
• His talk does not interest me.

Page 67

Exercise in Grammar 36
Name the Verbs in the following sentences, and tell in each case whether the Verb is
Transitive or Intransitive. Where the Verb is Transitive name the Object: 1. The sun shines brightly.
2. The boy cut his hand with a knife.
3. The clock stopped this morning.
4. The policeman blew his whistle.
5. The sun rises in the east.
6. An old beggar stood by the gate.
7. The clock ticks all day long.
8. I looked down from my window.
9. Put away your books.
10. The moon rose early.
11. The cat sleeps on the rug.
12. Cocks crow in the morning.
13. Your book lies on the table.
14. The fire burns dimly.
15. Time changes all things.
16. We eat three times a day.
17. Tell the truth.
18. The birds sing in the green trees.
19. The little bird hopped about and sang.
20. My new watch does not keep good lime.
21. The beggar sat down by the side of the road.
22. I could not spare the time.
23. He took shelter under a tree.
24. The boy easily lifted the heavy weight.
25. Balu wrote a letter to his uncle.
26. A tiny bird lived under the caves.
27. I know a funny little man.
28. Birds fly in the air.
29. A light rain fell last night.
30. I shall bring my camera with me.
31. You speak too loudly.
32. The dog ran after me.

Exercise in Composition 37
Write five sentences containing Transitive Verbs, and five containing Intransitive Verbs.

Intransitive Verbs Used as Transitives
186. When an Intransitive Verb is used in a causative sense it becomes Transitive.

1. The horse walks.
2. The girl ran down the street.
3. Birds fly.

1. He walks the horse.
2. The girl ran a needle into her finger (ran a needle = caused a needle to run)
3. The boys fly their kites (i.e., cause their kites to fly)
187. A few verbs in common use are distinguished as Transitive or Intransitive by their spelling, the Transitive being causative forms of the corresponding Intransitive verbs.

1. Many trees fall in the monsoon.
2. Lie still.
3. Rise early with the lark.
4. Sit there.

1. Woodmen fell trees. (Fell = cause to fall)
2. Lay the basket there. (Lay = cause to lie)
3. Raise your hands. (Raise = cause to rise)
4. Set the lamp on the table. (Set = cause to sit)
188. Some Intransitive Verbs may become Transitive by having a Preposition added to them ; as,
All his friends laughted at (= derided) him.
He will soon run through (= consume) his fortune.
Please look into (= investigate) the matter carefully.

Page 68
We talked about (= discussed) the affair several times. .
I wish for (= desire) nothing more.
The Police Inspector asked for (= demanded) his name.
Sometimes the Preposition is prefixed to the Verb; as,
Shivaji overcame the enemy.
He bravely withstood the attack.
The river overflows its banks.
189. Intransitive Verbs sometimes take after them an Object akin or similar in meaning to the Verb. Such an Object is called the Cognate Object or Cognate Accusative. (Latin
Cognatus, akin.)

I have fought a good fight.
He laughed a hearty laugh.
I dreamt a strange dream.
He sleeps the sleep of the just.
Let me die the death of the righteous.
She sighed a deep sigh.
She sang a sweet song. He ran a race.
Aurangzeb lived the life of an ascetic.

The noun used as a Cognate Object is in the Accusative Case.
The following are examples of partially Cognate Objects:He ran a great risk (= he ran a course of great risk).
The children shouted applause (= the children shouted a shout of applause).
190. A noun used adverbially to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb denoting time, place, distance, weight, value etc, is called an Adverbial Object or Adverbial
Accusative, and is said to be in the Accusative Case adverbially; as,
• He held the post ten years.
• I can't wait a moment longer.
• He went home.
• He swam a mile.
• He weighs seven stone.
• The watch cost fifty rupees.
191. There are a few Transitive Verbs which are sometimes used as Intransitive Verbs.

1. He broke the glass.
2. He burnt his fingers.

3. Stop him from going.
4. Open all the windows.

1. The glass broke.
2. He burnt with shame.
3. We shall stop here a few days.
4. The show opens at six o'clock.

192. Read the following sentences:1. The baby sleeps.
2. The baby seems happy.

Page 69
On the other hand if I say 'The baby seems' I do not make complete sense.
The Intransitive Verb seems requires a word (e.g., happy) to make the sense complete.
Such a verb is called a Verb of Incomplete Predication.
The word happy, which is required to make the sense complete, is called the Complement of the Verb or the Completion of the Predicate.
193. Verbs of Incomplete Predication usually express the idea of being, becoming, seeming, appearing. The Complement usually consists of a Noun (called a Predicative
Noun) or an Adjective (called a Predicative Adjective). When the Complement describes the Subject, as in the following sentences, it is called a Subjective Complement.
1. Tabby is a cat.
2. The earth is round.
3. John became a soldier.
4. Mr. Mehta became mayor.
5. The man seems tired.
6. You look happy.
7. The sky grew dark.
8. Roses smell sweet.
9. Sugar tastes sweet.
10. She appears pleased.
11. This house is to let.
Note.- When the Subjective Complement is a Noun (as in 1,3, 4) it is in the same case as the Subject, Le., in the Nominative Case.
194. Certain Transitive Verbs require, besides an Object, a Complement to complete their predication ; as,
1. The boys made Rama captain.
2. His parents named him Hari.
3. This made him vain.
4. The jury found him guilty.
5. Rama called his cousin a liar.
6. Exercise has made his muscles strong.
7. I consider the man trustworthy.
8. God called the light day.
9. We thought him a rascal.
10. They chose him their leader.
Here, in each case, the Complement describes the Object, and is, therefore, called an
Objective Complement.

Note.- When the Objective Complement is a noun (as in 1,2, 5, 8, 9, 10) it is in the
Objective (or Accusative) Case in agreement with the object.

Exercise in Grammar 38
Say whether the Verbs in the following sentences are Transitive or Intransitive, name the
Object of each Transitive Verb, and the Complement of each Verb of Incomplete
Predication :1. The hungry lion roars.
2. The report proved false.
3. The boy stood on the burning deck.
4. The child had fallen sick.
5. The ass continued braying.
6. The wind is cold.
7. The results are out.
8. He tried again and again.
9. We see with our eyes.
10. The child fell asleep.
11. The weather is hot.
12. They are Europeans.
13. The rumour seems true.
14. Owls hide in the daytime.
15. Bad boys hide their faults.
16. The poor woman went mad.

Page 70
17. We waited patiently at the station.
18. He told a lie.
19. They elected him president.
20. I found her weeping.
21. He struck the man dead.
22. The crow flew down and stole the cheese.
23. The sky looks threatening.
24. They made him general.
25. He waited an hour.
26. New brooms sweep clean.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

195. Compare:1. Rama helps Hari.
2. Hari is helped by Rama.
It will be seen that these two sentences express the same meaning.
But in sentence I, the form of the Verb shows that the person denoted by the subject does something. Rama (the person denoted by the subject) does something.
The Verb helps is said to be in the Active Voice.
In sentence 2, the form of the Verb shows that something is done to the person denoted by the Subject.
Something is done to Hari (the person denoted by the Subject.)
The Verb helped is said to be in the Passive Voice.
Def.- A verb is in the Active Voice when its form shows (as in sentence 1) that the person or thing denoted by the Subject does something ; or, in other words, is the doer of the action. The Active Voice is so called because the person denoted by the Subject acts.
Def.- A Verb is in the Passive Voice when its form shows (as in sentence 2) that something is done to the person or thing denoted by the Subject.

The Passive Voice is so called because the person or thing denoted by the Subject is not active but passive, that is, suffers or receives some action.
Def.- Voice is that form of a Verb which shows wherther what is denoted by the Subject does something or has something done to it.
Note the change from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice in the following sentences:-

Active Voice
1. Sita loves Savitri.
2. The mason is building the wall.
3. The peon opened the gate.
4. Some boys were helping the wounded man.

Passive Voice
1. Savitri is loved by Sita.
2. The wall is being built by the mason.
3. The gate was opened by the peon.
4. The wounded man was being helped by some boys.

Page 71

Active Voice
5. He will finish the work in afortnight.
6. Who did this?
7. Why did your brother write such a letter?

Passive Voice
5. The work will be finished by him in a fortnight.
6. By whom was this done?
7. Why was such a letter written by your brother?
It will be noticed that when the Verb is changed from the Active Voice to the Passive
Voice, the Object of the Transitive Verb in the Active Voice becomes the Subject of the
Verb in the Passive Voice.
[Thus in sentence 1, Savitri which is the object of loves in the Active Voice, becomes the
Subject of is loved in the Passive Voice.]
Since the Object of a verb in the active voice becomes the Subject of the passive form, it follows that only Transitive Verbs can be used in the Passive Voice, because an
Intransitive Verb has no Object.
196. The passive voice is formed with the suitable tense of the verb be followed by the past participle. Study this table:

Tense (or Modal + base) -- Active Voice -- Passive Voice
Simple present -- take, takes -- am taken, is taken, are taken.
Present continuous -- am taking, is taking, are taking -- am being taken, is being taken, are being taken
Present perfect -- has taken, have taken -- has been taken, have been taken
Simple past -- took -- was taken, were taken
Past continuous -- was taking, were taking -- was being taken, were being taken
Past perfect -- had taken -- had been taken
Simple future -- will take, shall take -- will be taken, shall be taken
Can / may / must, etc. + base -- can take, must take -- can be taken must be taken
197. Students must know when to use the Active Voice and when Co use the Passive : the ability to change the Active Voice into the Passive and vice versa is not sufficient.

The Active Voice is used when the agent (i.e., doer of the action)

Page 72 preferred when the active form would involve the use of an indefinite or vague pronoun or noun (somebody, they, people, we, etc.) as subject ; that is, when we do not know the agent or when it is clear enough who the agent is.
My pen has been stolen. (Somebody has stolen my pen.)
I was asked my name. (They asked me my name.)
English is spoken all over the world. (People speak English all over the world.)
I have been invited to the party. (Someone has invited me to the party.)
We will execute all orders promptly. (All orders will be executed promptly.)
In such cases the agent with by is usually avoided.
Note, however, that, as in the examples given earlier, the fly-phrase cannot be avoided where the agent has some importance and is necessary to complete the sense.

Exercise in Grammar 39
Name the Verbs in the following sentences, and tell whether they are in the Active or in the Passive Voice:1. The cat killed the mouse.
2. We compelled the enemy to surrender.
3. The boy was bitten by a dog.
4. The thief was caught.
5. The boy made a kite.
6. The ship was burned.
7. The young man made a disturbance at the meeting.
8. The captive was bound to a tree.
9. The bird was killed by a cruel boy.
10. The sudden noise frightened the horse.
11. He is loved by all.
12. The exhibition was opened by the Governor.
13. I see a dark cloud.
14. His command was promptly obeyed.
15. Some of the cargo had been damaged by the sea water.
16. Nothing will be gained by hurry.
17. The dog chased the sheep.
18. This letter was posted last night,
19. The field is ploughed.
20. The dog was teased by the boy.
21. The cat drank all the milk.
22. A stone struck me on the head.
23. The old gentleman takes snuff.
24. The money was lost.
25. The letter has just been posted.

Exercise in Composition 40
Turn the following sentences from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice:(Note-The agent with by should be omitted in Nos. 7, 12, 25, 29, 30, 31,32, 33, 34 and
1. The cat killed the mouse.
2. The man cut down the tree.
3. Columbus discovered America.
4. His teacher praised him.
5. The boy teased the dog.
6. The syce feeds the horse every day.
7. The police arrested him.
8. Rama was making a kite.
9. The boy caught the ball.
10. My father will write a letter.
11. I will conquer him.
12. He kept me waiting.
13. The hunter shot the lion.
14. Hari opened the door.
15. A policeman caught the thief.
16. Sohrab threw the ball.
17. He scored twenty runs.
18. Your behaviour vexes me.
19. Manners reveal character.
20. He made a very remarkable discovery.
21. Little strokes fell great oaks.
22. Dhondu will bring the pony.
23. Everyone loves him.
24. My cousin has drawn his picture.

Page 73
25. We expect good news.
26. The farmer gathers the harvest.
27. His own brother swindled him.
28. The recitation pleased the inspector.
29. Somebody has put out the light.
30. The enemy have defeated our army.
31. They sell radios here.
32. I have sold my bicycle.
33. People will soon forget it.
34. They opened the theatre only last month.
35. We prohibit smoking.
198. When verbs that take both a direct and an indirect object in the Active Voice are changed to the Passive, either object may become the subject of the Passive verb, while the other is retained.

Active -- Passive
The guard refused him admittance. -- Admittance was refused to him by the ground., He was refused admittance by the guard.
Mr. Krishnaji teaches us grammar. -- Grammar is taught to us by Mr. Krishnaji., We are taught grammar by Mr. Krishnaji.
The manager will give you a ticket. -- A ticket will be given to you by the manager. You will be given a ticket by the manager.
Who taught you French? -- By whom was French taught to you?, Who were you taught
French by? By whom were you taught French?
He handed her a chair. -- A chair was handed to her., She was handed a chair.
An indirect object denotes the person to whom or for whom some-: thing is given or done, while a direct object usually denotes a thing. In cases like the above, it is probably more usual for passive constructions to begin with the person.
199. Note that we use with (not by) to talk about an instrument used by the agent.
The dog was hit with a stick. (Active Voice: Somebody hit the dog with a stick.)
The dog was hit by a boy. (Active Voice: A boy hit the dog.)
200. There are a few Transitive verbs which, even in an Active form, are sometimes used in a Passive sense; as.
These mangoes taste sour (i.e., are sour when they are tasted).
The rose smells sweet (i.e., is sweet when it is smelt).

The cakes eat short and crisp (i.e., are short and crisp when they are eaten).
At least the play reads well (i,e., affects the reader well when it is read).

Exercise in Composition 41
Change the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Passive Voice:1. We saw you and him.
2. They asked me my name.
3. We refused them admission.
4. I bought the baby a doll.

Page 74
5. They found him guilty of murder.
6. A thunderstorm often turns milk sour.
7. You cannot pump the ocean dry.
8. They saw the storm approaching.
9. He keeps me waiting.
10. They painted the house red.
11. He told me to leave the room.
12. He promised me a present.
13. I shall order the carriage.
14. The boy is climbing the cliff.
15. One may accomplish many things by a little effort.
16. I am watching you very carefully.

Exercise in Composition 42
Rewrite the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Active Voice:1. He was praised by his father.
2. The first railway was built by George Stephenson.
3. The horse was frightened by the noise.
4. Not a word was spoken by Latif.
5. The teacher was pleased with the boy's work.
6. He was taken to the hospital by his friends.
7. The town was destroyed by an earthquake.
8. The road was lined with people.
9. The President was welcomed by the people.
10. Shakuntala was written by Kalidas.
11. The building was damaged by the fire.
12. I was struck by his singular appearance.
13. Those cars were built by robots.
14. The streets were thronged with spectators.
15. The trees were blown down by the wind.
16. We shall be blamed by everyone.
17. The child was knocked down by a car.
18. Alice was not much surprised at this.
19. He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen,

Exercise in Composition 43
Write three sentences with the Verbs in the Active Voice, and rewrite them with the
Verbs in the Passive Voice.
201. We give below further examples of the interchange of Active and Passive Voice.
Active. - All his friends laughed at him.
Passive.- He was laughed at by all his friends.
Active.- They made him king.

Passive.- He was made king.
Active. - They use video for teaching the students.
Passive.- Video is used for teaching the students.
Active.- One should keep one's promises.
Passive.- Promises should be kept.
Active.- When will you return the book?
Passive.- When will the book be returned?
Active.- Someone has picked my pocket.
Passive.- My pocket has been picked.
Active.- Circumstances will oblige me to go.
Passive.- I shall be obliged to go.

Page 75

Exercise in Composition 44
In the following sentences change the Voice :
1. We elected Balu captain.
2. I saw him opening the box.
3. We must listen to his words.
4. Shall I ever forget those happy days?
5. By whom was this jug broken ?
6. His subordinates accused him of various offences.
7. One cannot gather grapes from thistles.
8. The telegraph wires have been cut.
9. Alas! We shall hear his voice no more.
10. The 1998 Asian Games were held in Bangkok, Thailand.
11. Without effort nothing can be gained.
12. Do not insult the weak.
13. All desire wealth and some acquire it.
14. Why should I be suspected by you?
15. The information is kept on our computer.
16. The legend tells us how the castle received its name.
17. My watch was lost.
18. Why did he defraud you of your earnings?
19. The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
20. He made his wife do the work.
21. The master appointed him monitor.
22. The doctor despaired of his recovery.
23. He was refused admittance.
24. They laughed at his warnings and objected lo all his proposals.
25. The people regarded him as an impostor and called him a villain.

202. The simplest use of a Verb is to make a statement of fact or ask a question ; as,
I write to my brother every week.
Who wrote that letter?
But a Verb may also be used to express a command; as.
Write neatly.
Or a Verb may be used to express a mere supposition ; as,
If I were you, I would not do it.
These different modes or manners in which a Verb may be used to express an action are called Moods. (Lat. modus, manner.)

Def- Mood is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the Verb is represented.
203. There are three Moods in English:Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive.
A work from S. CHANDA & COMPANY LTD.

Page 76

Indicative Mood
204. The Indicative Mood is used:
(1) To make a statement of fact; as,
Rama goes to school daily.
We are taught Arithmetic.
He writes legibly.
Napoleon died at St. Helena.
The child is alive.
(2) To ask a question; as,
Have you found your book?
Are you well?
In each of these sentences the Verb in italics is said to be in the Indicative Mood.
205. The Indicative Mood is also used in expressing a supposition which is assumed as a fact; as,
If [= assuming as a fact that] I am to be a beggar, it shall never make me a rascal.
If it rains, I shall stay at home. [Assuming as a fact that it will rain, etc.]
If my friend wants it, 1 shall give it to him. [Assuming as a fact that my friend wants it,." etc.] If he is the ring-leader, he deserves to be punished. [Assuming as a fact that he is the ring-leader, etc.]
A Verb which makes a statement of fact or asks a question, or expresses a supposition which is assumed as a fact, is in the Indicative Mood.

Imperative Mood
206. The Imperative Mood is used to express(1) A Command; as,
Wait there.
Come here.
Open your book at page 7.
(2) An exhortation; as,
Be steady.
Take care of your health.
Try to do better.
(3) An entreaty or prayer; as,
Have mercy upon us.
Give us this day our daily bread.
In each of these sentences the Verb in italics is said to be in the Imperative Mood.

A Verb which expresses a command, an exhortation an entreaty or prayer, is in the
Imperative Mood.
Note1.- The imperative mood can strictly be used only in the Second Person, since the person commanded must be the person spo-

Page 77 ken to. But in the First and Third Persons a like sense is expressed by the use of the
Auxiliary Verb let; as,
Let me go.
Let us go.
Let him go.
Let them go.
Note 2.- The Subject of a Verb in the Imperative Mood (you) is usually omitted.

Subjunctive Mood
207. The following are the forms of the Subjunctive :

Present Subjunctive the verb 'be' -- other verbs
I be -- I speak
We be -- We speak
You be -- You speak
He be -- He speak
They be -- They speak

Post Subjunctive the verb 'be' -- other verbs
I were -- I spoke
We were -- We spoke
You were -- You spoke
He were -- He spoke
They were -- They spoke
The Subjunctive Mood scarcely exists in present-day English.
208. The Present Subjunctive occurs
(1) In certain traditional phrases, where it expresses a wish or hope ; as,
God bless you !
God save the King !
Heaven help us !


(2) In formal English, in a noun clause dependent on a verb expressing desire, intention, resolution, etc. ; as,
I move that Mr. Gupta be appointed Chairman.
It is suggested that a ring road be built to relieve the congestion.
We recommended that the subscription be increased to ten rupees.
209. The Past Subjunctive is used

(1) After the verb wish, to indicate a situation which is unreal or contrary to fact; as,
I wish I knew his name. (= I'm sorry I don't know his name,)
I wish I were a millionaire.
She wishes the car belonged to you.
(2) After if, to express improbability or unreality in the present; as,
If I were you I should not do that (but I am not you, and never can be).
If we started now we would be in time (but we cannot start now).
(3) After as if/as though, to indicate unreality or improbability; as,
He orders me about as if I were his wife (but I am not).
He walks as though he were drunk (but he is not).
(4) After it is time + subject; to imply that it is late; as,
It is time we started.
(5) After would rather + subject, to indicate preference; as,
I would rather you went by air (= I should prefer you to go by air).
They would rather you paid them by cheque.

Page 78

210. Read the following sentences:
1. I write this letter to please you.
2. I wrote the letter in his very presence.
3. I shall write another letter tomorrow.
In sentence 1, the Verb write refers to present time.
In sentence 2, the Verb wrote refers to past time.
In sentence 3, the Verb shall write refers to future time.
Thus a Verb may refer
(1) to present time,
(2) to past time, or
(3) to future time.
211. A Verb that refers to present time is said to be in the Present Tense; as,
I write.
I love.
[The word tense comes from the Latin tempus, time.]
A Verb that refers to past time is said to be in the Past Tense; as,
I wrote,
I loved,
A Verb that refers to future time is said to be in the Future Tense
I shall write,
I shall love.
212. Thus there are three main Tenses The Present,
The Past,
The Future.
The Tense of a Verb shows the time of an action or event.
Note : Sometimes a past tense may refer to present time, and a present tense may express future time, as:
I wish I knew the answer. (= I'm sorry I don't know the answer. Past tense - Present time) Let's wait till he comes. (Present tense - future tense)

213. Below we give the chief Tenses (Active Voice, Indicative Mood) of the verb to love.
Present Tense
Singular Number -- Plural Number
1st Person -- I love -- We love
2nd person -- You love -- You love
3rd Person -- He loves -- They love

Past Tense
Singular Number -- Plural Number
1st Person -- I loved -- We loved
2nd person -- You loved -- You loved
3rd Person -- He loved -- They loved

Page 79
Future Tense
Singular Number -- Plural Number
1st Person -- I shall/will love -- We shall/will love
2nd person -- You will love -- You will love
3rd Person -- He will love -- They will love
214. Read these sentences:
1. I love. (Simple Present)
2. I am loving. (Present Continuous)
3. I have loved. (Present Perfect)
4. I have been loving. (Present Perfect Continuous)
The Verbs in all of these sentences refer to the present time, and are therefore said to be in the present tense.
In sentence I, however, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned simply, without anything being said about the completeness or incompleteness of the action.
In sentence 2, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned as incomplete or continuous, that is, as still going on.
In sentence 3, the Verb shows that the action is mentioned as finished, complete, or perfect, at the time of speaking.
The tense of the Verb in sentence 4 is said to be Present Perfect Continuous, because the verb shows that the action is going on continuously, and not completed at this present moment. Thus we see that the Tense of a verb shows not only the time of an action or event, but also the state of an action referred to.
235. Just as the Present Tense has four forms, the Past Tense also has the following four forms: 1. I loved. (Simple Past)
2. I was loving. (Past Continuous)
3. 1 had loved. (Past Perfect)
4. I had been loving. (Past Perfect Continuous)
Similarly the Future Tense has the following four forms :
1. I shall/will love. (Simple Future)
2. I shall/will be loving. (Future Continuous)
3. I shall/will have loved. (Future Perfect)
4. I shall/will have been loving. (Future Perfect Continuous)

We may now define Tense as that form of a Verb which shows the time and the state of an action or event.
216. A verb agrees with its subject in number and person. Study the verb forms of various tenses: Simple Present Tense
I speak
You speak
He speaks
We speak
They speak
Present Continuous Tense
• I am speaking
• You are speaking
• He is speaking .
• We are speaking.
• They are speaking.

Page 80

Present Perfect Tense
I have spoken
You have spoken
He has spoken
We have spoken
They have spoken

Simple Past Tense
I spoke
You spoke
He spoke
We spoke
They spoke

Past Perfect Tense

I had spoken
You had spoken
He had spoken
We had spoken
They had spoken

Simple Future Tense
I shall/will speak
You will speak
He will speak
We shall/will speak
They will speak

Future Perfect Tense
I shall/will have spoken
You will have spoken
He will have spoken
We shall/will have spoken
They will have spoken

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I have been speaking

You have been speaking
He has been speaking
We have been speaking
They have been speaking

Past Continuous Tense
I was speaking
You were speaking
He was speaking
We were speaking
They were speaking

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been speaking
You had been speaking
He had been speaking
We had been speaking
They had been speaking

Future Continuous Tense

I shall/will be speaking
You will be speaking
He will be speaking
We shall/will be speaking
They will be speaking

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I shall/will have been speaking
You will have been speaking
He will have been speaking
He shall/will have been speaking
They will have been speaking
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Grammar 45
Point out the Verbs in the following sentences and name their Moods and Tenses:1. The river flows under the brige.
2. I shall answer the letter to-night.
3. 1 knew he was there, for I had seen him come.

4. It has been raining all night.
5. I hear he has passed all right.
6. I had finished when he came.
7. He takes but little pride in his work.
8. I have been living here for months.
9. Be good, sweet maid.
10. By this time to-morrow I shall have reached my home.
11. It is time we left.
12. He told me that he had finished
13. God forgive you !
14. He is waiting for you in the compound.
15. Piper, pipe that song again.
16. I am hoping to get a holiday soon.
17. Perhaps it were better to obey him.
18. Do noble deeds, not dream them all the day.
19. I shall have plenty of time tomorrow.
20. Though this be madness, yet there is method in it.
21. The king had never before led his troops in battle.
22. If he was guilty, his punishment was too light.
23. We have heard a strange story.

Page 81
24. The travellers, all of whom had seen the chameleon, could not agree about its colour.
25. Beware lest something worse should happen to you.
26. The farmer is cutting the com which has ripened.
27. I wish my brother were here.
28. She would rather we stayed till tomorrow.

THE PRESENT Simple Present Tense
217. The Simple Present is used: (1) To express a habitual action; as,
He drinks tea every morning.
I get up every day at five o'clock.
My watch keeps good time.
(2) To express general truths; as,
The sun rises in the east.
Honey is sweet.
Fortune favours the brave.
(3) In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present; as,
Here comes the bus !
There she goes !
(4) In vivid narrative, as substitute for the Simple Past; as,
Soharab now rushes forward and deals a heavy blow to Rustam.
Immediately the Sultan hurries to his capital.
(5) To express a future event that is part of a fixed timetable or fixed programme
The next flight is at 7,00 tomorrow morning.
The match starts at 9 o'clock.
The train leaves at 5.20.
When does the coffee house reopen?
218. Note also the other uses of the Simple Present Tense.
(1) It is used to introduce quotations; as,
Keats says, ‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’.
(2) It is used, instead of the Simple Future Tense, in clauses of time and of condition; as,
I shall wait till yon finish your lunch.
If it rains we shall get wet.

(3) As in broadcast commentaries on sporting events, the Simple Present is used, instead of the Present Continuous, to describe activities in progress where there is stress on the succession of happenings rather than on the duration.
(4) The Simple Present is used, instead of the Present Continuous, with the type of verbs referred to in § 221 on the next page.

Page 82

Present Continuous Tense
219. The Present Continuous is used
(1) For an action going on at the time of speaking ; as,
She is singing (now).
The boys are playing hockey.
(2) For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking; as, I am reading ‘Davit! Copperfield’ (but I am not reading at this moment).
(3) For an action that has already been arranged to take place in the near future; as,
I am going to the cinema tonight.
My uncle is arriving tomorrow.
220. It has been pointed out before that the Simple Present is used for a habitual action.
However, when the reference is to a particularly obstinate habit-something which persists, for example, in spite of advice or warning- we use the Present Continuous with an adverb like always, continually, constantly.
My dog is very silly: he is always running out into the road.
221. The following verbs, on account of their meaning, are not normally used in the continuous form:
(1) Verbs of perception, e.g., see, hear, smell, notice, recognize.
(2) Verbs of appearing . e.g., appear, look, seem.
(3) Verbs of emotion, e.g., want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer.
(4) Verbs of thinking, e.g., think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, understand, imagine, mean, mind.
(5) have (= possess), own, possess, belong to, contain, consist of, be (except when used in the passive), e.g.

Wrong -- Right
These grapes are tasting sour -- These grapes taste sour.
I am thinking you arc wrong -- I think you are wrong.
She is seeming sad -- She seems sad.
He is having a cellular phone -- He has a cellular phone.
However, the verbs listed above can be used in the continuous tenses with a change of meaning: She is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt.
(taste= lest the flavour of )
I am thinking of going to Malaysia.
(think of = consider the idea of)

They are having lunch, (have = eat)

Present Perfect Tense
222. The Present Perfect is used
(1) To indicate completed activities in the immediate past (with just): as;

Page 83

He has just gone out.
It has just struck ten.

(2) To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite; as,
Have you read "Gulliver's Travels'?
I have never known him to be angry.
Mr. Hari has been to Japan.
(3) To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself; as,
Gopi has eaten all the biscuits (i.e., there aren't any left for you).
I have cut my finger (and it is bleeding now).
I have finished my work (= now I am free).
(4) To denote an action beginning at some time in the continuing up to the present moment (often with since- and/or-phrases); as,
• I Have known him for a long time.
• He has been ill since last week.
• We have lived here for ten years.
• We haven't seen Padina for several months.
223. The following adverbs or adverb phrases can also be used with the Present Perfect
(apart from those mentioned above): never, ever (in questions only), so far, till now, yet
(in negatives and questions), already, today, this week, this month, etc.
Note that the Present Perfect is never used with adverbs of past time. We should not say, for example, 'He has gone to Kolkata yesterday'. In such cases the Simple Past should be used ('He went to Kolkata yesterday').

Present Perfect Continuous Tense
224. The Present Perfect Continuous is used for an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing; as,
He has been sleeping for five hours (and is still sleeping).
They have been building the bridge for several months.
They have been playing since four o'clock.
225. This tense is also sometimes used for an action already finished. In such cases the continuity of the activity is emphasized as an explanation of something.
'Why are your clothes so wet?' - 'I have been watering the garden'.

Simple Past Tense
226. The Simple Past is used to indicate an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.
The steamer sailed yesterday.
I received his letter a week ago.
She left school last year.
227. Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context.

Page 84
I learnt Hindi in Nagpur.
I didn't sleep well (i.e, last night).
Babar defeated Rana Sanga at Kanwaha.
228. The Simple Past is also used for past habits; as,
He studied many hours every day.
She always carried an umbrella.

Past Continuous Tense
229. The Past Continuous is used to denote an action going on at some time in the past.
The time of the action may or may not be indicated.
We were watching TV all evening.
It was getting darker.
The light went out while I was reading.
When I saw him, he was playing chess.
As in the last two examples above, the Past Continuous and Simple Past are used together when a new action happened in the middle of a longer action. The Simple Past is used for the new action.
230. This tense is also used with always, continually, etc. for persistent habits in the past.
He was always grumbling.

Past Perfect Tense
231. The Past Perfect describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past; as, I met him in New Delhi in 1996. I-had seen him last five years before.
232. If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such situations. The
Simple Past is used in one clause and the Past Perfect in the other; as,
When I reached the station the train had started (so I couldn't get into the train).
I had done my exercise when Han came to see me.
I had written the letter before he arrived.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
233. The Past Perfect Continuous is used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time; as,
At 'hat time he had been writing a novel for two months.
When Mr. Mukerji came to the school in 1995, Mr. Anand had already been teaching there for five years.

Exercise in Composition 46
Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets:
1. The earth --- round the sun. (move, moves, moved)
2. My friends --- the Prime Minister yesterday, (see, have seen, saw)
3. I --- him only one letter up to now. (sent, have sent, send)

Page 85
4. She --- worried about something, (looks, looking, is looking)
5. It started to rain while we --- tennis, (are playing, were playing, had played).
6. He --- fast when the accident happened, (is driving, was driving, drove)
7. He --- asleep while he was driving, (falls, fell, has fallen)
8. I'm sure I --- him at the party last night, (saw, have seen, had seen).
9. He --- a mill in this town, (have, has, is having)
10. He --- here for the last five years, (worked, is working, has been working).
11. He thanked me for what I ---. (have done, had done, have been doing)
12. I --- a strange noise, (hear, am hearing, have been hearing).
13. I --- him for a long time, (know, have known, am knowing) '.
14. We ---,English for five years, (study, am studying, have been studying) .
15. Don't disturb me. I --- my homework, (do, did, am doing) .
16. Abdul --- to be a doctor, (wants, wanting, is wanting)
17. The soup --- good, (taste, tastes, is tasting)
18. He --- TV most evenings, (watches, is watch, is watching)
19. He --- out five minutes ago. (has gone, had gone, went)
20. When he lived in Hyderabad, he --- to the cinema once a week, (goes, went, was going)
21. The baby --- all morning, (cries, has been crying)
22. I --- Rahim at the zoo. (saw, have seen, had seen)
23. I --- Kumar this week, (haven't seen, didn't see, am not seeing)
24. This paper --- twice weekly, (is appearing, appearing, appears)
25. Ashok fell off the ladder when he --- the roof, (is mending, was mending, mended)

Exercise in Composition 47
Choose the correct alternative from those given in brackets:
1. The Headmaster --- to speak to you. (wants, is wanting, was wanting)
2. I --- a new bicycle last week, (bought, have bought, had bought)
3. Here are your shoes ; I --- them, (just clean, just cleaned, have just cleaned)
4. It --- since early morning, (rained, is raining, has been raining)
5. I --- a lot of work today, (did, have done, had done)
6. I --- something burning, (smell, am smelling, have been smelling)
7. Look ! The sun --- over the hills, (rises, is rise, is rising)
8. She --- unconscious since four o'clock, (is, was, has been)
9. He used to visit us every week, but he --- now. (rarely comes, is rarely coming, has rarely come)
10. We --- for his call since 4.20. (are waiting, have been waiting, were waiting)
11. Every day last week my aunt --- a plate, (breaks, broke, was breaking)
12. I know all about that film because I --- it twice, (saw, have seen, had seen)
13. Our guests ---; they are silting in the garden, (arrived, have arrived, had arrived). 14. I --- him since we met a year ago. (didn't see, haven't seen, hadn't seen)
15. We --- our breakfast half an hour ago. (finished, have finished, had finished)
16. She jumped off the bus while it ---. (moved, had moved, was moving).

17. When we went to the cinema, the film --- (already started, had already started, would already start)
18. I --- for half an hour when it suddenly started to rain, (have walked, have been walking, had been walking)
19. Did you think you --- me somewhere before? (have .seen, had seen, were seeing) 20. The town --- its appearance completely since 1980. (is changing, changed, has changed) A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 86
21. Sheila --- her case, look. (packed, has packed, had packed)
22. When I was in Sri Lanka. I --- Negombo. Beruwela and Nilaveli. (visited, was visited, have visited)
23. 1 meant to repair the radio, but --- time to do it today (am not having, haven't had. hadn't)
24. When I --- my dinner I went to bed. (had, have had, had had)
25. Men --- to abolish wars up to now, but maybe they will find a way in the future,
(never managed, have never managed, will have never managed)

234. There are several ways of talking about the future in English: The Simple Future
Tense, the going to form, the Simple Present Tense, etc.

Simple future tense
235. The Simple Future Tense is used to talk about things which we cannot control. It expresses the future as fact.
I shall be twenty next Saturday.
It will be Diwali in a week.
We will know our exam results in May.
236. We use this tense to talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future.
I think Pakistan will win the match.
I'm sure Helen will get a first class.
As in the above sentences, we often use this tense with I think, and I'm sure. We also say
I expect ---, I believe ---, Probably ---, etc.
237. We can use this tense when we decide to do something at the lime of speaking
It is raining. I will take an umbrella.
“Mr. Sinha is very busy at the moment.” – “All right. I'll wait.”

Going to
238. We use the going to form (be going to + base of the verb) when we have decided to do something before talking about it.
“Have you decided what to do?” – “Yes. / am going to resign the job.”
“Why do you want to sell your motorbike?” – “I'm going to buy a car.”
Remember that if the action is already decided upon and preparations have been made, we should use the going to form, not the Simple Future Tense. The Simple Future Tense is used for an instant decision.

239. We also use the going to form to talk about what seems likely or certain, when there is something in the present which tells us about the future.
• It is going to rain; look at those clouds.
• The boat is full of water. It is going to sink.
• She is going to have a baby.
240. The going to form may also express an action which is on the point of happening.

Page 87
Let's get into the train. It's going to leave.
Look! The cracker is going to explode.

Be about to
241. Be about to + base form can also be used for the immediate future.
Let's get into the train. It's about to leave.
Don't go out now. We are about to have lunch.

Simple Present Tense
242. The Simple Present Tense is used for official programmes and timetables.
The college opens on 23rd June.
The film starts at 6.30 and finishes at 9.00.
When does the next train leave for Chennai?
243. The Simple Present is often used for future time in clauses with if, unless, when, while, as (= while) before, after, until, by the time and as soon as. The Simple Future
Tense is not used in such cases.
I won't go out if it rains, (not: will rain)
Can I have some milk before I go to bed?
Let's wait till he finishes his work.
Please ring me up as soon as he comes.

Present Continuous Tense
244. We use the Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something that we have planned to do in the future.
I am going to Shimla tomorrow.
We are eating out tonight.
Mr. Abdul Rehman is arriving this evening.
You are advised to use the Present Continuous (not the Simple Present) for personal arrangements. Future Continuous Tense
245. We use the Future Continuous Tense to talk about actions which will be in progress at a time in the future.
I suppose it will he raining when we start.
This time tomorrow I will be sitting on the beach in Singapore.
“Can I see you at 5 o'clock?” – “Please don t come then I will be watching the tennis match on TV.
246. We also use this tense to talk about actions in the future which are already planned or which are expected to happen in the normal course of things.

I will be staying here till Sunday.
He will be meeting us next week.
The postman will be coming soon

Be to
247. We use be to + .base form to talk about official plans and arrangements.
The Prime Minister is to visit America next month.
The conference is to discuss “Nuclear Tests”.
Be to is used in a formal style, often in news reports Be is usually left out in headlines,
e.g. “Prime Minister to visit America”.

Future Perfect Tense
248. The Future Perfect Tense is used to talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future time.
I shall have written my exercise by then.
He will have left before you go to see him.
By the end of this month I will have worked here for five years.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
249. The Future Perfect Continuous tense is used for actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future.
By next March we shall have been living here for four years.
I’ll have been teaching for twenty years next July.
This tense is not very common.

Exercise in Composition 48
Choose the correct or more suitable forms of the verbs to fill in the blanks:1. The plane --- at 3.30. (arrives, will arrive)
2. I will phone you when he --- back, (comes, will come)
3. When I get home, my dog --- at the gate waiting for me. (sits, will be sitting)
4. I --- the Joshis this evening, (visit, am visiting)
5. Look at those black clouds. It ---, (will rain, is going to rain)
6. The train --- before we reach the station, (arrives, will have arrived)
7. Perhaps we --- Mahabaleshwar next month, (visit, will visit)
8. Unless we --- now we can't be on time, (start, will start)
9. I --- into town later on. Do you want a lift? (drive, will be driving)
10. The next term --- on 16th November, (begins, is beginning)
11. Oh dear! I --- (will sneeze, am going to sneeze)
12. By 2005, computers --- many of the jobs that people do today, (will be taking over, will have taken over)
13. I'm sure she --- the exam, (passes, will pass)
14. I --- home next Sunday, (go, am going)
15. I --- you one of these days, I expect, (see, will be seeing)
16. Help! I --- fall, (will fall, am going to fall)
17. She has bought some cloth; she --- herself a blouse, (will make, is going to make)
18. I --- your house this afternoon. It is on my way home from work, (will be passing, am passing) 19. Hurry up! The programme --- (will start, is about to start)
20. This book is not long. I --- it by lunch time, (will be reading, will have read)
For information about verb forms in conditionals, see
Book II, Chapter 32

250. The Verb, like the Personal Pronouns, has three Persons - the First, the Second and the Third. Thus we say
1. I speak.
2. You speak. (Old English: Thou speakest)
3. He speaks.

Page 89
This is because of the difference in Person of the Subjects, as all the three are subjects of the singular number.
In sentence 1, the Subject is of the First Person, therefore the Verb is also of the First
In sentence 2, the Subject is of the Second Person, therefore the verb is also of the
Second Person.
In sentence 3, the Subject is of the Third Person, therefore the Verb is also of the Third
We thus see that the Verb takes the same Person as its Subject; or, that the Verb agrees with its Subject in Person.
251. The Verb like the Noun and the Pronoun, has two Numbers the Singular and the
Plural. Thus we say 1. He speaks.
2. They speak.
This is because of the difference in Number of the subjects (as both the Subjects are of the third person).
In sentence 1, the Subject is Singular, therefore the Verb is Singular.
In sentence 2, the Subject is Plural, therefore the Verb is Plural.
We thus see that the Verb takes the same Number as its Subject; or, that the Verb agrees with its Subject in Number.
252. But we have already seen that the Verb also agrees with its Subject in Person ; hence we have the important rule The Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person; that is, the Verb must be of the same Number and Person as its Subject. Thus, if the Subject is of the Singular
Number, First Person, the Verb must be of the Singular Number, First Person ; as,
I am here.
I was there,
I have a bat.
I play cricket.
If the Subject is of the Singular Number, Third Person, the Verb must be of the Singular
Number, Third Person; as,
He is here.
He was there.
He has a bat.
He plays cricket.

If the Subject is of the Plural Number, Third Person, the Verb must be of the Plural
Number, Third Person ; as,
They are here.
They were there.
They have bats.
They play cricket.
Note- In some languages the form of the Verb changes with the Number and Person of the Subject. In modern English verbs have lost all their inflections for number and person, except in the third person of the singular number. Thus we haveI speak -- We speak.
You speak -- You speak. (You is both singular and plural in current English)
He speaks -- They speak.

Page 90
The only exception is the verb to be. We sayI am. -- We are.
You are. -- You are.
He is. -- They are.
For further study of the agreement of the verb with the subject, see Book II, Chapter 17.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

253. Read these sentences;
I want to go.
They tried to find fault with us.
The forms to go and to find are "infinitives."
The infinitive is the base of a verb, often followed by to.
254. Read the following sentences:1. To err is human.
2. Birds love to sing.
3. To respect our parents is our duty.
4. He refused to obey the orders.
5. Many men desire to make money quickly.
In sentence 1, the Infinitive, like a noun, is the Subject of the verb is.
In sentence 2, the Infinitive, like a noun, is the Object of the verb love.
In sentence 3, the Infinitive, like a noun, is the Subject of the verb is, but, like a verb, it also takes an object.
In sentence 4, the Infinitive, like a noun, is the Object of the verb refused, but, like a verb, it also takes an object.
In sentence 5, the Infinitive, like a noun, is the Object of the verb desire, but, like a verb, it also takes an Object and is modified by an Adverb.
It will be seen that the Infinitive is a kind of noun with certain features of the verb, especially that of taking an object (when the verb is Transitive) and adverbial qualifiers.
In short, the Infinitive is a Verb-Noun.
255. The word to is frequently used with the Infinitive, but is not an essential part or sign of it.
Thus, after certain verbs (bid, let, make (Except when they are conjugated with do) need,
(Except when they are conjugated with do) dare, see, hear), we use the Infinitive without to; as,

Bid him go there.
I bade him go.
Let him sit here.
I will not let you go.

Page 91
Make him stand.
I made him run.
We need not go to-day.
You need not do it.
You dare not do it.
I saw him do it.
I heard him cry.
256. The infinitive without to is also used after the verbs will, would, shall, should, may, might, can, could and must.
• I will pay the bill.
• You should work harder.
• He can speak five languages.
• You must come to the office at nine tomorrow.
The Infinitive without to is also used after had better, had rather, would rather, sooner than, rather than; as,
You had better ask permission.
I had rather play than work.
I would rather die than suffer so.

Use of the Infinitive
257. The Infinitive, with or without adjuncts, may be used, like a Noun (1) As the Subject of a Verb; as,
To find fault is easy.
To err is human.
To reign is worth ambition.
(2) As the Object of a transitive Verb; as
I do not mean to read.
He likes to play cards.
(3) As the Complement of a Verb; as,
Her greatest pleasure is to sing.
His custom is to ride daily.
(4) As the Object of a Preposition; as,
He had no choice but (= except) to obey.
The speaker is about to begin.
(5) As an Objective Complement; as,
I saw him go.
When the infinitive is thus used, like a Noun, it is called the Simple Infinitive.

258. The Infinitive is also used(1) To qualify a Verb, usually to express purpose; as,
He called to see my brother (= for the purpose of seeing my brother).
We eat to live. (Purpose)
I come to bury Caesar. (Purpose)
He wept to see the desolation caused by the flood. (Cause)
(2) To qualify an Adjective; as,
Figs are good to eat.
This medicine is pleasant to take.
The boys are anxious to learn.
He is too ill to do any work.

Page 92
(3) To qualify a Noun; as,
This is not the time to play.
You will have cause to repent.
He is a man to be admired.
Here is a house to let.
This house is to let.
(4) To qualify a Sentence; as,
To tell the truth, I quite forgot my promise.
He was petrified, so to speak.
When the Infinitive is thus used it is called the Gerund in I or Qualifying Infinitive.
It will be seen that in 1 and 2 the Gerundial Infinitive does the work of an Adverb; in 3 it does the work of of an Adjective; in 4 it is used absolutely.
259. The Infinitive may be active or passive. When active it may have a present and a perfect form, and may merely name the act, or it may represent progressive or continued action, Active
Present: to love.
Present Continuous: to be loving.
Perfect Continuous: to have been loving.
Perfect: to have loved.
When passive the Infinitive has a present and a perfect form.

Present: to be loved.
Perfect: to have been loved.

Exercise in Grammar 49
State how the Infinitive is used in the following sentences:1. There was nothing for it to fight.
2. Let us pray.
3. The mango is fit to eat.
4. I heard her sing.
5. I have come to see you.
6. The order to advance was given.
7. Men must work and women must weep.
8. I am sorry to hear this.
9. He is slow to forgive.
10. A man severe he was and stern to view

11. And fools who came to scoff remained to pray.
12. Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride.
13. Full many a flower is born to blush unseen.
14. Music hath charms to soothe the savage beast.
15. Never seek to fell thy love.
16. To retreat was difficult; to advance was impossible.
17. Everybody wishes to enjoy life.
18. My desire is to see you again.
19. There was not a moment to be lost.
20. The counsel rose to address the court.
21. My right there is none to dispute.
22. The ability to laugh is peculiar to mankind.
23. He has the power to concentrate his thoughts.
24. He was quick to see the point.
25. I am not afraid to speak the truth.
26. Better dwell in the midst of alarms.
27. Than reign in this horrible place.
28. Can you hope to count the stars?
29. To toil is the lot of mankind.
30. It is delightful to hear the sound of the sea. It is a penal offence to bribe a public

Page 93

Exercise in Composition 50
Combine together the following pairs of sentences by using Infinitives:[Example.- Napoleon was one of the greatest of generals. He is universally acknowledged so = Napoleon is universally acknowledged to have been one of the greatest of generals.
Note,- it will be noticed that we have turned one of the sentences into a phrase containing an infinitive.]
1. He did not have even a rupee with him. He could not buy a loaf of bread.
2. Every cricket team has a captain. He directs the other players.
3. You must part with your purse. On this condition only you can save your life.
4. He went to Amritsar. He wanted to visit the Golden Temple.
5. The robber took out a knife. He intended to frighten the old man.
6. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.
7. The insolvent's property was sold by the official Assignee. The insolvent's creditors had to be paid.
8. He wants to earn his livelihood. He works hard for that reason.
9. The strikers held a meeting. They wished to discuss the terms of the employers.
10. He has five children. He must provide for them.
11. The old man has now little energy left. He cannot take his morning constitutional exercises. 12. The Rajah allowed no cows to be slaughtered in his territory. It was his custom.
13. He formed a resolution. It was to the effect that he would not speculate any more.
14. Everyone should do his duty. India expects this of every man.
15. She visits the poor. She is anxious to relieve them of their sufferings.
16. He collects old stamps even at great expense. This is his hobby.
17. He must apologise for his misconduct, it is the only way to escape punishment.
18. I have no aptitude for business. I must speak it out frankly.
19. He was desirous of impressing his host. So he was on his behaviour in his presence.
20. That young man has squandered away all his patrimony. He must have been very foolish. 21. He has risen to eminence from poverty and obscurity. It is highly creditable.

260. Read this sentence:Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
It is formed from the Verb hear, and governs an object.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a Verb and an Adjective, and is called a Participle. It may be called a Verbal Adjective.

Def. - A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb and of an Adjective.
[Or] A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an adjective.
[Note. - The phrase 'Hearing the noise', which is introduced by a Principle, is called a
Participle Phrase. According to its use here, it is an Adjective Phrase.]
261. Study the following examples of Participles:
1. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell.
The above are all examples of what is usually called the Present Participle which ends in
-ing and represents an action as going on or incomplete or imperfect.
If the verb from which it comes is Transitive, it takes an object, as in sentence 1.
Notice also that in sentence 2, the Participle is modified by an adverb.
262. Besides the Present Participle, we can form from each verb another Participle called its Past Participle, which represents a completed action or state of the thing spoken of.
The following are examples of Past Participles:• Blinded by a dust storm, they fell into disorder.
• Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope.
• Time misspent is lime lost.
• Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.
• We saw a few trees laden with fruit.
It will be noticed that the Past Participle usually ends in -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n.
Besides these two simple participles, the Present and the Past, we have what is called a
Perfect Participle that represents an action as completed at some past time; as,
Having rested, we continued our journey.
263. In the following examples the Participles are used as simple qualifying adjectives in front of a noun; thus used they are called Participle Adjectives:A rolling stone gathers no moss.
We had a drink of the sparkling water.
His tattered coat needs mending.
The creaking door awakened the dog.
A lying witness ought to be punished.
He played a losing game.
A burnt child dreads the fire.
His finished manners produced a very favourable impression.

He wears a worried look.
Education is the most pressing need of our country.
He was reputed to be the most learned man of his- time.

Page 95
264. Used adjectivally the past participle is Passive in meaning, while the Present
Participle is Active in meaning; as, a spent swimmer = a swimmer who is tired out; a burnt child = a child who is burnt; a painted doll = a doll which is painted; a rolling stone = a stone which rolls.
265. Let us now recapitulate what we have already learnt about the Participle.
(1) A participle is a Verbal Adjective.
(2) Like a Verb it may govern a noun or pronoun; as,
Hearing the noise, the boy woke up. [The noun noise is governed by the participle
(3) Like a Verb it may be modified by an adverb; as
Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission. [Here the participle knocking is modified by the adverb Loudly,]
(4) Like an adjective it may qualify a noun or pronoun; as,
Having rested, the men continued their journey.
(5) Like an Adjective it may be compared; as,
Education is the most pressing need of our time. [Here the participle pressing is compared by prefixing most.]
266. Below are shown the forms of the different Participles:

Present: loving
Perfect: having loved

Present: being loved.
Perfect: having been loved.
Past: loved.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Use of the Participle
267. It will be noticed that the Continuous Tenses (Active Voice) are formed from the
Present Participle with tenses of the verb be; as,
I am loving.
I was loving.
I shall be loving.

The Perfect Tenses (Active Voice) are formed from the Past Participle with tenses of the verb have; as,
I have loved.
I had loved.
I shall have loved.
The Passive Voice is formed from the Past Participle with tenses of the verb be; as,
I am loved.
I was loved.
I shall be loved.
268. We have seen that Participles qualify nouns or pronouns.
They may be used(1) Attributively; as,
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
His tattered coat needs mending.
A lost opportunity never returns.

Page 96
(2) Predicatively; as,
The man seems worried. (Modifying the Subject)
He kept me waiting. (Modifying the Object.)
(3) Absolutely with a noun or pronoun going before; as,
• The weather being fine, I went out.
• Many having arrived, we were freed from anxiety.
• Weather permitting, there will be a garden party at Government House tomorrow.
• God willing, we shall have another good monsoon.
• The sea being smooth, we went for sail.
• The wind having failed, the crew set to work with a will.
• His master being absent, the business was neglected.
• The wind being favourable, they embarked.
It will be seen that in each of the above sentences the Participle with the noun or pronoun going before it, forms a phrase independent of the rest of the sentence. Such a phrase is called an Absolute Phrase; and a noun or pronoun so used with a participle is called a
Nominative Absolute.
269. An Absolute Phrase can be easily changed into a subordinate clause; as,
Spring advancing, the swallows appear. [When spring advances. -Clause of Time.]
The sea being smooth, we went for a sail. [Because the sea was smooth. - Clause of
God willing, we shall meet again. [If God is willing. - Clause of Condition.]

Errors in the Use of Participles
270.Since the participle is a verb-adjective it must be attached to some noun or pronoun; in other words, it must always have a proper 'subject of reference'.
The following sentences are incorrect because in each case the Participle is left without proper agreement:
1. Standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him. (As it is, the sentence reads as if the scorpion was standing at the gate.)
2. Going up the hill, an old temple was seen.
3. Entering the room, the light was quite dazzling.
We should, therefore, recast these sentences as shown below:
1. Standing at the gate, he was stung by a scorpion.
Or: While he was standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him.
2. When we went up the hill, we saw an old temple.
3. Entering the room, I found the light quite dazzling.
Or: When I entered the room, the light was quite dazzling.

271. Usage, however, permits in certain cases such constructions as the following where the participle is left without a proper 'subject of references. [The Participle in such cases is called an Impersonal Absolute].

Page 97
Taking everything into consideration, the Magistrate was perfectly justified in issuing those orders.
Considering his abilities, he should have done better.
Roughly speaking, the distance from here to the nearest railway station is two miles.
It will be noticed that in the above instances the unexpressed subject is indefinite.
Thus, 'Roughly speaking' = If one speaks roughly.
272. Sometimes, as in the following examples, the Participle is understood:Sword (being) in hand, he rushed on the jailor.
Breakfast (having been) over, we went out for a walk.

Exercise in Grammar 51
Pick out the Participle in each of the following sentences. Tell whether it is a Present or a
Past participle, and also how it is used:1. Generally speaking, we receive what we deserve.
2. Having gained truth, keep truth.
3. I saw the storm approaching.
4. Hearing a noise, I turned round.
5. Considering the facts, he received scant justice.
6. The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field.
7. Being dissatisfied, he resigned his position.
8. The rain came pouring down in torrents.
9. Having elected him President, the people gave him their loyal support.
10. The traveller, being weary, sat by the wood side to rest.

Exercise in Grammar 52
Pick out the Participle in each of the following sentences. Tell whether it is a Present or a
Past Participle, and also how it is used:1. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use.
2. Being occupied with important matters, he had no leisure to see us.
3. The children coming home from school look in at the open door.
4. Michael, bereft of his son Luke, died of a broken heart.
5. Books read in childhood seem like old friends.
6. Lessons learned easily are soon forgotten.
7. A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures (baskets) of silver.
8. Seeing the sunshine, I threw open the window.
9. Seizing him by the arm, his friend led him away.
10. Encouraged by his wife, he persevered.
11. Overcome by remorse, he determined to atone for his crime by liberality to the church. Exercise in Composition 53
Combine the following pairs of sentenees by making use of Participle:[Examples. The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat.
= Taking pity on the mouse the magician turned it into a cat.

Page 98
The train was ready to leave the station. The people had taken their seats.
= The people having taken their seats, the train was ready to leave the station.]
1. The porter opened the gate. We entered.
2. We started early. We arrived at noon.
3. We met a man. He was carrying a load of wood.
4. The stable door was open. The horse was stolen.
5. He seized his stick. He rushed to the door.
6. The hunter took up his gun. He went out to shoot the lion.
7. A crow stole a piece of cheese. She flew to her nest to enjoy the tasty meal.
8. The wolf wished to pick a quarrel with the lamb. He said. “How dare you make the water muddy?”
9. A passenger alighted from the train. He fell over a bag on the platform.
10. Nanak met his brother in the street. He asked him where he was going.
11. My sister was charmed with the silk. She bought ten yards.
12. The steamer was delayed by a storm. She came into port a day late.
13. He had resolved on a certain course. He acted with vigour.
14. He staggered back. He sank to the ground.
15. The letter was badly written. I had great difficulty in making out its contents.
16. They had no fodder. They could give the cow nothing to eat,
17. A hungry fox saw some bunches of grapes. They were hanging from a vine.
18. Cinderella hurried away with much haste. She dropped one of her little glass slippers.
273. Participles sometimes contain an implied meaning, which can be more fully expressed by changing the participial phrase into a clause of:- (a) time, (b) cause, (c) concession, or (ct) condition. [See § 269.]
(a) Having done his lesson (= after he had done his lesson), he went out to play cricket.
Walking along the street one day (= while I was walking along the street one day) I saw a dead cobra.
(b) Being overpowered (= because he was overpowered), he surrendered.
Running at top speed (= because he ran at top speed), he got out of breath.
(c) Possessing all the advantages of education and wealth (= although he possessed all the advantages of education and wealth), he never made a name.
(d) Following my advice (= if you follow my advice), you will gain your object.
Seven were killed, including the guard (=if the guard is included).

Exercise in Composition 54
Rewrite each of the following sentences, by changing the Participle into a Finite Verb;[Examples. Quitting the forest we advanced into the open plain. = We quitted the forest and advanced into the open plain. Driven out of his country, he sought asylum in a

foreign land. [= As he was driven out of his country, he sought asylum in a foreign land.]
1. Going up the stairs, the boy fell down.
2. Having lost my passport, I applied for a new one.

Page 99
3. I once saw a man walking on a rope.
4. Walking on the roof, he slipped and fell.
5. Having no guide with us, we lost our way.
6. The stable door being open, the horse was stolen.
7. Being paralytic, he could not walk.
8. Hearing the noise, I woke up.
9. Caesar being murdered, the dictatorship came to an end.
10. Working all day, I was fatigued.
11. We met an old Sadhu walking to Benares.
12. Having come of age, his son entered into partnership with him.
13. Having failed in the first attempt, he made no further attempts.
14. Walking up to the front door, I rang the bell.
15. Winter coming on, the grasshopper had no food.
16. Enchanted with the whole scene, I lingered on my voyage.
17. The enemy disputed their ground inch by inch, fighting with the fury of dispair.
18. Mounting his horse, the bandit rode off.
19. The policeman, running with all his speed, was scarcely able to overtake the thief.
20. Not knowing my way, I asked a policeman.

274. Read this sentence:Reading is his favourite pastime.
The word reading is formed from the Verb read, by adding ing.
We also see that it is here used as the Subject of a verb, and hence does the work of a
Noun. It is, therefore, a Verb-Noun, and is called a Gerund.
Further examples of Gerund:1. Playing cards is not allowed here.
2. I like reading poetry.
3. He is fond of hoarding money.
In sentence 1, the Gerund, like a noun, is the subject of a verb, but, like a verb, it also takes an object, thus clearly showing that it has also the force of a verb.
In sentence 2, the Gerund, like a noun, is the object of a verb but, like a verb, it also takes an object, thus clearly showing that it has also the force of a verb.
In sentence 3, the Gerund, like a noun, is governed by a preposition, but, like a verb, it also takes an object.

It will be noticed that the Infinitive and the Gerund are alike in being used as Nouns, while still retaining the power that a Verb has of governing another noun or pronoun in the objective case.
Def.- A Gerund is that form of the verb which ends in -ing, and has the force of a Noun and a verb.

Page 100
275. As both the Gerund and the Infinitive have the force of a Noun and a Verb, they have the same uses. Thus in many sentences either of them may be used without any special difference in meaning; as,
Teach me to swim.
To see is to believe.
Teach me swimming.
Seeing is believing.
To give is better than to receive.
Giving is better than receiving.
276. The following sentences contain examples of Compound Gerund forms:I heard of his having gained a prize. We were fatigued on account of having walked so far. They were charged with having sheltered anarchists. He is desirous of being praised.
It will be noticed that Compound Gerund forms are formed by placing a Past Participle after the Gerunds of have and be.
277. The Gerund of a Transitive verb has the following forms:-

Present: loving
Perfect: having loved

Present: being loved
Perfect: having been loved
278. As both the Gerund and the Present Participle end in -ing, they must be carefully distinguished. The Gerund has the force of a Noun and a verb; it is a Verbal Noun.
The Present Participle has the force of an Adjective and a Verb; it is a Verbal Adjective.
Examples of GerundHe is fond of playing cricket.
The old man was tired of walking.
We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
Seeing is believing.
Examples of Participle Playing cricket, he gained health.
Walking along the road, he noticed a dead cobra.
Seeing, he believed.

279. Read this sentence:
The indiscriminate reading of novels is injurious.
The reading is used like an ordinary Noun.
Notice that the is used before and of after it.
Further examples of Gerunds used like ordinary Nouns:
The making of the plan is in hand.
The time of the singing of the birds has come.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 101
A dam consented to the eating of the fruit.
The middle station of life seems to be the most advantageously situated for the gaining of wisdom. 280. In such Compound nouns as walking-stick frying-pan hunting-whip, fencing-stick, writing-table, walking, frying, hunting, fencing, writing are Gerunds.
They mean ‘a stick for walking,’ ‘a pan for frying,’ ‘a whip for hunting,’ ‘a stick for fencing,’ and ‘a table for writing.’
281. Compare the following two sentences:
1. I hope you will excuse my leaving early.
2. I hope you will excuse me leaving early.
In the first sentence the word preceding the gerund is in the possessive case, while in the second sentence it is in the objective case. Both the sentences are correct. We can use either the possessive case or objective case of nouns and pronouns before gerunds. The possessive is more formal, and it is less usual in everyday speech. Here are further examples: We rejoiced at his/him being promoted.
I insist on your/you being present.
Do you mind my/me sitting here?
All depends on Karim's/Karim passing the exam.
I disliked the manager's/manager asking me personal questions.
The accident was due to the engine-driver's/engine-driver disregarding the signals.

Use of the Gerund
282. A Gerund being a verb-noun may be used as (1) Subject of a verb: as
Seeing is believing.
Hunting deer is not allowed in this country.
(2) Object of a transitive verb; as,
Stop playing.
Children love making mud castles.
I like reading poetry.

He contemplated marrying his cousin.
(3) Object of a preposition; as,
I am tired of waiting.
He is fond of swimming.
He was punished for telling a lie.
We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
I have an aversion to fishing,
(4) Complement of a verb; as,
Seeing is believing.
What I most detest is smoking.

Page 102
(5) Absolutely; as,
Playing cards being his aversion, we did not play bridge.

Exercise in Grammar 55
Point out the Participles and Gerunds in the following sentences. In the case of the
Participle, name the noun or pronoun which it qualifies. In the case of the Gerund, state whether it is subject, object, complement, or used after a preposition.
1. He was found fighting desperately for his life.
2. He has ruined his sight by reading small print.
3. Hearing the noise, he ran to the window.
4. We saw a clown standing on his head.
5. Asking questions is easier than answering them.
6. Waving their hats and handkerchiefs, the people cheered the king.
7. Walking on the grass is forbidden.
8. Jumping over the fence, the thief escaped.
9. The miser spends his time in hoarding money.
10. Much depends on Rama's returning before noon.
11. Amassing wealth often ruins health.
12. I was surprised at Hari's being absent.
13. We spent the afternoon in playing cards.
14. The miser hated spending money.
15. She was angry at Saroja trying to He to her.
16. Praising all alike is praising none.
17. Are you afraid of his hearing you?
18. I determined to increase my salary by managing a little farm.
19. Success is not merely winning applause.
20. The year was spent in visiting our rich neighbours.
21. Singing to herself was her chief delight.
22. He preferred playing football to studying his lessons.
23. I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word.
24. 1 cannot go on doing nothing.

283. Verbs can be regular or irregular.
284. Regular verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed.
Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
Walk -- walked -- walked laugh -- laughed -- laughed paint -- painted -- painted

285. Irregular verbs form their past tense and past participle in a different way from adding ed.
Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
Sit -- sat -- sat
Ring -- rang -- rung
Come -- came -- come
Cut -- cut -- cut

Page 103
We distinguish three types of irregular verbs:
(1) Verbs in which all three forms are the same
(e.g. cut - cut - cut)
(2) Verbs in which two of the three forms are the same
(e.g. sit - sat - sat)
(3) Verbs in which all three forms are different
(e.g. ring - rang - rung)
286. Below is a list of irregular verbs divided into the three types mentioned above. Some of them can also be regular. In such cases the regular forms are also given.
Type (1) - All three forms are the same.
Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
Bet -- bet -- bet
Burst -- burst -- burst
Cost -- cost -- cost
Cut -- cut -- cut
Hit -- hit -- hit
Hurt -- hurt -- hurt
Let -- let – let put -- put – put
Read -- read -- read
Set -- set -- set
Shut -- shut -- shut
Split -- split -- split
Spread -- spread -- spread
Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same.
Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
Beat -- beat -- beaten
Become -- became -- become
Bend -- bent -- bent
Bleed -- bled -- bled
Breed -- bred -- bred
Bring -- brought -- brought
Build -- built -- built
Burn -- burnt/burned -- burnt/burned
Buy -- bought -- bought
Catch --caught -- caught
Come -- came -- come
Creep -- crept -- crept
Deal -- dealt -- dealt
Dig -- dug -- dug

Dream -- dreamt/dreamed -- dreamt/dreamed
Feed -- fed -- fed
Feel -- felt -- felt
Fight -- fought -- fought
Find -- found -- found
Get -- got -- got
Hand -- hung -- hung
Have -- had -- had
Hear -- heard -- heard
Hold -- held -- held

Page 104

Lay -- laid -- laid
Lead -- led -- led
Lean -- tent/leaned -- lent/leaned
Learn -- learnt/learned -- learnt/learned
Leap -- leapt/leaped -- leapt/leaped
Leave -- left -- left
Lend -- lent -- lent
Light -- lit -- lit
Lose -- lost -- lost
Make -- made -- made
Mean -- meant -- meant
Meet -- met -- met
Pay -- paid -- paid
Run -- ran -- run
Say -- said -- said
Sell -- sold -- sold
Send -- sent -- sent
Shine -- shone -- shone
Shoot -- shot -- shot
Sit -- sat -- sat
Sleep -- slept -- slept
Smell -- smelr/smelled -- smeit/smelled
Speed -- sped -- sped
Spell -- spelt -- spelt
Spend -- spent -- spent
Spill -- spilt/spilled -- spilt/spilled
Speed -- sped -- sped
Spell -- spelt/spelled -- spelt/spelled
Spit -- spat -- spat
Spoil -- spoilt/spoiled -- spoilt/spoiled
Stand -- stood -- stood
Stick -- stuck -- stuck
Sting -- stung -- stung
Strike -- struck -- struck
Sweep -- swept -- swept
Swing -- swung -- swung
Teach -- taught -- taught
Tell -- told -- told
Think -- thought -- thought
Understand -- understood -- understood
Win -- won -- won
Wind -- wound -- wound

Type (3) - All three forms are different
Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
Be -- was/were -- been
Begin -- began -- begun
Bite -- bit -- bitten
Blow -- blew -- blown
Break -- broke -- broken
Choose -- chose -- chosen
Do -- did -- done
Draw -- drew -- drawn
Drink -- drank -- drunk
Drive -- drove -- driven
Eat -- ate -- eaten
Fall -- fell -- fallen
Fly -- flew -- flown
Forbid -- forbade -- forbidden

Page 105
Forget -- forgot -- forgotten forgive -- forgave -- forgiven freeze -- froze -- frozen give -- gave -- given go -- went -- gone grow -- grew -- grown hide -- hid -- hidden know -- knew -- known lie -- lay -- lain mistake -- mistook -- mistaken ride -- rode -- ridden ring -- rang -- rung rise -- rose -- risen see -- saw -- seen sew -- sewed -- sewn/sewed shake -- shook -- shaken show -- showed -- shown shrink -- shrank -- shrunk sing -- sang -- sung sink -- sank -- sunk speak -- spoke -- spoken spring -- sprang -- sprung steal -- stole -- stolen stink -- stank -- stunk swear -- swore -- sworn swim -- swam -- swum take -- took -- taken tear -- tore -- torn throw -- threw -- thrown wake -- woke -- woken wear -- wore -- worn write -- wrote -- written
287. The following verbs have an alternative past participle form (ending in en), which can only be used adjectivally.

Verb -- Usual Past Participle -- Adjectival Past Participle
Drink -- drunk -- drunken
Melt -- melted -- molten
Prove -- proved -- proven
Shave -- shaved -- shaven
Shear -- sheared -- shorn
Shrink -- shrunk -- shrunken

Sink -- sunk -- sunken
Strike -- struck -- stricken
Compare the following:
He has drunk liquor.
The iron has melted.
He has proved it.
He has shaved off his beard.
They have sheared the sheep.
The cloth has shrunk.
The ship has sunk.
The clock has struck five.
a drunken soldier molten iron a proven fact a clean-shaven face a shorn sheep a shrunken head a sunken ship a grief-stricken widow

Page 106

Exercise in Composition 56
In the following sentences change the verbs to the Past Tense:
1.Rama writes to his mother every week.
2. The wind blows furiously.
3. The boy stands on the burning deck.
4. The door flies open.
5. She sings sweetly.
6. The old woman sits in the sun.
7. Abdul swims very well indeed.
8. His voice shakes with emotion.
9. He drives a roaring trade.
10. He bears a grudge against his old uncle. .
11. He spends his time in idleness.
12. He feels sorry for his faults.
13. A portrait of Mahatma Gandhi hangs on the wall.
14. The kite flies gaily into the air.
15. He wears away his youth in trifles.
16. What strikes me is the generosity of the offer.
17. He sows the seeds of dissension.
18. They all tell the same story.
19. He lies in order to escape punishment.
20. He comes of a good line.
21. The boy runs down the road at top speed.
22. I do it of my own free will.
23. His parents withhold their consent to the marriage.
24. I forget his name.
25. He gets along fairly well.
26. They choose Mr. Malik to be their chairman.
27. He throws cold water on my plan.
28. The child clings to her mother.
29. Judas, overwhelmed with remorse, goes and hangs himself.
30. I know him for an American.
31. He swears a solemn oath that he is innocent.
32. In a fit of rage she tears up the letter.
33. Her head sinks on her shoulder.
34. She hides her face for shame.
35. My master bids me work hard.
36. The books lie in a heap on the floor.
37. She lays her handbag on the table.

Exercise in Composition 57
Fill in the Past Tense or Past Participle of verb given:-

See -- It is years since I --- him. He has --- his best days.
Fall -- Of late the custom has --- into disuse. The lot --- upon him.
Drink -- The toast was --- with great enthusiasm.
Speak -- He --- freely when he had drunk alcohol. Marathi is --- in Maharashtra.
Wear -- My patience --- out at last. The inscription has --- away in several places.
Tear -- In a fit of rage she --- up the letter. The country is --- by factions.
Sting -- He has been --- by a scorpion. The remark --- him.
Run -- You look as if you had --- all the way home. He --- for his life.
Forget -- Once Sydney Smith, being asked his name by the servant, found to his dismay that he had --- his own name.
Choose -- A better day for a drive could not have been ---.
Com -- Computer technology has --- a long way since the 1970s.
Bite -- The old beggar was --- by a mad dog. A mad dog --- him.
Swim -- The boy has --- across the Indus.
Write -- I think he should have --- and told us. Honesty is --- on his face.
Lay -- He -- the book on the table. He had not --- a finger on him. They --- their heads together. Page 107
Lie -- We --- beneath a spreading oak. He has long --- under suspicion.
Take -- A beautiful short from cover point --- of the ball. He has --- a fancy to the boy.
Go -- Recently the price of sugar has --- up. The argument --- home. The verdict --against him.
Begin -- He had --- his speech before we arrived. He --- to talk non sense.
Bid -- Do as you are ---. He --- us good-bye. He --- two thousand rupees for the pony.
Ring -- Has the warning-bell ? I --- him up on the telephone.
Steal -- Someone has --- my purse. She --- his heart.
So -- You must reap what you have ---.
Drive -- Poor fellow ! he was --- very hard. They say he --- a hard bar gain.
Sing -- It seemed to me that she had never --- so well. Our bugles --- truce.
Shake -- He was much --- by the news. His voice --- as he spoke.
Eat -- He is --- up with pride. In the end he --- his words.
Do -- Let us have --- with it. I --- my duty.
Spring -- Homer describes a race of men who --- from the gods. The ship --- a leak.
Show -- Has Rustum --- you his camera? He --- a clean pair of heels.
Freeze -- The explorers were --- to death. The blood --- in their veins.
Strike -- I was --- by a stone. It never --- me before that he was old.
Mistake -- I found upon inquiry that I had --- the house. He --- me for my brother.
Shoe -- Go, ask the terrier whether he has --- the horses yet.
Strew -- His path was --- with flowers.
Sink -- His voice gradually --- to a whisper. --- And thousands had --- to the ground overpower’d. Tread -- Walking through the jungle, he --- on a snake.
Rise -- He has --- from the ranks. As his friends expected he --- to the occasion.
Beat -- On the arrival of a policeman, he --- a hasty retreat. He --- the Afghans in a bloody battle. It was not the only battle in which they were ---.
Blow -- The tempest --- the ship ashore.
Catch -- Walking on the beach, we --- sight of a strange bird. He has --- a Tartar.
Have -- After the storm we --- a spell of fine weather.
Meet -- I --- a little cottage girl. The poor fellow has --- with many reverses.
Sleep -- We thought her dying when she ---.
Get -- He has --- hold of the wrong end of the stick.
Lead -- The faithful dog --- his blind master.
Awake -- And his disciples came to him, and --- him. I was soon --- from this disagreeable reverie.
Bear -- I was --- away by an impulse.
Stand -- It has --- the test of time.
Sit -- He has, --- for the examination.
Know -- He says he has never --- sickness. I --- his antecedents.
Bind -- The prisoner was --- hand and foot.
Break -- He has --- his collar-bone.
Breed -- What is --- in the bone will not wear out of the flesh.
Strive -- I --- with none, for none was worth my strife.

Page 108
Give -- He never --- me a chance to speak. He is --- to opium-smoking.
Dream -- I --- I was in love again.
Weep -- I have --- a million tears.

Exercise in Composition 58
Fill in the Past Tense or Past Participle of verb given :Spin -- The story is tediously --- out.
Mean -- I --- it for a joke. He was --- for a lawyer.
Arise -- Suddenly the wind ---. There never has --- a great man who has not been misunderstood. Draw -- Who --- the first prize ? He has --- a wrong inference. The train --- up to the station. Understand -- I certainly --- you to make that promise. I am afraid I did not make myself
Shoot -- He was accidentally --- in the arm.
Shrink -- He is not known ever to have --- from an encounter. There was no cruelty from which the robber chief ---.
Smell -- I noticed that he --- of brandy.
Stick -- The cart --- in the mud.
Swear -- The soldiers --- allegiance to the Constitution of India. He was yesterday --- in as a member of the Legislative Assembly.
Sweep -- The waves --- the pier. The pier was --- away. Plague --- off millions.
Cost -- Often a lie has --- a life. His folly --- him years of poverty.
Buy -- A rupee --- twice as much fifteen years ago.
Crow -- His enemies --- over his fall.
Deal -- He ---unfairly with his partner. The robber -- him a blow on the head.
Lose -- His rushness --- him his life. --- time is never found again. The man who yields to the fascination of the gaming-table is ---.
Find -- Sir, I have --- you an argument; but I am not obliged to find you an understanding.
The picture --- its way to the auction-room.
Forgive -- Christ --- his crucifiers.
Sleep -- It is said of Akbar that he rarely --- more than three hours at a time.
Seek -- His company is greatly --- after. It might be truly said of him that he never --honour.
Hide -- Adam and his wife --- themselves from the presence of the Lord God.
Fall -- He --- never to rise again. A certain man went down from --- Jerusalem to Jericho, and --- among thieves. He has --- asleep.
Set -- He has --- his heart on success. The teacher --- them an --- example.
Die -- He --- at a ripe old age.
See -- I --- her singing at her work. He has --- the ups and downs of life.
Spoil -- The news --- my dinner.
Leave -- He has --- a large family. The Police --- no stone unturned to trace the culprits.

Page 109
Grow -- Three years she --- in sun and shower. Some of these wars have --- out of commercial considerations.
Think -- I have --- of a plan.
I --- of Chatterton, the marvellous boy.
Become -- He --- the slave of low desires.
Hear -- Not a drum was ---, not a funeral note. He hopes his prayer --- will be ---.
Fight -- He --- for the crown. He has a good fight.
Forsake -- His courage --- him. He has --- his old friends.
Teach -- The village master --- his little school. They have --- their tongue to speak lies.
Wring -- She --- her hands in agony. Any appeal for help --- her heart.
Wind -- He --- up by appealing to the audience to contribute to the fund.
Thrust -- He was --- through with a javelin.
Say -- He has --- the last word on the matter.
Fly -- The bird has --- away. The bird --- over the tree.
Flee -- The murderer has --- to Australia. The terrified people --- to the mountains.
Overflow -- During the night the river had --- its banks.

288. The verbs be (am, is, was, etc), have and do, when used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negatives, are called auxiliary verbs or auxiliaries.
(Auxiliary = helping)
289. The verbs can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and ought are called modal verbs or modals. They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings such as permission, possibility, certainty and necessity. Need and dare can sometimes be used like modal verbs.
Modals are often included in the group of auxiliaries. In some grammars they are called
“modal auxiliaries”.
290. The modals can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must and ought are termed Defective Verbs, because some parts are wanting in them. They have no -s in the third person singular; they have no infinitve and ing forms. Be
291. The auxiliary be is used
(1) In the formation of the continuous tenses; as,
He is working. I was writing.
(2) In the formation of the passive; as,
The gate was opened.
Be followed by the infinitive is used

(1) To indicate a plan, arrangement, or agreement; as,

Page 110
I am to sec him tomorrow.
We are to be married next month.
(2) To denote command; as,
You are to write your name at the top of each sheet of paper.
Mother says you are to go to market at once.
292. Be is used in the past tense with the perfect infinitive to indicate an arrangement that was made but not carried out; as,
They were to have been married last month but had to postpone the marriage until June.

293. The auxiliary have is used in the formation of the perfect tenses; as,
He has worked. He has been working.
294. Have to is used with the infinitive to indicate obligation; as,
I have to be there by five o'clock.
He has to move the furniture himself.
295. The past form had to is used to express obligation in the past.
I had to be there by five o'clock.
He had to move the furniture himself.
296. In negatives and questions, have to and had to are used with do, does, did; as,
They have to go -- They don't have to go. Do they have to go?
He has to go. -- He doesn't have to go. Does he have to go?
He had to go. -- He didn't have to go. Did he have to go?

297. The auxiliary do is used
(1) To form the negative and interrogative of the simple present and simple past tenses of ordinary verbs; as,
He dosen't work.
He didn’t work.
Does he work?
Did he work?
(2) To avoid repetition of a previous ordinary verb; as,
Do you know him? Yes, I do.
She sings well. Yes, she does.
You met him, didn't you?
He eats fish and so do you.
298. Do is also used to emphasize the affirmative nature of a statement; as,

You do look pale.
I told him not to go, but he did go.
299. In the imperative, do makes a request or invitation more persuasive; as, Do be quiet,
Oh, do come! It's going to be such fun.
In such cases do is strongly stressed.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 111

Can, Could, May, Might
300. Can usually expresses ability or capacity; as,
I can swim across the river.
He can work this sum.
Can you lift this box?
301. Can and may are used to express permission. May is rather formal.
You can/may go now.
Can/May I borrow your umbrella?
302. May is used to express possibility in affirmative sentences. Can is used in the corresponding interrogative and negative sentences.
It may rain tomorrow.
He may be at home.
Can this be true?
It cannot be true.
Compare 'It cannot be true' with 'It may not be true'. Cannot denotes impossibility, while may not denotes improbability.
303. In very formal English, may is used to express a wish; as,
May you live happily and long !
May success attend you !
304. Could and might are used as the past equivalents of can and may; as,
I could swim across the river when I was young. (Ability)
He said 1 might/could go. (Permission)
I thought he might be at home. (Possibility)
She wondered whether it could be true. (Possibility)
305. Could, as in the first example above, expresses only ability to do an act, but not the performance of an act. We should use was/were able to for ability +action in the past.
When the boat was upset, we were able to (or managed to) swim to the bank, (not: we could swim to the bank)
In negative statements, however, either could or was/were able to may be used.
I couldn't (or: wasn't able to) solve the puzzle. It was too difficult.
306. In present-time contexts could and might are used as less positive versions of can and may; as,
I could attend the party. (Less positive and more hesitant than I can attend the party.)
Might/Could I borrow your bicycle ? (A diffident way of saying May/Can I……')
It might rain tomorrow. (Less positive than 'It may rain……’)

Could you pass me the salt ? (Polite request);
307. Might is also used to express a degree of dissatisfaction or reproach; as,
You might pay a little more attention to your appearance.
308. Note the use of can, could, may and might with the perfect infinitive:

Page 112
He is not there. Where can he have gone? (= Where is it possible that he has gone? - May expresses annoyance.)
You could have accepted the offer. (= Why didn't you accept the offer?)
Fatima may/might have gone with Saroja. (= Possibly Fatima has gone/ went with
Why did you drive so carelessly? You might have run into the lamppost. (= It is fortunate that you didn't run into the lamppost.)

Shall, Should, Will, Would
309. Shall is used in the first person and will in all persons to express pure future. Today
I/we shall is less common than I/we will.
I shall/will be twenty-five next birthday.
We will need the money on 15th.
When shall we see you again?
Tomorrow will be Sunday.
You will see that I am right.
In present-day English, however, there is a growing tendency to use will in all persons.
310. Shall is sometimes used in the second and third persons to express a command, a promise, or threat; as,
He shall not enter my house again. (Command)
You shall have a holiday tomorrow. (Promise)
You shall be punished for this. (Threat)
Note that these uses of shall are old-fashioned and formal and generally avoided in modern English.
311. Questions with shall I/we are used to ask the will of the person addressed; as,
Shall I open the door? (i,e., Do you want me to open it?)
Which pen shall I buy? (i.e., What is your advice?)
Where shall we go? (What is your suggestion?)
312. Will is used to express
(1) Volition; as,
I will (=am willing to) carry your books.
I will (=promise to) try to do better next time.
I will (=am determined to) succeed or die in the attempt.
In the last example above, will is strong-stressed.
(2) Characteristic habit; as,
He will talk about nothing but films.
She will sit for hours listening to the wireless.
(3) Assumption or probability; as,
This will be the book you want, I suppose.

That will be the postman, I think.
313. Will you? indicates an invitation or a request; as,
Will you have tea?
Will you lend me your scooter?
314. Should and would are used as the past equivalents of shall and will - as

Page 113
I expected that I should (more often: would) get a first class.
He said he would be twenty-five next birthday.
She said she would carry my books.
She would sit for hours listening to the wireless, (Past habit)
315. Should is used in all persons to express duty or obligation; as,
We should obey the laws.
You should keep your promise.
Children should obey their parents.
316. In clauses of condition, should is used to express a supposition that may not be true.
If it should rain, they will not come.
If he should see me here, he will be annoyed.
317. Should and would are also used as in the examples below.
(i) I should (or: would) like you to help her. ('should/would like' is a polite form of
(ii) Would you lend me your scooter, please? ('Would you?' is more polite than 'Will you?') (iii) You should have been more careful. (Should + perfect infinitive indicates a past obligation that was not fulfilled).
(iv) He should be in the library now. (Expresses probability)
(v) I wish you would not chatter so much. (Would after wish expresses" a strong desire).

Must, Ought to
318. Must is used to express necessity or obligation.
You must improve your spelling.
We must get up early.
318A. Must refers to the present or the near future. To talk about the past we use had to
(the past form of have to); must has no past form.
Yesterday we had to get up early.
319. Must is often used when the obligation comes from the speaker. When the obligation comes from somewhere else, have to is often used. Compare:
I must be on a diet. (It is my own idea.)
I have to be on a diet. (The doctor has told me to be on a diet.)
319A. Must can also express logical certainty.
Living in such crowded conditions must be difficult. (=1 am sure it is difficult.)

She must have left already. (I am sure she has left already).
320. Ought (to) expresses moral obligation or desirability; as,
We ought to love our neighbours.
We ought to help him.
You ought to know better.
321. Ought (to) can also be used to express probability.
Prices ought to come down soon.
This book ought to be very useful.

Page 114

Used (to), Need, Dare
322. The auxiliary used (to) expresses a discontinued habit.
There used to be a house there.
I used to live there when I was a boy.
Strictly speaking, used (to) is an auxiliary verb. In colloquial English, however, 'Did you use to' and 'did not use to' usually replace 'Used to' and 'Used not to'.
323. The auxiliary need, denoting necessity or obligation, can be conjugated with or without do. When conjugated without do, it has no -s and -ed forms and is used with an infinitive without to only in negative and interrogative sentences and in sentences that contain semi-negative words like 'scarcely' and 'hardly'.
He need not go. (= It is not nescessary for him to go)
Need I write to him?
I need hardly take his help.
324. When conjugated with do, need has the usual forms needs, needed and is used with a to-infinitive. It is commonly used in negatives and questions; it sometimes occurs in the affirmative also. Do you need to go now? J don't need to meet him. One needs to be careful. 325. Compare:
(i) I didn't need to buy it. (=It was not necessary for me to buy it and I didn't buy it.)
(ii) I needn't have bought it. (=It was not necessary for me to buy it, but I bought it),
326. The auxiliary dare (=be brave enough to), as distinct from the ordinary verb dare
(=challenge), does not take -s in the third person singular present tense. It is generally used in negative and interrogative sentences. When conjugated without do, it is followed by an infinitive without to; when conjugated with do, it takes an infinitive with or
• without to after it.
• He dare not take such a step.
• How dare you contradict me?
• He dared not do it.
• He doesn't dare speak to me.

Exercise in Composition 59
Choose the correct alternative :
1. I don't think I (shall, should, can) be able to go.
2. He (shall, will, dare) not pay unless he is compelled.
3. You (should, would, ought) be punctual.
4. I wish you (should, would, must) tell me earlier.
5. (Shall, Will, Would) I assist you?
6. (Shall, should would) you please help me with this?
7. You (ought, should, must) to pay your debts.

Page 115
8. He said T (can, might, should) use his telephone at any time.
9. If you (shall, should, would) see him, give him my regards.
10. He (need, dare, would) not ask for a rise, for fear of losing his job.
11. I (needn't to see, needn't have seen, didn't need to see) him, so I sent a letter.
12. (Shall, Might, Could) you show me the way to the station?
13. To save my life, I ran fast, and (would, could, was able to) reach safely.
14. I (would, used, ought) to be an atheist but now I believe in God.
15. You (needn't, mustn't, won't) light a match; the room is full of gas.
16. The Prime Minister (would, need, is to) make a statement tomorrow.
17. You (couldn't wait, didn't need to wait, need't have waited) for me; I could have found the way all right.
18. I was afraid that if I asked him again he (can, may, might) refuse.
19. She (shall, will, dare) sit outside her garden gate for hours at a time, looking at the passing traffic.
20. (Should, Would, Shall) you like another cup of coffee?
21. I wish he (should, will, would) not play his wireles so loudly.
22. I (am to leave, would leave, was to have left) on Thursday. But on Thursday I had a terrible cold, so I decided to wait till Saturday.
23. He (used, is used, was used) to play cricket before his marriage.
24. (Shall, Will, Would) I carry the box into the house for you?
25. He (will, can, might) come, but I should be surprised.

Exercise in Composition 59A
Rewrite each of these sentences, using a modal verb:
(In 2 and 9, use another modal.)
1. Possibly she isn't Anil's sister.
2. Perhaps we will go to Shimla next month.
3. My sister was able to read the alphabet when she was 18 months old.
4. It is necessary that you do not wash the car. (The paint is still wet.)
5. It is not necessary for you to wash the car. (It is clean.)
6. I am certain that they have left already.
7. Do you allow me to use your phone?
8. I was in the habit of going to the beach every day when I was in Chennai.
9. He will probably pass his driving test easily.
10. Perhaps he forgot about the meeting.
11. I suggest visiting Qutab Minar.
12. Nobody has answered the phone; perhaps they have gone out.
13. I am sure he is over seventy.
14. It was not necessary for me to meet him but 1 met him.
15. It was not necessary for me to meet him (and I didn't meet him).
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD,

327. The conjugation of a verb shows the various forms it assumes, either by inflection or by combination with parts of other verbs, to mark Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and
Person; and to those must be added its Infinitives and Participles.

Page 116
Below is given the complete conjugation of the verb love, with a view to helping the student to systematize the knowledge already acquired by him.

(I) TENSES Simple Present
Active -- Passive
I love -- I am loved
You love -- You are loved
He loves -- He is loved
They love -- They are loved.

Present Continuous
Active -- Passive
I am loving -- I am being loved
You are loving -- You are being loved
He is loving -- He is being loved
We are loving -- We are being loved
They are loving -- They are being loved

Present Perfect
Active -- Passive
I have loved -- I have been loved
You have loved -- You have been loved
He has loved -- He has been loved
We have loved -- We have been loved
They have loved -- They have been loved

Present Perfect Continuous
Active -- Passive
I have been loving – --You have been loving – --We have been loving -- --They have been loving -- ---

Simple Past
Active -- Passive
I loved -- I was loved
You loved -- You were loved
He loved -- He was loved
We loved -- We were loved

They loved -- They were loved

Past Continuous
Active -- Passive
I was loving -- I was being loved
You were loving -- You were being loved
He was loving -- He was being loved
They were loving -- They were being loved

Past Perfect
Active -- Passive
I had loved -- I had been loved
You had loved -- You had been loved
He had loved -- He had been loved
We had loved -- We had been loved
They had loved -- They had been loved.

Page 117

Past Perfect Continuous
Active -- Passive
I had been loving -- --You had been loving -- --He had been loving -- --We had been loving -- --They had been loving -- ---

Simple Future
Active -- Passive
I shall/will love -- I shall/will be loved
You will love -- You will be loved
He will love -- He will be loved
We shall love -- We shall be loved
They will love -- They will be loved

Future Continuous
Active -- Passive
I shall/will be loving -- --You will be loving -- --He will be loving -- --We shall be loving -- --They will be loving-- ---

Future Perfect
Active -- Passive
I shall/will have loved -- I shall/will have been loved
You will have loved -- You will have been loved
He will have loved -- He will have been loved
We shall have loved -- We shall have been loved
They will have loved -- They will have been loved

Future Perfect Continuous
Active -- Passive -- --I shall/will have been loving -- --You will have been loving -- --He will have been loving -- --We shall have been loving – ---

They will have been loving -- ---

Love -- Be loved

Present Infinitive -- to love -- to be loved
Continuous Infinitive -- to be loving -- --Perfect Participle -- to have loved -- to have been loved
Present Participle -- loving -- being loved
Perfect Participle -- having loved -- having been loved

Page 118

328. Read the following sentences:1. Rama runs quickly.
2. This is a very sweet mango.
3. Govind reads quite clearly.
In sentence 1, quickly shows how (or in what manner) Rama runs; that is, quickly modifies the Verb runs.
In sentence 2, very shows how much (or in what degree) the mango is sweet; that is, very modifies the Adjective sweet.
In sentence 3, quite shows how far (or to what extent) Govind reads clearly; that is, quite modifies the Adverb clearly.
A word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another Adverb is called an
Adverb. The words quickly, very, and quite are, therefore, Adverbs.
Def.- An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb.
329. In the following sentences Adverbs modify phrases:She was sitting close beside him.
At what hour is the sun right above us?
Have you read all through this book?
She was dressed all in white.
He paid his debts down to the last penny.
330. Adverbs standing at the beginning of sentences sometimes modify the whole sentence, rather than any particular word; as,
Probably he is mistaken. [=It is probable that he is mistaken.]
Possibly it is as you say. Certainly you are wrong.
Evidently the figures are incorrect.
Unfortunately no one was present there.
Luckily he escaped unhurt.

Kinds of Adverbs
331. Adverbs may be divided into the following classes, according to their meaning :(1) Adverbs of Time (which show when)
I have heard this before.
That day he arrrived late.
We shall now begin to work.

He called here a few minutes ago.
I had a letter from him lately.
The end soon came.
He comes here daily.
I hurt my knee yesterday.
I have spoken to him already.
Wasted time never returns.
He once met me in Cairo
I have not seen him since.
Mr. Gupta formerly lived here.
(2) Adverbs of Frequency (which show how often).
I have told you twice.
I have not seen him once.
He often makes mistakes;
He seldom comes here.

Page 119
The postman called again.
He always tries to do his best.
He frequently comes unprepared.
(3) Adverbs of Place (which show where).
Stand here.
Go there.
The little lamb followed Mary everywhere.
My brother is out.
Come in.
Walk backward.
He looked up.
Is Mr. Das within?
The horse galloped away.
(4) Adverbs of Manner (which show how or in what manner).
The Sikhs fought bravely.
The boy works hard.
I was agreeably disappointed.
Is that so?
Thus only, will you succeed.
Govind reads clearly.
This story is well written.
The child slept soundly.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
You should not do so.
[Note-This class includes nearly all those Adverbs which are derived from adjectives and end in -ly.]
(5) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity (which show how much, or in what degree or to what extent). He was too careless.
Is that any better?
These mangoes are almost ripe.
I am fully prepared.
You are quite wrong.
The sea is very stormy.
I am rather busy.
He is good enough for my purpose.
I am so glad.
You are partly right.
You are altogether mistaken.
Things are no better at present.
She sings pretty well.

He is as tall as Rama.
(6) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation
Surely you are mistaken. He certainly went.
(7) Adverbs of Reason
He is hence unable to refute the charge.
He therefore left school.
332. Some of the above Adverbs may belong to more than one class
She sings delightfully. (Adverb of Manner)
The weather is delightfully cool. (Adverb of Degree)
Don't go far. (Adverb of Place)
He is far better now. (Adverb of Degree)
Note- The above are all examples of Simple Adverbs (See § 336)
333. Yes and no, when they are used by themselves, are equivalents of sentences.
Have you typed the letter? Yes.
[Here yes stands for the sentence I have typed the letter'.]
Are you going to Japan? No.
[Here no means 'I am not going to Japan.]

Page 120

Exercise in Grammar 60
In the following sentences (1) pick out the Adverbs and tell what each modifies; (2) tell whether the modified word is a Verb, an Adjective, or an Adverb; (3) classify each
Adverb as an Adverb of time, place, manner, degree, etc. :1. He was ill pleased.
2. Try again.
3. He is too shy.
4. We rose very early.
5. I am so glad to hear it.
6. Cut it lengthwise.
7. Too many cooks spoil the broth.
8. Are you quite sure.
9. That is well said.
10. Once or twice we have met alone.
11. The railway station is far off.
12. I have heard this before.
13. Father is somewhat better.
14. I am much relived to hear it.
15. The walk was rather long.
16. The patient is much worse to-day.
17. She arrived a few minutes ago.
18. Ambition urges me forward.
19. She was dressed all in black.
20. We were very kindly received.
21. Her son is out in Iran.
22. I surely expect him to-marrow.
23. He could not speak, he was so angry.
24. You are far too hasty.
25. The secret is out.
26. He is old enough to know better.
27. I would much rather not go.
28. You need not roar.
29. Your watch is five minutes too fast.
30. He went off on Monday.
31. His health is no worse than before.
32. Wisdom is too high for a fool.
33. There is a screw loose somewhere.
34. I see things differently now.
35. Rome was not built in a day.
36. The door burst open and in they came.
37. We have scorched the snake, not killed it.
38. Do not crowd your work so closely together.
39. The patient is not better to-day.

40. He must needs to do.
41. Do not walk so fast.
42. Put not your trust in princes.
43. Order the carriage round.
44. He has been shamefully treated.
45. I wonder you never told me.
334. When Adverbs are used in asking questions they are called Interrogative Adverbs; as, Where is Abdul? [Inter. Adverb of Place]
When did you come? [Inter. Adverb of Time]
Why are you late? [Inter. Adverb of Reason]
How did you contrive it? [Inter. Adverb of Manner]
How many boys are there in your class? [Inter. Adverb of Number]
How high is Rajabai Tower? [Inter. Adverb of Degree]
335. Read the sentences:Show me the house where (=in which) he was assaulted.
Here the Adverb where modifies the verb, was assaulted.
Further the Adverb where, like a Relative Pronoun, here relates or refers back to its antecedent house. It is, therefore, called a Relative Adverb.
Further examples of Relative Adverbs:This is the reason why I left.
Do you know the time when the Punjab Mail arrives?
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 121
336. It will be now seen that according to their use, Adverbs are divided into three classes(1) Simple Adverbs, used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; as,
I can hardly believe it.
You are quite wrong.
How brightly the moon shines.
(2) Interrogative Adverbs, used to ask questions; as,
Why are you late?
(3) Relative Adverbs, which refer back to a noun as their antecedent; as,
I remember the house where I was born.
337. It will be noticed that (1) A Simple Adverb merely modifies some word.
(2) An Interrogative Adverb not only modifies some word, but also introduces a question.
(3) A Relative Adverb not only modifies some word, but also refers back to some antecedent. Forms of Adverbs
338. Some Adverbs are the same in form as the corresponding Adjectives; that is, some words are used sometimes as Adjectives, sometimes as Adverbs.

He spoke in a loud voice.
Rama is our fast bowler.
He lives in the next house.
He went to the back entrance.
Every little difficulty ruffles his temper.
This is a hard sum.
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good.
He is the best boy in this class.
He is quick to take offence.
Are you an early riser?
The teacher has a high opinion of that boy.
He is the only child of his parents.
We have food enough to last a week.
He is no better than a fool.
There is much truth in what he says.

Don't talk so loud.
Rama can bowl fast.
When I next see him, I shall speak to him.

Go back.
He is little known outside India.
He works hard all day, I can ill afford to lose him.
He behaves best.
Run quick.
We started early.
Always aim high.
You can only guess.
She sings well enough.
He knows me better than you.
The patient is much better.
Remember that it is only by noticing tell what Part of Speech it is.

Exercise in Composition 61
Form sentences to illustrate the use of the following words (1) Adjectives, (2) as
Aderbs:Very, near, ill, only, clean, long, late, early, fast.

Page 122
339. Some Adverbs have two forms, the form ending in /y and the form which is the same as the Adjective; as,
He sings very loud.
He sings very loudly.
Sometimes, however, the two forms of the Adverb have different meanings; as,
Rama works hard (= diligently).
I could hardly (= scarcely) recognize him.
Stand near. (Opposed to distant)
Rama and Hari are nearly (= closely) related.
He arrived late. (Opposed to early).
I have not seen him lately (= recently).
I am pretty (= tolerably, fairly) sure of the fact.
She is prettily (= neatly, elegantly) dressed.
340. Some Adverbs are used as Nouns after prepositions; as,
He lives far from here (= this place).
He comes from there (= that place).
I have heard that before now (= this time).
By then (= that time) the police arrived on the scene.
Since when (= what time) have you taken to smoking?
The rain comes from above.
[Note. The common use of from with thence and whence is wrong. Thence- from there; whence = from where. Thus the addition of from to either of these words is incorrect].
341. Certain Adverbs sometimes seem to be used as Adjectives, when some participle or adjective is understood.
The then king = the king then reigning.
A down train = a down-going train.
An up train = an up-going train.
The above statement = the statement made above.
342. In the following sentences the is not the definite article, but an old demonstrative pronoun used as an Adverb.
The more the merrier [= by how much the more by so much the merrier; that is, the more numerous a party is, the more enjoyable it is]. The fewer the better = by how much the fewer by so much the better. The sooner the better] = by how much the sooner by so much the better]. He has tried it and is [so much] the better for it.
It will be noticed that the is used as an Adverb only with an adjective or another adverb in the comparative degree.

343. Nouns expressing adverbial relations of time, place, distance, weight, measurement, value, degree, or the like, are often used as Adverbs. Thus• The siege lasted a week.
• This will last me a month.
• He went home.
• We walked five miles.
• The load weighs three tonnes.
• It measures five feet.
• The cloth measures three meters.
• The watch is worth a thousand rupees.
• The wound was skin deep.
A noun so used is called an Adverbial Accusative.
344. Sometimes Verbs are used as Adverbs; as,
Smack went the whip.

Page 123

345. Some Adverts, like Adjectives, have three degrees of comparison. Such Adverbs are generally compared like Adjectives.
346. If the Adverb is of one syllable, we form the Comparative by ending er, and the
Superlative by adding est, to the Positive; as,
Fast -- faster -- fastest
Haid -- harder -- hardest
Long -- longer -- longest
Soon -- sooner -- soonest
Rama ran fast. (Positive)
Arjun tan faster. (Comparative)
Hari ran fastest of all. (Superlative)
347. Adverbs ending in ly form the Comparative by adding more and the Superlative by adding most; us.
Swiftly -- more swiftly -- most swiftly
Skilfully -- more skillfully -- most skilfully
Abdul played skilfully. (Positive)
Karim played mure skilfully than Abdul (Comparative)
Of all the eleven Ahmed played most skilfully. (Superlative)
But note early, earlier, earliest.
I came early this morning
Ram came earlier.
Abdul came earliest of all.
348. It will be noticed that only Adverbs of Manner, Degree, and Time admit of comparison. Many Adverbs, from their nature, cannot be compared; as,
Now, then, where, there, once.
349. Some of the commonest Adverbs form their Comparative and Superlative Degrees irregularly. Positive -- Comparative -- Superlative
Ill, badly -- worse -- worst
Well -- better -- best
Much -- more -- most
Little -- less -- least
(Nigh), near -- nearer -- nearest/next
Far -- (father, further) -- (farthest, furthest)

Late -- later -- last
Rama writes well
Arjun writes better than Rama.
Hari writes best of all.
Do you work mush?
I work more than, you do.
Hari works most of the three or us

Exercise in Grammar 62
Compare the following Adverbs :
Suddenly, Often, Near, Loud, Hard, Wisely, Patiently.

Page 124

350. Adverbs of Manner are mostly formed from Adjectives by adding ly (a corruption of like); as,
Clever, cleverly; wise, wisely; kind, kindly; foolish, foolishly; quick, quickly; beautiful, beautifully. Akbar was a wise king.
He ruled wisely for many years.
When the Adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, change v into i and add ly; as,
Happy, happily; ready, readily; heavy, heavily.
When the Adjective ends in le, simply change e into y; as,
Single, singly; double, doubly.
351. Some Adverbs are made up of a Noun and a qualifying Adjective; as,
Sometimes, meantime, meanwhile, yesterday, midway, otherwise.
352. Some Adverbs are compounds of on (weakened to a) and a Noun; as,
Afoot (= on foot), abed, asleep, ahead, aboard, away. Similarly there are other Adverbs which are also compounds of some Preposition and a Noun; as,
Betimes, besides, to-day, to-morrow; overboard.
[Note.- The word be is an old form of the Preposition by.
353. Some Adverbs are compounds of a Preposition and an Adjective; as,
Abroad, along, aloud, anew, behind, below, beyond.
354. Some Adverbs are compounds of a Preposition and an Adverb; as,
Within, without, before, beneath.
355. There is a class of Adverbs which are derived from the Pronouns the (= that), he, who. ADVERBS
Pronouns (Place -- Motion -- Motion to -- Time from -- Manner)
The (There, thither, thence, then, thus)
He (here, hither, hence, …... , ……)
Who (where, whither, whence, when, how)
356. Many of the above Adverbs are compounded with Prepositions. Thus we getThereby, therefrom, therein, thereof, thereon, thereto, there with; hereafter, hereby, herein, hereupon, herewith; wherefore, wherein, whereon, whereof:

Page 125 hitherto; thenceforth, thenceforward; henceforth, henceforward.
357. Two Adverbs sometimes go together, joined by the Conjunction and; as, again (= more than once, repeatedly), by and by (= before long, presently, after a- time), far and near (= in all directions), far and wide (= comprehensively), far and away (= by a great deal, decidedly, beyond all comparison, first and foremost (= first of all),
. now and then (= from time to time, occasionally), now and again (= at intervals, sometimes, occasionally), off and on (= not regularly, intermittently), once and again (= on more than one occasion, repeatedly), out and away (= beyond comparison, by far), out and out (= decidedly, beyond all comparison), over and above (= in addition to, besides, as well as), over and over (= many times, frequently, repeatedly), through and through (= thoroughly, completely), thus and thus (= in such and such a way). to and fro (= backwards and forwards, up and down).
Good books should be read again and again.
I warned him again and again,
By and by the tumult will subside.
His fame has spread far and near.
As a statesman he saw far and wide.
This is far and away the best course.
He is far and away the best bowler in our eleven.
He now and then writes on fiscal questions.
I write to him now and then.
He worked ten years, off and on, on his Pali Dictionary.
I have told you once and again that you must not read such trash.
This is out and away the best work on Astronomy.
He gained over and above this, the goodwill of all people.
Over and above being hard-working he is thoroughly honest.
He reads all the novels of Scott over and over.
I believe Sachin is out and out the best Indian batsman.
He has read Milton through and through.
Thus and thus only we shall succeed.
He walked to and fro, meditating.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

358. Adverbs of manner, which answer the question 'How?' (e.g., well, fast, quickly, carefully, calmly) are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one; as,
It is raining heavily.
The ship is going slowly.
She speaks English well.
He does his work carefully.

Page 126
359. Adverbs or adverb phrases of place (e.g., here there, everywhere, on the wall) and of time (e.g., now, then, yet, today, next Sunday) are also usually placed after the verb or after the object if there is one; as,
He will come here.
I looked everywhere.
Hang the picture there.
I met him yesterday.
They are to be married next week.
360. When there are two or more adverbs after a verb (and its object), the normal order is adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.
She sang well in the concert.
We should go there tomorrow evening.
He spoke earnestly at the meeting last night.
361. Adverbs of frequency, which answer the question 'How often?' (e.g., always, never, often, rarely, usually, generally) and certain other adverbs like almost, already, hardly, nearly, just, quite are normally put between the subject and the verb if the verb consists of only one word; if there is more than one word in the verb, they are put after the first word. His wife never cooks.
He has never seen a tiger.
I have often told him to write neatly.
We usually have breakfast at eight.
My uncle has just gone out.
I quite agree with you.
362. If the verb is am/are/is/was, these adverbs are placed after the verb, as
I am never late for school.
He is always at home on Sundays.
We arc just off.
363. These adverbs are usually put before an auxiliary or the single verb be, when it is stressed; as,
“Abdul has come late again.” “Yes, he always does come late.”
“When will you write the essay?” “But I already have written it.”
“Will you be free on Sundays?” “I usaully am free on Sundays.”
“Do you eat meat?” “Yes, I sometimes do.”
When an auxiliary is used alone in short responses, as in the last example above, it is stressed and therefore the adverb comes before it.
364. The auxiliaries have to and used to prefer the adverb in front of them.
I often have to go to college on foot.

He always used to agree with me.
365. When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, the adverb usually comes before it; as,
Rama is a rather lazy boy.
The dog was quite dead.

Page 127
The book is way interesting.
Do not speak so fast.
366. But the adverb enough is which it modifies; as,
Is the box big enough?
He was rash enough to interrupt.
He spoke loud enough to be heard.
367. As a general rule, the word only .should be placed immediately before the word it modifies; as,
I worked only two sums.
He has slept only three hours.
In spoken English, however it is usually put before the verb. The required meaning is obtained by stressing the word which the only modifies; as,
I only worked two sums.
He has only slept' three hours

Exercise in Composition 63
Insert the given adverbs (or adverb phrases)in their normal position :1. He invited me to visit him (often).
2. I am determined to yield this point (never)
3. I know the answer (already).
4. We have seen her (just, in, the square)
5. I have to reach the office (by 9 30, usually).
6. Will he be (there, still)?
7. I shall meet you (this evening, m the park).
8. The train has left (just).
9. “Can you park your car near the shops” “Yes, I can (usually).”
10. You have to check your oil before starting (always).
11. He is in time for meals (never).
12. We should come (here, one morning)
13. He has recovered from his illness(quite)
14. She goes to the cinema (seldom)
15. That is not good (enough).
16. You must say such a thing (never, again)
17. Suresh arrives (always, at 9 o'clock, at the office)
18. He played the violin (last night, brilliantly in the concert)

368. Read

1. There is a cow in the field.
2. He is fond of tea.
3. The cat jumped of the chair.
In sentence 1, the word in shows the relation between two things - cow and field.

Page 128
In sentence 2, the word of shows the relation between the attribute expressed by the adjective fond and tea.
In sentence 3, the word off shows the relation between the action expressed by the verb jumped and the chair.
The words in, of, off are here used as Prepositions.
Def.- A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else.
[The word Preposition means 'that which is placed before'.]
It will be noticed thatin sentence I, the Preposition joins a Noun to another Noun; in sentence 2, the Preposition joins a Noun to an Adjective; in sentence 3, the Preposition joins a Noun to a Verb.
369. The Noun or Pronoun which is used with a Preposition is called its Object. It is in the Accusative case and is said to be governed by the Preposition.
Thus, in sentence 1, the noun field is in the Accusative case, governed by the Preposition in. 370. A Preposition may have two or more objects; as,
The road runs over hill and plain.
371. A Preposition is usually placed before its object, but sometimes it follows it; as,
1. Here is the watch that you asked for.
2. That is the boy (whom) I was speaking of.
3. What are you looking at?
4. What arc you thinking of?
5. Which of these chairs did you sit on?
Note 1.- When the object is the Relative Pronoun that, as in sentence 1, the Preposition is always placed at the end.
The Preposition is- often placed at the end when the object is an interrogative pronoun (as in sentences 3, 4 and 5) or a Relative pronoun understood (as in sentence 2).
Note 2.- Sometimes the object is placed first for the sake of emphasis; as,
This I insist on. He is known all the world over.
372. The Prepositions for, from, in, on are often omitted before nouns of place or time; as, We did it last week.
I cannot walk a yard.
Wait a minute.

Kinds of Prepositions
373. Prepositions may be arranged in the following classes :At, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, out, through, till, to, up, with.

Page 129

(2) Compound Prepositions which are generally formed by prefixing a
Preposition (usually a = no or be = by) to a Noun, an Adjective or an Adverb.)
About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without.

(3) Phrase Prepositions (Groups of words used with the force of a single preposition.) according to -- in accordance with -- in place of agreeably to -- in addition to -- in reference to along with -- in (on) behalf of -- in regard to away from -- in case of -- in spite of because of -- in comparison to -- instead of by dint of -- in compliance with -- in the event of by means of -- in consequence of -- on account of by reason of -- in course of -- owing to by virtue of -- in favour of -- with a view to by way of -- in front of -- with an eye to conformably to -- in lieu of -- with reference to for the sake of -- in order to -- with regard to
He succeeded by dint of perseverance and sheer hard work.
In case of need 'phone to No. 32567.
By virtue of the power vested in me, I hereby order, etc.
In consequence of his illness he could not finish the work in time.
Owing to his ill health, he retired from business.
With reference to your letter of date, we regret we cannot allow any further rebate.
In order to avoid litigation, he accepted Rs. 300 in full settlement of his claim for Rs.
In course of time he saw his mistake.
He died fighting on behalf of his country.
On behalf of the staff he read the address.
He persevered in spite of difficulties.
In the event of 'his dying without an issue, his nephew would inherit the whole property.
Instead of talking, prove your worth by doing something.
By reason of his perverse attitude, he estranged his best friends.
He acted according to my instructions.
Why don't you go along with your brother?
In accordance with your instructions, we have remitted the 'amount to your bankers.
There is a big tree in front of his house.
Agreeably to the terms of the settlement, we herewith enclose our cheque for Rs. 1000.
By way of introduction, he made some pertinent remarks.
By means o/rope ladders they scaled the wall.
For the sake of their beliefs, the Puritans emigrated to America.
In course of his researches he met with many difficulties.

He abdicated the throne in favour of his eldest son.
He could not attend school because of his father's serious illness.
He accepted the car in lieu of his claim for Rs. 1,25,000.
With a view to an amicable settlement, we offer you without prejudice Rs. 750 in full settlement of all your claims up-to-date.
On account of his negligence the company suffered a heavy loss.
Whatever he does, he does with an eye to the main chance.

Page 130
374. Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching, and a few similar words which are present participles of verbs, are used absolutely with out any noun or pronoun being attached to them. For all practical purposes, they have become Prepositions, and are sometimes distinguished as Participial Prepositions.
Barring (= excepting apart from) accident, the mail will arrive tomorrow.
Concerning (= about) yesterday's fire, there are many rumours in the bazar.
Considering (= taking into account the quality, the price is not high.
Ulysses is said to have invented the game of chess during the siege of Troy.
Notwithstanding (= in spite of) the resistance offered by him, he was arrested by the police. Pending further orders. Mr. Desai will act as Headmaster.
Regarding your inquiries regret to say that at present we are not interested in imitation silk. Respecting the plan you mention, I shall write to you hereafter.
Touching (= with regard to) this matter, 1 have not as yet made up my mind.
375. Several words are used sometimes as Adverbs and some times as Prepositions A word is a Preposition when it governs a noun or pronoun; it is an Adverb when it does not. Adverb
Go and run about.
I could not come before.
Has he come in?
The wheel came off.
Let us move on.
His father arrived soon.
Take this parcel over to the post-office.
I have not seen him since.

Don't loiter about the street.
I came the day before yesterday.
Is he his room?
The driver jumped off the car.
The book lies on the table.
After a month he returned.
He rules over a vast empire.
I have not slept since yesterday.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Grammar 64
Name the Preposition the following sentences, and tell the word which each governs:1. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner.
2. Old Mother Hubbard, she went to the cupboard.
3. The lion and the unicorn fought for the crown.
4. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
5. Wee Willie Winkie runs through the town.
6. She sat by the fire, and told me a tale.
7. Rain, rain, go to Spain, and never come back again.
8. A fair little girl sat under a tree.
9. Such a number of rocks came over her head.
10. John Gilpin was a citizen of credit and renown.
11. “Will you walk into parlour?” said the spider to the fly.
12. Into the street the Piper step.
13. I can never return with my poor dog Tray.
14. He worked and sang from moon till night.
15. They all ran after the farmer’s wife, who cut off their tails with a carving knife.
16. One day the boy his break fast took, and ate it by a purling brook which through his mother’s orchard ran.

Page 131
17. Old John with white hair does laugh away care, sitting under the oak, among the old folk. 18. They rise with the morning lark, and labour till almost dark.
19. By the Nine Gods he swore.
20. Under a spreading chestnut-tree the village smithy stands.
21. He goes on Sunday to church, and sits among his boys.
22. I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers, from the seas and the streams.
23. Her arms across her breast she laid.
24. Mine be a cot beside the hill.
25. Around my ivied porch shall spring each fragrant flower that drinks the dew.
26. One crowded hour of glorious life is worth an age without a name.
27. I tried to reason him out of his fears.

Exercise in Grammar 65
Distinguish the Prepositions from Adverbs in the following sentences:1. Come down.
2. We sailed down the river.
3. The man walked round the house.
4. He sat on a stool.
5. The carriage moved on.
6. The soldiers passed by.
7. The man turned round.
8. We all went in.
9. He is in the room.
10. He hid behind the door.
11. I left him behind.
12. She sat by the cottage door.
13. The path leads through the woods.
14. I have read the book through.
15. The storm is raging throughout.
16. We cannot live without water.

Exercise in Composition 66
Form sentences to illustrate the use of the following words (1) as Prepositions, and (2) as
Adverbs:Behind, up, by, along, in, about, beyond, under, before, after.
376. We have seen that the object to a Preposition is a Noun or Pronoun. Sometimes, however, the object to a Preposition is an Adverb of Time or Place (see § 340); as,
I will be done by then (= that time).
Since then (= that time) he has not shown his face.
Come away from there (= that place).
He must have reached there by now (= this time).
How far is it from here (= this place)?

It cannot last for ever.
377. Sometimes the object to a preposition is an Adverbial Phrase; as,
Each article was sold at over a pound.
The noise comes from across the river.
He was not promoted to the rank of a colonel till within a few months of his resignation.
I sold my car for under its half cost.
He swore from dawn till far into the night.
He did not see her till a few days ago.
I was thinking about how to circumvent him.
378. A clause can also be the object to a Preposition; as,
Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
There is no meaning in what you say.

Page 132
379. The object to a Preposition, when it is a relative pronoun, is sometimes omitted; as,
He is the man 1 was looking for. [Here whom is understood].
These are the good rules lo live by. [Here which is understood.]

Exercise in Composition 67
Fill blanks with suitable Prepositions:1. The dog ran --- the road.
2. The river flows --- the bridge.
3. The work was done --- haste.
4. He is afraid --- the dog.
5. I am fond --- music.
6. He goes --- Sunday --- church.
7. He died --- his country.
8. The steam-engine was invented --- James Watt.
9. The burglar jumped --- the compound wall.
10. The village was destroyed --- fire.
11. What is that --- me?
12. It cannot be done --- offence.
13. He spoke --- me --- Urdu.
14. They live --- the same roof.
15. I have not seen him --- Wednesday last.
16. I have known him --- a long time.
17. The moon does not shine --- its own light.
18. This is a matter --- little importance.
19. I am tired --- walking.
20. He has not yet recovered --- his illness.
21. I shall do it --- pleasure.
22. God is good, --- me.
23. I will sit --- my desk to do my lesson.
24. I am sorry --- what I have done.
25. O God! Keep me --- sin.
26. I bought it --- fifteen rupees.
27. He broke the jug --- a hundred pieces.
28. It has been raining --- yesterday.
29. I have been working hard --- arithmetic.
30. We suffered --- your neglect.
31. The exercise was written --- me --- a Camlin pen.
32. “Will you walk --- my parlour?” said the spider --- the fly.
33. It is ten o'clock. --- my watch.
34. There is nothing new --- the sun.
35. Do not cry --- spilt milk.
36. You, boys, must settle it --- yourselves.
37. The public are cautioned --- pickpockets.
38. They drove --- Mumbai --- Pune.

380. Prepositions are very commonly used in composition with verbs, to form new verbs.
Sometimes they are prefixed; as,
Outbid, overcome, overflow, overlook, undergo, undertake, uphold, withdraw, withhold, withstand. More frequently Prepositions follow the verbs and remain separate; as,
Boast of, laugh at, look for, send for.
He boasted of his accomplishments.

Page 133
He looked for his watch everywhere.
Please send for Rama.
Everyone laughed at him.

Relations expressed by Prepositions
381. The following are some of the most common relations indicated by Prepositions:(1) Place; as,
Went about the world; ran across the road; leaned against a wall; fell among thieves; quarrelled among themselves; at death's door; athwart the deck; stood before the door; stood behind the curtain; lies below the surface; sat beside me; plies between Mumbai and Alibag; stand by me rain comes from the clouds; in the sky; fell into a ditch; lies near his heart; Kolkata is on the Hooghly; the cliff hangs over the sea; tour round the world; marched through the town; came to the end of the road; put pen to paper; travelled towards Nasik; lay under the table; climbed up the ladder; lies upon the table; within the house; stood without the gate.
(2)Time; as,
After his death; at an early date.; arrived before me,; behind time; by three o'clock; during the whole day; for many years; from 1st April; in the afternoon; sat watching far on into the night; lived under the' Moghuls; on Monday; pending his return; since yesterday .; lasted through the night; throughout the year; wait till to-morrow; ten minutes to twelve; towards evening; until his arrival; rise with the sun; within a month.
(3) Agency, instrumentality; as,
Sell goods at auction; sent the parcel by post; was stunned by a blow; was destroyed by fire; heard this through a friend; cut it with a knife.
(4) Manner; as,
Dying by inches; fought with courage; worked with earnestness, won with ease.
(5) Cause, reason, purpose; as,
Laboured for the good of humanity; died of fever; the very place for a picnic; did it/or our good; suffers from gout; died from fatigue; does it from perversity; retreated through fear of an ambush; concealed it through shame; lost his purse through negligence; shivers with fever; took medicine for cold.
(6) Possession; as,
There was no money on him; the mosque of Omar; a man of means; the boy with red hair. (7) Measure, standard, rate, value; as,

He charges interest at nine per cent. Stories like these must be taken at what they are worth. Cloth is sold by the yard. I am taller than you by two inches. It was one by the tower-clock. (8) Contrast, concession; as,
After (in spite of, notwithstanding) every effort, one may fail. For one enemy he has a hundred friends. For (in spite of) all his wealth he is not content. With (in spite of) all his faults I admire him.
(9) Inference, motive, source, or origin; as,
From what I know of him, I hesitate to trust him. The knights were brave

Page 134 from gallantry of sprit. He did it from gratitude. Light emanates from the sun. From labour health, from health contentment springs. This is a quotation from Milton. His skill comes from practice.
Note:- It will be see?& that the same Preposition, according to the way m which it is used, would have its place under several heads:

Exercise in Grammar 68
Explain the force of the Preposition in:1. I will do it for all you may say.
2. This work is beyond his capacity.
3. I would do anything before that.
4. After this I wash my hands of you.
5. It is cool for May.
6. She made grand preparations against his coming
7. It was all through you that we failed.
8. He was left for dead on the field
9. AH that they did was piety to this.
10. The lifeboat made straight for the sinking ship.
11. I shall do my duty by him.
12. He married for money.
13. A man is a man for all that.
14. Nothing will come of nothing.
15. With all his faults I still like him.
382. The following Prepositions require special notice:(1) We can use in or at with the names of cities, towns or villages. In most cases in is used. We use in when we are talking about a place as an area; we use at when we see it as a point.
We stayed in Mumbai for five days.
Our plane stopped on Mumbai on the way to Iran. (Mumbai = Mumbai airport)
How long have you lived in this village?
(2) We use at to talk about group activities and shops/workplaces.
Did you see Shobha at the party?
There weren't many people at the meeting.
I saw him at the baker’s.
(3) We use in with the names of streets and at when we give the house-number.
He lives in Church Street.
He lives at 45 Church Street.

(4) We use on when we think of a place as a surface.
The dog is lying on the floor.
Put this picture on the wall.
(5) Till is used of time and to is used of place; as
He slept till eight o’clock.
He walked to the end of the street.
(6)With often denotes the instrument and by the agent; as,
He killed two birds with one shot.
He was stabbed by a lunatic with a dagger.
(7) Since is used before a noun or phrase denoting some point of time, and is preceded by a verb in the perfect tenses; as,
I have eaten nothing since yesterday.
He has been ill since Monday last
I have not been smoking since last week.

Page 135
(8) In before a noun denoting a period of time, means at the end of; within means before the end of; as,
I shall return in an hour. I shall return within an hour.
(9) Beside means at (or by) the side of while besides means in addition to; as,
Beside the ungathered rice he lay.
Besides his children, there were present his nephews and nieces.
Besides being fined, he was sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
Be careful not to use beside for besides.

Exercise in Composition 69
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. He lives --- Hyderabad. He lives --- 48 Tilak Street.
2. He started --- six --- the morning.
3. He hanged himself --- a piece of cloth.
4. The portrait was painted --- a famous artist who flourished --- the Sixteenth century.
5. I must start --- dawn to reach the station in time.
6. I hope to reach the station --- an hour at the outside.
7. The child has been missing --- yesterday.
8. The caravan must reach its destination --- sunset.
9. The mail train is due --- 3 P.M.
10. He travelled thirty kilometers --- two hours.
11. He rushed --- room, panting for breath.
12. He does not leave his house --- 9 o'clock.
13. The Express departs --- 3 P.M. --- Delhi.
14. Human sacrifices were practiced --- the Nagas.
15. I received his message --- eight o'clock --- the morning.
16. --- last month I have seen him but once.
17. --- rice they had curry.
18. The fever has taken a turn for the better --- yesterday.
19. He has spent his life --- Kolkata.
20. I saw him felling a big tree -- a hatcher.
21. Come and sit --- me.
22. Nobody --- you knows the truth.
23. While I was --- Delhi he was --- Mumbai.
24. He was killed --- the robber --- a hatchet.
25. We shall stay three months --- America.
26. --- Rustom and Sohrab, there were three other boys present.
27. --- a Ford he has a Fiat car.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Prepositions with forms of transport
383. We use by + noun when we talk about means of transport. We do not use the or a/an before the noun.
We travelled by train, (not: by the/a train)
We say by bicycle, by car/taxi/bus/train, by boat/ ship/plane, by air/sea.
We do not use by when the reference is to a specific bicycle, car, train, etc.

Page 136
Suresh went there on my bike, (not: by my bike)
We travelled in Mr. Joshi's car. (not: by Mr. Joshi's car)
They came in a taxi.
I'll go on the 7.30 bus.
We use on to mean a specific bicycle, bus, train, ship or plane, and in to mean a specific car, taxi, van, lorry or ambulance.
We say on foot (not by foot).
He goes to the office on foot. (= He walks lo the office.).

384. Certain Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives, and Participles are always followed by particular
Prepositions. Read the following sentences, noting appropriate Prepositions:Mumbai is famous for its textiles.
The goat subsists on the coarsest of food.
Jawaharlal Nehru was fond of children.
India is a noble, gorgeous land, teeming with natural wealth.
Being apprised of our approach, the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. In the classical age the ideal life of the Brahman was divided into four stages or ashrams.
It is natural in every man to wish for distinction.
He was endowed with gifts fitted to win eminence in any field of human activity.
The writer is evidently enamoured of the subject.
These computers are cheap enough to be accessible to most people.
Ambition does not always conduce to ultimate happiness.
The true gentleman is courteous and affable to his neighbours.
Newly acquired freedom is sometimes liable to abuse.
Little Jack proved quite a match for the giant.
The African elephant is now confined to Central Africa.
Camels are peculiarly adapted to life in the desert.
He is a man of deep learning, but totally ignorant of life and manners.
The income derived from the ownership of land is commonly called rent.
The Moors were famous for their learning and their skill in all kinds of industries.
Alexander profited by the dissensions of the Punjab Rajas.
Few things are impossible to diligence and skill.
I am indebted to you for your help.
Ashoka, although tolerant of competing creeds, was personally an ardent Buddhist.
The celebrated grammarian Patanjali was a contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga.
Ivory readily adapts itself to the carver's art.
Coleridge's poetry is remarkable/or the perfection of its execution.
The holy tree is associated with scenes of goodwill and rejoicing.
The noise from downstairs prevented me from sleeping.

I am already acquainted with the latest developments of the situation.
His duties were of a kind ill-suited to his ardent and daring character.
Man is entirely different from other animals in the utter helplessness of his babyhood.

Page 137
A residence of eight years in Sri Lanka had inured his system to the tropical climate.
The ancient Greeks, though born in a warm climate, seem to have been much addicted to the bottle.
He (Dr. Johnson) was somewhat susceptible to flattery.
A man who always connives at the faults of his children is their worst enemy.
Naples was then destitute o/what are now, perhaps, its chief attractions.
The cat appears to have originated in Egypt or in the East.
Judged by its results the policy of Hastings was eminently successful.
In his work Charak often hints at the value of sweet oil.
There is still no cure for the common cold.
It was formerly supposed that malaria was due to poisonous exhalations.
People who are averse to hard work, generally do not succeed in life.

Exercise in Composition 70
Construct sentences containing the following expressions:Afflicted with leprosy; sanguine of success; commit to memory; specific for malaria; allowance for short weight; appropriate-to the occasion; abstain from animal food; antipathy to dogs; convulsed with laughter; contrary to expectation; infested with vermin; touched with pity; subversive of discipline; beneficial to health; tantamount to refusal; worthy of praise; beset with difficulties; accountable to God; atone for misdeeds; addicted to opium; entitled to consideration; heedless of consequences; deaf to entreaties; aptitude for business; incentive to hard work; sensitive to criticism; indifferent to praise or blame.

Exercise in Composition 71
The following nouns take the preposition for after them. Use them in sentences:Affection, ambition, anxiety, apology, appetite, aptitude, blame, candidate, capacity, compassion, compensation, contempt, craving, desire, esteem, fitness, fondness, guarantee, leisure, liking, match, motive, need, opportunity, partiality, passion, pity, predilection, pretext, relish, remorse, reputation, surety.

Exercise in Composition 72
The following nouns take the preposition with after them. Use them in sentences:Acquaintance, alliance, bargain, comparison, conformity, enmity, intercourse, intimacy, relations. Exercise in Composition 73
The following nouns take the preposition of after them. Use them in sentences:Abhorrence, assurance, charge, distrust, doubt, experience, failure, observance, proof, result, want.

Exercise in Composition 74
The following nouns take the preposition to after them. Use them in sentences:-

Page 138
Access, accession, allegiance, alternative, antidote, antipathy, approach, assent, attachment, attention, concession, disgrace, dislike, encouragement, enmity, exception, incentive, indifference, invitation, key, leniency, likeness, limit, menace, obedience, objection, obstruction, opposition, postscript, preface, reference, repugnance, resemblance, sequal, submission, succession, supplement, temptation, traitor.

Exercise In Composition 75
The following nouns take the preposition from after them. Use them in sentences:Abstinence, cessation, deliverance, descent, digression, escape, exemption, inference, respite. Exercise in Composition 76
The following adjectives and participles take the preposition to after them. Use them in sentences:(a) Abhorrent, acceptable, accessible, accustomed, addicted, adequate, adjacent, affectionate, agreeable, akin, alien, alive, amenable, analogous, applicable, appropriate, beneficial, callous, common, comparable, condemned.
(b) Conducive, conformable, congenial, consecrated, contrary, creditable, deaf, derogatory, detrimental, devoted, disastrous, due, entitled, equal, essential, exposed, faithful, fatal, foreign, hostile, impertinent, incidental, in clined.
(c) Indebted, indifferent, indispensable, indulgent, inimical, insensible, injured, irrelevant, favourable, hurtful, immaterial, impervious, indigenous, liable, limited, lost, loyal, material, natural, necessary.
(d) Obedient, obliged, offensive, opposite, painful, partial, peculiar, pertinent, pledged, preferable, prejudicial, prior, profitable, prone, reduced, related, relevant, repugnant, responsible, restricted, sacred, sensitive, serviceable, subject, suitable, suited, supplementary, tantamount, true.

Exercise in Composition 77
The following adjectives and participles take the preposition in after them. Use them in sentences:Absorbed, abstemious, accomplished, accurate, assiduous, backward, bigoted, correct, defective, deficient, experienced, diligent, enveloped, fertile, foiled,- honest, implicated, interested, involved, lax, proficient, remiss, temperate, versed.

Exercise in Composition 78
The following adjectives and participles take the preposition with after them. Use them in sentences:- Acquainted, afficted, beset, busy, compatible, complaint, consistent, contemporary, contented, contrasted, conversant, convulsed, delighted, deluged, disgusted, drenched, endowed, fatigued, fired, gifted., infaturated, infected, infested, inspired, intimate, invested, overcome, popular, replete, satiated, satisfied, touched.

Exercise in Composition 79
The following adjectives and participles take the preposition of after them. Use them in sentences:- Page 139
Accused, acquitted, afraid, apprehensive, apprised, assured, aware, bereft, bought, cautious, certain, characteristic, composed, confident, conscious, convicted, convinced, covetous, defrauded, deprived, desirous, destitute, devoid, diffident, distrustful, dull, easy, envious, fearful, fond, greedy, guilty, heedless, ignorant, informed, innocent, irrespective, lame, lavish, negligent, productive, proud, regardless, sanguine, sensible, sick, slow, subversive, sure, suspicious, tolerant, vain, void, weary, worthy.

Exercise in Composition 80
The following adjectives and participles take the preposition for after them. Use them in sentences:Anxious, celebrated, conspicuous, customary, designed, destined, eager, eligible, eminent, fit, good, grateful, notorious, penitent, prepared,, proper, qualified, ready, sorry, sufficient, useful, zealous.

Exercise in Composition 81
The following verbs take the preposition to after them. Use them in sentences:Accede, adapt, adhere, allot, allude, apologize, appoint, ascribe, aspire, assent, attain, attend, attribute, belong, conduce, conform, consent, contribute, lead, listen, object, occur, prefer, pretend, refer, revert, stoop, succumb, surrender, testify, yield.

Exercise in Composition 82
The following verbs take the preposition from after them. Use them in sentences:Abstain, alight, cease, debar, derive, derogate, desist, detract, deviate, differ, digress, dissent, elicit, emerge, escape, exclude, preserve, prevent, prohibit, protect, recoil, recover, refrain.

Exercise in Composition 83
The following verbs take the preposition with after them. Use them in sentences:Associate, bear, clash, coincide, comply, condole, cope, correspond, credit, deluge, disagree, dispense, expostulate, fill, grapple, intrigue, meddle, part, quarrel, remonstrate, side, sympathize, trifle, vie.

Exercise in Composition 84
The following verbs take the preposition of after them. Use them in sentences:Acquit, beware, boast, complain, despair, die, disapprove, dispose, divest, dream, heal, judge, repent, taste.

Exercise in Composition 85
The following verbs take the prepositions for after them. Use them in sentences:Atone, canvass, care, clamour, feel, hope, mourn, pine, start, stipulate, sue, wish, yearn.

Page 140

Exercise in Composition 86
The following verbs take the preposition in after them. Use them in sentences:Acquiesce, dabble, delight, employ, enlist, excel, fall, glory, increase, indulge, involve, persevere, persist.

Exercise in Composition 87
The following verbs take the preposition on after them. Use them in sentences:Comment, decide, deliberate, depend, determine, dwell, embark, encroach, enlarge, impose, insist, intrude, resolve, subsist, trample.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Composition 83
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. The Nizam subscribed a handsome sum --- the Flood Relief Fund.
2. His friends condoled --- him --- his bereavement.
3. He quarrelled --- me --- a trifle.
4. He readily complied --- my request.
5. He dispensed --- the services of his dishonest clerk.
6. He yielded --- superior force.
7. He despaired --- success.
8. He supplies the poor --- clothing.
9. His friends disagreed --- him on that point.
10. He acceded --- my request,
11. He abstains --- liquor.
12. He was found guilty --- manslaughter.
13. He is incapable --- doing good work.
14. He is married --- my cousin.
15. He is sensible --- your kindness,
16. He is true --- his king.
17. He is involved --- difficulties.
18. The auditor is entitled --- his remuneration.
19. I prefer tea --- coffee.
20. I don't concur --- you --- that opinion.
21. There is no exception --- this rule.
22. 1 am obliged --- you --- your kindness.
23. I am not envious --- his success.
24. I am convinced --- the necessity of prudence.
25. We should rely --- our own efforts.
26. I inquired --- the servant if his master was at home.
27. I purposely refrained --- saying more.
28. I insisted --- going.
29. I exchanged --- him my calculator --- a camera.
30. I assented --- his proposal.

31. I am not satisfied --- your explanation.
32. You must conform --- the regulations.
33. He did not profit --- experience.
34. We should all aim --- excellence.
35. Alcohol is injurious --- health.

Page 141
37. The stories in that book are full --- interest.
38. Don't associate --- disreputable people.
39. Do not indulge --- strong language.
40. He is grateful --- his master --- many favours.
41. He is dependent --- his parents.
42. He is abstemious --- eating and drinking.
43. He is prompt --- carrying out orders.
44. He is vain --- his attainments.
45. He is deficient --- common sense. .
46. He is vexed --- me.
47. He is indifferent --- his own interest.
48. He is proficient --- mathematics.
49. He is not ashamed --- his neighbours.
50. He is devoid --- sense.
51. He is suspicious --- all his neighbours.
52. He has a passion --- arguing.
53. Recently there has been a reduction --- the price of milk.
54. He proved false --- his friend.
55. A square may be equivalent --- a triangle.
56. The avaricious man is greedy --- gain.
57. He is very different --- his brother.
58. The head-dress of the Cossacks is similar --- that of the ancient Persians.
59. He was born --- humble parents in Nasik.
60. His views do not accord --- mine.

Exercise in Composition 89
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. Temperance and employment are conducive --- health.
2. A policeman rescued the child --- danger.
3. Dogs have antipathy --- cats.
4. He promised not to do anything repugnant --- the wishes of his parents.
5. He is not the man to allow any one to encroach --- his rights.
6. Some of the members of the Assembly complained --- increased military expenditure.
7. Even the enemies admit that he is endowed --- rare talents.
8. He inspires respect --- his friends.
9. Our path is beset --- difficulties.
10. He was not able to give a satisfactory explanation --- his absence.
11. His illness is a mere pretext --- his absence.
12. He has been very much indulgent --- his children.
13. This discussion is hardly relevant --- the subject
14. Contentment is essential --- happiness.
15. Early rising is beneficial --- health.
16. He is not likely to do anything detrimental --- our interests.
17. His benefactions must redound --- his credit.

18. Only graduates are eligible --- the post.
19. He is capable as a leader, but intolerant --- opposition.
20. Boys over sixteen are debarred --- competing.
21. Father Damien consecrated his life --- ameliorating the lot of lepers.
22. That rule is not applicable --- your case.
23. A public man should be tolerant --- criticism.
24. He is willing to make a concession --- the demands of his employees.
25. I often find him absorbed --- thought.
26. The accommodation is adequate --- our needs.
27. The hotel is adjacent --- the station.

Page 142
28. The authorship of the book is wrongly ascribed --- him.
29. Never do anything that is not compatible --- public safety.
30. His father often connives --- his follies.
31. Some public men are very sensitive --- criticism.
32. He is addicted --- gambling.
33. You need not be afraid --- being late.
34. Death is preferable --- disgrace.
35. Cats are tenacious --- life.
36. It is not true that the study of science tends --- atheism.
37. Some films are an incitement --- crime.
38. He was angry --- me, because he thought my remark was aimed --- him.
39. The climate of Rangoon does not agree --- him.
40. His plans are adverse --- my interests.
41. The question of unemployment bristles --- difficulties.
42. Although he was bred --- the law, he became a successful journalist.
43. Generally, the rich are more covetous --- money than the poor.
44. He is still smarting --- rebuke.
45. He scoffed --- the idea of revolution.
46. He has reverted --- his former post.
47. The battle resulted --- a victory for the Allies.
48. He restored the article --- its rightful owner.
49. The whole theory rests --- no firmer foundation than mere conjecture.
50. The ultimate decision rests --- the board of directors.
51. Only when persuasions failed the police resorted --- force.
52. Superstitious fears preyed --- his mind and made him miserable.
53. He piques himself --- his artistic taste.
54. They now jeered --- him whom they had once acclaimed as their hero.
55. His followers now began to intrigue --- his adversary.
56. She interceded --- her husband on behalf of the people,
57. It is not easy to infer --- his account the real state of affairs.
58. He died without imparting --- anyone the secret of his process.
59. His statement was tantamount --- a confession.
60. The facts point --- a different explanation.
61. His friends prevailed --- him to withdraw his resignation.
62. Few boys are not amenable --- discipline.

Exercise in Composition 90
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. Silkworms feed --- mulberry trees.
2. Pavlova excels --- dancing.
3. The wild boar abounds --- some parts of Europe.
4. He has no special liking --- mathematics.
5. Asoka is worthy --- remembrance.
6. The godown is infested --- rats.

7. There is no exception --- this rule.
8. Nothing conduces --- happiness so much as contentment.
9. Alcohol is injurious --- health.
10. Oil is good --- burns.
11. Invalids are not capable --- continued exertion.
12. The British Parliament is composed --- two Houses.
13. Do no confide your secrets --- every one.
14. He is abstemious --- his habits.
15. He is ignorant --- what he pretends to know.

Page 143
18. Birbal is celebrated --- his witty sayings.
19. The avaricious man is greedy --- gain.
20. The Atlantic separates Europe --- America.
21. Adam assigned --- every creature a name peculiar --- its nature.
22. Temperance and employment are conducive --- health.
23. A brave boy rescued the child --- danger.
24. Industry is the key --- success.
25. The customs were searching --- drugs at the airport.
26. Elizabeth knew how to inspire her soldiers --- hope.
27. Long indulgence --- vice impaired his once robust constitution,
28. Early rising is beneficial --- health.
29. We should live in a style suited --- our condition.
30. Examinations act as an incentive --- diligence.
31. Hard work and perseverance are indispensable --- success in life.
32. He is too miserly to part --- his money.
33. He is a clever man, but unfortunately diffident --- his powers.
34. Suddenly we were enveloped --- dense fog.
35. Many aspire --- greatness, but few attained.
36. His income is not adequate --- his wants.
37. The soil of Pune is favourable --- roses,
38. I am sick --- the whole business.
39. A car will he a great convenience --- a busy man like him.
40. Whoever acts contrary --- nature does not go unpunished.
41. The accident resulted --- the death of five people.
42. These derelict houses are reproach --- the city.
43. The Germans were called baby-killers and their methods of warfare stigmatized as a reproach --- civilization.
44. The mule was partially relieved --- the load,
45. America has raised a tariff wall to protect home industries --- foreign competition.
46. The facts point --- a different conclusion.
47. Your wish is tantamount --- a command.
48. This state is committed --- the policy of total prohibition.
49. One is sure --- what one sees.
50. He is indifferent alike --- praise and blame.

Exercise in Composition 91
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. No doubt he has achieved much, but I cannot give him credit --- all that he boasts ---.
2. The despotism of custom is everywhere the standing hindrance --- human achievement.
3. He is indebted --- his friend --- a large sum.
4. What Dr. Arnold mainly aimed ---, was to promote the self-development of the young minds committed --- his charge.
5. He was so much enamoured --- her that he forgot his duties --- his children.
6. It is difficult to agree --- those critics who ascribe the work of Shakespeare --- Bacon.

7. In his autobiography he refers --- his abhorrence --- animal diet.
8. He conversed --- us --- subjects --- varied interest.
9. The accident happened --- him --- a late hour and --- an out-of-the-way place.
10. A cashier is liable to, render account --- the money received --- him.
11. The soldiers --- the front were provided --- provisions to last them a year.
12. We are accountable --- God --- our action.

Page 144
13. Let us vie --- one another --- doing good.
14. His thirst --- knowledge left him no leisure --- anything else.
15. The rich and the poor alike nobly responded --- the call --- further funds.
16. For those who suffer --- nerves the remedy lies --- perfect rest.
17. A slave lies --- the necessity --- obeying his master's orders.
18. The heir --- the throne was free --- physical or moral taint.
19. He impressed --- them that sorcery was vital --- their success.
20. Methylated spirit is spirit of wine made undrinkable by mixing it --- methyl to exempt it --- duty.
21. To love our country, to be interested --- its concerns, is natural --- all men.
22. He complained --- his weak eyes and lamented the necessity --- spectacles.
23. Samudragupta was known --- his skill --- music and song; he was equally proficient -- the allied art of poetry.
24. It is the grasping of power combined --- the thirst --- fame which constitutes ambition. 25. It would be well for us to admire what is worthy --- admiration in such a people, rather than to carp --- their errors.
26. The common fallacy is that intimacy dispenses --- the necessity of politeness. The truth is just the opposite --- this.
27. The title Master was originally prefixed --- the name of a person of rank or learning; it is now restricted --- boys.
28. This ticket will entitle you --- a free seat at the concert.
29. History, as well as daily experience, furnishes instances of men endowed --- the strongest capacity --- business and affairs, who have all their lives crouched under slavery to the grossest superstition.
30. He has no liking --- cards, and lately he has taken a dislike-outdoor exercise.
31. At first they refused to acquience --- the terms, but finally yielded --- the logic of facts. 32. The hippopotamus feeds chiefly --- aquatic plants, but also seeks its food on land and is sometimes destructive --- cultivated crops.
33. Learning is knowledge especially as acquired --- study; it is frequently contrasted --knowledge or wisdom gained --- experience.
34. At the eleventh hour he retired --- the contest, leaving the field open --- his opponent.
35. Coriolanus, with all his greatness, was entirely devoid --- all sympathy --- the people.
36. From this time he became habitually depressed and moody and addicted --- the frequent use --- alcohol.
37. The first acts of the new administration were characterized rather --- vigour than --judgement.
38. They were statesmen accustomed --- the management --- great affairs.
39. Measure yourself --- your equals; and learn --- frequent competition the place which nature has allotted --- you.
40. Contrary --- my instructions, he went --- his depth and would certainly have met --- a fatal mishap but for the timely help rendered --- him.

385. Sometimes a word takes a certain Preposition after it in one context and a different
Preposition in another context.
We should accommodate ourselves to circumstances. My friend accommodated me with a loan.
I differ with you on this question. Your car differs from mine in several respects.
I am anxious about the result. Her parents are anxious for her safety.
He has retired from business. He has retired into private life.
He has great influence over his disciples. He has hardly any influence with the Vizier.
The remarks of his critics had considerable influence on his writings.

Page 145
All his life he laboured for the good of humanity. He is labouring under a is apprehension. He laboured at his dictionary for twelve years.
Trespassers are liable to a fine of Rs. 500. He is liable for his wife's debts.

Exercise in Composition 92
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. A child is not able to distinguish good --- evil. Death does not distinguish --- the rich and the poor. Sir Ronald Ross is distinguished --- his medical researches. Punch is distinguished --- his hunchback, (between, by, for, from)
2. On account of his age he is disqualified --- competing. Ill health disqualified the body -- labour and the mind --- study; (for, from.)
3. Innocence is not proof --- scandal. He was discharged as there was no proof --- his guilt, (against, of.).
4. He has no good cause --- complaint. Darkness was the cause --- his losing his way.
(for, of.)
5. True charity does not consist --- indiscriminate alms-giving. Brass consists --- copper and zinc, (in, of.)
6. I am not concerned --- his affairs. I am not concerned --- him --- that business. He was much concerned --- hearing the sad news. His parents are naturally concerned --- his safety, (about, at, for, in, with.)
7. He parted --- his friends in high spirits. He parted --- his property and went on pilgrimage to Dwarka. (from, with.)
8. He acted --- fear. He acted --- my suggestion. He acted --- compulsion, (from, under, upon.) 9. He succeeded --- the throne of his uncle. He succeeded --- his object, (in, to.)
10. He agreed --- my proposal. He agreed --- me on chat question. They could not agree --- themselves, (among, to, with.)
11. The patient is now free --- danger. He is free --- his money. The goods, were passed free --- duty (from, of, with)
12. I prevailed --- him to join our Union. He prevailed --- me in the dispute. The peculiar custom prevails --- the Todas. (among, over, upon.)
13. I was angry --- him --- lying to me. (for, with)
14. The city is well provided --- corn. We should provide --- risk of fire by insuring our goods. He has provided --- his children, (against, for, with).
15. The police is entrusted --- the enforcement of law and order. The children were entrusted --- the care of their uncle, (to, with.)
16. 'The edition of Ivanhoe is adapted --- Indian boys. The form and structure of nests are adapted --- the wants and habits of each species. Many Urdu plays are adapted -- English. (for, from, to.)
17. We are all slaves --- convention. No man should be a slave --- his passions, (of, to.)
18. He is blind one eye. Are you blind --- your own interests? (of, to.)

19. There is no exception --- the rule. All the ministers were present at the function with the exception --- Mr. Smith. He took exception --- the presence of an out sider, (against, of, to.)
20. His creditors became impatient --- payment. Impatient --- delay, he knocked at the door rather loudly. The people became impatient --- the burden of heavy taxation, (at, for, under). A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise in Composition 93
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions:1. He invested his patrimony --- jute shares. The Police Commissioner is invested --magisterial powers. (in, with)

Page 146
2. Let us talk --- something else. For a while they talked --- politics I will talk --- my son respecting his conduct, (about, of, to)
3. He takes no interest politics. What you say has no interest --- me. I have no interest --the agents of the firm, (for, in, with.)
4. He has a reputation --- honesty. He has the reputation --- being a good teacher. (for, of)
5. He exercises complete authority --- his followers. There is no authority --- this use. I say this on the authority --- the Oxford English Dictionary. Dr. Bridge is an authority --English prosody, (for, of, on, over.)
6. He fell a victim --- his own avarice. The victims --- cholera were mostly poor people,
(of, to.)
7. I have no use --- it. He has lost the use --- his right arm. (for, of.)
8. There are some diseases that proceed --- dirt. After visiting Agra we proceed --- Delhi.
Let us proceed --- the work in hand, (from, to, with.)
9. He supplied the poor --- clothing. He supplied clothing --- the poor, (to, with)
10. She was greatly afflicted --- the loss of her only child. The old man is afflicted --gout, (at, with)
11. The teacher impressed --- us the value of discipline. We were impressed --- what he said, (on, with.)
12. The operation was accompanied --- little or on pain. She was accompanied --- her brother, (by, with.)
13. The English allied themselves --- the French. Elementary Algebra is allied --Arithmetic, (to, with.)
14. Napoleon had a genius --- military tactics. Without doubt he is a genius --mathematics, (for, in.)
15. The idea originated --- him while he was travelling in japan. The fire originated --- a haystack, (in, with.)
16. He jumped --- a conclusion not warranted by facts. The child jumped --- joy when I gave him sweets. He jumped --- my offer, (at, for, to.)
17. He is negligent --- whatever he does. He is negligent --- his duties, (in, of.)
18. Contentment is requisite --- happiness. He is told that prolonged treatment is requisite
--- effecting a cure, (for, to,)
19. His shattered health is the result --- intemperance. Jealousy results --- unhappiness.
No good is likely to result --- this union, (from, in, of.)
20. It does not rest --- the Collector to order his release. His whole case rests --- alibi. (on, with.) 21. Most of the roads in that district are not suitable --- motor-cars. He lives in a style suitable --- his position, (for, to.)
22. He responded --- the ladies in a humorous speech. The boy immediately responded
--- a blow. He responded --- his toast in a neat little speech, (for, to, with.)
386. Some related words take different Prepositions after them.
I acted according to his advice.
In accordance with his advice I took quinine.

She has great affection for her grandchildren.
The old lady is affectionate to all.
The flood and ebb tides alternage with each other.
The alternative to submission is death.
It is all due to his ambition for fame.
He is ambitious of fame.
He is capable of anything.
He has not the requisite capacity for this work.
He has great confidence in his assistant.
He is finite confident of success.
What a contrast to his brother!

Page 147
What a contrast between them!
The present speech is mild contrasted with his past utterance on the same subject.
It is not likely to derogate from his merit.
He never said or did anything derogatory to his high position.
He is descended from a noble family.
He is a descendant of Mahatma Gandhi.
He has no desire for fame.
He is desirous of visiting Agra.
He was equal to the occasion.
He is to be blamed equally with his brother.
The coat fits me well except for the collar.
I take exception to your remark.
The child is fond of sweets.
She has great fondness for children.
The drama is founded on an episode in the Ramayana.
It has, however, no foundation in fact.
He hindered me from going.
Child-marriage is a great hindrance to progress.
He is quite infatuated with her.
His infatuation for that girl led him astray,
He has no liking for cards.
His dislike to her continued to increase.
He is neglectful of his dress.
I have often found him negligent in his work.
They say he is partial to his friends.
Children show a partiality for sweetmeats.
I have no prejudice against foreigners.
Such a step will be prejudicial to your interests.
He is prepared for anything.
Preparatory to taking extreme measures, his father once again warned him.
Pursuant to our conversation, I now send you a cheque for Rs. 500 as my contribution to the fund.
In pursuance of your instructions, we are writing to-day to the Collector.
I am of opinion that he is qualified for the post.
He is disqualified from practising as a pleader.
As a result of the injury received by him, he died of tetanus.
It is said that nothing resulted from the conference.
I have great respect for his learning.
He is respectful to his superiors, without being servile.
He seized upon the opportunity offered to him.
The seizure of his property was carried out under direct orders from the Rajah.
I assure you that I am sensible of your kindness.
His paralysed arm is insensible to feeling.
Subsequent to the meeting he wrote a letter to The Hindu

Consequent upon this letter, the agents of the company filed a suit against him for defamation. Trust in God and do what is right.
His distrust of his assistants is perhaps unfounded.
The country suffers for want of skilled labour.
He is wanting in a little common sense.
387. Sometimes a verb is followed by a preposition; sometimes no preposition follows it.
The meaning, however, is not always the same in both cases.

Page 148
I call that mean. I called on him at his office.
I don't catch your meaning. A drowning man catches at his office:
This closed the proceedings. After a little higgling he closed with my offer.
He commenced life as a shop-assistant. The proceedings commenced with a song.
Have you counted the cost? I count upon your advice and cooperation.
He deals fairly with his customers. He deals in cotton and cloth.
The compounder dispenses medicines. His master dispensed with his services.
He gained his object by persuasion. He gained upon his rich uncle by his suave manners.
He grasped the meaning of the passage in no time. Like a shrewd man of business he grasped at the opportunity.
I met him on my way to the station. His appeals for funds met with a poor response.
He always prepares his speech. Our soldiers prepared themselves for the offensive.
The police searched the house of the suspect. We searched for the lost article.
388. Do not use the infinitive with certain words which require a preposition followed by a gerund or by a verbal noun.
He is addicted to gambling. [Not: to gamble.]
1 assisted her in climbing the hill.
He is averse to playing cards.
I do not believe in pampering servants.
I am bent on attending the meeting.
He has hardly any chance of succeeding.
He is confident of securing the first prize.
The custom of tipping is prevalent everywhere.
He is desirous of visiting Japan.
He despaired of achieving his object.
There is some difficulty in perceiving his meaning.
Hereafter he is disqualified for holding any government post.
Remember the duty of helping the poor.
Sudha excels in dancing.
You can have no excuse for talking bluntly.
He is expert in inventing stories.
I am fond of reading novels.
The firm was fortunate in securing the government's support.
What hindered you from visiting the Museum?
He was disappointed in the hope of being rewarded.
He felt the humiliation of withdrawing his words.
We should be indefatigable in doing good.
I insisted on having my say.
He is intent on visiting Norway.
You were not justified in imputing motives to him.
He has a knack of doing it.
He appreciated the necessity of acting promptly.

He persisted in disobeying the orders.
He lacks the power of imparting, although he is a good mathematical scholar.
The practice of cramming is rightly regarded as an evil.
It was only a pretext for delaying the matter.
What is there to prevent him from leaving Chennai.

Page 149
I had the privilege of knowing him intimately.
They were prohibited from entering the village.
I refrained from hurting his feelings.
You were right in suspecting him.
There is little satisfaction in sitting idle.
He has no scruple in begging.
He succeeded in convincing, his critics.
He thought of eluding his pursuers. I am tired of writing letters to him.
Note:- Sometimes both constructions are allowable; e.g.
• He was afraid of telling the truth.
• He was afraid to tell the truth.
• He at last got the opportunity of meeting him.
• He at last got the opportunity to meet him.
389. On the other hand, certain words always take the infinitive after them; as,
He advised us to desist from that attempt.
I decline to say anything further.
I expect to meet opposition.
It is hard to get access to him.
He hopes to win the first prize.
We are all inclined to judge of others as we find them.
He intends to compile a Marathi dictionary.
390. Prepositions are sometimes inserted where they are not required; as,
Where have you been to? Here to is not required.]
My eldest son is a boy of about eighteen years old, [Here of is not required.]
After having finished my work I went home. [Here after is not required,]
391. Note that the verbs discuss, order and stress are transitive and therefore they are not followed by prepositions. We discuss a topic (not discuss about a topic), order tea (not order for tea), stress a point (not stress on a. point).

392. Read the following sentences:1. God made the country and man made the town.
2. Our hoard is little, but our hearts are great
3. She must weep, or she will die.
4. Two and two make four.

In 1, 2 and 3, the Conjunctions join together two sentences. In4, the Conjunction joins together two words only. [See § 393.]
Def:- A Conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences, and sometimes words. 393. Conjunctions join together sentences and often make them more compact; thus,

Page 150
'Balu and Vithal, are good bowlers’ is a short way of saying
'Balu is a good bowler and Vithal is a good bowler’. So the man is poor but honest is a contracted way of saying.
'The man is poor but he is honest.
Sometimes, however the conjunction and joins words only as,
Two and two make four.
Hari and Rama are brothers.
Hari and Rama came home together.
Such sentences can not be resolved in two sentences.
394. Conjunctions must be carefully distinguished from Relative pronouns, Relative
Adverbs and Prepositions, which are also connecting words.
1. This is the house that Jack built. (Relative Adverb)
2. This is the place where he was murdered (Relative Adverb)
3. Take this and give that. (Conjunction)
In sentence 1, the Relative program that refers to the noun house and also joins the two parts of sentences.
In sentence 2, the Relative Adverb where modifies the verb was murdered and also joins the two parts of the sentence.
In sentence 3, the Conjunction And simply joins the two parts of the sentences; it does no other work.
It will thus be seen thatRelative Pronouns & Relative Adverb also join but they do more.
Conjunctions merely join: They do no other work.
Observe that a Preposition also joins two words but it does more; it governs a noun or pronoun; as,
He sat beside Rama. He stood behind me.
395. Some Conjunction are used in pairs; as,
Either-or -- Either take it or leave it.
Neither-nor -- It is neither useful nor ornamental.
Both-and -- We both love and honour him
Though-yet (rare in current English) -- Though he is suffering much pain, yet he does not complain. Whether-or -- I do not care whether you go or stay.
Not only-But also -- Not only he is foolish, but also obstinate.

Conjunctions which are thus used in pairs are called Correlative Conjunctions or merely
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 151
396. When Conjunctions are used as Correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected; as,
He visited not only Agra, but also Delhi.
(Not) -- He not only visited Agra, but also Delhi.
397. We use many compound expressions as Conjunctions; these are called Compound
In order that -- The notice was published in order that all might know the facts.
On condition that -- I will forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the offence.
Even if -- Such an act would not be kind even if it were just.
So that -- He saved some bread so that he should not go hungry on the morrow.
Provided that -- You can borrow the book provided that you return it soon.
As through -- He walks as though he is slightly lame.
Inasmuch as -- I must refuse your request, inasmuch as I believe it unreasonable.
As well as -- Rama as well as Govind was present there.
As soon as -- He took off his coat as soon as he entered the house.
As if -- He looks as if he were weary.

Classes of Conjunctions
398. As we shall see Conjunctions are divided into two classes:
Co-ordinating and Subordinating.
Read the sentence:
Birds fly and fish swim.
The sentence contains two Independent statements or two statements of equal rank or importance. Hence the Conjunction joining together these two statements or clauses of equal rank is called a Coordinating Conjunction ['Co-ordinating' means of equal rank.]
Def:- A Co-ordinating Conjunction joins together clauses of equal rank.
399. The chief Co-ordinating Conjunctions are:And, but, for, or, nor, also, either-or, neither-nor.
400. Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds:
(1) Cumulative or Copulative which merely add one statement to another; as,
We carved not a line, and we raised hot a stone.
(2) Adversative which express opposition or contrast between two statements; as, He is slow, but he is sure. I was annoyed, still I kept quiet. I would come ; only that I am engaged. He was all right; only he was fatigued.
(3) Disjunctive or Alternative which express a choice between two alternatives; as,
She must weep, or she will die.

Either he is mad, or she will die.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.

Page 152
They toil not, neither do they spin.
Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
(4) Illative which express an inference; as,
Something certainly fell in: for I heard a splash.
All precautions must have been neglected, for the plague spread rapidly.
401. Any of the Co-ordinating Conjunctions, with the exception of or, nor, may be omitted and its place taken by a comma, semicolon, or colon; as,
Rama went out to play; Hari stayed in to work.
402. Read the sentence:
I read the paper because it interests me.
The sentence contains two statements or clauses one of which, 'because it interests me', is dependent on the other. Hence the Conjunction introducing the dependent or subordinate clause is called a Subordinating Conjunction.
Def:- A Subordinating Conjunction joins a clause to another on, which it depends for its full meaning.
403. The chief Subordinating Conjunctions are:After, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while.
After the shower was over the sun shone out again.
A book's a book, although there is nothing in it.
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
He ran away because he was afraid.
Answer the first question before you proceed further.
Take heed ere it be too late.
Except ye repent, you shall all likewise perish.
You will pass if you work hard.
Sentinels were posted test the camp should be taken by surprise.
Since you say so, I must believe it.
Tell them that I will come.
He finished first though he began late.
Will you wait till I return?
He will not pay unless he is compelled.
I waited for my friend until he came.
When I was younger, I thought so.
I do not know whence he comes.
He found his watch where he had left it.
I do not understand how it all happened.
Make hay while the sun shines.
I shall go whither fancy leads me.
I know not why he left us.

404. The word than is also a Subordinating Conjunction:He is taller than I (am tall).
I like you better than he (likes you).
I like you better than (I like) him.
Hari is more stupid than Dhondu (is stupid).
His bark is worse than his bite (is bad).
405. Subordinating Conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning, as follows:(1) Time.
I would die before I lied.

Page 153
No nation can be perfectly well governed till it is competent to govern itself.
Many things have happened since I saw you.
I returned home after he had gone.
Ere he blew three notes, there was a rusting.
(2) Cause or Reason.
My strength is as the strength of ten, because my heart is pure.
Since you wish it, it shall be done.
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
He may enter, as he is a friend.
(3) Purpose.
We eat so that we may live.
He held my hand lest I should fall.
(4) Result or Consequence.
He was so tired that he could scarcely stand
(5) Condition.
Rama will go if Hari goes.
Grievances cannot be redressed unless they are known.
(6) Concession.
I will not see him, though he comes.
Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him.
A book's a book, although there's nothing in it.
(7) Comparison.
He is stronger than Rustum [is]
406. Certain words are used both as Prepositions and Conjunctions. [See § 375.]
Preposition -- Conjunction
Stay till Monday -- We shall stay here till you return.
I have not met him since Monday -- We shall go since you you desire it.
He died for this country -- I must stay here, for such is my duty.
The dog ran after the cat -- We came after they had left.
Everybody but Govind was present -- He tired, but did not succeed.
He stood before the painting -- Look before you leap.

Exercise in Grammar 94
Point out the Conjunctions in the following sentences, and state whether they are Coordinating or Subordinating:1. You will not succeed unless you work harder.
2. We arrived after you had gone.

3. I waited till the train arrived.
4. Bread and milk is wholesome food.
5. You will get the prize if you deserve it6. When you are called, you must come in at
7. Do not go before I come.
8. I cannot give you any money, for I have n
9. Since you say so, I must believe it.
10. He fled lest he should be killed.
11. I shall be vexed if you do that.
12. We got into the port before the storm came on.
13. He was sorry after he had done it.;
14. I did not come because you did not call me.
15. He is richer than I am.
16. My grandfather died before I was born.
17. I will stay until you return.

Page 154
18. Catch me if you can.
19. Tom runs faster than Harry.
20. Is that story true or false?
21. You will be late unless you hurry.
22. He asked whether he might have a holiday.
23. Give me to drink, else I shall die of thirst.
24. If 1 feel any doubt, I ask.
25. He deserved to succeed, for he worked hard.
26. He will be sure to come if you invite him.
27. We can travel by land or water.
28. The earth is larger than the moon.
29. Either you are mistaken, or I am.
30. I shall go, whether you come or not.
31. Unless you tell me the truth, I shall punish you.
32. I hear that your brother is in London.
33. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.

Exercise in Composition 95
Use these Conjunctions in complex sentences:(1) But, either-or, neither-nor, whether-or.
(2) That, before, how, as, unless, until, though, when , while, where, if, than.

Exercise in Composition 96
Fill the blanks with appropriate Conjunctions:1. Be just --- fear not.
2. I ran fast, --- I missed the train.
3. He fled, --- he was afraid.
4. Make haste, --- you will be late.
5. --- you try, you will not succeed.
6. I am sure --- he said so.
7. Wait --- I return.
8. Do not go --- I come.
9. He finished first --- he began late.
10. Take care --- you fall.
1I. Take a lamp, --- the night is dark.
12. ---he was ambitious I slew him.
13. Open rebuke is better --- secret love.
14. --- you eat too much you will be ill.
15. I shall not go --- I am invited.
16. He has succeeded better --- he hoped.
17. I do it --- I choose to.
18. --- duty calls us we must obey.
19. Live well --- you may die well.
20. Think nought a trifle, --- it small appear.

21. The purse has been lost --- stolen.
22. Rustum is slow --- sure.
23. He remained at home --- he was ill.
24. --- he was industrious, 1 encouraged him.

Exercise in Composition 97
Fill each blank in the following sentences with an appropriate Conjunction:1. Three --- three make six.
2. Is his name Sen --- Gupta ?
3. He will not come --- it rains.

Page 155
4. --- you run, you will not overtake him.
5. He is very rich --- he is not happy.
6. --- I return, stay where you are.
7. He was punished, --- he was guilty.
8. He behaved --- a brave man should do.
9. There is no doubt --- the earth is round.
10. I wonder --- he will come.
11. He is witty --- vulgar.
12. Will you kindly wait --- I return?
13. Karim is tall, --- Abdul is taller.
14. He lost his balance --- fell off the bicycle.
15. He tried hard --- did not succeed.
16. Is this my book --- yours?
17. Water --- oil will not mix.
18. They left --- we returned.
19. The vase will break --- you drop it.
20. I shall not go out now --- it is raining very heavily.
21. Trains run from this station every few minutes --- we shall not have to wait.
22. Man proposes --- God disposes.
23. Time --- tide wait for no man.
24. Virtue ennobles. --- vice degrades.
25. This --- that must suffice.
26. The train was derailed --- no one was hurt.
27. She writes slowly --- neatly.
28. I believe him --- he is truthful.
29. You will not get the prize --- you deserve it.
30. Send for me --- you want me.
31. Hari will do all right, --- he perseveres.
32. Catch me --- you can.
33. He told me --- you had arrived an hour ago.
34. You will never succeed --- you try.
35. --- I were you, I'd keep quiet.
36. Wait --- I come.
37. Be just --- fear not.
38. Tell me --- you understand.
39. We will come, --- it rains --- hot
40. Make hay --- the sun shines.
41. It is a long time --- we last saw him.
42. Please write --- I dictate.
43. It is hoped --- all will go well.
44. Give me --- poverty --- riches.
45. He is taller --- I (am).
46. --- I cannot get away, I will go next week.
47. --- you wish it, it shall be done.

48. Why is our food so sweet? --- we earn before we eat.
49. Take heed --- you fall.
50. He gazed so long --- both his eyes were dazzled.
51. --- there is life there is hope.
52. Walk on --- you come to the gate.
53. They say --- he is better.
54. I have been in such a pickle --- I saw you last.
55. His plans --- vast, were never visionary.
56. Some people live --- they may eat.
57. He went --- I came.
A work from S. CHANB & COMPANY LTD.

Page 156
58. He will starve --- he will steal.
59. There were more people --- we had expected.
60. --- there is something to be done, the world knows how to get it done.
61. ---I grant his honesty I suspect his memory.
62. --- I am poor, I am not dishonest.
63. No one knows --- he went.
64. Come --- you please.
65. Do --- you ate bidden.
66. He must have passed this way, --- there is no other road.
67. --- respected, he is not liked.
68. We all know --- sin and sorrow go together.
69. I don't know --- he will be here.
70. Grievances cannot be redressed --- they are known.
71. We shall fail --- we are industrious.
72. --- it was late we decided to set out.
73. I am well, --- I do not feel very strong.
74. --- he is there, I shall see him.
75. How can he buy it --- he has no money ?
76. --- you are not ready, we must go on.
77. The building has been razed --- I visited the city.
78. Love not sleep, --- thou come to poverty.
79. He bled so profusely --- the died.
80. I know you better --- he (does).

Exercise in Composition 98
Join each pair of the following sentences by means of a suitable Conjunction. Make such changes as are necessary:1. My brother is well. -- My sister is ill.
2. He sells mangoes. -- He sells oranges.
3. He did not succeed. -- He worked hard.
4. Rama played well. -- Hari played well.
5. I honour him. -- He is a brave man.
6. You may go. -- I will stay.
7. Rama reads for pleasure. -- Hari reads for profit.
8. We decided to set out. -- It was late.
9. He was poor. -- He was honest.
10. He is not a knave. -- He is not a fool.
11. We love Bahadur. -- He is a faithful dog.
12. Rustum made twelve runs. -- He was caught at the wicket.
13. He is rich. -- He is not happy.
14. The sheep are grazing. -- The oxen are grazing.
15. He is poor. -- He is contented.
16. This mango is large. -- This mango is sweet.

17. My brother was not there. -- My sister was not there.
18. The boy is here. -- The girl is here.
19. The piper played. -- The children danced.
20. You must be quiet. -- You must leave the room.
21. He sat down. -- He was tired.
22. Rama works hard. -- Hari is idle.
23. I lost the prize. -- I tried my best.
24. I like him. -- He is dangerous.
25. I went to the shop. -- I bought a slate.
26. He is slow. -- He is sure.
27. I know. -- He does not think so.
28. You are tall. -- My brother is taller.
29. Hari went to school. -- Sita stayed at home.
30. He must start at once. -- He will be late.
31. I shall sit still. -- I shall listen to the music.

Page 157
32. Hari did not come. -- He did not send a letter.
33. I ran fast. -- I missed the train.
34. Karim works hard. -- Abdul works harder.
35. He must be tired. -- He has walked twelve miles
36. It is autumn. -- The leaves are falling.
37. I will come. -- I am not ill.
38. I will bring your umbrella. -- You wish it.
39. He remained cheerful. -- He has been wounded.
40. He went out. -- The train stopped.
41. He ran to the station. -- He missed the train.
42. I came. -- I was unwilling.
43. Men have fought for their country. -- Men have died for their country.
44. He was afraid of being late. -- He ran.
45. Hari does not write fast. -- He writes very well.
46. The boy is dangerously ill. -- The boy's head was hurt.
47. The old man fell down the steps. -- He broke his leg.
48. He tried to get up. -- He could not.
49. Mother is at home. -- Father is at home.
50. I have a cricket bat. -- I have a set of stumps.
51. We went early to the circus. -- We could not get a seat.
52. He must do as he is told. -- He will be punished.
53. The prisoner fell down on his knees. -- The prisoner begged for mercy.
54. Sita goes to school. -- Ganga goes to school.
55. Rama may be in the house. -- Rama may be in the garden.

Exercise in Grammar 99
Distinguish as Adverb, Preposition, or Conjunction, each of the italicized words in the following sentences:1. He came before me.
2. He came two hours before.
3. He came before I left.
4. Have you ever seen him since?
5. I have not seen him since Monday.
6. I have not seen him since he was a child.
7. Man wants but little here below.
8. He yearns for nothing but money.
9. We shall go, but you will remain.
10. He arrived after the meeting was adjourned.
11. He arrived after the meeting.
12. He arrived soon after.

407. Since, as a Conjunction, means:-

(1) From and after the time when ; as
I have been in such a pickle since I saw you last.
Many things have happened since I left school.
I have never seen him since that unfortunate event happened.
Note:- Since, when used as a Conjunction in this sense, should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense, and followed by a verb in the simple past tense.

Page 158

(2) Seeing that, inasmuch as; as
Since you wish it, it shall be done.
Since you will not work, you shall not eat.
Since that is the case, I shall excuse you.
408. Or is used:(1) To introduce an alternative, as
Your purse or your life.
You must work or starve.
You may take this book or that one.
Note:- There may be several alternatives each joined to the preceding one by or, resenting a choice between any two in the series ; as
He may study law or medicine or engineering, or he may enter into trade.
(2) To introduce an alternative name or synonym; as,
The violin or fiddle has become the leading instrument of the modern orchestra.
(3) To mean otherwise; as
We must hasten or night will overtake us.
(4) As nearly equivalent to and ; as,
The troops were not wanting in strength or courage, but they were badly fed.
409. If is used to mean:(1) On the condition or supposition that; as,
If he is there, I shall see him.
If that is so, I am content.
(2) Admitting that, as,
If I am blunt, I am at least honest. If I am poor, yet I am honest.
(3) Whether; as,
I asked him if he would help me. I wonder if he will come.
(4) Whenever; as,
If I feel any doubt I inquire.
If is also used to express wish or surprise : as,
1f I only knew !
410. That, as a Conjunction, retains much of its force as a Demonstrative Pronoun. Thus the sentence 'I am told that you are miser able I may be transposed into 'You are miserable: I am told that'

That is used(1) To express a Reason or Cause, and is equivalent to because, for that, in that; as,
Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. He was annoyed that he was contradicted. (2) To express a Purpose, and is equivalent to in order that; as,
We sow that we may reap.
He kept quiet that the dispute might cease.
(Note: Today that is rarely used for reason or purpose.)

Page 159
(3) To express a Consequence, Result, or Effect; as,
I am so tired that I cannot go on.
He bled so profusely that he died.
He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
411. Than as a Conjunction, follows adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree; as, Wisdom is better than rubies (are).
I see you oftener than (I see) him.
I am better acquainted with the country than you are.
I would rather suffer than that you should want.
412. Lest is used as a Subordinating Conjunction expressing a negative purpose, and is equivalent to in order that…..not', 'for fear that'; as,
Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty.
Do not be idle, lest you come to want.
He fled lest he should be killed.
I was alarmed lest we should be wrecked.
(Note:- Lest is rare in modern English.)
Note:- The modem idiomatic construction after lest is should. After certain expressions denoting fear or apprehension, lest was used as equivalent to that; as,
I feared lest 1 might anger thee.
413. While is used to mean:(1) During the time that, as long as; as,
While he was sleeping, an enemy sowed tares. While there is life there is hope.
(2) At the same time that; as,
The girls sang while the boys played. While he found fault, he also praised.
(3) Whereas; as,
While I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend on. White this is true of some, it is not true of all.
414. Only, as a Conjunction, means except that, but, were it not (that); as,
A very pretty woman, only she squints a little.
The day is pleasant, only rather cold.
He does well, only that he is nervous at the start.
I would go with you, only I have no money.
415. Except was once in good use as a Conjunction; as,
Except (= unless) ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
In modem English its place has been taken by unless.

416. Without:- The use of without as a Conjunction meaning unless is now bad English ; as, I shall not go without you do.
417. Because, for, since.- Of these three conjunctions, because denotes the closest causal conjunction, for the weakest, since comes between the two.

Page 160

Exercise in Composition 100
Fill the blanks with Conjunctions:1. I am in the right, ---- you are in the wrong.
2. The most exquisite work of literary art exhibits a certain crudeness and coarseness, --we turn to it from nature.
3. --- he had not paid his bill, his electricity was cut off.
4. There never can be prosperity in any country --- all the numerous cultivators of the soil are permanently depressed and injured.
5. Giving up wrong pleasure is not self-sacrifice, --- self-culture.
6. Conform thyself then to thy present fortune --- cut thy coat according to thy cloth.
7. Inconsistency consists in a change of conduct --- there is no change of circumstances which justify it.
8. The disgust felt towards any kind of knowledge is a sign that it is prematurely presented, --- that it is presented in an indigestible form.
9. --- do the learned know what sort of mortals inhabit beyond those mountains, --whether they be inhabited at all.
10. His ambition was inordinate, --- he was jealous of every man of ability.
11. Just laws are no restraint upon the freedom of the good, --- the good man desires nothing which a just law will interfere with.
12. We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, --- others judge us by what we have already done.
13. My worthy friend Sir Roger is one of those who are not only at peace with themselves, --- beloved and esteemed by all about them.
14. The fleets of the enemy were not merely defeated, --- destroyed.
15. As long as he (William of Orange) lived, he was the guiding-star of a brave nation; --he died the little children cried in the street.
16. No one likes puns, alliterations, antithesis, argument and analysis better than I do ; I sometimes had rather be without them.
17. It (the game of fives) is "the finest exercise for the body --- best relaxation for the mind." 18. He (Omar Khayyam) abhorred hypocrisy, --- he was not too stem with the hypocrite.
19. Our proudest title is not that we are the contemporaries of Darwin, --- that we are the descendants of Shakespeare.
20. He (Henry Bradshaw) knew more about printed books --- any man living.
21. Are you impatient with the lark --- he sings rather than talks?
22. Trust the man who hesitates in his speech and is quick and steady in action, --beware of long arguments and long beards.
23. Religion does not banish mirth --- only moderates and sets rules to it.
24. A man's real character will always be more visible in his household --- anywhere else.
25. grandfather was old and gray-haired, --- his heart leaped with joy whenever little
Alice came fluttering, like a butterfly, into the room.
26. He that is slow to anger is better --- the mighty,
27. --- we approached the house, we heard the sound of music.
28. The ravine was full of sand now, --- it had once been full of water.

29. The harvest truly is plenteous, --- the labourers are few.
30. A vessel that once gets a crack, --- it may be cunningly mended, will never stand such rough usage as a whole one.
31. Give every man thy ear, --- few thy voice.
32. Virtue --- wise action lies in the mean between the two extremes of too little and too much. 33. And God called the light Day, --- the darkness He called Night.
34. That is a good book which is opened with expectation, --- closed with profit.
A work from S. CHANB & COMPANY LTD.

Page 161
35. --- I was in Sri Lanka, I was particularly fascinated by the Coral Gardens of
36. The restoration crushed for a time the Puritan party, --- placed supreme power in the hands of a libertine.
37. Of his voyage little is known, --- that he amused himself with books and with his pen.
38. --- she had given up novel writing, she was still fond of using her pen.
39. --- Addison was in Ireland, an event occurred to which he owes his high and permanent rank among British writers.
40. --- life --- property was safe, and the poor and the weak were oppressed by the strong.
41. --- Greek and Latin, --- all Aryan languages have their peaceful words in common.
42. He was an oppressor; --- he had at least the merit of protecting his people against all oppression except his own.
43. People travelling in a spacecraft appear to be weightless --- can move about --- there is no gravity in space.
44. The right of self-defence is founded in the law of nature, --- is not and cannot be superseded by the law of society.
45. Let the super structure of life be enjoyment, --- let its foundation be in solid work.
46. --- I was not a stranger to books, I had no practical acquaintance with them.
47. Poetry takes me up so entirely --- I scarce see what passes under my nose.
48. A gentleman made it a rule in reading to skip over all sentences --- he spied a note of admiration at the end.
49. --- a fog rolled over the city in the small hours, the early part of the night was cloudless. 50. --- I were personally your enemy, I might pity and forgive you.

Exercise in Composition 101
Fill the blanks with Conjunctions:1. --- somewhat pompous, he was an entertaining companion.
2. “Mr. Johnson”, said I, “I do indeed come from Scotland, --- I cannot help it."
3. The man that stands by me in trouble I won't bid him go --- the sun shines again.
4. --- you are upon Earth enjoy the good things that are here, --- be not melancholy.
5. The art of pleasing is a very necessary one to possess ; --- a very difficult one to acquire. 6. Never maintain an argument with heat and clamour, --- you think or know yourself to be in the right.
7. --- I am in a serious humour, I very often walk by myself in Westminster Abbey.
8. I am persuaded --- the translators of the Bible were masters of an English style much fitter for that work --- any we see in our present writings.
9. He [Chaucer] must have been a man of most wonderful comprehensive nature, --- he has taken into the compass of his Canterbury Tales the various manners and humours of the whole English nation, in his age.
10. It is the common doom of man --- he must eat his bread by the sweat of his brow.
11. It is a sort of paradox, --- it is true: we are never more in danger --- when we think" ourselves most secure.

12. I have imposed upon myself, --- I have been guilty of no other imposition.
13. One of the pleasantest things in the world is going on a journey; --- I like to go by myself. I can enjoy society in a room; ---, out of doors, nature is company enough for me.
14. It [the game of fives] is the finest exercise for the body, --- the best relaxation for the mind. Page 162
15. Religion does not banish mirth --- only moderates and sets rules to it.
16. Fit words are better --- fine ones.
17. I like political changes --- such changes are made as the result, not of passion, but of deliberation and reason.
18. Civilized man, --- let loose with the bonds of morality relaxed, is a far greater beast -- the savage, more refined in his cruelty, more fiend-like in every act.
19. The man who eats in a hurry loses both the pleasure of eating --- the profit of digestion. 20. Let a man sleep --- he is sleepy, --- rise --- the crow of the cock, --- the glare of the sun rouses him from his torpor.
21. It is a great loss to a man --- he cannot laugh.
22. Impure air can never make pure blood; --- impure blood corrupts the whole system.
23. Never refuse to entertain a man in your heart --- all the world is talking against him.
24. --- you would be healthy, be good.
25. --- you have a sword --- a pen in your hand, wield --- the one --- the other in a spirit of insolent self-reliance.
26. A regular bath in the morning, --- with very feeble and delicate subjects, has always an invigorating effect.
27. There is no more sure sign of a shallow mind --- the habit of seeing always the ludicrous side of things.
28. An honest hater is often a better fellow --- a cool friend; --- it is better not to hate at all. 29. There is no virtue that Dr. Arnold laboured more sedulously to instil into young men -- the virtue of truthfulness.
30. The teachers of morality discourse like angels, --- they live like men.
31. Massacres --- disorders never have the way to peace.
32. Natural thirst is more deliciously gratified with water, --- artificial thirst is with wine.
33. Woman was not meant to be --- an unthinking drudge, --- the merely pretty ornament of man's leisure.
34. The real dignity of a man lies in what he has, --- in what he is.
35. They say the Lion and the Lizard keep the Courts --- Jamshyd gloried and drank deep.
36. --- I am dead, my dearest, sing no sad songs for me.
37. --- he [Lord Beaconsfield] was ambitious, his ambition was a noble one.
38. Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, --- of such is the
Kingdom of God.
39. Heard melodies are sweet, --- those unheard are sweeter.
40. I awoke one morning --- found myself famous.
41. --- the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
42. One generation passeth away and other generation cometh, --- the earth abideth for ever. 43. A man has no more right to say an uncivil thing --- to act one.
44. Let us shun extremes, --- each extreme necessarily engenders its opposite.
45. --- this be madness, --- there is method in it.
46. The heavens declare the glory of God, --- the firmanent showeth His handi work.

47. Every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, --- a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
48. Small service is true service --- it lasts.
49. For my part, I was always bungler at all kinds of sport that required --- Patience --adroitness.
50. There are many truths of which the full meaning cannot be realized --- Personal experience has brought it home.
51. He may be right --- wrong in his opinion, --- he is too clearheaded to be unjust.

Page 163

418. Examine the following sentences:Hello! What are you doing there?
Alas! He is dead.
Hurrah! We have won the game.
Ah! Have they gone?
Oh! I got such a fright.
Hush! Don't make a noise.
Such words as Hello! Alas! Hurrah! Ah! etc. are called Interjections.
They are used to express some sudden feeling or emotion. It will be noticed that they are not grammatically related to the other words in a sentence.
Def:- An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion.
Interjections may express(1) Joy; as, Hurrah! Huzza!
(2) Grief; as, alas!
(3) Surprise; as, ha! What!
(4)Approval; as, bravo!
419. Certain groups of words are also used to express some sudden feeling or emotion; as, Ah me! For shame! Well done! Good gracious!

420. The following are some of the most important words which may belong to different parts of speech according to the way in which they are used.
Always remember that it is the function or use that determines to which part of speech a word belongs in a given sentence.

Adverb. -- They wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins.
Preposition. -- There is Something pleasing about him.

Adverb. -- The heavens are above.
Preposition. -- The moral law is above the civil.
Adjective. -- Analyse the above sentence.
Noun. -- Our blessings come from above.

Adverb. -- They arrived soon after.
Preposition. -- He takes after his father.
Adjective. -- After ages shall sing his glory.
Conjunction. -- We went away after they had left.

Adjective. -- All men are mortal. It was all profit and no loss.
Adverb. -- He was all alone when I saw him.

Page 164
Pronoun. -- All spoke in his favour.
Noun. -- He lost his all in speculation.

Adjective. -- Are there any witnesses present?
Pronoun. -- Does any of you know anything about it?
Adverb. -- Is that any better?

Adverb. -- We walked as fast as we could.
Conjunction. -- As he was poor I helped him.
Refat. Pron. -- She likes the same colour as I do.

Adverb. -- I have seen you before.
Preposition. -- He came before the appointed time.
Conjunction. -- He went away before I came.

Adjective. -- I think yours is a better plan.
Adverb. -- I know better.
Noun. -- Give place to your betters.
Verb. -- The boxes with which he provided me bettered the sample - Froude.

Adjective. -- You cannot have it both ways.
Pronoun. -- Both of them are dead.
Conjunction. -- Both the cashier and the accountant are Hindus.

Adverb. -- It is but (- only) right to admit our faults.
Preposition. -- None but (= except) the brave deserves the fair.
Conjunction. -- We tried hard, but did not succeed.
Relat. Pronoun. -- There is no one but likes him (= who does not like him.)

Adverb. -- Down went the “Royal George”.
Preposition. -- The fire engine came rushing down the hill.
Adjective. -- The porter was killed by the down train.
Noun. -- He has seen the ups and downs of life.
Verb. -- Down with the tyrant!

Adjective. -- Either bat is good enough.
Pronoun. -- Ask either of them.
Conjunction. -- He must either work or starve.

Adjective. -- I have something else for you.
Adverb. -- Shall we look anywhere else ?
Conjunction. -- Make haste, else you will miss the train.

Adjective. -- There is time enough and to spare.
Adverb. -- You know well enough what I mean.
Noun. -- I have had enough of this.

Adjective. -- The chances are even.
Verb. -- Let us even the ground.
Adverb. -- Does he even suspect the danger.

Page 165

Verb. -- If we except Hari, all are to be blamed.
Preposition. -- All the brethren were in Egypt except Benjamin.
Conjunction. -- I will not let thee go except (= unless) thou bless

Preposition. -- I can shift for myself.
Conjunction. -- Give thanks unto the Lord \for He is good.

Adjective. -- You are paying less attention to your studies than you used to do.
A work from S. CHANB & COMPANY LTD.
Adverb. -- The population of India is less than that of China.
Noun. -- He wants Rs. 600 for that watch. He won't be satisfied with less.

Adjective. -- They are men of like build and stature.
Preposition. -- Do not talk like that.
Adverb. -- like as a father pitieth his own children.
Noun. -- We shall not see his like again.
Verb. -- Children like sweets.

Adjective. -- There is little danger in going there.
Noun. -- Man wants but little here below.
Adverb. -- He eats very little.

Adjective. -- We want more men like him.
Pronoun. -- More of us die in bed than out of it.
Adverb. -- You should talk less and work more.

Adjective. -- There is much sense in what he says.
Pronoun. -- Much of it is true.
Adverb. -- He boasts too much.

Adverb. -- Draw near and listen.
Preposition. -- His house is near the temple.
Adjective. -- He is a near relation.

Verb. -- The time nears.

Noun. -- My needs are few.
Verb. -- It needs to be done with care.
Adverb. -- He needs must come.

Conjunction. -- Give me neither poverty nor riches.
Adjective. -- Neither accusation is true.
Pronoun. -- It is difficult to negotiate where neither will trust.

Adjective. -- I shall see you next Monday.
Adverb. -- What next?
Preposition. -- He was sitting next her.
Noun. -- I shall tell you more about it in my next.

Page 166

Adjective. -- It is no joke.
Adverb. -- He is no more.
Noun. -- I will not take a no.

Adverb. -- I was young once.
Conjunction. -- Once he hesitates we have him.
Noun. -- Please help me for once.

Adjective. -- One day I met him in the street.
Pronoun. -- The little ones cried for joy.
Noun. -- One would think he was mad.

Adjective. -- It was his only chance.
Adverb. -- He was only foolish.
Conjunction. -- Take what 1 have, only (= but) let me go.

Adverb. -- Read it over carefully.
Noun. -- In one over he took three wickets.
Preposition. -- At thirty a change came over him.

Verb. -- That is a fault that will right itself.
Adjective. -- He is the right man for the position.
Noun. -- I ask it as a right.
Adverb. -- Serves him right! He stood right in my way.

Adjective. -- A square peg in a round hole.
Noun. -- The evening was a round of pleasures.
Adverb. -- He came round to their belief.
Preposition. -- The earth revolves round the sun.
Verb. -- We shall round the cape in safety.

Preposition. -- Since that day I have not seen him.
Conjunction. -- Since there's no help, come, let us kiss and part
Adverb. -- I have not seen him since.

Adverb. -- I am so sorry.
Conjunction. -- He was poor, so they helped him.

Adjective. -- We must find some way out of it.
Pronoun. -- Some say one thing and others another.
Adverb. -- Some thirty chiefs were present.

Verb. -- With his name the mothers stilt their babes.
Adjective. -- Still waters run deep.
Noun. -- Her sobs could be heard in the still of night.
Adverb. -- He is still in business.

Adjective. -- Don't be in such a hurry.
Pronoun. -- Such was not my intention.

Demonst Adjective. -- What is that noise.
Demonst Pronoun. -- That is what I want.

Page 167
Adverb. -- I have done that much only.
Relative Pronoun. -- The evil that men do lives after them.
Conjunction. -- He lives so that he may eat.

Def. Article. -- he cat loves comfort.
Adverb. -- The wiser he is, the better.

Preposition. -- Never put off till tomorrow what you can do to-day.
Conjunction. -- Do not start till I give the word.

Adverb. -- Prices are up.
Preposition. -- Let us go up the hill.
Adjective. -- The next up train will leave here at 12.30.
Noun. -- They had their ups and downs of fortune.

Noun. -- Let well alone.
Adjective. -- I hope you are now well.
Adverb. -- Well begun is half done.
Interjection. -- Well, who would have thought it?

Inter. Adjective. -- What evidence have you got?
Interjection. -- What ! you don't mean to say so?
Inter. Pronoun. -- What does he want?
Relative Pronoun. -- Give me what you can. What happened then, I do not know.
Adverb. -- What by fire and what by sword, the whole country was laid waste.

Noun. -- Sit down and rest a while.
Verb. -- They while away their evenings with books and games.
Conjunction. -- While a great poet, he is a greater novelist.

Interro. Adverb. -- Why did you do it?
Relative Adverb. -- I know the reason why he did it.
Interjection. -- Why, it is surely Nanak!
Noun. -- This is not the time to go into the why and the wherefore of it.

Adverb. -- There is more evidence yet to be offered.
Conjunction. -- He is willing, yet unable.

Exercise in Grammar 102
What part of speech is each of the words in italics?
1. He kept the fast for a week.
2. Mohammedans fast in the month of Ramzan.
3. He is the right man in the right place.
4. God defend the right!
5. There is much truth in what he says.
6. Much cry and little wool.
7. Don't boast too much.
8. It is hard to understand.
9. Men who work hard enjoy life fully.
10. Little learning is a dangerous thing.
11. He is little known here.
12. It matters little what he says.
13. I have long thought so.

Page 168
14. It is long since we met.
15. Still waters run deep.
16. He still lives in that house.
17. That boy gives any amount of trouble.
18. Is that any better?
19. A better man than he never lived.
20. He knows better than to quarrel.
21. He spoke in a loud voice.
22. Do not speak so loud.
23. Most people think so.
24. What most annoys me is his obstinacy.
25. Some twenty boys were absent.
26. I will take some, but not all.
27. Please call me early.
28. The early bird catches the worm.
29. That can stand over.
30. Take this parcel over to the post office.
31. He has no command over himself.
32. He was only a yard off me.
33. Suddenly one of the wheels came off.
34. I must be off.
35. He told us all about the battle.
36. He lives about two miles from here.
37. Several men were standing about.
38. After the storm comes the calm.
39. The after effects of potash bromide are bad.
40. He went after I came.
41. The minstrels follow after.
42. May comes after April.
43. All fish are not caught with flies.
44. All is fair in love and war.
45. We shall lie all alike in our graves.
46. He that is warm thinks all so.
47. What is all this noise?
48. All is not lost.
49. He is all for amusement.
50. All is good in a famine.

Exercise in Grammar 103
What part of speech is each of the words in italics?
1. He is not any the worse for it.
2. A thing you don't want is dear at any price.
3. I thought as much.

4. He is as deaf as a post.
5. He got the same result as before.
6. As he was ambitious, I slew him.
7. Men fear death as children to go in the dark.
8. There is no such flatterer as a man's self.
9. He did his best.
10. I like this best.
11. He is my best friend.
12. He is but a child.
13. Fear nought but sin.
14. But for his help, 1 could not have done it.
15. The paths of glory lead but to the grave.
16. But that I saw it I could not have believed it.
17. I change, but I cannot die.
18. There is no lane but has a turning.
19. The fool is busy in every one's business but his own.
20. Enough of this!
21. She sings well enough.
22. Enough is as good as a feast.
23. We have not men enough.
24. He is like his father.
25. Hike the offer.
26. Did you ever hear the like of it?
27. Do not talk like that.
28. I have heard more since.
29. This sum is more difficult.
30. More will be wanted.
31. He stood next me in class.
32. The next moment he was dead.
33. What happened next?
34. We have no money.
35. He is no better, no worse.
36. His answer was a decided no.
37. Right the wrong.
38. He is in the right.
39. He is always right.
40. Set it right.
41. Use right words.
42. Since you say so, I believe it.
43. He has been ill since yesterday.
44. He has returned home long since.
45. What was that noise?
46. He died that he might save his country.
47. What is the man that does not love his country?
48. Give him what you can.
49. What nonsense is this!

50. What does it profit?

Page 169


1. We have learnt that a Sentence is a set or group of words which makes complete sense.
We have also learnt that the first stage in the analysis of a sentence is to divide it into two main parts - the Subject and the Predicate; as,
1. Dogs -- bark.
2. The sun -- gives light.
3. The child -- is dead.
4. The boys -- made Rama captain.
5. My father -- gave me a watch.
6. The flames -- spread everywhere.
7. The flames -- spread in every direction.
8. The hour to prepare lessons -- has arrived.
The subject denotes the person or thing about which something is said.
The predicate is what is said about the person or thing denoted by toe Subject.
We see that the Subject may consist of one word or several words. "Us, in sentence 1 the subject consists of one word, viz., the Noun dogs; in sentence 8 the Subject consists of five words of which the most important word is the Noun hour.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.
We also see that the Predicate may consist of one word or several words. Thus, in sentence 1 the Predicate consists of one word, viz., the

Page 170
Verb bark; in sentence 5 the Predicate consists of four words of which the essential word is the Verb gave.

Exercise 1.
In the following sentences separate the Subject and the Predicate:1.The cackling of geese saved Rome.
2. Stone walls do not a prison make.
3. All matter is indestructible.
4. No man can serve two masters.
5. A sick room should be well aired.
6. I shot an arrow in the air.
7. A barking sound the shepherd hears.
8. Up went the balloon.
9. The naked every day he clad,
10. Into the street the piper slept.
11. Sweet are the uses of adversity.
12. Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell was dead.
2. When the Subject of a sentence consists of several words, there is always one word in it which is more important than the other words. This chief word in the complete Subject is called the Subject-word or
Simple Subject. Thus, in the sentence,
The little child, tired of play, / is sleeping, the Noun child is the Subject-word.
The Subject-word is always a Noun, or a word or group of words that does the work of a
Noun ; as,
He /tried his best.
The rich / are not always happy.
Talking overmuch / is a sign of vanity.
To err /is human.
To find fault I is easy.
3. In the complete Subject, the Subject-word is qualified by an Adjective or Adjectiveequivalent (A word or group of words which does the work of an adverb is called an
Adverb - equivalent) called its Enlargement or attribute; as,
1. New brooms / sweep clean.
2. Barking dogs / seldom bite.
3. Hari's father / is an engineer.
4. My views / are quite different.
5. Firdousi, the poet, / wrote the Shah Namah.
6. A desire to excel / is commendable.

7. A stitch in time / saves nine.
No. -- SUBJECT (Subject word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE
1. brooms -- New -- sweep clean.
2. dogs -- Barking -- seldom byte.
3. father -- Hari’s -- Is an engineer.
4. views -- My -- are quit different.
5. firdousi -- The poet -- wrote the Shah Namah.
6. desire -- (1) A, (2) To Excel -- is commendable.
7. stitch -- (1) A, (2) In Time -- saves nine.

Page 171
It will be noted thatin 1, the Attribute is an Adjective; in 2, the Attribute is a Participle (or Participial Adjective); in 3, the Attribute is a Noun in the Possessive or Genitive Case; in 4, the Attribute is a Possessive Adjective; in 5, the Attribute is a Noun in Apposition; in 6, the Attribute (to excel) is a Gerundial Infinitive; in 7, the Attribute (in time) is a group of words doing the work of an Adjective.
Note:- A or an and the are really Attributes, but they are sometimes treated as parts of the

Exercise 2.
In the following sentences pick out the complete Subject; then separate Subject-word from its Attributes:1. The boy, anxious to learn, worked hard.
2. A burnt child dreads £he fire.
3. Birds of a feather flock together.
4. The attempt to scale the fort was an utter failure.
5. The days of our youth are the days of our glory.
6. Ill habits gather by unseen degrees.
7. The dog, seizing the man by the collar, dragged him out.
8. The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness.
9. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
10. Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope.
11. The man carrying a hoe is a gardener.
12. One man's meal is another man's poison.
13. My days among the Dead are past.
14. With his white hair unbonneted, the stoul old sheriff comes.
4. We have seen that the Predicate may consist of one word or several words.
When the Predicate consists of one word that word is always a Verb, because we cannot say anything without using a saying-word, i.e., a Verb. (See sentence 1 in § 1).
When the Predicate consists of several words, the essential word in the Predicate is always a Verb. (As the Verb is the essential word in the Predicate it is sometimes called the Predicate-word).
5. Just as the Subject-word may be qualified by an Adjective or Adjective-equivalent, the
Verb in the Predicate may be qualified by an Adverb or Adverb-equivalent(A word or group of words which does the work of an adverb is called an Adverb - equivalent), called, in analysis, its Extension or Adverbial Qualification ; as,

1. The flames spread everywhere.
2. He went home.
3. He rose in go.
4. The flames spread in every direction.
5. Spring advancing, the swallows appear.

Page 172

No. -- SUBJECT (Subject-word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE (Verb -Adverbial Qualification)
1. flames -- The -- spread -- everywhere
2. He -- -- went -- home
3. He -- -- rose -- to go
4. flames -- The -- spread -- in every direction
5. swallows -- The -- appear -- Spring advancing
It will be noted that:in 1, the Adverbial Qualification is an Adverb; in 2, the Adverbial Qualification is an Adverbial Accusative; in 3, the Adverbial Qualification is a Gerundial Infinitive; in 4, the Adverbial Qualification is a group of words doing the work of an Adverb; in 5, the Adverbial Qualification is an Absolute Phrase.

Exercise 3.
Point out the Adverbial Qualification in each of the following sentences and say whether it is an Adverb, an Adverbial Accusative, a Gerundial Infinitive, a group of words doing the work of an Adverb, or an Absolute Phrase:1. She spoke distinctly.
2. He spoke in a distinct voice.
3. The boy ran a mile.
4. The postman called again.
5. He has come to stay.
6. Wait a minute.
7. The book is printed in clear type.
8. I recognized your voice at once.
9. Help a lame dog over a stile.
10. The tide having turned, the ship set sail.
11. He sold his horse below its value.
12. He leaves two children behind him.
13. He gets his living by trade.
14. He made his money by trade.
15. The enemy disputed the ground inch by inch.
16. He saw a new world spread about him.
17. The village life suited him in all respects.
18. Him will I follow to the ends of the earth.
6. When the Verb in the Predicate is an Intransitive Verb, it alone can form the Predicate; as, 1. Dogs / bark.
2. Black clouds / are gathering.
3. The boys / have been reading.

Note:- In sentence 1, the Verb consists of only one word. Often the Verb itself consists of a group of two or more words, as in 2 and 3.
7. Sometimes the Verb in the Predicate is an Intransitive Verb of Incomplete Predication, that is, an Intransitive Verb which requires Noun, or an Adjective, or a Pronoun, etc, added to it to make the Predicate complete ; as,
The baby seems/happy.
If I simply say 'The baby seems' I do not make complete sense., The Intransitive Verb seems requires some word or words to make trtf | Predicate complete.

Page 173
What is thus required to complete the Predicate is called a Complement.
The Complement of an Intransitive Verb serves to describe the Subject, and is therefore called a Subjective Complement.
Now examine the Predicates in the following sentences:1. The sky grew dark.
2. Venus is a planet.
3. It is me.
4. The man seems worried.
5. Your book is there.
6. The house is to let.
7. The building is in a dilapidated condition.
No. -- SUBJECT (Subject-word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE (Verb -- Complement)
1. sky -- The -- grew -- dark
2. Venus -- -- is -- a planet
3. It -- -- is me
4. man -- The -- seems -- worried
5. book -- Your -- is -- there
6. house -- The -- is -- to let
7. building -- The -- is -- in a dilapidated
It will be noticed that:in 1, the Complement is an Adjective ; in 2, the Complement is a Noun ; in 3, the Complement is a Pronoun ; in 4, the Complement is a Participle ; in 5, the Complement is an Adverb ; in 6, the Complement is an Infinitive ; in 7, the Complement is a group of words doing the work of an Adjective.
Note:- When the Predicate is completed by an Adjective, such an Adjective is said to be used Predicatively or to be a Predicative Adjective.
When the Predicate is completed by a Noun, the Noun is said to be a Predicative Noun.

Exercise 4.
Pick out the Complement in each of the following sentences, and say whether it is a
Noun, an Adjective, a Pronoun, etc.:1. John became a soldier.
2. Roses smell sweet.
3. The child appears pleased.

4. The workman seems tired.
5. The earth is round.
6. He looks happy.
7. Sugar tastes sweet.

Page 174
8. The old woman is dead.
9. The weather was cold.
10. He became unconscious.
11. The old gentleman is of a gentle disposition.
12. The child is there.
13. The children look healthy.
14. To-day she seems sad.
15. The cup is full to the brim.
16. His grammar is shocking.
17. He is a good type of the modern athlete.
18. Ugly rumours are about.
19. Gentle Evangeline was the pride of the village.
20. This morning he seemed in good spirits.
21. Giving to the poor is lending to the Lord.
22. The matter appears of considerable importance.
23. Every man is the architect of his own fortune.
8. Sometimes the Verb in the Predicate is a Transitive Verb, that is, a Verb which requires an Object to complete its sense.
For example, if I say 'Cats catch' I do not make complete sense. You want to know what the cats catch. The verb catch requires an Object, such as mice to form a complete
Now examine the Predicates in the following sentences:1. Birds build nests.
2. I know him.
3. All good children pity the poor.
4. The Gurk has love fighting.
5. The foolish crow tried to sing.
6. Our soldiers tried to scale the cliff.

No. -- SUBJECT (Subject-word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE (Verb -Object)

Birds -- -- build -- nests
I -- -- know -- him
Children -- (1) All (2) good -- pity -- the poor
Grukhas -- The -- love -- fighting crow -- (1) The (2) Foolish -- tired -- to sing soldiers -- Our -- tired -- to scale the cliff.

It will be noticed that:in 1, the Object is a Noun ; in 2, the Object is a Pronoun ;

in 3, the Object is an Adjective used as a Noun ; in 4, the Object is a Gerund or Verbal Noun ; in 5, the Object is an Infinitive ; in 6, the Object is a group of words doing the work of a Noun.
9. The Object-word may have Attributes, just like the Subject-word; as,
He shot a big panther.

Page 175

SUBJECT -- PREDICATE (Verb -- Object -- Attribute)
He -- shot -- panther -- (1) a (2) big

Exercise 5.
In the following sentences point out the complete Object; then separate the Object-word from its attributes (if any):1. The world knows nothing of its greatest men.
2. We should learn to govern ourselves.
3. Her arms across her breast she laid.
4. The architect drew a plan for the house.
5. Serpents cast their skin once a year.
6. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.
7. By their fruits ye shall know them.
8. Rock the baby to sleep.
9. He enjoys his master's confidence.
10. I recognized your voice at once.
11. Cut your coat according to your cloth.
12. The Eskimos make houses of snow and ice.
13. I had no answer to my letter.
14. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.
15. Fear no more the heat of the sun.
16. Evil communications corrupt good manners.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.
10. Sometimes the Verb in the Predicate is a Transitive Verb that takes mw Objects - a
Direct Object and an Indirect Object.
If I say 'Rama gave a penknife1, the noun penknife is the Object of the verb gave.
I may, however, by way of further information, say to whom Rama gave a penknife.
Rama gave me a penknife.
The word me is called the Indirect Object of the Verb gave to distinguish it from the
Object penknife, which is the Direct Object.
Now examine the Predicate in the following sentences:I promised him a present.
He teaches us Geometry.
Father bought Mini a doll.

SUBJECT -- PREDICATE (Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object)
I -- promised -- him -- a person
He -- teaches -- us -- Geometry

Father -- bought -- Mini -- a doll
11. Some Transitive Verbs require a Complement in addition to the Object; as,
The boys made Rama captain.
Here the Noun Rama is the object of the Transitive Verb made which here requires a word (e.g., captain) to make the sense complete.

Page 176
If I say 'The boys made a snow-ball' the sense is complete. But it would be nonsense to say 'The boys made Rama.' The boys did not make Rama: they made Rama captain. The verb made is here a Transitive Verb of Incomplete Predication, because in the sense in which the verb made is here used, it cannot form a complete predicate unless it has a
Complement besides an Object.
The Complement (captain) here refers to the Object Rama. It is therefore called an
Objective Complement.
Now examine the Predicates in the following sentences:1. The jury found him guilty.
2. His parents named him Hari.
3. He kept us waiting.
4. Nothing will make him repent.
5. His words filled them with terror.

No. -- SUBJECT (Subject-word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE (Verb -Object Complement)

jury -- The -- found -- him -- guilty parents -- His -- named -- him -- Hari
He -- -- kept -- us -- waiting
Nothing -- -- will make -- repent words -- filled -- them -- with terror

Exercise 6.
In the following sentences separate the Predicate from the Subject and then point out the different parts of the Predicate.
1. Abdul called his cousin a fool.
2. Exercise has made his muscles strong.
3. This will make you happy,
4. The Nawab appointed his own brother Vizier.
5. The Court appointed him guardian of the orphan child.
6. Time makes the worst enemies friends.
7. Sickness made the child irritable,
8. They elected him secretary of the club.
9. Do you take me for a fool?
10. We saw the storm approaching.
11. I consider the man trustworthy.
12. They kept us in suspense.
13. The jury found him guilty of murder.
14. A thunderstorm often turns milk sour.
12. Let us now review the different forms of the Predicate.

(1) When the verb is Intransitive, the Predicate may consist of the verb alone (§ 6).
(2) When the verb is an Intransitive Verb of Incomplete Predication, the Predicate may consist of the Verb and its Complement (§ 7).
(3) When the verb is a Transitive Verb, the Predicate may consist of the Verb and its
Object (§ 8).

Page 177
(4) When the verb is a Transitive Verb having two objects, the predicate may consist of the Verb and its two Objects:Indirect and Direct, (10)
(5) When the verb is a Transitive Verb of Incomplete Predication, the Predicate may consist of the Verb, its Object and a Complement. (§ 11).
13. Carefully study the analysis of the following sentences: The table is printed on pagel78. 1. Abdul, quite pale with fright, rushed into the room.
2. Determination to do one's duty is laudable,
3. Around the fire, one wintry night,
The farmer's rosy children sat.
4. Home they brought the warrior dead.
5. His friends elected him secretary of the club.
6. This circumstance certainly makes the matter very serious.
7. My uncle has been teaching me mathematics.
8. Jaffar, the Barmecide, the good Vizier,
The poor man's hope, the friend without a peer.
Jaffar was dead, slain by a doom unjust.
9. Who are you ?

Exercise 7.
Analyse the following sentences:1. A nod from a lord is breakfast for a fool.
2. A good paymaster never wants workmen.
3. Home they brought her warrior dead.
4. Sickness made the child irritable.
5. Gentle Evangeline was the pride of the village.
6. It is easy to find fault,
7. It is a miserable thing to live in suspense.
8. Wounds made by words are hard to heal.
9. Down went the Royal George.
10. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred.
11. Time makes the worst enemies friends.
12. Great is your reward in Heaven.
13. In him India lost a true patriot.
14. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
15. It is easy to be wise after the event.
16. A man he was to all the country dear.
17. Experience has taught us many lessons. .
18. A man's first care should be to avoid the reproaches of his own heart.
19. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
20. He showed a constant solicitude for his son's welfare.

21. Caesar, having conquered his enemies, returned to Rome.
22. To drive a car requires care and skill.
23. A great fortune in the hands of a fool is a great misfortune.
24. The postman looked very tired at the end of the day.
Note:- In 6, “It” is a provisional subject; the real subject is “to find fault”. “It” should be entered in the subject-column in brackets.
“It” is provisional subject in 7 and 15 also.

Page 178

No. -- SUBJECT (Subject-word -- Attribute) -- PREDICATE (Verb -Object -- Complement -- Adverbial Qualification)
1. Abdul -- quite pale with fright -- rushed -- -- -- into the room
2. Determination -- to do one's duty -- is -- -- laudable -3. children -- (1) the farmer's (2) rosy -- sat -- -- (1) Around the fire (2) one wintry night
4. they -- -- brought -- the warrior dead -- -- Home
5. friends -- His -- elected -- him -- secretary of the club -6. circumstance -- This -- makes -- the matter -- very serious -- certainly
7. uncle -- My -- has been teaching -- (1) mathematics (Direct) (2) me (Indirect) -- -8. Jaffar -- (1) the Barmecide (2) the good Vizier (3) the poor man's hope (4) the friend without a peer, -- was -- -- dead -- slain by a doom unjust
9. you -- -- are -- -- Who --

Page 179

1. Adjective Phrases
14. We have seen that sometimes a group of words does the work of an adjective (§ 3).
Now examine the following pairs of sentences:1. (a) The vizier was a wealthy man.
(b) The vizier was a man of great wealth.
2. (a) The magistrate was a kind man.
(b) The magistrate was a man with a kindly nature.
3. (a) The chief lived in a stone house.
(b)The chief lived in a house built of stone.
4. (a) I like to see a smiling face.
(b) I like to see a face with a smile on it.
5. (a) The coolies belonged to a hill tribe.
(b) The coolies belonged to a tribe dwelling in the hills.
In each of the above pairs of sentences, we have first a single word describing the person or thing denoted by the noun, and then a group of words describing the person or thing denoted by the same noun.
For instance, the group of words of great wealth tells us what sort of man the vizier was.
It qualifies the noun man just as an Adjective does. It therefore does the work of an
Adjective and is called an Adjective Phrase.
Def:- An Adjective Phrase is a group of words that does the work of an Adjective.
15.Study the following Adjectives and the Adjective Phrases that are equivalent to them:-

Adjectives -- Adjective Phrases
A golden crown. -- A crown made of gold.
A purple cloak. -- A cloak of purple colour.
A white elephant. -- An elephant with a white skin.
A jungle track. -- A track through the jungle.
A blue-eyed boy. -- A boy with blue eyes.
A deserted village. -- A village without any inhabitants.
A blank page. -- A page with no writing on it.
The longest day. -- The day of greatest length.

The Spanish flag. -- The flag of Spain.
A heavy load. -- A load of great weight.

Exercise 8.
Pick out the Adjective Phrases, in the following sentences:1. A man in great difficulties came to me for help.
2. He is a person of very considerable renown.
3. Wild beasts in small cages are a sorry sight.
4. A man without an enemy is a man with few friends.
5. He tells a tale with the ring of truth in it.
6. A friend in need is a friend in deed.

Page 180
7. A stitch in time saves nine.
8. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
9. Gardens with cool shady trees surround the village.
10. Only a man with plenty of money buys a car of such beauty and power.
11. In a low voice he told the tale of his cruel wrongs.
12. Do you know the story of the noble Padmini?
13. He was a lad of great promise.
14. He bore a banner with a strange device.
15. The police arrested a man of one of the criminal tribes.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 9.
In each of the following sentences replace the Adjective in italics by an Adjective Phrase of the same meaning:1. A grey cloud spread over the sky.
2. He dwelt in a wooden hut.
3. He had a bald head.
4. She wore a diamond necklace.
5. It was a horrible night.
6. They went by Siberian railway.
7. A grassy meadow stretched before us.
8. An earthen pitcher stood on a three-legged table.
9. The French flag flew at the top of the highest mast.
10. That was a cowardly act.
11. He is well.
12. A valuable ring was found yesterday.
13. Heroic deeds deserve our admiration.
14. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery.
15. Numerical superiority is a great advantage.
16. The Rajputs were passionately fond of martial glory.
17. I have passed two sleepless nights.
18. He is a professional cricketer.
19. This book contains many biblical quotations.
20. She wants medical advice.
21. A tall soldier stepped forth.

Exercise 10.
Replace each of the following Adjective Pharoses in italics by an Adjective of the same meaning:He wore a turban made of silk.
He has done a deed of shame.
He led a life devoid of blame.

He had a bold held.
It was a horrible night.
They went by Siberian railway.
I met a little girl from a cottage.
Balu was a man with plenty of impudence.
From this village in the mountains came a chieftain of a great fame.
The Rajput leader was a soldier full of hope and free from fear.
Nelson was a boy without fear.
Nobody likes a person with a bad temper.
I admit that he is a man of sense.
The tops of the mountains were covered with snow.
He is an author of great versatility.
It is of no use.
Note:- Not all Adjective Phrases can be replaced by Adjectives, for instance :
He never felt the witchery of the soft blue sky.

Exercise 11.
Fill in the blanks with suitable Adjective Phrases:1. An elephant --- is considered searched by some people.
2. Birds --- flock together.
3. He leads a life ---.
4. Children like books ---.
5. He lost a diamond ---.
6. The old sage spoke words ---.
7. She is a woman ---.
8. John Gilpin was a citizen ---.
9. Draw a picture ---.
10. The leaves --- are glossy.
11. He heard the sound ---.

Page 181
12. Listen to the sound ---.
13. The verdict --- was in his favour.
14. The doors --- closed upon him.
15. The water --- is very deep.
16. The road --- is very muddy.
17. The proprietor --- died yesterday,
18. The paths --- lead but to the grave.

Exercise 12.
Write five sentences containing Adjective Phrases.

II. Adverb Phrases
16. Just as the work of an Adjective is often done by a group of words called an
Adjective Phras.3, so the work of an Adverb is often done by a group of words.
Study the following pairs of sentences carefully:1. (a) Rama ran quickly. (How?)
(b) Rama ran with great speed. (How?)
2. (a) He answered rudely. (How?)
(b) He answered in a very rude manner. (How?)
3. (a) He does his work carelessly. (How?)
(b) He does his work without any care. (How?)
4. (a) He is coming now (When?)
(b) He is coming at this very moment. (When?)
5. (a) No such diseases were known then. (When?)
(b) No such diseases were known in those days. (When?)
6. (a) The arrow fell here. (Where?)
(b) The arrow fell on this spot. (Where?)
7. (a) You can buy it everywhere. (Where?)
(b) You can buy it in all places. (Where?)
8. (a) He fell down. (Where?)
(b) He fell to the ground. (Where?)
In each of the above pairs of sentences we have first a single word (an Adverb) modifying a verb, and then a group of words modifying a verb in the same way.

For instance, the group of words with great speed tells us how Rama ran. It modifies the verb ran just as the Adverb quickly does. It therefore does the work of an Adverb and is called an Adverb Phrase.
Def:- An Adverb Phrase is a group of words that does the work of an Adverb.
Note:- An Adverb Phrase, like an Adverb, may modify also an Adjective or Adverb: as,
Quinine is good for malaria.
I have done well on the whole.
17. Study the following Adverbs and the Adverb Phrases that are equivalent to them.

Adverbs -- Adverb Phrases
Bravely -- In a brave manner, or with bravery.
Unwisely -- In an unwise manner, or without wisdom.
Swiftly -- In a swift manner, or with swiftness.
Beautifully -- In a beautifully style.

Page 182

Adverbs -- Adverb Phrases
Formerly -- In former times, or once upon a time.
Recently -- Just now, or at a recent date.
Soon -- Before very long, or at an early date.
There -- At that place.
Away -- To another place.
Abroad -- To (in) a foreign country.

Exercise 13.
Pick out the Adverb Phrases in the following sentences:1. She lived in the middle of a great wood.
2. Nothing can live on the moon.
3. Come into the garden, Maud.
4. Three fishers went sailing over the sea.
5. O'er her hangs the great dark bell.
6. Down in a green and shady bed, a modest violet grew.
7. On your conscience this will lie.
8. They sat for a while on the bank.
9. Honesty is written on his face.
10. The gun went off with a loud report.
11. There dwelt a miller hale and bold, beside the river Dee.
12. I stood on the bridge at midnight.
13. To the northward stretched the desert.
14. Beside a green meadow a stream used to flow.
15. I have read Bacon to my great profit.
16. In her ear he whispers gaily.
17. Beside the ungathered rice he lay.
18. They fought to the last man.
19. He persevered in the face of all obstacles.
20. The shoe is pressing on my toe.
21. Keep him at arm's length.
22. Make yourself at home.
23. It must be done at any price.
24. Pauperism increases at a fearful rate.
25. He has painted him in his proper colours.
26. He has his finger on the pulse of the nation.
27. He lives by his pen.
28. The shepherd shouted lo them at the top of his voice.
29. He strove with all his might to escape.
30. Without pausing to consider, he struck the blow.
31. Much water has run under the bridge since then.

Exercise 14.
In each of the following sentences replace the Adverb in italics by an Adverb Phrase of the same meaning:1. The pigeon flies swiftly.
2. Did Rama behave well?
3. Go away.
4. The dying man replied feebly.
5. Gently fell the rain.
6. We will pitch the tents just here.
7. He expects to get promotion soon.
8. He built his house yonder.
9. They have only recently arrived.
10. Although hungry, the soldiers worked cheerfully.
11. He spoke eloquently.
12. Soon the sun will set.
13. Do your work thoroughly.
14. They were hurrying homeward.
15. The door was suspiciously open.
16. Formerly he worked at the School of Economics.
17. He tried hard.

Exercise 15.
Replace each of the following Adverb Phrases by an Adverb of the same meaning:1. The bodies were mangled in a terrible manner.
2. Let us cease work from this very truthfulness.
3. It was just on this spot that he died.
4. The child replied with perfect
5. He arrived at that moment.
6. I hope that he will come at a very early date.

Page 183
7. He seems to have acted with great promptitude.
8. No one would dare to answer him in an impudent way.
9. I accept your statement without reserve.
10. I thank you with all my heart.
11. He succeeded in the long run.
12. He is ignorant to a proverb.
13. The post-boy drove with fierce carrier.
14. He has been painted in his proper colours.
15. The wind blew with great violence.
16. He has proved his case to my satisfaction.
Note:- Not all Adverb Phrases can be replaced by Adverbs. For instance:I took him on the strength of your recommendation.

Exercise 16.
Fill in the blanks with suitable Adverb Phrases:1. The knight fought ---.
2. The Rajah treated his vizier ---.
3. The woodman struck the wolf ---.
4, Do not answer ---.
5. I agree ---.
6. He has behaved ---.
7. He does his homework ---.
8. He treated his relatives ---.
9. The police handled the bombs ---.
10. The sailor climbed ---.
11. That happened ---.
12. He reached school ---.
13. He does his homework ---.
14. He failed ---.
15. Old Mother Hubbard went ---.

Exercise 17.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Phrases.
18. Compare:1. The crowd in the bazaar was very noisy.
2. The crowd halted in the bazaar.
In sentence 1, the phrase in the bazaar tells us which crowd was very noisy; that is, it qualifies the noun crowd. It is therefore an Adjective Phrase.
In sentence 2, the phrase in the bazaar tells us where the crowd halted; that is, it modifies the verb halted. It is therefore an Adverb Phrase.

Hence we see that the same phrase may be an Adjective Phrase in one sentence and an
Adverb Phrase in another sentence.
We cannot say what kind of Phrase a given Phrase is until we examine the work which it does in a sentence.

Exercise 18.
Say which of the following are Adverb Phrases and which are Adjective Phrases:1. Have you heard of the man in the moon?
2. How could a man be in the moon?
3. They live on an island.
4. A house on an island was washed away.
5. Awful is the gloom beneath her.
6. Then why did she look beneath her?
7. Is this the train to Peshawar?
8. It usually goes to Peshawar, Sir.

Exercise 19.
Use the following phrases in sentences:-

Page 184
In a loud voice; without further delay; with one voice; for certain; just in time; up in arms; of no consequence; out of fashion; with great satisfaction; in the twinkling of an eye; on either side of the street; in a shady nook; to the last man; with a smile; at sixes and sevens; at the eleventh hour; on the top of the hill; in future; at nine o'clock.

III. Noun Phrases
19. Examine the following sentences:1. The boy wants something.
2. The boy wants to go home.
The word something is a Noun and it is the Object of the verb wants, in sentence 1.
Similarly the group of words, to go home, is the Object of the verb wants, in sentence 2.
Hence this group of words does the work of a Noun. The group of words, to go home, is therefore a Noun Phrase.
Def:- A Noun Phrase is a group of words that does the work of a Noun.
Further examples of Noun Phrases:Early to bed is a good maxim.
He hopes to win the first prize.
We enjoy playing cricket.
He loves to issue harsh orders.
Did you enjoy reading this book?
I tried to get the sum right.
To win a prize is my ambition.
Standing about in a cold wet wind did me no good.

Exercise 20.
Pick out the Noun Phrases in the following sentences:1. His father wished to speak to the Headmaster.
2. The wicked vizier loves getting people into trouble.
3. The poor debtor intended to pay back every penny of the money.
4. He dislikes having to punish his servants.
5. Horses prefer living in dark stables.
6. I should hate to do such a thing.
7. Have you ever tried climbing a coconut palm?
8. Thinking good thoughts precedes good actions.
9. He refuses to answer the question.
10. To write such rubbish is disgraceful.
11. Promise to come again.
12. Why do you like visiting such a man?
13. Travelling in a hot dusty train gives me no pleasure.
14. He denies stealing the money,
15. Your doing such a thing surprises me.

Exercise 21.
Supply a Noun Phrase:1. I want ---.
2. --- delights me.
3. We all hope ---.
4. Pretend ---.
5. --- seems dishonest.
6. --- surprised my mother.
7. Do you wish ---?
8. My father hates ---.
9. --- gives me no pleasure.
10. I don't intend ---.
11. --- is not easy.
12. I do not expect ---.
13. I enjoy ---.
14. He wishes ---.
15. Cats like ---.
16. His father promised ---.

Page 185

Exercise 22.
Pick out the Phrases and say whether they are Adjective Phrases, Adverb Phrases, or
Noun Phrases:1. He speaks like a born orator.
2. It grieved me to hear of your illness.
3. Beyond a doubt this man is honest.
4. He failed in spite of his best efforts.
5. He won the prize by means of trickery.
6. Do not talk like that.
7. I have forgotten how to play this game.
8. He gained their affection in spite of many faults.
9. I do not expect such treatment at your hands.
10. He speaks too fast to be understood.
11. 1 do not know what to do.
12. I do not understand how to solve this problem.
13. He persevered amidst many difficulties.
14. He succeeded in the long run.
15. Birds of a feather flock together.
16. This is a matter of no importance.
17. The train is behind time.
18. He is a man of means.
19. It lies near his heart,
20. He keeps the necklace under lock and key.
21. He is a person of no importance.
22. I want to go to the cinema to-day.
23. I love to hear the watch-dog's honest bark.
24. I did it of my own free will.
25. Show me how to do it,
26. His car ran over a dog.
27. Things are in a bad way.
28. She is a woman of wonderful patience.
29. I have found the key to his secret.
30. The plan has the virtue of committing us to nothing.
31. I don't see the point of the story.
32. How to find the way to the ruins is the question.
33, Tubal Cain was a man of might.
34. He did it against his will.
35. I have no time to waste on trifles.
36. Don't do things by halves.
37. I enjoy walking in the fields.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

1. Adverb Clauses
20. Look at the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:1. They rested at sunset. [Rested when?]
2. They vested when evening came, [Rested when?]
It is evident that both the groups of words in italics, in 1 and 2, do the work of an Adverb as they modify the verb rested, showing when the action was performed.
We at once recognize the first group of words, at sunset, as an Adverb Phrase. Is the second group of words, when evening came, also-an Adverb Phrase?
No: it is not a Phrase for, unlike a Phrase, it has a Subject (evening) and a Predicate
(came when) of its own, and is thus like a sentence. But though like a sentence it is part of a sentence.
Such a group of words that forms part of a sentence, and has a Subject and a Predicate of its own, is called a Clause.
Since the Clause, when evening came, does the work of an Adverb clause.
Def:- An Adverb Clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and does the work of an Adverb.

Exercise 23.
Pick out the Adverb Clauses in the following sentences:1. You may sit wherever you like.
2. He fled where his pursuers could not follow.
3. He behaves as one might expect him to do.
4. Because you have done this I shall punish you.
5. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
6. If you eat too much you will be ill.
7. He finished first though he began late.
8. Will you wait till I return?
9. Just as he entered the room the clock struck,
10. They went where living was cheaper.
11. He does not always speak as he thinks.
12. Take a lamp because the night is dark.
13. I do it because I choose to.
14. If I make a promise I keep it,
15. You will pass if you work hard.
16. He advanced as far as he dared.
17. I forgive you since you repent.

18. I shall remain where I am.
19. We shall wait here until you come.
20. When I was younger. I thought so.
21. It was so dark that you could not see your hand.
22. Wherever one goes, one hears the same story,
23. If you do not hurry you will miss the train.
24. Since you have already decided, why do you ask my opinion?

Exercise 24.
Supply suitable Adverb Clauses:1. Do not go ---.
2. He is not so clever ---.
3. I was so hurried ---.
4. He ran so fast ---.
5. He always does ---.
6. He spoke so low ---.
7. I shall do nothing ---.
8. Fools rush in ---.
9. Nobody likes him ---.
10. Open rebuke is better ---.
11. He will succeed ---.
12. Make hay ---.
13. He is so busy ---.
14. Do not come ---.
15. The boy went out to play ---.
16. He does ---.
17. He always comes ---.
18. He did ---.
19. She sings exactly ---.
20. The earth is larger ---.
21. His father died ---.
22. He cannot see ---.
23. Do you work well ---?
24. I found my books ---.
25. I will not go out ---.
26. You will succeed or fail ---.
27. Arithmetic is less difficult ---.
28. We shall miss the train ---.
29. Do ---.
21. Examine the following sentences:1. The stolen property was found in the dacoits' hiding place.
2. The stolen property was found where the dacoits were accustomed to hide.
It will be noticed that both the groups of words in italics do the work of an Adverb.

But the group of words in italics in sentence 2 is a Clause, because it has a subject (the dacoits) and a Predicate (were accustomed

Page 187 to hide where) of its own; while the group of words in italics in sentence 1 is a Phrase.
We further notice that the Adverb Phrase, in the dacoits' hiding-place, is equivalent to the
Adverb Clause, where the dacoits were accustomed to hiding, and can therefore be replaced by it.

Exercise 25.
In each of the following sentences replace each Adverb Phrase by an Adverb Clause:1. On his return we asked him many questions.
2. Do it to the best of your ability.
3. The prince was met on his arrival by his secretary.
4. In spite of poverty he became distinguished.
5. Upon seeing the signal the troops set out.
6. Nobody must expect to become rich without hard work.
7. They were very grateful to him for his kindness.
8. In comparison with air water is heavy.
9. The weather is too bright to last.
10. My heart is too full for words.
11. The work is too much for any man to do single-handed.
12. With a view to early retirement he saved his money.
13. In the event of the president's death the vice-president succeeds him.
14. He always carried out his duties according to instructions.
15. The price is high for an old car.
16. He ran with all his might.
17. After such hard work, he requires a long rest.
18. He was base enough to accept the dishonourable terms.
19. Many ships were so shattered as to be wholly unmanageable.
20. A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.

Exercise 26.
In each of the following sentences replace each Adverb Clause by an Adverb or Adverb
Phrase:1. I have not been well since I returned from Chennai.
2. When the sun set he returned home.
3. They fought as heroes do.
4. When the righteous rule, the people rejoice.
5. Though I am poor yet am I contented.
6. We have come so that we may help you.
7. When he entered the room he saw the vase broken.
8. The thief crept as a jackal does.
9. I am glad that he has recovered from his illness.
10. He works hard so that he may become rich.
11. He worked so hard that he succeeded.
12. As soon as I saw the cobra I ran away.

13. We ran so that we might arrive in time.
14. He jested even as he lay dying.
15. No man can become a great artist unless he applies himself continually to his art.
16. There was nothing he would not do if only he might make profit.
17. He was not so rich that he could buy a motor-car.
18. When he had uttered these words he sat down.
19. This exercise is so difficult that I cannot do it.
20. The news is so good that it cannot be true.
21. I did not pay him, as I had no money with me.
22. He lived carefully so that he might live long.
23. The steamer will leave as soon as the mails arrive.
24. He may go home after his work is finished.

Page 188
25. As he was sick, he remained at home.
26. He was punished as he deserved.
27. This sum is right so far as the working is concerned.
28. It rained so hard that the streets were flooded.
29. I took him because you recommended him.
30. My parents were poor though they were of noble birth.
31. He refuses to work whatever I may say.
32. We will do the work as well as we can.
33. Robinson Crusoe was puzzled when he discovered the print of a foot on the sand.
34. Apollo was worshipped as long as the Roman Empire lasted.
35. He was passing rich though his income was only £ 40 annually.
36. We are kind to you because you are kind to us.
37. The passage is so difficult that I cannot comprehend it.

II. Adjective Clauses
22. Look at the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:1. The umbrella with a broken handle is mine. [Which umbrella?]
2. The umbrella which has a broken handle is mine. [Which umbrella?]
The first group of words, with a broken handle, describes the umbrella; that is, it qualifies the noun umbrella, and does the work of an Adjective. It is what we call an Adjective phrase. The second group of words which has a broken handle, also describes the umbrella and so does the work of an Adjective. But because it contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, it is called an Adjective Clause.
Def:- An Adjective Clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and does the work of an Adjective.

Exercise 27.
Pick out the Adjective Clauses in the following sentences, and tell what noun or pronoun each qualifies:1. Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow.
2. The letter brought money which was badly needed.
3. The house that I live in belongs to my father.
4. I am monarch of all I survey.
5. I have a little shadow which goes in and out with me.
6. The dog that bites does not bark.
7. He tells a tale that sounds untrue.
8. It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good.
9. The boy stood on the burning deck whence all but he had fled.
10. They never fail who die in a great cause.
11. I remember the house where I was born.

12. He that climbs too high is sure to fall.
13. Here is the book you want.
14. Heaven helps those who help themselves.
15. He died in the village where he was born.
16. He never does anything that is silly.
17. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

Page 189
18. It is a long lane that has no turning.
19. He laughs best who laughs last.
20. Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.

Exercise 28.
Supply suitable Adjective Clauses:1. I know the place ---.
2. He is the man ---.
3. The house --- is a hundred years old.
4. His offence is one ---.
5. Where is the book ---?
6. Boys --- will not be promoted.
7. He has lost the book --8. I found the book ---.
9. I know the man ---.
10. No man --- shall suffer in any way.
11. The boy --- gained the prize.
12. I found my penknife in the place ---.
13. Students --- get good marks.
14. Water --- should be kept in a covered jar.
15. Any boy --- will be punished.
16. He went away by the train ---.
23. Examine the following sentences:1. He met a girl with blue eyes.
2. He met a girl whose eyes were blue.
The group of words, with blue eyes, qualifies the noun girl.
The group of words, whose eyes were blue, also qualifies the noun girl.
Hence both these groups of words do the work of an Adjective.
But the group of words, with blue eyes, is a Phrase, while the group of words, whose eyes were blue, is a Clause.
We further notice that the Adjective Phrase, with blue eyes, is equivalent to the Adjective
Clause, whose eyes were blue, and can therefore be replaced by it.

Exercise 29.
In each of the following sentences replace each Adjective Phrase by an Adjective
Clause:1. A man of industrious habits is sure to succeed.
2. He told us the time of his arrival.

3. The time for departing has now arrived.
4. Do you know the road leading to the temple?
5. I have a box, filled with almonds.
6. We all admire a man of courage.
7. A city on a hill cannot be hid.
8. The people in the gallery could not hear.
9. You can have anything of your liking.
10. The houses of the Burmans are generally built of bamboo.

Exercise 30.
In the following sentences replace Adjective Clauses by Adjectives or Adjective
Phrases:1. Do you know the woman who is wearing a blue sari?
2. The boy who sits near me is my cousin.
3. That was the reason why he came late.
4. The reason, why he failed, is obvious,
5. The workers, who were weary with their exertions, lay down to rest.
6. The sun, which at mid-day was hot, made the traveller thirsty,
7. Which is the road that leads most quickly to the station?
8. People who eat too much die early.
9. Many men who have not been trained to write become journalists.
10. This is the place where our forefathers landed.
11. The explanation he gave was not satisfactory.

Page 190
12. Such men as you cannot be easily disheartened.
13. This boy, who has been industrious, has earned a prize which he has well deserved.
14. A belief which is generally held is not necessarily one which is true.
15. An author who was famous during the freedom struggle lived in that cottage which overlooks the lake.

III. Noun Clauses
24. Examine the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:1. I expect to get a prize. -- [Expect what?]
2. I expect that I shall get a prize.-- [Expect what?]
The first group of words, to get a prize, does not contain a Subject and a Predicate of its own. It is therefore a phrase. This phrase is object of the verb expect and hence does the work of a Noun. It is therefore a Noun Phrase.
The second group of words, that I shall get a prize, contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own. It is therefore a clause. This Clause is the object of the verb expect and so does the work of a Noun. We therefore call it a Noun Clause,
Now examine the sentence.
That you have come pleases me.
Here the Clause, That you have come, is the Subject of the verb pleases.
It therefore does the work of a Noun, and is what we call a Noun Clause.
Def :- A Noun Clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and does the work of a Noun.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 31.
Point out the Noun Clauses in the following sentences:1. I often wonder how you are getting on.
2. I fear that I shall fail.
3. He replied that he would come.
4. Do you deny that you stole the watch?
5. I thought that it would be a fine day.
6. That you should cheat me hurts me.
7. No one knows who he is.
8. He saw that the clock had stopped.
9. That you should say this is very strange.
10. I don't see how you can get out of this mess.
11. I earn whatever I can.

12. I do not know what he wants.
13. There were no complaints except that the day was to hot.
14. I went to see what had happened,
15. I do not understand how it all happened.
16. Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
17. It grieved me to hear that she was ill.
18. I want to know how far it is from here.
19. Where we were to lodge that night was the problem.
20. He begged that his life might be spared.
21. I think you have made a mistake.
22. Can you guess what I want?
23. How the burglar got in is a mystery.
24. It is uncertain whether he will come.
25. I do not know what he will do.

Page 191

Exercise 32.
Complete the following by adding suitable Noun Clauses:1. I cannot understand ---.
2. They all said ---.
3. I think ---.
4. This is just ---.
5. He told me ---.
6. --- is a well known fact.
7. Do you know ---?
8. I wonder ---.
9. I do not know ---.
10. Please show me ---.
11. --- is quite certain.
12. I feel certain ---.
13. Tell him ---.
14. Will you tell me ---?
15. His father was anxious ---.
16. You forget ---.
17. It is certain ---.
18. Have you heard ---?
19. He was pleased with ---.

Exercise 33.
In each of the following sentences replace the words in italics by suitable Noun Clauses:1. The time of his coming no one can guess.
2. I heard of his success.
3. The reason of his failure will never be known.
4. I predict a change in the weather.
5. The jury believed the man guilty.
6. We expect an improvement in business.
7. Who can doubt the truth of his statement ?
8. I know him to be trustworthy.
9. I do not believe the account given by him.
10. He confessed his guilt.
11. He described the attack on the camp.
12. The place of their meeting was known to the police.
13. The sailor told us the direction of the wind.
14. His arrival was quite unexpected.
15. His friends hoped for his success.
16. I know your great regard for him.

Exercise 34.
In each of the following sentences replace each Noun Clause by a Noun or Noun Phrase:-

1. I hope that 1 shall be there in time.
2. He is sure that we will win the match.
3. I remarked that it was a fine day.
4. They do not know where he is concealed.
5. The police must know where he is living.
6. I believe what he says.
7. Tell me what you think about this.
8. The doctor is hopeful that she will soon recover.
9. It is to be regretted that he retired from the world so early in life.
10. I do not believe what he says.
11. He showed how the problem was done.
12. It seems that he is a sharper.
13. He does not know where I live.
14. Tell me why you did this.
15. It is not known who has written this book.
16. The law will punish whosoever is guilty.
25. We have now seen that there are three kinds of Clauses:(1) Adverb Clauses which do the work of Adverbs.
(2) Adjective Clauses which do the work of Adjectives.
(3) Noun Clauses which do the work of Nouns.
26. Examine the following sentences, and notice the work done by the Clause in each:1. I knew where I could find him.
2. I went to the place where 1 could find him
3. I went where I could find him.

Page 192
In sentence 1, the Clause does the work of a Noun, and is the Object of the verb know.
In sentence 2, the Clause does the work of an Adjective, and qualifies the noun place.
In sentence 3, the Clause does the work of an Adverb, and modifies the verb went.
We thus see that the same Clause may be a Noun Clause in one sentence, an Adjective
Clause in another, and an Adverb Clause in yet another.
It is therefore clear that we cannot say what kind of Clause a Clause is unless we carefully examine the work that it does in a sentence.

Exercise 35.
Pick out the clause in each of the following sentences, and say what kind of clause it is, and with what word it is connected:1. Come when you like.
2. I know the man who is here.
3. He says that he met your brother.
4. The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.
5. Before I die I intend to see Venice.
6. Let us rejoice as we go forward.
7. I was reading a book which I had read before.
8. Perhaps he thinks that I am a fool.
9. As I drew near I saw a very curious sight.
10. Where are the friends whom I knew?
11. Can a man live whose soul is dead?
12. I think that he will die.
13. I want to find the man who did this.
14. He made a vow that he would fast for a week.
15. Have you heard that Rama has won the prize?
16. It was not the vizier whom the king suspected.
17. He admitted that he wrote the letter.
18. That he will do it, I have no doubt.
19. I know the place which you mention.
20. That such a thing could happen, I do not believe.
21. When he heard this he turned very pale.
22. Have you seen the horse that he has bought?
23. My father hopes that you will visit us.
24. He behaved as a brave man should do.
25. I will wait until the next train comes.
26. The general feared that he would be surrounded.
27. He ate when he was hungry.
28. Since he has been in hospital he has improved greatly.
29. As I was going in my father came out.
30. There came a time when he was tired of waiting.
31. He spoke of a time when wars should cease.

32. They live where the climate is good.
33. I know a place where roses grow.
34. They have gone to a land whither few travellers go.
35. The wind bloweth whither it listen.
36. They returned whence they had come.

Page 193
37. The swallows will return to the country whence such birds migrate.
38. Let none follow me to the retreat whither I now depart.
39. I refer to the year when the monsoon failed.
40. This is not the sort of place where you'll get rich in a hurry.
41. Sadly they returned to the prison whence they had so hopefully set forth that morning.
42. You will always regret the day when you did this.
43. Another occupies the seat where once I sat.
44. He has gone to that bourne whence no traveller returns.

Exercise 36.
In each of the following sentences write a Clause in place of the words in italics, and say, whether the Clause is a Noun Clause, an Adjective Clause, or an Adverb Clause:1. He cannot find a place to sleep in.
2. The girl with long hair is my cousin.
3. Have you heard the news?
4. In spite of his efforts he failed.
5. He walked slowly to avoid slipping.
6. This is my home.
7. He cried aloud for joy.
8. I am surprised at your question.
9. He works hard for a living.
10. Being lame he has to use crutches.
11. The sun having set, the army stopped to rest.
12. I heard of his arrival.
13. The duration of the war is uncertain.
14. His remarks were not received with approval.
15. He declared his innocence.
16. I am hopeful of his speedy recovery.
17. Did he explain the purpose of his coming?
18. He ordered the traitor to be executed.
19. He remarked on the boy's impudence,
20. His silence proves his guilt.
21. I cannot tell you the date of my return.
22. His share in the plot was suspected.
23. He speaks like a born orator,
24. Under existing conditions railway travel is expensive.
25. He is not so foolish as to accept your offer,
26. In my old home we had many fruit trees.
27. I promise you a holiday on condition of your good behaviour.

27. Examine the following sentences:1. His courage won him honour.
2. The moon was bright and we could see our way.
3. Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet.
4. They rested when evening came.
5. As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said they would not allow them to fight. 6. Anil called at 5.30 and I told him that you had gone out.
We see that sentence 1 has only one Subject and one Predicate, Such a sentence is called a Simple Sentence.
Def: - A Simple sentence is one which has only one Subject and one Predicate.
[Or] A simple sentence is one which has only one Subject and one Predicate.

Page 194
Sentence 2 consists of two parts :
(i) The moon was bright.
(ii) We could sec our way.
These two parts are joined by the Co-ordinating Conjunction and.
Each part contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own. Each part is what we call a
We further notice that each Clause makes good sense by itself, and hence could stand by itself as a separate sentence. Each Clause is therefore independent of the other or of the same order or rank, and is called a Principal or Main Clause.
A sentence, such as the second, which is made up of Principal or Main Clauses, is called a Compound Sentence.
Sentence 3 consists of three Clauses of the same order or rank. In other words, sentence 3 consists of three Principal or Main Clauses, viz:
(i) Night came on
(ii) Rain fell heavily
(iii) We all got very wet. Such a sentence is also called a Compound sentence.
Def:- A Compound sentence is one made up of two or more Principal or Main Clauses.
Note:- The term Double is now used for a sentence which consists of two principal or main clauses, and the term Multiple for a sentence of more than two principal or main clauses. Sentence 4 consists of two parts:(7) They rested.
(ii) When evening came.
Each part contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and forms part of a large sentence. Each part is therefore a Clause.
We further notice that the Clause, They rested, makes good sense by itself, and hence could stand by itself as a complete sentence. It is therefore called the Principal or Main
The Clause, when evening came, cannot stand by itself and make good sense. It is dependent on the Clause, they rested. It is therefore called a Dependent or Subordinate
A sentence, such as the fourth, is called a Complex Sentence.

Sentence 5 consists of three Clauses:(i) The people said. (Main Clause).
(ii) As the boxers advanced into the ring. (Subordinate Adverb Clause.)
(iii) They would not allow them to fight. (Subordinate Noun Clause.)
Such a sentence is also called a Complex sentence.
Def:- A Complex sentence consists of one Main Clause and one or more Subordinate
Sentence 6 consists of three Clauses:(i) Anil called at 5.30 (Main Clause)
(ii) I mid him (Main Clause)
(iii) That you had gone out (Subordinate Noun Clause)

Page 195
Such a sentence is also called a Compound sentence.
In addition to two or three Main clauses, a compound Sentence sometimes includes one or more subordinate Clauses.
28. Look at the following Compound sentences, and notice the Co-ordinating
Conjunctions joining clauses of equal rank:I shall do it now or I shall not do it at all.
He gave them no money nor did he help them in any way.
He threw the stone but it missed the dog.
He neither obtains success nor deserves it.
He is cither mad or he has become a criminal.
I both thanked him and rewarded him.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 37.
State which of the following sentences are Compound, and which are Complex. In the case of a Compound sentence separate the co-ordinating clauses of which it is composed, and mention the conjunction, connecting these clauses. If a sentence is Complex divide it into its clauses, and state the Principal Clause and the Subordinate Clause or clauses:1. The horse reared and the rider was thrown.
2. Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
3. The town in which I live is very large.
4. I called him, but he gave me no answer.
5. I agree to your proposals, for I think them reasonable.
6. I went because I was invited.
7. Either he is drowned or some passing ship has saved him.
8. 1 returned home because I was tired.
9. They always talk who never think.
10. He came oftener than we expected.
11. He blushes; therefore he is guilty.
12. A guest is unwelcome when he stays too long.
13. Whatever you do, do well.
14. He must have done his duty, for he is a conscientious man.
15. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell.
16. Man proposes, but God disposes.
17. Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise.
18. Listen carefully and take notes.
19. The heavens declare, the glory of God; and the firmament showeth His handiwork.
20. He tried hard, but he did not succeed.
21. She must weep or she will die.
22. They serve God well who serve His creatures.

23. Man is guided by reason, and beast by instinct.
24. Quarrels would not last long if the fault were only on one side.
25. God made the country and man made the town.
26. He trudged on, though he was very tired.
27. There was one philosopher who chose to live in a tub.
28. The Commons passed the bill, but the Lords threw it out.
29. Tell me the news as you have heard.
30. He that has most time has none to lose.
31. Your arguments are weighty; still they do not convince me.
32. Everything comes, if a man will only work and wait.
33. The same day went Jesus out of the horse, and sat by the sea-side.
34. We must eat to live, but we should not live to eat.
35. Govern your passions or they will govern you.

Page 196
36. They [rats] fought the dogs, and killed the cats.
And bit the babies in the cradles,
And ate the cheese out of the vats.
And licked the soup from the cook's own ladles.
37. My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky.

29. We have seen that there are three kinds of Subordinate Clauses:The Noun Clause, the Adjective Clause, and the Adverb Clause.
We have also seen that a Noun Clause is a subordinate clause which does the work of a noun in a Complex sentence.
30. Since a Noun Clause does the work of a Noun in a Complex sentence, it can be:1. The Subject of a verb.
2. The Object of a transitive verb.
3. The Object of a preposition.
4. In Apposition to a Noun or Pronoun.
5. The Complement of a verb of incomplete predication.
31. In each of the following Complex sentences, the Noun Clause is the Subject of a verb:That you should say so surprises me.
That it would rain seemed likely.
What he said was true,
When I shall return is uncertain.
How he could assist his friend was his chief concern.
Why he left is a mystery.
Whether we can start to-morrow seems uncertain.
32. In each of the following Complex sentences, the Noun Clause is the Object of a transitive verb:He says that he won’t go.
I hoped that it was true.
She denied that she had written the letter.
I cannot tell what has become of him.
I do not know when I shall return.
I asked the boy how old he was.
Tell me why you did this.
Tell me where you live.

No one knows who he is.
I earn whatever I can, Ask if he is at home.
33. In each of the following Complex sentences, the Noun Clause is the Object of a preposition:Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
There is no meaning in what you say.
There were no complaints except that the day was too hot.
34. In each of the following Complex sentences, the Noun Clause is in Apposition to a
Noun or Pronoun:-

Page 197
Your statement that you found the money in the street will not be believed.
His belief that some day he would succeed cheered him through many disappointments. You must never forget this, that honesty is the best policy.
It is feared that he will not come.
It was unfortunate that you were absent.
35. In each of the following Complex sentences, the Noun Clause is used as the
Complement of a verb of incomplete predication:• My belief is that he will not come.
• Her constant prayer was that the child might live.
• His great fear is that he may fail.
• My wish is that I may please you.
• Their request will be that they may be allowed to resign.
• Life is what we make it.
• This is where I live.
36. A Clause coming after a construction consisting of an intransitive verb (particularly the verb to be) and an adjective does the work of a noun and is, therefore, treated as a
Noun Clause.
In each of the following Complex Sentences, the Noun Clause comes after an intransitive verb construction:The child was afraid that he would fall down.
All of us are keen that you should succeed.
They felt sorry that they lost the match.
The patient was sure that he would recover.
She did not seem hopeful that he would arrive.
It will be seen that the preposition of, about or for necessary to connect the intransitive verb construction to the succeeding Noun Clause in each of the above sentences is omitted. If we put a noun or a gerund instead of the Clause, we would say afraid of, keen about, sorry for, sure of, hopeful of and the noun or gerund would be the object of the preposition in each case. The Noun Clause in each of the Complex Sentences may also be regarded as the object of the missing preposition after the intransitive verb construction.
However, such Noun Clauses are often said to be used adverbially.
Note:- From the above, examples it will be seen that a Noun Clause is generally introduced by the subordinating Conjunction that. Sometimes, however, the Conjunction that is omitted; as,
I know (that) he did it.

Exercise 38.

Write down a dozen Complex sentences, each containing a Noun Clause. Make the Noun
Clause the Subject in the first three, the Object in the next three, and in Apposition to a
Noun or Pronoun in the next three. Use the Noun Clause predicatively in the last three.

Exercise 39.
Point out the Noun Clause and say whether it is the Subject of some verb, or the Object of some verb, or the Complement of some verb, or in Apposition to some noun or pronoun, or the Object of same preposition:-

Page 198
1. Tell me how you found that out.
2. That he will succeed is certain.
3. I think you have made a mistake.
4. She says her mother is ill.
5. How long I shall stay here is doubtful.
6. I did not know that he had come.
7. It is clear that he was guilty.
8. I do not understand how it all happened.
9. Can you tell who wrote Shakuntala?
10. All depends on how it is done.
11. Do you deny that you stole the purse?
12. The law will punish whosoever is guilty.
13. I think I know your face.
14. Ask if dinner is ready.
15. The report that he was killed is untrue.
16. He was very hopeful that he would succeed.
17. Do whatever you think right.
18. I don't see how you can get out of this mess.
19. Do you know when the train will arrive?
20. Whoever came was made welcome.
21. I understand you want a situation.
22. My verdict is that the prisoners shall die.
23. I cannot express how sorry I am.
24. They guessed what he meant.
25. I am afraid that she will be angry.
26. Will you explain why you behaved so?
27. No one can tell how this will end.
28. The truth is that we have been deceived.
29. It is not clear who has done this.
30. I do not know how I can deal with this rascal.
31. I did not know whether I should laugh or cry,
32. We are desirous that you should succeed.
37. Sometimes, instead of a Noun Clause introduced by that, the Accusative with the
Infinitive is used.
1. (a) He thought that he was safe there,
(b) He thought himself to be safe there.
2. (a) I believed that he was a true friend,
(b) I believed him to be a true friend.
3. (a) This proved that she man had stolen the horse,
(b) This proved the man to have stolen the horse.

4. (a) We know that Rama is alive.
(b) We know Rama to be alive.

38. As we have seen, an Adjective Clause in a Complex sentence is a subordinate clause which does the work of an Adjective, and so qualifies some noun or pronoun in the main clause. An Adjective Clause is introduced by a Relative Pronoun or by a Relative Adverb; as,
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
He is the man whom we all respect.
The time when the boat leaves is not yet fixed.
The house where the accident occurred is nearby.
The reason why I did it is obvious.
39. Sometimes, however, a Relative Pronoun introduces a Coordinate clause; as,
I met Rama, who (= and he) gave me your message.

Page 199
Here we are using the Relative Pronoun who to introduce a coordinate clause.
[It might appear, at first sight, that the clause, who gave me your message, is an Adjective clause and therefore Subordinate. It will be seen that this is not the case however, for it in no way identifies or describes Rama.
In the sentence,
He is the boy who broke the window. the clause, who broke the window, clearly identifies and describes the boy, and is therefore an Adjective clause.]
40. Below are further examples of who (and which) used to introduce a co-ordinate clause. 1. I met Mr. Joshi, who (= and he) thereupon shook hands with me.
2. The prisoner was taken before the Captain, who (= and he) condemned him to instant death. 3. He gave me a message, which (- and it) is this.
4. He released the bird, which (= and it) at once flew away.
41. The Relative Pronoun or the Relative Adverb, introducing an Adjective clause, is sometimes understood, and not expressed; as,
1. Eat all --- you can.
[Here the Relative Pronoun that is understood.]
2. I saw a man --- I know.
[Here the Relative Pronoun whom is understood.]
3. Where's the book --- he left for me ?
[Here the Relative Pronoun which is understood.]
4. On the day --- you pass the examination I shall give you a reward.
[Here the Relative Adverb when is understood.]
5. The reason --- I have come is lo ask for my money.
[Here the relative Adverb why is understood.]
42. In order English but was used as a relative pronoun as in the sentences below. In such cases but is equivalent to a relative pronoun followed by not.
1. There was not a woman present hut wept to hear such news.
[That is, who did not weep to hear such news.]

2. And not a man of the three hundred at Thermopylae but died at his post.
[That is, who did not die at his post.]
3. Nor is there a man here but loved our Caesar. [That is, who did not love our
4. There was not a widow but longed to die upon the pyre of her husband.
[That is, who did not long to die, etc.]
5. There is no fireside but has one vacant chair. [That has not one vacant chair.] 43. Note that than is sometimes used as a Preposition before a Relative Pronoun in the
Adjective Clause; as,
They elected Rama than whom no better boy ever went to school. We will follow Brutus than whom Rome knows no nobler son. It was a blow than which no crueller was ever struck. Page 200
44. The infinitive with to is often used as the equivalent of an Adjective Clause.
1. (a) Give me some food which I may eat.
(b) Give me some food to eat.
2. (a) He has no boots which he can wear,
(b) He has no boots to wear.
3. (a) The doctor has given me medicine which I must take.
(b) The doctor has given me medicine to take.
4. (a) I have work which I must do.
(b) I have work to do.
5.(a) His mother gave him Rs. 10 which he might put in his money-box.
(b) His mother gave him Rs. 10 to put in his money-box.
A work from S, CHANP & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 40.
Pick out each Adjective Clause in the following sentences and say which noun or pronoun in the main clause it qualifies:1. This is the house that Jack built.
2. He that climbs too high is sure to fall.
3. She sleeps the sleep that knows no waiting.
4. We obeyed the order the teacher gave us,
5. Servants that are honest are trusted.
6. They never fail who die in a great cause.
7. We love those who love us.
8. The moment which is lost is lost for ever.
9. I have a little shadow which goes in and out with me,
10. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.
11. Youth is the time when the seeds of character are sown.
12. It was the schooner Hesperus that sailed the wintry sea.
13. They never pardon who have done the wrong.
14. He has a son who has made a name for himself.
15. A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend.
16. All that glitters is not gold.
17. He could not answer the question I asked him.
18. He laughs best who laughs last.
19. All the blessings we enjoy come from God.
20. They that are whole have no need of the physician.
21. Little good work can be expected from men who are great boasters.
22. The plan you propose is a very good one.
23. The night is long that never finds the day.

24. It is a long lane that has no turning.
25. He gave me everything I asked-for.
26. He failed in everything that he laid his hands upon.
27. He has tricks that remind me of his father.
28. I duly received the message you sent me.
29. The fox saw the grapes which hung over the garden wall.
30. The bark that held a prince went down.
31. He that is down need fear no fall.
32. We are such stuff as dreams are made on.
33. The man that hath no music in his soul is fit for treason.
34. True love's the gift which God has given to man alone beneath the heaven.
35. Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot
O'er the grave where our hero we buried,
36. Who lives longest sees the most.
37. Often I think of the beautiful town
That is seated by the sea.

Page 201

Exercise 41.
Make ten sentences, each containing an Adjective Clause, in which a Relative Pronoun is understood Exercise 42.
Make ten sentences, each containing an Adjective Clause, in which a Relative Adverb is understood. CHAPTER 7
45. We have seen that an Adverb clause is a subordinate clause which does the work of an Adverb. It may, therefore, modify some verb, adjective, or Adverb in the main clause; as, Strike the iron while it is hot.
You are taller than I thought.
He ran so quickly that he soon overtook me.
46. Adverb clauses are of many kinds and may be classified as Adverb Clauses of:1. Time
2. Place.
3. Purpose.
4. Cause.
5. Condition.
6. Result.
7. Comparison.
8. Supposition or Concession.

1. Adverb Clauses of time
47. Adverb Clauses of time are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions whenever, while, after, before, since, as, etc.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
I will do it when I think fit.
Don't talk while she is singing.
While I command this ship there will be good discipline.
He came after night had fallen.
After the law had been passed this form of crime ceased.
Do it before you forget.
Before you go bring me some water.

I have not been well since I returned from Chennai.
There was silence as the leader spoke.
As he came into the room all rose to their feet.
The doctor always comes whenever he is sent for.
They were commanded to wait till the signal was given.
The world always will be the same so long as men are men.
As soon as he heard the news he wrote to me.
Just as he entered the room the clock struck.
No sooner did he see us than he disappeared.

Exercise 43.
Write five sentences containing Adverb clauses of time.

2. Adverb Clauses of Place
48. Adverb Clauses of Place are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions where and whereas, I have put it where I can find it again.
They can stay where they are.

Page 202
Where you live I will live.
He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.
You can put it wherever you like.
Let him be arrested wherever he may be found.
In older English whence and whither were also used.
Go quickly whence you came.
The wind bloweth whither it listeth.

Exercise 44.
Write three sentences containing Adverb clauses of place.

3. Adverb Clauses of Purpose
49. Adverb clauses of purpose are introduced by the subordinateing conjunctions so that, in order that and lest. (In order that and lest are used in a formal style.)
I will give you a map so that you can find the way.
We eat so that we may live.
The UNO was formed in order that countries might discuss world problems better.
He was extra polite to his superiors lest something adverse should be written into his records. 'Sleep not lest your Lord come in the night.'
The conjunction that occurred in older English:
He drew the sword that he might defend himself.
'Come hither that I may bless thee.'

Exercise 45.
Write three sentences containing Adverb clauses of purpose.

4. Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason
50. Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason are introduced by the Subordinating conjunctions because, as, since, that.
Because I like you, I shall help you.
I did it because I wanted to.
I did not buy it because I did not like the look of it.
He thinks, because he is rich, he can buy justice.
Since you are so clever you will be able to explain this.
Since your father is not at home, I will ask you to take the message.
Since you swear to serve me faithfully, I will employ you.
I am glad that you like it.

He was very pleased that you have passed.
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.

Exercise 46.
Write five sentences containing Adverb clauses of cause or reason.

5. Adverb Clauses of Condition
51. Adverb Clauses of Condition are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions if whether, unless.

Page 203
If I like it, I shall buy it. Come if you wish to.
If it rains we shall stay al home.
If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You must go whether you hear from him or not.
Whether the Rajah gives him blows or money, he will speak the truth.
Unless you work harder you will fail.
I shan't pay it unless he sends me the bill again.
I will forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the offence.
Note 1:- Sometimes the Subordinating Conjunction is omitted in Adverb Clauses of
Condition; as,

Had I not seen this with my own eyes I would not have believed it.
Had I the wings of a bird I would fly away.
He would be happier were he honester.
Were an angel to tell me such a thing of you, I would not believe it.
What would you answer did I ask you such a question?

Note 2:- Clauses of Condition are sometimes introduced by a Relative Pronoun, or
Adjective, or Adverb (without any antecedent); as,
• Whatever happens keep calm?
• Don't annoy him whatever you do.
• Whatever may be the result, I shall refuse.
• Whichever road we take we shall be too late.
• However cleverly you may cheat, you will be found at last

Exercise 47.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Clauses of Condition.

6. Adverb Clauses of Result or Consequence
52. Adverb Clauses of Result or Consequence are introduced by the Subordinating
Conjunction that. Frequently so or such precedes it in the Principal Clause.
They fought so bravely that the enemies were driven off. / So bravely did they fight that the enemy were driven off. (Literary)
He is such a good man that all respect him.
So great a fire raged that London was burnt down.
The Romans built in such a way that their walls are still standings.
He spoke in such a low voice that few could hear him.
So terrible a disease broke out that very few of the people survived.
Very heavy rain fell so that the rivers were soon in flood.
Laws were quickly passed so that this abuse was checked.
He behaved in such a manner that his reputation suffered.

So cold was it that many died.
Note:- The Subordinating Conjunction that is often dropped in informal English.
He was so weak he could not speak.
I am so deaf I can not hear thunder.
It was so late I waited no longer.
He is so old he can hardly walk.
It was so small I could not see it.

Page 204

Exercise 48.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Clauses-of Result or Consequence.

7. Adverb Clauses of Comparison
53. Adverb Clauses of Comparison are of two kinds:(i) Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree.
(ii) Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner.
54. Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree are introduced by the Subordinating
Conjunction than, or by the Relative Adverb as; as, He is older than he looks.
No one can run faster than Rama.
It is later than I thought.
You must work harder than I do.
He is as stupid as he is lazy.
He is not so clever as you think.
Note:- The verb of the Adverb Clause of Comparison of Degree is often understood and not expressed ; as,
Nobody knows it better than I [do].
Few are better leaders than he [is],
You like curry better than I [like it].
It will happen as sure as death [is sure].
Not many know the truth of this better than you [know it].

Exercise 49.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree.
55. Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner are introduced by the Relative Adverb as ; as; You may do as you please.
It all ended as I expected.
As you have made your bed so you must lie on it.
As he has lived so will he die.
As the twig is bent the branch will grow.

Exercise 50.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner.

8. Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession
56. Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession are introduced by the Subordinating
Conjunctions though, although, even if.
Though I am poor I am honest.
Though the heavens fall, justice must be done.
Though He slay me yet will I love Him.
He set sail though the storm threatened.
Although troops had marched all day they fought bravely all night.
Although I forbade this you have done it.
I shall be able to get in although I have no ticket.
Even if it rains I shall come.

Page 205

Exercise 51.
Write five sentences containing Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession.

Exercise 52.
Pick out the Adverb clauses in the following sentences, tell the kind of each clause and point out the word in the main clause which it modifies:1. Forgive us as we forgive our enemies.
2. We sow so that we may reap.
3. He did it as I told him.
4. I couldn't be angry with him, if I tried.
5. He arrived as we were setting out.
6. If this story were false, what should you do?
7. It is ten hours since I had nothing to eat.
8. I make friends wherever I go.
9. At Rome we must do as the Romans.
10. If I were you I would do it at once.
11. The general was as good as his word.
12. My sight is as keen as yours.
13. Some seeds fell where there was no earth.
14. Since you say so, I must believe it.
15. Stand still if you value your life.
16. He labours that he may become rich.
17. He lost more than he could afford.
18. It is so simple that a child can understand it.
19. He kept on writing as though, he did not hear.
20. Boy as he was, he was chosen king.
21. He rides as a cowboy rides.
22. I will die before I submit.
23. He was caught in a shower as he was returning from school.
24. He speaks better than he writes.
25. He came in while I was out.
26. After the vote was taken the meeting broke up.
27. He wept as if he had been a child.
28. Apollo was worshipped as long as the Roman Empire lasted.
29. He consoled the unfortunate mother as best he might.
30. He ran so fast that I could not overtake him.
31. He knows that inasmuch as I have told him.
32. The younger man has more money than brains.
33. Since you desire it, I will look into the matter.
34. They set a strong guard, lest any one should escape.
35. He succeeded although his success was not expected.
36. The earth is larger than the moon.
37. It was dark when the cannonading stopped all of a sudden.

38. His pity gave ere charity began.
39. Wherever I went was my dear dog Tray.
40. He felt as if the ground were slipping beneath his feet.
41. Some people act as though they could do no wrong.
42. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
43. He dared not stir, lest he should be seen.
44. The movement was checked before it was fairly started.
45. A glutton lives so that he may eat.
46. Everything happened exactly as had been expected.
47. Robinson Crusoe was puzzled when he discovered the print of a foot on the sand.
48. Enough is as good as a feast.
49. He finished the work as the clock struck five.
A work from S, CHANP & COMPANY LTD.

Page 206
50. As soon as you stand there, this young lady is your lawful wedded wife.
51. It's dull in our town since my playmates left.
52. Whilst I live, thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.
53. No sooner did this idea enter his head, than it carried conviction with it
54. They have gone ahead with the plan, although there is widespread public opposition.
55. They were commanded to wait till the signal was given.
56. Rich as he is, one would scarcely envy him.
57. Open rebuke is better than secret love.
58. Have you turned detective, that you keep your eye on me like this?
59. He had not read half a dozen pages, when the expression of his face began to change.
60. My eldest son was bred at Oxford, as I intended him for the learned profession.
61. His behaviour was such that everybody liked him.
62. I had scarcely taken orders a year, before I began to think seriously of matrimony.
63. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
64. The world always will be the same, as long as men are men.

Exercise 53.
Use each of the following clauses in a sentence, and say what work it does in your sentence:1. that he was tired
2. where he was born
3. as he was told
4. what you say
5. whosoever is guilty
6. who laughs last
7. because he is generous
8. since you say so
9. as he deserved
10. before it was too late
11. as soon as he heard the news
12. that he soon overtook me
13. where he had left it
14. how old he was
15. if you are diligent
16. because I was tired
17. what has become of him
18. when the train will arrive
19. who did it
20. whatever you think right
21. since I returned from Lahore
22. how this will end
23. what he wants
24. as he could

25. as he was not there
26. if 1 were you
27. that the streets were flooded
28. as I told him
29. before I submitted
30. that he is a millionaire
31. as she is beautiful
32. what you want
33. when his father died
34. as it was raining
35. as you please
36. than you are [strong]
37. although he is not rich
38. who works hard
39. that we shall win
40. when I shall return
41. if I had not helped you
42. although they fought most valiantly
43. when the cat is away
44. while it is hot
45. who help themselves
46. while the sun shines
47. till you are out of the wood
48. that wears a crown
49. who live in glass houses
51. that blows nobody good
53. as dreams are made on
55. where angels fear to tread
50. where ignorance is bliss
52. no sooner did he see me
54. that has no turning
56. so that we may live

Exercise 54.
Use the following subordinate clauses in as many different ways as possible by attaching them to suitable principal clauses:1. where he was buried
2. when the train will arrive.
3. where he had left it.
4. who did it.
5. why he did it.
6. so that he might succeed in life.
7. whom he had met.
8. when the monsoon failed.

Page 207

Exercise 55.
Complete the following sentences by supplying appropriate connecting words:1. Small service is true service --- it lasts.
2. It is a great loss to a man --- he cannot laugh.
3. We there met boy --- had lost his way.
4. It is the common doom of man --- he must eat his bread by the sweat of his brow.
5. Fit words are better --- fine ones.
6. He makes no friend, --- never made a foe.
7. The moment --- is lost is lost for ever.
8. Forgive us our debts --- we forgive our debtors.
9. The man --- stands by me in trouble I won't bid him go till the sun shines again.
10. Money ---- is easily earned is soon spent.
11. --- somewhat pompous, he was an entertaining companion.
12. --- Poetry takes me up so entirely --- I scarce see what passes under my nose.
13. He --- fights and runs away, lives to fight another day.
14. Never refuse to entertain a man in your heart --- all the world is talking against him.
15. --- you would be healthy, be good.
16. --- I am dead, my dearest, sing no sad songs for me.
17. A man has no more right to say an uncivil thing --- to act one.
18. --- the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
19. --- this be madness --- there is method in it.
20. Consider the lilies --- they grow.
21. --- he has a car, he often goes to the office on foot.
22. --- we approached the house, we heard the sound of music.
23. I have not been well --- I returned from Delhi.
24. These are the books --- I ordered last week.
25. They live --- their fathers lived before them.
26. No one can tell --- this will end.
27. he had gone I remembered --- he was.
28. A man --- loses his temper continually is a nuisance.
29. Youth is the time --- the seeds of character are sown.
30. The house --- he was born lies in ruins.
31. --- my mother died I was very young.
32. Do not halloo --- you are out of the wood.
33. I shall see you tomorrow, --- we will talk the matter over.
34. They always talk never think.
35. I did not recognize him --- he told me --- he was.
36. They serve God well --- serve His creatures.
37. I have a little shadow --- goes in and out with me.
38. I met a boy --- told me --- I could find you.
39. We learn, --- we may be able to make our way in the world.
40. --- he was not there, I spoke to his brother.

41. A vessel that once gets a crack, --- it may be cunningly mended, will never stand such rough usage --- a whole one.
42. --- it journeys through space, the earth is not alone; spinning round with it is the moon.
43. Other planets have moons --- ours is very large compared to the earth.
44. I resolved --- I would say nothing --- I knew the worst.
45. --- he was born, --- brought him up, and --- he lived, we are not told.
46. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought --- I felt --- I sank into the water.
47. --- he was a strict disciplinarian he was loved by all --- I served under him.

Page 208
48. One great reason --- we are insensible to the goodness of the Creator is the fact --- his bounty is so extensive.
49. Passengers are warned --- it is dangerous to lean out of the window --- the train is in motion. CHAPTER 8
57. Usually when a complex or compound sentence is given for analysing, detailedanalysis is not required; the student is asked to give clause analysis, that is, he is asked to break up a given- sentence into its several clauses and show their relation to one another.
58. In analysing a Complex sentence, the first step is to find out the Principal or Main
The next step is to find out the Subordinate Clause or Clauses, showing the relation which each Clause bears to the Principal Clause.
59. Now study carefully the following example of the analysis of a Complex sentence:Whenever he heard the question, the old man who lived in that house, answered that the earth is flat.
Complex sentence containing three Subordinate clauses:
1. The old man --- answered (Principal clause).
2. Whenever he heard the question. (Adverb clause of time, modifying answered in 1.)
3. Who lived in that house. (Adjective clause, qualifying man in 1.)
4. That the earth is flat. (Noun clause, object of answered in 1.)
60. Sometimes a Subordinate clause has another Subordinate clause within it; that is, a
Subordinate clause has another Subordinate clause dependent on it e.g.,
(A) I think that he destroyed the letter which you sent there.
1. I think -- (Principal clause.)
2. That he destroyed the letter -- (Noun Clause, object of think in 1.)
3. Which you sent there -- (Adjective clause, subordinate to 2, qualifying letter.)
(B) He replied that he worked whenever he liked.
1. He replied -- (Principal clause.)
2. That he worked -- (Noun clause, object of replied in 1.)
3. Whenever he liked -- (Adverb clause, subordinate to 2, modifying worked.)
(C) I know the man who said that this would happen.
1. I know the man -- (Principal clause).
2. Who said -- (Adjective clause, qualifying man in 1.)

3. That this would happen. (Noun clause, subordinate to 2, object of said.)
61. One afternoon, as in that sultry clime

Page 209
It is the custom in the summer-time.,
With bolted doors and window-shutters closed,
The inhabitants of Atri slept or dozed.
When, suddenly upon their senses fell
The loud alarm of the accusing bell!
Complex sentence, containing two subordinate clauses:
1. One afternoon, with bolted doors and window shutters closed, the inhabitants of Atri slept or dozed. (Principal clause).
2. As in that sultry clime it is the custom in the summer-time. (Adverb clause of manner, modifying slept or dozed in 1.)
3. When, suddenly, upon their senses fell the loud alarm of the accusing bell. (Adverb clause of time, modifying slept or dozed in 1)
62. Below are further examples:
(1) Breathes there the man with soul so dead
Who never to himself hath said,
'This is my own, my native land'? Complex sentence, containing two subordinate clauses:
1. Breathes there the man with soul so dead -- (Principal clause).
2. Who never to himself hath said -- (Adjective clause, qualifying man in 1.)
3. “This is my own, my native land”? (Noun clause, subordinate to 2, object of hath said.)
(2) Everyone who knows you, acknowledges, when he considers the case calmly, that you have been wronged.
Complex sentence, containing three subordinate clauses:1. Everyone acknowledges...(Principal clause)
2. Who knows you. (Adjective clause, qualifying one in 1.)
3. When he considers the case calmly, (Adverb clause, modifying acknowledges in 1.)
4. That you have been wronged. (Noun clause, object of acknowledges in 1.)
(3) Do the work that's nearest,
Tho' it's dull at whiles
Helping when you meet them.
Lame dogs over stiles.
Complex sentence, containing three subordinate clauses:1. [You] do the work, helping lame dogs over stiles. (Principal clause.)
2. That's nearest. (Adjective clause, qualifying work in 1.)
3. Tho' it's dull at whiles. (Adverb clause of concession, modifying helping in 1.)
4. When you meet them. (Adverb clause of time, modifying helping in 1.)

(4) I knew a man who believed that, if a man were permitted to make the ballads, he need not care who made the laws of a nation.
Complex sentence, containing four subordinate clauses:
1. I knew a man...(Principal clause)
2. Who believed....(Adjective clause, qualifying a man in I.)

Page 210
3. That he need not care. (Noun clause, subordinate to 2, object of believed)
4. Who made the laws of a nation. (Noun clause, subordinate to 2, object of care.)
5. If a man were permitted to make the ballads. Adverb clause of condition, subordinate to 3, modifying need not care.
(5) The man who can play most heartily when he has the chance of playing, is generally the man who can work most heartily when he must work.
Complex sentence, containing four subordinate clauses:
1. The man is generally the man...(Principal clause.)
2. Who can play most heartily. [Adjective clause, qualifying man (subject) in 1.]
3. When he has the chance of playing. [Adverb clause, subordinate to 2. modifying play. )
4. Who can work most heartily. (Adjective clause, qualifying man (complement) in l.]
5. When he must work. (Adverb clause, subordinate to 4, modifying work).
(6) Should you be so unfortunate as to suppose that you are a genius, and that things will come to you, it would be well to undeceive yourself as soon as it is possible.
Complex sentence, containing four subordinate Clauses:
1. It would be well to undeceive yourself. (Principal clause).
2. As soon as it is possible. (Adverb clause of time, subordinate to ].)
3. Should you be so unfortunate as to suppose...(Adverb clause of condition, subordinate to 1.)
4. That you are a genius. (Noun clause. Subordinate to 3, object of to sup pose.)
5. And that things will come to you. (Noun clause, co-ordinate with 4, and subordinate to
3, object of to suppose.)

Exercise 56.
Analyse the following sentences:1. As my eldest son was bred a scholar. I determined to send him to town, where his abilities might contribute to our support and his own.
2. Clive had been only a few months in the army, when intelligence arrived that peace had been concluded between Great Britain and France.
3. I had a partial father, who gave me a better education than his broken fortune would have allowed.
4. He told us that he had read Milton, in a prose translation, when he was fourteen.
5. With whatever luxuries a bachelor may be surrounded, he will always find his happiness incomplete, unless he has a wife and children.
6. Among the many reasons which make me glad to have been born in England, one of the first is that E read Shakespeare in my mother tongue.
7. He [Pope] professed to have learned his poetry from Dryden. whom, whenever an opportunity was presented, he praised through his whole life with unvaried liberality. 8. We who are fortunate enough to live in this enlightened century hardly realize

how our ancestors suffered from their belief in the existence of mysterious and malevolent beings.
9. We cannot justly interpret the religion of any people, unless we are prepared to admit that we ourselves are liable to error in matters of faith.
10. Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages, because one tongue was enough for a woman.
A work from S, CHANP & COMPANY LTD.

Page 211
11. The man who does not sec that the good of every living creature is his good, is a fool. 12. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which 1 felt when 1 sank into the water. 13. We had in this village, some twenty years ago, a boy whom I well remember, who from his childhood showed a strong liking for bees.
14. Considering that the world is so intricate, we are not to be surprised that science has progressed slowly.
15. You lake my house when you do take the prop
That doth sustain my house.
16. I heard a thousand blended notes
While in a grove I sat reclined.
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind.
17. Much as we like Shakespeare's comedies, we cannot agree with Dr. Johnson that they are better than his tragedies.
18. Those who look into practical life will find that fortune is usually on the side of the industrious, as the winds and waves are on the side of the best navigators.
19. He who sits from day to day.
Where the prisoned lark is hung.
Heedless of its loudest lay,
Hardly knows that it has sung.
20. History says that Socrates, when he was given the cup of hemlock, continued to talk to the friends who were standing around him as he drank it.
21. 1 have no sympathy with the poor man I knew, who, when suicides abounded, told me he dared not look at his razor.

64. A compound sentence is made up of two or more principal or main clauses joined together by a Co-ordinating conjunction and sometimes includes one or more subordinate clauses. 1. The horse reared and the rider was thrown.
[2 main clauses]
2. They were fond of music, played on various kinds of instrument, and indulged in much singing.
[3 main clauses]
3. They asked him how he received the wound, but he refused to answer.
[2 main clauses + 1 subordinate clause]

4. He says what he means, and he means what he says.
[2 main clauses +2 subordinate clauses]
It has been already pointed out ( § 27) that the term Double is now used for a sentence which is made up of two main clauses, and the term Multiple for a sentence of more than two main clauses,
65. In accordance with this new terminology, 1, 3, and 4 are Double sentences, and 2 is a
Multiple sentence.

Page 212
66. The connection between two main clauses of a Compound sentence may be one of the following four kinds:(1) Copulative; as
God made the country and man made the town.
Babar was not only a great soldier, he was also a wise ruler.
He cannot speak, nor can he write.
He plays the piano, he sings also.
The innocents were punished as well as the guilty.
Here in each sentence the main clauses are simply coupled together.
(2) Adversative; as,
He is slow, but he is sure.
I did my best, nevertheless I failed.
He is rich, yet he is not happy.
He is vain, still his friends adore him.
Here in each sentence the two main clauses are opposed in meaning to each other.
(3) Alternative or Disjunctive; as,
She must weep, or she will die.
Either he is mad, or he feigns madness.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
Here in each sentence the two main clauses are disjoined in meaning, and a choice between them is offered for acceptance.
(4) Illative; as,
He is diligent, therefore he will succeed.
He is unwell, so he cannot attend office.
The angles are equal, consequently the sides are equal
Here in each sentence the second clause draws an inference from the first.
67. Sometimes no connecting word is used to join two main clauses; as,
Temperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it.
Her court was pure; her life serene.
68. Sometimes a Subordinate Conjunction is used to join the clauses of a Compound sentence; as,
I shall see you to-morrow, when (= and then) we can finish the business.
I walked with him to the station, where (= and there) we parted.
69. Compared sentences are often contracted. For example, when the main clauses have:(1) A common Subject; as,
He chid their wanderings, but relieved their pain.

= He chid their wanderings, but he relieved their pain.
(2) A common Verb; as,
Some praise the work, and some the architect.
= Some praise the work, and some praise the architect.
70. Study carefully the clause analysis of the following:(1) One day Bassanio came to Antonio, and told him that he wised to repair his fortune by a wealthy marriage with a

Page 213 lady whom he dearly loved, whose father had left her sole heiress to a large estate.
Analysis:This is a Compound or Double sentence, consisting of:A. One day Bassanio came to Antonio. (Principal clause).
B. Bassanio told him...(Principal clause co-ordinate with A.)
B1. That he wished to repair his fortune by a wealthy marriage with a lady. (Noun clause, object of told in B.) b2. Whom he dearly loved. (Adjective clause, subordinate to b1, qualifying lady.) b3. Whose father had left her sole heiress to a large estate., (Adjective clause, subordinate to b1, qualifying lady, and co-ordinate with b2.)
(2) Before he died, the good Earl of Kent, who had still attended his old master's steps from the first of his daughters' ill-usage to this sad period of his decay, tried to make him understand that it was he who had followed him under the name of Caius; but Lear's carecrazed brain at that time could not comprehend how that could be, or how Kent and Caius could be the same person.
Analysis:- This is a Compound or Double sentence, consisting of:A. The good Earl of Kent tried to make him understand...(Principal clause). a1. Before he died. (Adverb clause, modifying tried in A). a2. Who had still-attended his old master's steps from the first of his daughters' ill-usage to this sad period of his decay. (Adjective clause, qualifying Earl of Kent in A.) a3. That it was he. (Noun clause, object of understand in A.) a4. Who had followed him under the name of Caius. (Adjective clause, subordinate to a3, qualifying he.)
B. But Lears's care-crazed brain at that time could not comprehend (Principal clause, coordinate with A.) b1. How that could be. (Noun clause, object of comprehend in B.) b2. Or how Kent and Caius could be the same person. (Noun clause, object of comprehend in B; co-ordinate with b1.)

Exercise 57.
Analyse the following:1. I am satisfied with things as they are; and it will be my pride and pleasure to hand down this country to my children as I received it from those who preceded me.
2. Some politicians of our time lay it down as a self-evident proposition that no people ought to be free till they are fit to use their freedom.

3. He [a gentleman] never speaks of himself except when compelled, never defends himself by a mere retort; he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere-with him, and interprets everything for the best,
4. Subhash Chandra Bose died before his aim was achieved, and yet he will always be remembered as a great hero, who fought and sacrificed his life for the freedom of the country. 5. The notice which you have been pleased to take of my labours, had it been early, had been kind; but it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and cannot enjoy it.

Page 214
6. I hope it is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations where no benefit has been received, or to be unwilling that the public should consider me as owing that to a patron, which Providence has enabled me to do for myself.
7. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away.
8. With reluctance he accepted the invitations of his kindly and faithful Persian friend, who scolded him for refusing meat; but he replied that too much eating led man to commit many sins.
9. Macaulay had wealth and fame, rank and power, and yet he tells us in his biography that he owed the happiest hours of his life to books.
10. A literary education is simply one of many different kinds of education and it is not wise that more than a small percentage of the people of any country should have an exclusively literary education.
11. The way into my parlour is up a winding stair, And I've many curious things to show when you are there.
12. They love to see the flaming forge,
And hear the bellows soar,
And catch the burning sparks that fly.
Like chaff from a threshing floor.
13. The friends who had left came back every one,
And darkest advisers looked bright as the sun.
14. She lived unknown and few could know,
When Lucy ceased to be.
15. Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower,
And they trimmed the lamps as the sun went down.
16. His hair was yellow as hay.
But threads of a silvery grey
Gleamed in his tawny beard.

Exercise 58.
(Miscellaneous) Analyse the following:1. When Abraham sat at his tent door, according to his custom, waiting to entertain strangers, he espied an old man, stooping and leaning on his

staff, weary with age and travel, coming towards him. who was a hundred years of age.
2. When the old man was gone, God called to Abraham and asked him where the stranger was. 3. He replied, I thrust him away because he did not worship Thee.
4. While you are upon Earth enjoy the good things that are here (to that end were they given) and be not melancholy, and wish yourself in heaven.
5. There is no saying shocks me so much as that which I hear very often that a man does not know how lo pass his time.
6. You must observe, my friend, that it is the custom of this country, when a lady or gentleman happens to sing, for the company to sit as mute and as motionless as statues.
7. Mr. Burchell had scarce taken leave, and Sophia consented to dance with the chaplain, when my little ones came running out to tell us that the Squire was come with a crowd of company. 8. I hope it will give comfort to great numbers who are passing through the world in obscurity, when I inform them how easily distinction may be obtained.
9. All who have meant good work with their whole hearts, have done good work, although they may die before they have the time to sign it.
10. We are told that, while still a mere child, he stole away from his playfellows to a vault in St. James's Fields, for the purpose of investigating the cause of a singular echo which he had observed there.

Page 215
11. The slave who was at his work not far from the place where this astonishing piece of cruelty was committed, hearing the shrieks of the dying person ran to see what was the occasion of them.
12. Every insignificant author fancies it of importance to the world to know that he wrote his book in the country, that he did it to pass away some of his idle hours, that it was published at the importunity of friends, or that his natural temper, studies, or conversation directed him to the choice of his subject.
13. I consider a human soul without education like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties, until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colours, makes the surface shine, discovers every ornamental cloud, spot, and view that run through the body of it.
14. When the Athenians in the war with the Lacedaemonians received many defeats both by sea and land, they sent a message to the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, to ask the reason why they who erected so many temples to the gods, and adorned them with such costly offerings, should be less successful than the Lacedaemonians, who fell so short of them in all these particulars.
15. He that holds fast the golden mean,
And lives contentedly between
The little and the great,
Feels not the wants that pinch the poor,
Nor plagues that haunt the rich man's door,
Embittering all his state.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

71. The student has already learnt that a phrase can be expanded into a clause and a clause contracted into a phrase; that is, the form of a sentence can be changed without changing the meaning. In this chapter we shall show some other ways of changing the form of a sentence.
The conversion or transformation of sentences is an excellent exercise as it teaches variety of expression in writing English.

1. Sentences containing the Adverb “too”
72. We can change the form of a sentence containing the adverb “too”, as shown below:1. The news is too good to be true.
The news is so good that it cannot to be true.

2. These mangoes are too cheap to be good.
These mangoes are so cheap that they cannot be good.
3. He drove too fast for the police to catch.
He drove so fast that the police could not catch him. Exercise 59. Rewrite the following sentences so as to get rid of the Adverb 'too':1. It is never too late to mend.
2. He is too proud to beg.
3. My heart is too full for words.
4. He was too late to hear the first speech.
5. He is too ignorant for a postman.
6. The boy was too old for whipping.

Page 216
7. This tree is too high for me to climb.
8. He speaks too fast to be understood.
9. He is far too stupid for such a difficult post.
10. She was sobbing too deeply to make any answer.
11. This fact is too evident to require proof.
12. The work is too much for any man to do single-handed.
13. That shirt is too small for me.
14. The bag was too heavy for me to carry.

2. Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison
73. As the following examples show, it is possible to change the Degree of Comparison of an Adjective or Adverb in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Positive. -- I am as strong as him.
Comparative. -- He is not stronger than me.
Positive. --This razor is not as sharp as that one.
Comparative. -- That razor is sharper than this one.
Positive. -- Few historians write as interestingly as Joshi.
Comparative. -- Joshi writes more interestingly than most historians.
Positive. -- No other metal is as useful as iron.
Comparative. -- Iron is more useful than any other metal.
Superlative. -- Iron is the most useful of all metals.
Superlative. -- India is the largest democracy in the world.
Comparative. -- India is larger than any other democracy in the world.
Positive. -- No other democracy in the world is as large as India.
Superlative. -- Mumbai is one of the richest cities in India.
Comparative. -- Mumbai is richer than most other cities in India.
Positive. -- Very few cities in India are as rich as Mumbai.
Superlative. -- Usha Kiran is not the tallest of all the buildings in the city.
Comparative. -- Usha Kiran is not taller than some other buildings in the city.
Some other buildings in the city are perhaps tatter than Usha Kiran. positive. -- Some other buildings in the city are at least as tall as Usha Kiran.
Usha Kiran is perhaps not as tall as some other buildings in the city.
Superlative. -- Naomi is not one of the cleverest girls in the class.
Comparative. -- Some girls of the class are cleverer than Naomi,.
Naomi is less clever than some other girls of the class.
Positive. -- Naomi is not so clever as some other girls of the class.

Exercise 60.
Change the Degree of Comparison without changing the meaning:1. Abdul is as strong as his brother.

2. Akbar was one of the greatest kings.
3. Some boys are at least as industrious as Karim.
4. Mahabaleshwar is cooler than Mysore.
5. No other bowler in the eleven is so good as Rama.
6. Very few cities in India are as big as Chennai.
7. No other story-book is so popular as The Arabian Nights.
8. This pony is better trained than yours.
9. This Church is the biggest in Mumbai.

Page 217
10. This newspaper has a bigger circulation than any other morning paper.
11. Helen of Troy was more beautiful than any other woman.
12. The airplane flies faster than birds.
13. Hyderabad is one of the biggest of Indian cities.
14. Some beans are at least as nutritious as meat.
15. Samudra Gupta was one of the greatest of Indian kings.
16. Australia is the largest island in the world.
17. Very few Indo-Anglian novelists are as great as R.K. Narayan.
18. This is one of the hottest districts in India.
19. It is better to starve than beg.
20. He loves all his sons equally well.

3. Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
74. A sentence in the Active form can be changed into the Passive form, and vice versa :Active. Brutus stabbed Caesar.
Passive. -- Caesar was stabbed by Brutus.
Active. -- The people will make him President.
Passive. -- He will be made President by the people.
Active. -- Who taught you grammar?
Passive. -- By whom were you taught grammar?/Who were you taught grammar by? -By whom was grammar taught to you ?
Active. -- The Governor gave him a reward.
Passive. -- He was given a reward by the Governor.
A reward was given him by the Governor.
Active. -- The Romans expected to conquer Carthage.
Passive. -- It was expected by the Romans that they would conquer Carthage.
Active. -- One should keep one's, promises.
Passive. -- Promises should be kept.
Active. -- I know her.
Passive. -- She is known to me.
Active. -- My captors were taking me to prison.
Passive. -- I was being taken to prison by my captors.
Active. -- His behaviour vexes me sometimes.
Passive. -- I am sometimes vexed at his behaviour.
Active. -- It is time to shut up the shop.
Passive. -- It is time for the shop to be shut up.
Active. -- The audience loudly cheered the Mayor's speech.
Passive. -- The Mayor's speech was loudly cheered.
Note:- Whenever it is evident who the agent (i.e., doer of the action) is, it is unnecessary to mention him in the passive form, and this omission gives a neater turn to the sentence.
Thus in the last example the agent is not mentioned in the passive form because only those who heard the speech could have cheered it.

Passive. -- My pocket has been picked.
Active. -- Someone has picked my pocket.
Passive. -- Our army has been defeated.
Active. -- The enemy has defeated our army.
Passive. -- I shall be obliged to go.
Active. -- Circumstances will oblige me to go.
Note:- The Active Voice is used when the agent, or actor, is to be

Page 218 made prominent; the Passive, when the thing acted upon is to be made prominent. Hence the Passive Voice may be used when the agent is unknown, or when we do not care to name the agent ; as, "The ship was wrecked."

Exercise 61.
Change the following sentences into the Passive form. (Omit the agent where possible.)
1. Premchand wrote this novel.
2. We admire the brave.
3. I bought the baby a doll.
4. They know me.
5. He invited me to his house yesterday.
6. They enjoy bathing.
7. I opened the door.
8. 1 read the book long ago.
9. Pakistan expected to win the match.
10. The master appointed him monitor.
11. Who taught you such tricks as these?
12. Brutus accused Caesar of ambition.
13. The boy is climbing the cliff.
14. He taught me to read Persian.
15. One expects better behaviour from a college student.
16. They showed a video of The Titanic'.
17. You must endure what you cannot cure.
18. The King reviewed the troops in the maidan.
19. The curator of the museum showed us some ancient coins.
20. They have pulled down the old house.
21. The rules forbid passengers to cross the railway line.
22. He made his wife do the work.
23. Nature teaches beasts to know their friends.
24. All desire wealth and some acquire it.
25. Lincoln emancipated four million African slaves.
26. We expect good news.
27. They propose to build a dam for irrigation purposes.
28. I offered him a chair.
29. The French surrendered Quebec to the English in 1759.
30. He showed me the greatest respect.
31. Alas ! we shall hear his voice no more.
32. Shall I ever forget those happy days ?
33. Do you not understand my meaning ?
34. We must listen to his words.

Exercise 62.
Rewrite the following sentences in the Passive form. (Omit the agent where possible.)
1. Macbeth hoped to succeed Duncan.

2. Who taught you Urdu?
3. They found him guilty of murder.
4. The King immediately gave orders that he should be imprisoned.
5. Somebody has put out the light.
6. They laughed at his warnings and objected to all his proposals.
7. The Swiss regarded him as an impostor and called him a villain.
8. I have kept the money in the safe.
9. He pretended to be a baron.
10. His subordinates accused him of various offences.
11. I saw him opening the box.
12. He ordered the police to pursue the thief.
13. One cannot gather grapes from thistles.
14. You never hear of a happy millionaire.
15. The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
16. Did you never hear that name?
17. The legend tells us how the castle received its name.
18. Do not insult the weak.
19. Why did he defraud you of your earnings.

Page 219

Exercise 63.
Change the following sentences into the Active form:1. The letter was written by the clerk.
2. Without effort nothing can be gamed.
3. “Shakuntala” was written by Kalidas.
4. I was struck by his singular appearance.
5. He was seen by my brother.
6. He was chosen leader.
7. Honey is made by bees.
8. The bird was killed by a cruel boy.
9. The steam-engine was invented by Watt.
10. The mouse was kilted by the cat.
11. The boy was praised by the teacher.
12. The Exhibition was opened by the Prime Minister.
13. By whom was this jug broken?
14. 1 was offered a chair.
15. We shall be blamed by everyone.
16. He will be gladdened by the sight.
17. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
18. My watch has been stolen.
19. A king may be looked at by a cat.
20. The telegraph wires have been cut.
21. Harsh sentences were pronounced on the offenders.
22. This question will be discussed at the meeting tomorrow.
23. Why should I be suspected by you?
24. Stones should not be thrown by those who live in glass houses.
25. He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen.
26. The ship was set on fire and abandoned by the crew.
27. He was arrested on a charge of theft, but for lack of evidence he was released.

4. Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences
75. Study the following examples.
1. Brutus loved Caesar.
Brutus was not without love for Caesar.
2. I was doubtful whether it was you.
I was not sure that it was you.
3. Old fools surpass all other fools in folly.
There's no fool like an old fool.
4. He is greater than me.
I am not so great as him.

5. Alfred was the best king that ever reigned in England.
No other king as good as Alfred ever reigned in England.

Exercise 64.
Express the meaning of the following sentences in negative form:1. He was more rapacious than a griffin.
2. He was as rapacious as a griffin.
3. Akbar was the greatest of the Great Moghuls.
4. He was greater than Aurangzeb.
5. The rose by any other name would smell as sweet.
6. As soon as he came, he made objections.
7. These fishing nets are all the wealth I own.
8. I always love my country.
9. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
10. He is sometimes foolish.
11. He failed to notice me when he came in.
12. Everybody will admit that he did his best.
13. Only a millionaire can afford such extravagance.
14. Every man makes mistakes sometimes.
15. I care very little what he says about me.
16. As soon as he saw me he came up and spoke to me.
17. He must have seen the Tajmahal when he went to Agra.

Page 220

Exercise 65.
Convert the following Negatives into Affirmatives:1. Nobody was absent.
2. He did not live many years in India.
3. No one could deny that she was pretty.
4. God will not forget the cry of the humble.
5. I am not a little tired'.
6. There was no one present who did not cheer.
7. I never in my life laid a plan and failed to carry it out.
8. Not many men would be cruel and unjust to a cripple. .
9. No man could have done better.
10. The two brothers are not unlike each other.
11. He has promised never to touch wine again.
12. We did not find the road very bad.
13. There is no smoke without fire.
14. It is not likely that he will ever see his home again.

5. Interchange of Interrogative and Assertive Sentences
76. Study the following examples;1. What though we happen to be late?
It does not matter much though we happen to be late.
2. Why waste time in reading trash?
It is extremely foolish to waste time in reading trash.
3. Were we sent into the world simply to make money?
We were not sent into the world simply to make money.
4. How can man die better than facing fearful odds?
Man cannot die better than facing fearful odds.
5. When can their glory fade?
Their glory can never fade.
6. Was he not a villain to do such a deed?
He was a villain to do such a deed.

Exercise 66.
Transform the following sentences Into Assertive sentence:1. Who can touch pitch without being defiled?
2. Can any man by taking thought add a cubit to his stature?
3. What though the field be lost?
4. Is that the way a gentleman should behave?

5. Who does not know the owl?
6. Shall I ever forget those happy days?
7. Who is so wicked as to amuse himself with the infirmities of extreme old age?
8. Why waste time in this fruitless occupation?
9. Is this the kind of dress to wear in school?
10. Can you gather grapes from thorns or figs from thistles?

Exercise 67.
Express the meaning of the following Assertions Questions:1. No one can be expected to submit for ever to injustice.
2. There is nothing better than a busy life.
3. Nowhere in the world will you find a fairer building than the Taj Mahal.
4. It is useless to offer bread to a man who is dying of thirst.
5. We could have done nothing without your help.
6. That was not an example to be followed.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 221

6. Interchange of Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences
77. Study the following examples:1. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
The moonlight very sweetly sleeps upon this bank.
2. If only I were young again!
I wish I were young again.
3. Alas that youth should pass away!
It is sad to think that youth should pass away.
4. How beautiful is night!
Night is very beautiful.
5. To think of our meeting here!
[Or] That we should meet here !
It is strange that we should meet here.

Exercise 68.
Transform the following Exclamatory sentences into Assertions:1. What would I not give to see you happy!
2. Ah, what a sight was there!
3. What a piece of work is man!
4. What might be done, if men were wise!
5. What a wonderful creature an elephant is!
6. How awkwardly he manages his sword!
7. O that we two were infants playing.
8. If only I had the wings of a dove!
9. What a large nose!
10. If only I had a good horse!
11. If only I were safe at home!
12. O what a fall was there my countrymen!
13. What a delicious meal!
14. What sweet delight a quiet life affords!
15. How well fitted the camel is for the work he has to do!
16. How cold you are!
17. What a beautiful scene this is!
18. What a delicious flavour these mangoes have!
19. Shame on you to use a poor cripple so!
20. If only I knew more people!
21. How you have grown!
22. If only I had come one hour earlier!

Exercise 69.
Transform the following into Exclamatory sentences:1. It is a horrible night.
2. It was extremely base of him to desert you in your time of need.
3. It is hard to believe that he did such a deed.
4. I wish I had met you ten years ago.
5. It is very stupid of me to forget your name.
6. He leads a most unhappy life.
7. Interchange of one Part of Speech for another
78. Study the following examples:1. That kind of joke does not amuse me.
That kind of joke does not give me any amusement.
2. It costs twelve rupees.
The cost is twelve rupees.

Page 222
3. He has disgraced his family.
He is a disgrace to his family.
4. He fought bravely.
He put up a brave fight.
5. The treaty of Salbai should be remembered as one of the landmarks in the history of
The treaty of Salbai is worthy of remembrance as one of the landmarks in the history of
6. I cannot consent to your going.
I cannot give my consent to your going.
7. He gave a curt reply.
He replied curtly.
8. He showed generosity even to his enemies.
He was generous even to his enemies.
9. There is a slight difference between the two shades.
The two shades are slightly different.
10. The Act made the negro slaves free.
The Act gave freedom to the negro slaves.
11. I see him every day.
I see him daily.
12. He examined the document carefully.
He examined the document with care.
13. We passed an anxious hour.
We passed an hour anxiously.
14. Few historians have written in a more interesting manner than Gibbon.
Few historians have written more interestingly than Gibbon.
15. He presumptuously ignored my advice.
He presumed to ignore my advice.

Exercise 70.
(a) In the following sentences replace the Nouns it italics by Verbs :1. He rejected all our proposals.

2. Steel gains strength from the addition of nickel.
3. He made an agreement to supply me with firewood.
4. His purpose is not clear from his letter.
5. You cannot gain admission without a ticket.
6. He has no intention of leaving the city.
7. I have a disinclination for work to-day.
8. He made a success of all his undertakings.
9. These mangoes have a sweet smell but a sour taste.
(b) Rewrite the following sentences so as to replace the Adverbs in italics by Verbs:1. The defenders successfully repelled every attack on the city.
2. This scene is surpassingly beautiful.
3. He is admittedly the greatest general of the country.
4. They welcomed the good news most joyfully.
(c) Rewrite the following sentences so as to replace the Verbs and Adjectives in italics by corresponding Nouns:1. Though the ant is small it is as intelligent as the elephant.
2. He said he regretted that he had acted so hastily.
3. He was so active in his old age that everybody admired him.
4. Before I pay you what is due you must sign this receipt5. The best way to healthyis to be temperatre in all things.

Page 223
(d) Rewrite the following sentences, replacing Nouns and Adverbs in italics by
Adjectives of similar meaning:1. In all probability the day will be fine.
2. The rats gave us a great deal of trouble.
3. He was dismissed for negligence rather than incompetence.
4. He was admittedly clever, but he evidently lacked industry.
5. The merchant had .great success in all his dealings, and was naturally esteemed by his fellow citizens.
(e) Rewrite the following sentences replacing Nouns and Adjectives in italics by Adverbs of similar meaning:1. Her dress was poor and mean.
2. He broke the rules without any intention of doing so, but it does not follow that his punishment was wrong.
3. His mistake was evidcnt, but his sincerity was also obvious.
4. By a careful analysis of these substances you will see that they differ in essence.

1. Conversion of Simple sentences to Compound (Double) sentences 79. A Simple sentence can be converted into a Compound one by enlarging a word or a phrase into a Co-ordinate clause.
Simple. -- He must work very hard to make up for the lost time.
Compound. -- He must work very hard and make up for the lost time.
Simple. -- To his eternal disgrace, he betrayed his country.
Compound. -- He betrayed his country, and this was to his eternal disgrace.
Simple. -- Besides robbing the poor child, he also murdered her.
Compound. -- He not only robbed the poor child but also murdered her.
Simple. -- He must work very hard to win the first prize.
Compound. -- He must work very hard, or he will not win the first prize.
Simple. -- He must not attempt to escape, on pain of death.
Compound. -- He must not attempt to escape, or he will be put to death.
Simple. -- Notwithstanding his hard work, he did not succeed.
Compound. -- He worked hard, yet did not succeed.
Simple. -- Owing lo ill-luck, he met with a bad accident on the eve of his examination.
Compound. -- He was unlucky and therefore met with a bad accident on the eve of his examination. Simple. -- The teacher punished the boy for disobedience.
Compound. -- The boy was disobedient, and so the teacher punished him.

Exercise 71.
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound (Double) ones:1. In this tower sat the poet gazing on the sea.
2. To everyone's surprise, the project completely failed.
3. Seeing the rain coming on, we took shelter under a tree.
4. Besides educating his nephew, he also set him up in business.
5. The fog being very dense, the steamer sailed at less than half

Page 224
6. Raleigh, taking off his cloak politely, placed it in the muddy street.
7. Being occupied with important matters, he had no leisure to see us.
8. In spite of his popularity he cannot be called a great writer.
9. Rushing against Horatius, he smote with all his might.
10. With all his learning, he was far from being a pedant.
11. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner, eating his Christmas pie.
12. He must resign on pain of public dismissal.
13. Owing to drought the crop is short.
14. The men had not completed their work by sunset.
15. Notwithstanding several efforts, he failed.
16. By his pleasant manners he gained many friends.
17. In addition to pecuniary assistance he gave them much valuable advice.
18. The referee having whistled, the game was stopped.
19. On account of his negligence the company suffered heavy losses.
20. Running at top speed, he got out of breath.
21. Possessing all the advantages of education and wealth, he never made name.
22. Taking pity on the mouse, the magician turned it into a cat.
23. Being dissastisfied, he resigned his position.
24. Throwing off his coat, he plunged into sea.

Exercise 72.
Convert the following Simple sentences to Compound sentences:1. Hearing their father's footsteps, the boys ran away.
2. With a great effort he lifted the box.
3. The man, being very hungry, ate too much.
4. In spite of his great strength he was overcome.
5. Against the wishes of his family he left school.
6. He was universally respected on account of his virtue.
7. His friend having helped him, he is prospering.
8. Being a cripple, he cannot ride a horse.
9. The rain having washed away the embankment, the train was wrecked.
10. Finding himself in difficulty, he went to his teacher for help.
11. My friend being now in Mumbai, I shall go there to meet him.
12. In the event of such a thing happening, I should take long leave.
13. They are forbidden to enter the sacred place on pain of death.
14. To make certain of getting a place you must apply early.
15. He intends to try again notwithstanding his repeated failures.
16. In spite of all my advice he has done this foolish thing.
17. By reason of his great ability he has been able to win a high position.
18. Through no fault of his own he has become very poor.
19. Knowing no better, he used very inaccurate language.
20. His swords having broken, he was left defenceless.
21. He was rejected owing to ill-health.

22. I do not like him on account of his pride and boastfulness.
23. To avoid punishment he ran away.
24. In his ignorance he followed the wrong course.
25. Having made no provision for old age, he is very poor.
26. Out of a desire for revenge he agreed to this.
27. To add to their troubles, a tyre burst on the way.

2. Conversion of Compound (Double) sentences to Simple sentences 80. The following examples illustrate the chief ways of converting Compound Sentences to Simple Sentences.

Page 225
Compound. -- He finished his exercise and put away his books.
Simple. -- Having finished his exercise, he put away his books.
Compound. -- Not only did his father give him money, but his mother too.
Simple. -- Besides his father giving him money, his mother also did the same.
Compound. -- He was a mere boy but he offered to fight the giant.
Simple. -- In spite of his being a, mere boy, he offered to fight the giant.
Compound. -- He must not be late, or he will be punished.
Simple. -- In the event of his being late, he will be punished.
Compound. -- You must either pay the bill at once or return the goods.
Simple. -- Failing prompt payment, the goods must be returned by you.
Compound. The men endured all the horrors of the campaign and not one of them complained at all.
Simple. The men endured all the horrors of the campaign without one of them making any complaint.
Compound. -- We must eat, or we cannot live.
Simple. -- We must eat to live.

Exercise 73.
Rewrite the following Compound (Double) sentences as Simple ones:1. They were poor, and often suffered great hardship.
2. He overslept himself, and so he missed the train.
3. The prince slew his brother and became king in his place.
4. This coat cannot be mine, for it is too big.
5. This general fought bravely, the king therefore made him commander-in-chief.
6. The camel pushed his head into the tent and asked to be allowed to warm his nose.
7. As a boy he had never been at school, and therefore he had no opportunity of learning to read or write.
8. This must not occur again, or you will be dismissed.
9. He granted the request, for he was unwilling to disappoint his friend.
10. They took every precaution ; still they ran aground.
11. He is rich, yet he is not contented.
12. Make haste, or else you will be late.
13. The steamer went down, yet the crew were saved.
14. The piper advanced, and the children followed.
15. The horse reared and the rider was thrown.
16. Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
17. I called him, but he gave me no answer.
18. Either he is drowned or some passing ship has saved him.
19. He must have done his duty, for he is a conscientious man.
20. He tried hard, but he did not succeed.
21. He tried again and again, but he did not succeed.
22. We decided not to go any further that day and put up at the nearest hotel.
23. Either you must help me or I must try to carry out my task alone.
24. His partner died, and this added to his difficulties.

25. He was horrified for he saw blood stains on the floor and no sign of his child.
26. Not only men, but women and children were put to death.
27. Everybody else went down to meet the train, but I did not.
28. He is a well-read man, but in matters of business he is a fool.
29. Work at least six hours a day, or you cannot make sure of success.
30. He is very poor, but he does not complain.
31. He neither returned the goods nor paid the bill.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 226

Exercise 74.
Convert the following Compound (Double) sentences to Simple sentences:1. My friend arrived and we went for a walk.
2. The servant brought the lamp and I began my homework.
3. The ink had dried up and I could not write.
4. I have a lot of work and must do it now.
5. We must hurry and we shall escape the rain.
6. He has an unpleasant duty and must perform it.
7. He not only pitied him but relieved him.
8. He did this and so offended his master.
9. He had read the book carefully and could tell the story in his own words.
10. His object became known and everybody tried to help him.
11. He found a rupee, and was delighted at his good luck.
12. Rama has hurt his ankle and will not be able to play to-day.
13. Be good and you will be happy.
14. He did not like the work and he began it unwillingly.
15. I ordered him to halt, but he took no notice.
16. He is a good steady worker, only he is rather slow.
17. I continually invited him to visit me, but he never came.
18. He served out his sentence in goal and was released.
19. He worked exceedingly hard at school, for he was a good obedient boy.
20. The dacoits stopped to divide the booty and the police overtook them.
21. He practised daily and so became an expert player.
22. Your attempt can hardly be called successful: for it has had no good results.
23. The President came into the hall and everyone rose from his seat.
24. He escaped several times but was finally caught.
25. The horse fell heavily and his rider came down with him.
26. He found himself getting weaker and weaker; so he consulted a doctor.
27. The plague broke out in the city and the people moved out into the jungle.
28. I had no money with me, and I could not give (he beggar anything.

3. Conversion of Simple sentences to Complex
81. A Simple sentence can be converted to a Complex sentence by expanding a word or phrase into a Subordinate clause.
This clause may be a Noun, Adjective or Adverb clause.
Simple. -- He confessed his crime.
Complex. -- He confessed that he was guilty.
Simple. -- His silence proves his guilt.
Complex. -- The fact that he is silent proves his guilt.
Simple. -- He bought his uncle's library.
Complex. -- He bought the library which belonged to his uncle.

Simple. -- On the arrival of the mails the steamer will leave.
Complex. -- The steamer will leave as soon as the mails arrive.
Simple. -- He owed his success to his father.
Complex. -- It was owing to his father that he succeeded.
Simple. -- He worked hard to pass the examination.
Complex. -- He worked hard so that he might pass the examination.
Simple. -- Cain, being jealous of Abel, struck him.
Complex. -- Cain struck Able because he was jealous of him.
Simple. -- Only Indians are admitted.
Complex. -- If you are not an Indian you cannot be admitted.
Simple. -- He succeeded unexpectedly.

Page 227
Complex. -- He succeeded although his success was not expected.
Simple. -- The management is thoroughly bad.
Complex. -- The management is as bad as it could be.
Simple. -- A man's modesty is in inverse proportion to his ignorance.
Complex. -- The more ignorant a man is, the less modest he is.

Exercise 75.
Convert the following Simple sentences to Complex sentences, each containing a Noun clause:1. I expect to meet Rama to-night.
2. He hoped to win the prize.
3. His father is not likely to punish him.
4. He admitted stealing the watch.
5. Krishna wishes me to play for his team.
6. He believes their success to be certain in that case.
7. I overheard all his remarks.
8. I did not think fit to reply to his writings.
9. He confessed his fault.
10. His hiding-place is still unknown.
11. I shall be glad of your advice in this matter.
12. He pleaded ignorance of the law.
13. Our friends will hear of our success.
14. You imply my guilt by your words and manner.
15. I request your help.
16. I cannot foretell the time of my departure.
17. I wish you to be quiet.
18. He is said to be a millionaire.
19. Tell the truth.
20. I have long suspected his poverty.

Exercise 76.
Convert the following Simple sentences to Complex sentences, each containing an
Adjective clause:1. I saw a wounded bird.
2. Rama is happy in his present class.
3. The man near me is my brother.
4. Our guru is a man of blameless life.
5. Your father is the man to help you in this matter.
6. The value of exercise is great.
7. Was this the deed of a good man?
8. I was the first to hear the news.
9. These are not the methods of business.
10. The class-room is not the place for boys to play in.
11. He is hardly the boy to do credit to the school.

12. He liked his former place.
13. Smoke, the certain indicator of fire, appeared in the mine.
14. I was the first to arrive.
15. That is not the way lo answer.
16. It was the work of a wild animal.
17. He is the water-carrier.
18. I have nowhere to sit.
19. My friend, the magistrate of this place, is on leave.
20. He sat outside on a stone in the compound.

Exercise 77.
Convert the following Simple sentences to Complex sentences, each containing an
Adverb clause:1. On being punished, he wept.
2. During Queen Victoria's reign there were many wars.
3. Being quite contented, he never grumbled.
4. Being ill-treated by his master, he ran away.
5. He was too dull to understand.
6. The tiger is feared for its fierceness.
7. With your permission I will go away.
8. The peon would be quite happy with a rise of Rs. 10 a month.
9. He replied to the best of his ability.
10. I can only tell you according to my memory.
11. Of Krishna and Rama the latter works the harder.
12. Owing to ill-health he has resigned.
13. He was annoyed at being rebuked.

Page 228
14. He cannot be caught on account of his quickness.
15. He is too lazy to succeed.
16. He came in very quietly to avoid waking his father.
17. He waited there with a view to meeting me.
18. There is no admission without permission.
19. I will help you in any possible way.
20. Do not go out without leave.
21. In spite of the heat they marched quickly.
22. For all his youth he is very capable.
23. Till my arrival, wait here.
24. After the death of his father he left Mumbai.
25. Up to his thirtieth year he remained unmarried.
26. From the time of that illness he has been partly blind.
27. Previous to his death he made his will.
28. In anticipation of sanction I have issued the order.
29. He hindered the police in the execution of their duty.
30. This was done in my absence.
31. For fear of imprisonment they kept silence.
32. Notwithstanding my entreaties he shot the dog.
33. He wrote according to instructions.
34. He worked to the best of his ability.
35. Come back at six o'clock.
36. With every blow the body quivered.
37. Speaking honestly, I do not know.
38. I came to-day to take advantage of the special train.
39. He failed to my great surprise.
40. Till the day of the examination he did no more work.
41. The tiger having fallen, he climbed down from the tree.
42. In the time of Aurangzeb taxes were very heavy.
43. We eat to live.
44. Some people live to eat.
45. He has gone down to the river to bathe.
46. Have you come to see me?
47. Does he wish me to go?

Exercise 78.
Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Complex sentences:1. Can you tell me the time of his arrival?
2. After seeing the King he departed.
3. Many ships were so shattered as to be wholly unmanageable.
4. England expects every man to do his duty.
5. The guests having departed, he went to bed.
6. Few know the date of Lucy's death.
7. The source of the Nile was difficult to discover.

8. I will meet you at any place convenient for you.
9. In spite of his earnest protestations, he was condemned.
10. He is proud of his high birth.
11. The prince was to be found in the hottest of the battle.
12. I rejoice at his good fortune. .
13. But for his own confession, the crime could scarcely have been brought home to him.
14. He alone entered, the rest of us waiting outside.
15. Not feeling well, he decided to lie down.
16. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea.
17. Considering the difficulties of his position, he has acted admirably.
18. Speak low, to prevent our being overheard.
19. He was too much excited to hear reason.

Page 229
20. A letter from the butler brings to the club the news of Sir Roger's death.
21. My right there is none to dispute,
22. Accustomed to rule, he schooled himself to obey.
23. He saved the child at the risk of his life.
24. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit.
25. I convinced him of his mistake.
26. It all depends upon the manner of your doing it.
27. He can prove his innocence.
28. Everybody knows the author of Gulliver's Travels.
29. The date of his arrival is uncertain.
30. The duration of the war is uncertain.
31. There is no hope of his recovery.
32. The exact date of the birth of Buddha is unknown.
33. A daily bath is necessary to perfect health.
34. Success or failure depends largely on your own efforts.
35. In my hurry I forgot the most important letters.
36. Listeners never hear any good of themselves.
37. Finding the door unlocked, the thief entered the house.
38. It is impossible to trust the word of a habitual liar.
39. Gray, the author of the Elegy, lived in the eighteenth century.
40. The shepherd found the lost sheep.
41. The boy readily admitted his mistake.
42. Tell me your plans.
43. He could clearly remember the incidents of his youth.
44. On arriving at the foot of the hill, he blew his trumpet.
45. A spider saved Robert Bruce.
46. The prudent man looks to the future.
47. For want of money, he was unable to prosecute his studies.
48. All the money having been spent, we started looking for work.
49. The idle cannot hope to succeed.
50. Our orders were to show no mercy.
51. It was too late for retreat.
52. I must be cruel, only to be kind.
53. The men fought with desperation.
54. He is too truthful to be a successful courtier.
55. Your remuneration depends on the quality of your work.
56. He conducted himself madly to escape suspicion.
57. Good boys need not fear punishment.
58. The accused confessed his guilt.
59. I asked him the reason of his coming.
60. But for your folly you could have been a partner in the firm to-day.
61. Tell me your age.
62. I was glad to hear of your arrival.
63. Being a very diligent and clever lad, he soon distinguished himself.

64. He is too short for a soldier.
65. This is said to be the birthplace of "Buddha.
66. His success went beyond his expectations.
67. In spite of his poor health, he worked hard.
68. Feeling out of sorts, he went to bed.
69. He complained of being unjustly treated.
70. He killed the hen to get the treasure.
71. An army of ants will attack large and ferocious animals.
72. A very miserly planter formerly lived in the island of Jamaica.
73. He often gave his poor slaves too little food.
74. Industry will keep you from want.
75. A drowning man will catch at a straw.

Page 230
76. It is excellent to have a giant's strength.
77. Having finished our work, we went out for a walk.
78. With all thy faults I love thee still.
79. The news is too good to be true.
80. This tree is too high for me to climb.
81. He is too old to learn anything new.
82. The world's greatest men have not laboured with a view to becoming rich.
83. With a change of wind we shall have rain.
84. With all his wealth he is not happy.

4. Conversion of Complex sentences to Simple sentences
82. Study the following examples:-

Noun Clause
Complex. -- He said that he was innocent.
Simple. -- He declared his innocence.
Complex. -- That you are drunk aggravates your offence.
Simple. -- Your drunkenness aggravates your offence.
Complex. -- Tell me where you live
Simple. -- Tell me your address.
Complex. - It is a pity that we should have to undergo this disgrace.
Simple. -- Our having to undergo this disgrace is a pity.
Complex. -- It is proclaimed that all men found with arms will be shot.
Simple. -- According to the proclamation all men found with arms will be shot
Complex. -- He remarked how impudent the boy was.
Simple. -- He remarked on the boy's impudence,
Complex. -- How long I shall stay is doubtful.
Simple. -- The duration of my stay is doubtful.
Complex. -- Except that he hurt his hand, he was lucky.
Simple. -- Except for the hurt to his hand, he was lucky.

Exercise 79.
Convert each of the following Complex sentence to a Simple sentence:1. We believe that he is innocent.
2. It was much regretted that he was absent.
3. The consequence of his carelessness was that the game was lost.
4. He asked why I came.
5. He ordered that the traitor should be executed.
6. It is to be hoped that he escaped unhurt.
7. I do not know when I shall return.
8. We hope that better times will come.
9. The news that the enemy landed spread like wild fire.
10. That I was successful does not make me happy.
11. He ordered the police that they should imprison the rioters.

12. That you should be willing to believe this is incredible.
13. Whoever is prudent is, respected.
14. It is reported that our troops have won a victory.
15. All believed that he was guilty of murder.
16. Tell me what you mean by this.
83. Study the following examples:-

Adjective Clause
Complex. -- He died in the village where he was horn.
Simple. -- He died in his native village.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 231
Complex. -- The moment which is lost is lost for ever.
Simple. -- A lost moment is lost for ever.
Complex. -- Men who have risen by their own exertions are always respected.
Simple. -- Self-made men are always respected.
Complex. -- They that are whole have no need of the physician.
Simple. -- Healthy persons have no need of the physician.
Complex. -- We came upon a hut where a peasant lived.
Simple. -- We came upon a peasant's hut.
Complex. -- Youth is the time when the seeds of character are sown.
Simple. -- Youth is the time for the formation of character.
Complex. -- The exact time when this occurred has not been ascertained.
Simple. -- The exact time of the occurrence has not been ascertained.
Complex. -- The son who was his chief pride in his old age is dead.
Simple. -- His son, the pride of his old age, is dead.
Complex. -- The place where Buddha was cremated has recently been discovered.
Simple. -- The place of Buddha's cremation has recently been discovered.
Complex. -- I have no advice that I can offer you.
Simple. -- I have no advice to offer you.

Exercise 80.
Convert each of the following Complex sentences to a Simple sentence:1. He sold the horse which belonged to his brother.
2. As I was unable to help in any other way, I gave her some money.
3. I have no horse that I can lend you.
4. The marks that were left by the whip were still visible.
5. This is the place where we camp.
6. The heart that is full of grief is heavy.
7. The reply which you have made is foolish.
8. The evil that men do lives after them.
9. Do you not remember him who was formerly your friend?
10. This is the needle with which she knits.
11. Have you nothing that you wish to say?
12. He prospered by the help he got from his friends.
13. They were advised by a clever lawyer who was a High Court pleader.
14. He is weak from the illness which he had recently.
15. A man who is dead needs no riches.
16. I have seen the house which belongs to Rama.
17. He was the most learned of the judges who lived at that time.
18. He died in the village where he was born.
19. The horse which is an Arab of pure blood, is very swift.
20. The smell which comes from this drain, is very bad.
21. Can he get no work that he can do?
22. Is there no place which is kept for bathing here?

23. The birds have no water that they can drink.
24. He shot a tiger which was the scourge of the district.
25. That is the book that belongs to me.
26. I saw a man who was blind.
27. This is the bottle which is used for water.
28. The chief thing that Wycliffe and his friends achieved was the translation of the Bible into English.
29. I found the book which I had lost.
30. The boy who stood first got the prize.
31. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
32. People who live in glass houses must not throw stones.
33. The services he has rendered to the state cannot be over-estimated.
34. The place where they live is very unhealthy.
35. This idea on which he based his philosophy, is very difficult to comprehend.

Page 232
36. I have no time that I can waste on idle talk.
37. A person who relies on his own efforts has the best chance to win success.
38. Here is a barrier that cannot be passed.
39. A person who has risen by his own exertions is always respected.
40. A boy who had been notoriously idle was awarded a prize.
41. Such men as you cannot be easily, disheartened.
42. A man who is industrious is sure to succeed.
43. He told us the time when he expected to arrive.
84. Study the following examples:-

Adverb Clause
Complex. -- The Captain was annoyed that he had not carried out his orders.
Simple. -- The Captain was annoyed at his not having carried out his orders.
Complex. -- You can talk as much as you like.
Simple. -- You can talk to your heart's content.
Complex. -- Everything comes if a man will only work and wait
Simple. -- Everything conies to a diligent and patient man.
Complex. -- 1 am pushing my business wherever I can find an opening.
Simple. -- I am pushing my business in every possible directionComplex. -- He will not pay unless he is compelled.
Simple. -- He will pay only under compulsion.
Complex. -- You have succeeded better than you hoped.
Simple. -- You have succeeded beyond your hopes.
Complex. -- When the cat is away the mice will play.
Simple. -- In the absence of the cat the mice will play.
Complex. -- He does not always speak as he thinks.
Simple. -- He does not always speak his thoughts.
Complex. -- A good boy will always do as he is commanded by his superiors.
Simple. -- A good boy will always carry out (or execute) the commands of his superiors.
Complex. -- I was surprised when I heard him talk so.
Simple. -- I was surprised to hear him talk so.
Complex. -- He was so tired that he could not stand.
Simple. -- He was too tired to stand.
Complex. -- If I make a promise I keep it.
Simple. -- I make a promise only to keep it.
Complex. -- As the war was ended, the soldiers returned.
Simple. -- The war being ended, the soldiers returned.
Complex. -- While there is life there is hope
Simple. -- Life and hope are inseparable.
Complex. -- As. you sow, so you will reap.
Simple. -- You will but reap the fruits of your sowing.

Exercise 81.
Convert the following Complex sentences into Simple sentences:1. As you are here you may as well see it.
2. He was angry when he heard the result.
3. Does he know the consequences if he refuses?
4. He cannot go unless I consent.
5. You cannot always talk sense if you are always talking.
6. You never come here but you steal something.
7. The boy ran as fast as he could.
8. As it was beginning to rain we waited a while.
9. Although he has failed twice he will try again.
10. He made such good speed that he was in time.

Page 233
11. Because he was ill he stayed at home.
12. As he felt cold he lit a fire.
13. Since I am unable to get much, I accept little.
14. He will pay you when he hears from me.
15. He was so tired that he could not sleep.
16. They rejoice that they are going.
17. I congratulated him because he had passed.
18. He can afford to be generous because he is rich.
19. As the hour had arrived they started.
20. Since I believed his word I did not ask for proof.
21. The dog jumped up when he saw the cat.
22. The horse is so old that it cannot work.
23. The tiger is renowned through all the countryside because he is so cunning and ferocious. 24. He was very angry when he had to pay again.
25. The longer we wait here, the darker it will become.
26. He is not so tall that he cannot enter the doorway.
27. When they heard the signal they sprang up.
28. As the truth is known, further lying is useless.
29. Wherever you go I shall follow you.
30. No sooner did he see us than he disappeared.
31. As soon as he beard the news he wrote to me.
32. Because you have done this I shall punish you.
33. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
34. They went where living was cheaper.
35. Wherever he preached the people gathered to listen.
36. She stood as though turned to stone.
37. We have come so that we may help you.
38. You will pass if you work hard.
39. He cannot see unless he wears glasses.
40. His father still trusted him though he had deceived him.
41. He is not so prudent as he ought to be.
42. It was so dark that you could not see your hand.
43. When the fraud was discovered, he was imprisoned after being tried.
44. He was so indolent that he could not be successful.
45. An honest boy speaks as he thinks.
46. Sit down where you please.
47. The larger the brain, the more vigorous the mind.
48. I shall give you my horse if you give me your silver.
49. We will do the work as well as we can.
50. Robinson Crusoe was puzzled when he discovered the print of a foot on the sand.
51. Though the sky falls, he will not be frightened.
52. Apollo was worshipped as long as the Roman Empire lasted,
53.I will buy it, cost what it may.

54. I am surprised that you should believe such nonsense.
55. Whatever you do, I will support.

Exercise 82.
Turn each of the following Complex sentences into a Simple sentence:1. It is terrible that people should die of starvation.
2. I was unable to hear what you were saying.
3. We did not go, as the weather was too stormy.
4. It is doubtful whether he will succeed.

Page 234
5. He became so ill that he was unable to walk.
6. No one is promoted to a higher class unless he is examined.
7. He ran as fast as he could.
8. He said that he would come to-morrow.
9. Tell me where you live.
10. He confessed that he was guilty.
11. It was so dark that we lost our way.
12. Tell me how old you are.
13. When he will arrive is not yet known.
14. Grant me what I ask.
15. We hope that better times will come.
16. I insist that you should not go.
17. I shall remain where I am.
18. If you turn to the right you will soon reach the temple.
19. He gave a graphic account of how he escaped.
20. We went half-an-hour earlier, so that we might get a good seat.
21. He complained that he had been unjustly treated.
22. It is certain that he will come.
23. The Commissioner gave rewards to such men as deserve them.
24. I asked him why he came.
25. A child who has lost his parents is to be pitied.
26. They left at six o'clock so that he might catch the early train.
27. Suspicion always haunts the mind of a person who is guilty.
28. He went to Ooty so that he might improve his health.
29. A book in which were pictures of animals, was presented to him by his uncle.
30. When Caesar saw Brutus among the assassins, he covered his face with his gown.
31. John Bright once said that the safest place in England was a first-class carriage in an express train.
32. The question is so complicated that it cannot be settled immediately.
33. Had he been absent, the motion would have been carried.
34. The passage is so difficult that I cannot comprehend it.
35. We must do the work as well as we can.
36. Although they fought most valiantly, they were defeated.
37. If he wins the battle he will be crowned.
38. I wish to know the time when he died.
39. Those soldiers who survived have received medals.
40. This is a machine which is used for sewing.
41. He seemed very anxious that we should come.
42. The priests were satisfied when he offered the money.
43. You must be hungry if you have not dined.
44. It is time you went.
45. It is lucky that he came just then.
46. It is certain that he will help you.
47. You must write to me as soon as you reach Mumbai.

48. He gave away some books which belonged to his brother.
49. Can you tell me the name of the person who wrote the book ?
50. It is said that he died by his own hand.
51. While my parents are absent I cannot come.
52. This sum is so hard that I cannot do it.
53. As one man fell another took his place.
54. Work as hard as you can.
55. Drink while you may.
56. Such a man as he is should succeed.
57. The police know this from information which has been received by

Page 235

5. Conversion of Compound sentences to Complex
85. Study the following examples:Compound. -- Search his pockets and you will find the watch.
Complex. -- If you search his pockets, you will find the watch.
Compound. -- Do as I tell you, or you will regret it.
Complex. -- Unless you do as I tell you, you will regret it.
Compound. -- The lion was wounded but not killed.
Complex. -- The lion was nor killed although he was wounded.
(=Although the lion was wounded, he was not killed.)
Compound. -- Waste not, want not.
Complex. -- If you do not waste, you will not want.
Compound. -- He saw the danger, but pressed on.
Complex. -- Although he saw the danger, he pressed on.
Compound. -- He saw the danger and paused.
Complex. -- When he saw the danger he paused.
Compound. -- He aimed at winning the prize and worked hard.
Complex. -- He worked hard so that he might win the prize.
Compound. -- He had to sign, or be executed.
Complex. -- If he had not signed, he would have been executed.
Compound. -- He is buried near Rome and myrtles grow round his grave.
Complex. -- He is buried near Rome in a place where myrtles grow.
Compound. -- He wishes to become learned ; therefore he is studying hard.
Complex. -- He is studying hard so that he may become learned.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 83.
Transform from Compound into Complex sentences:1. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
2. He put on his hat and went outside.
3. At length she woke and looked round.
4. Keep quiet, or you will be punished.
5. The ship was wrecked, but the crew were saved.
6. Either Shirin will come or she will send a letter.
7. Do your best, and you will never regret it.
8. He received your telegram and set off at once.
9. I must hurry back at once, or my business will greatly suffer.
10. Do this, or you will be punished.
11. Rama may not be clever but he is certainly industrious.
12. I put my hand into my pocket and gave him a rupee.
13. Only do the right, and you will have no reason to be ashamed.
14. The crow stole a piece of cheese and flew with it to a tree.
15. I called at your house yesterday but you were out.
17. We must do our work well, or our master will be angry with us.

18. You have earned his gratitude, so you shall not go unrewarded.
19. He failed in his first attempt and never tried again.
20. Time flies fast, yet it sometimes appears to move slowly.
21. Mosquitoes cause malaria, and this is well known,
22. She must weep, or she will die.
23. He ran to the station, but he missed the train.
24. The boy was tired, therefore he went to bed.
25. He is poor, but contented.
26. Life has few enjoyments; still we cling to it.
27. Eat few suppers and you'll need few medicines.
28. He is working hard; therefore he will succeed.

Page 236
29. He wishes to succeed ; therefore he works hard.
30. He was going along this road, and met a dragon.
31. They were refused pay, but went on working.
32. I frowned upon him, yet he loves me still.
33. Do you find victories and we will find rewards ?
34. The archers were poorly armed, but they offered a stubborn resistance.
35. Cross this line and you will be captured.
36. You must be warmly clad, or you will catch cold.
37. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves.
38. He adored his proud wife, but he was in mortal fear of her fierce temper.
39. We are few, but we are of the right sort.
40. Be diligent and you will succeed.
41. It seems too good to be true nevertheless it is a fact.
42. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
43. I will recover it, or die in the attempt.
44. Take a farthing from a hundred pounds, and it will be a hundred pounds no longer.
45. He has lost all his teeth, consequently he cannot eat hard food.
46. Give him an inch and he'll take an ell.
47. Hear him out, and you will understand him the better.
48. Advance another step, and you are a dead man.
49. Send the deed after me and I will sign it.
50. He was very learned and seemed to know everything.
51.He was ambitious and therefore I killed him.
52.We landed at Karachi, and there we spent a very enjoyable week.
53. We called upon Mr. Pundit and he introduced us to his partner.
54. He was my friend, therefore I loved him.

Exercise 84.
Convert the following Compound sentences to Complex sentences:1. Give me the book and I will read it.
2. Take quinine and your fever will be cured.
3. I tell him to be quiet and he takes no notice.
4. He is deaf but he will always pretend to hear.
5. You have paid the bill but you will get no more credit. ,
6. I ran all the way to the station but I missed the train.
7. Rama is a better player than Krishna and therefore he must take his place in the team.
8. You called me and here I am.
9. The master is nearly blind and the boys are very sorry for him.
10. We will win or die.
11. Let me come in, or I will break down the door.
12. Be careful in your diet and you will keep health.
13. Listen and I will tell you all.
14. He is very agreeable but I don't like him.

15. It is cold, so I shall wear a coat.
16. Send me the gun and I will mend it.
17. Be good and you need not be clever.
18. Follow me, or you will lose your way.
19. You ordered the goods and so they have been sent.
20. You must pay, or else sign a chit.
21. I do not like his lectures and so I don't attend them.
22. He ran away, or they would have killed him.
23. He has injured me but I will forgive him.
24. Be quiet, or I shall punish you.
25. Be just and fear not.

Page 237
26. He was never present, but he always sent a deputy.
27. Be kind and help me.
28. Pay heed to the small details and the general plan will surely succeed.
29. He is certain to be late, so why wait for him ?
30. You or I must go away.
31. Sri Lanka went in first on a very wet wicket, and so they lost the match.
32. They tried to bribe the peon but he was too clever for them.

6. Conversion of Complex Sentences to Compound
86. Study the following examples:Complex. -- I am certain you have made a mistake.
Compound. -- You have made a mistake, and of this I am certain.
Complex. -- I am glad that he has recovered from illness.
Compound. -- He has recovered from illness, and I am glad of it.
Complex. -- We can prove that the earth is round.
Compound. -- The earth is round, and we can prove it.
Complex. -- I have found the book that I had lost.
Compound. -- I had lost a book, but I have found it.
Complex. -- As soon as he got the telegram, he left in a taxi.
Compound. -- He got the telegram, and immediately he left in a taxi.
Complex. -- He worked hard so that he might win the prize.
Compound. -- He aimed at winning the prize and worked hard.
Complex. -- If he is at home, I shall see him.
Compound. -- He may be at home, and in that case I shall see him.
Complex. -- He lost more than he could afford.
Compound. -- He could afford to lose something, but he lost somewhat more.
Complex, -- He is more a philosopher than a poet.
Compound. -- He is something of a poet, but rather more of a philosopher.
Complex. -- If you do not hurry you will miss the train.
Compound. -- You must hurry, or you will miss the train.
Complex. -- Unless we do our work well our master will be angry with us.
Compound. -- We must do our work well, or our master will be angry with us.
Complex. -- We sow so that we may reap.
Compound. -- We desire to reap, therefore we sow.

Exercise 85.
Convert from Complex to Compound sentences:1. Once upon a time a man owned a hen which laid every day a golden egg.
2. We selected this bicycle after we had tried several times.
3. It is surprising that he did not succeed.
4. If you do not take exercise, you will be ill.
5. If you run, you will be in time.
6. He ran away because he was afraid.
7. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother,

8. Although he saw the danger, he pressed on.
9. Though you try with all your might, you will not succeed.
10. I shall not go unless I am invited.
11. If you eat too much you will be ill.
12. A book's a book, although there's nothing in it.
13. Unless you keep quiet, you will be punished.
14. As Caesar loved me, I weep for him.
15. Because you have done this I shall punish you.
16. As soon as he heard the news he wrote to me.
17. When you have rested, go on with the work.
18. I forgave him because he was dying.
19. He stayed at home because he was feeling ill.
20. His father still trusted him though he had deceived.

Page 238
21. Though the sky falls, he will not be frightened.
22. He was educated at a public school where he learnt Latin.
23. I struck him because he ventured to obstruct my path.
24. They went to war so that they might extend their empire.
25. Although they fought most valiantly, they were defeated.
26. He writes so illegibly that I cannot read his letter.
27. I know what you told him.
28. The ship was steered so skilfully that it reached the harbour safely.
29. You must be respectable if you would be respected.
30. As he was ambitious, I killed him.
31. Though often capricious and impertinent, she was never out of temper.
32. Though the waves are raging white, I'll row you o'er the ferry.
33. He finished first though he began late.
34. Though he tries hard, he is seldom successful.
35. When the sun set he returned home.
36. Since duty calls us, we must obey.
37.He had a cow that gave enormous quantities of milk.
38. He failed because he was too rash.
39. We eat so that we may live.
40.He was so learned that he seemed to know everything.

Exercise 86.
Convert the following Complex sentences to Compound sentences:1. Rama went to school as soon as he had finished his meal.
2. If I ask a civil question I expect a civil reply.
3. They have never been poor since they opened that shop.
4. I could answer if I chose.
5. We might admire a bad man though we cannot admire a weak one.
6. I advise you to try although you may not succeed.
7. I spoke plainly so that you might understand.
8. He feigned sleep as he had an object in doing so.
9. He gave himself up because flight was useless.
10. As we are here we will stay here.
11. I do not think he will come.
12. I know there is a rupee in your hand.
13. Come when you like.
14. I shall come when I am in better health.
15. I would have shot the snake if I had seen it.
16. His precept is as beautiful as his practice is disgraceful.
17. At Rome we must behave as the Romans do.
18. ,, He fell as I fired.
19. If you come here you will repent it.
20. I have never heard from him since he left Mumbai.
21. He went to the house so that he might leave a message.

22. Unless we run we shall miss the train.
23. As soon as the sun touches the horizon darkness begins to settle upon the scene.
24. However clever you may be, you cannot succeed without industry.
25. Do this, lest a worse thing befall.
26. If you trust to the book you will find yourself in difficulties.
27. We may lose all without regret, if we may keep our honour sustained.
28. Bad as things are they might be worse.
29. You may go when you have finished your work.
30. His bark is worse than his bite.
31. If I am right you must be wrong.

Page 239

Exercise 87.
(Miscellaneous) Recast the following sentences as directed:
1. A soldier of the tenth legion leaped into the water as soon as the ship touched the shore. (Begin with No sooner )
2. We have helped them with money as well as a body of workers, all well trained and experienced. (Use the expression 'not only' and 'everyone'.)
3. Mrs. Smith is the wisest member of the family and of her four daughters Jane is the prettiest. (Use the comparatives of 'wise' and 'pretty'.)
4. The difficulty was solved by means of a special service devised for the occasion.
(Make the word 'service1 the subject.)
5. The lady was compelled by the doctor to drink such vile medicine that she was all but killed by him. (Use the active voice throughout.)
6. You are already as well acquainted with these affairs as I am. (Use 'known' for
7. As soon as Sir Roger had seated himself, he called for wax candles. (Use 'no sooner' for 'as soon as'.)
8. When supper had been prepared, Robinson Crusoe sat down expecting to enjoy himself greatly. (Use noun forms instead of 'prepared' and 'expecting'.)
9. Nelson knew the value of obedience so well that he anticipated some censure for his act. (Rewrite this sentence, using 'too' for 'so'.)
10. The secretary sent me no reply for ten days. (Rewrite, using the verb 'reply' instead of the noun.)
11. Have a look at the newspaper and you will find a lot of space devoted to advertisements. (Begin with if)
12. Her reason for not going with us was that she had no money. (Use there fore.)
13. Besides having a salary, he also has a private income. (Use not only but)
14. His parents were compelled by poverty to send him abroad that he might earn his own living. (Simple sentence, active voice.)
15. His fondness for games increases with his proficiency. (Complex sentence, using
“the – the” and adjectives to replace the abstract nouns.) .

16. Of all the men I know none is less inclined than he is to believe ill of others. (Reduce to two clauses.)
17. When the monsoon broke, the temperature fell rapidly. (Simple sentence, “break” as subject; replace “fell” by noun).
18. He has squandered his fortune, estranged his friends and ruined his health by his recklessness and extravagance. (Use “not only – but”.)
19. He has discovered new facts and advanced new arguments, but my opinion is unchanged. (Complex sentence; negative principal clause with verb in active voice; two adjectival clauses.)
20. He is notoriously mean in his treatment of his servants. [Rewrite in four ways:(1) Simple sentence with “treatment” as subject; (2) Simple sentence with “treat” as the verb; (3) Complex sentence with a noun clause; (4) Complex sentence with an adjective clause and “meanness” as subject of the principal clause].
21. You can imagine my annoyance on learning of the postponement of the football match. (Complex sentence; three subordinate clauses.)
22. His sole income is what he earns by his pen. (Make the principal clause negative.)
23. A sailing ship was wrecked here last December. [Rewrite in three ways so as to emphasize (1) “sailing”, (2) “here”, (3) “December”].
24. It is probable that he will come back. (Simple sentence; replace “probable” and
“come back” by nouns.

Page 240.

Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single
Simple sentence
87. Synthesis is the opposite of Analysis and means the combination of a number of simple sentences into one new sentence-Simple, Compound or Complex.
88. The following are the chief ways of combining two or more Simple sentences into one Simple sentence:(i) By using a Participle.
1. He jumped up. He ran away.
Jumping up, he ran away.
2. He was tired of play. He sat down to rest.
Tired (or, being tired) of play, he sat down to rest.
(ii) By using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition.
1. This is my friend. His name is Rama.
This is my friend Rama.
2. I spent two days in Cox's Bazar. It is one of the most attractive spots in Bangladesh.
I spent two days in Cox's Bazar, one of the most attractive spots in Bangladesh.
3. This town was once a prosperous sea-port. It is now a heap of ruins.
This town, once a prosperous sea-port, is now a heap of ruins.
(iii) By using a Preposition with a Noun or Gerund.
1. The moon rose. Their journey was not ended.
The moon rose before the end of their journey.
2. He has failed many times. He still hopes to succeed.
In spite of many failures he hopes to succeed.
3. Her husband died. She heard the news. She fainted.
On hearing the news of her husband's death, she fainted.
(iv) By using the Nominative Absolute Construction.
1. The soldiers arrived. The mob dispersed.
The soldiers having arrived, the mob dispersed.

2. The town was enclosed by a strong wall. The enemy was unable to capture it.
The town having been enclosed by a strong wall, the enemy was unable tb capture it. (v)
(v)By using an Infinitive.
1. I have some duties. I must perform them.
I have some duties to perform.
2. We must finish this exercise. There are still three sentences.
We have still three sentences of this exercise to finish.
3. He wanted to educate his son. He sent him to Europe.
He sent his son to Europe to be educated.
4. He is very fat. He cannot run.
He is too fat to run.
(vi) By using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 241
1. He deserved to succeed. He failed.
He failed undeservedly.
2. The sun set. The boys had not finished the game.
The boys had not finished the game by sunset.
89. Several of these methods may be combined in the same sentence.
The sun rose. The fog dispersed. The general was determined to delay no longer. He gave the order to advance.
At sunrise, the fog having dispersed, the general, determined to delay no longer, gave the order to advance.

Exercise 88.
Combine each set of sentences into one Simple sentence by using Participles:1. He hurt his foot. He stopped.
2. The thief had been in prison before. He received severe sentences.
3. He was unwilling to go any further. He returned home.
4. They saw the uselessness of violence. They changed their policy.
5. He was weary of failure. He emigrated to Africa.
6. The King was warned of his danger. He made good his escape.
7. He lost a large sum of money. He gave up speculation.
8. I received no answer. I knocked a second time.
9. His wife encouraged him. He persevered.
10. He gave up his situation. He was not satisfied with his salary.
11. He felt tired. He laid his work aside.
12. He went straight on. He saw Hari on the path.
13. The stable door was open. The horse was stolen.
14. The hunter took up his gun. He went out to shoot the Hon.
15. I went to Mumbai last year. I wished to see a dentist.
16. A crow stole a piece of cheese. She flew to her nest to enjoy the tasty meal.
17. The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat.
18. A passenger alighted from the train. He fell over a bag on the platform.
19. My sister was charmed with the silk. She bought ten yards.
20. I did not hear his answer. It was spoken quietly.
21. The steamer was delayed by a storm. She came into port a day late.
22. He had resolved on a certain course. He acted with vigour.
23. The letter was badly written. I had great difficulty in making out its contents.
24. A hungry fox saw some bunches of grapes. They were hanging from a vine.
25. Cinderella hurried away with much haste. She dropped one of her little glass-slippers.
26. I was walking along the street one day, I saw a dead snake.
27. He was overpowered. He surrendered.
28. He ran at top speed. He got out of breath.
29. He possessed all the advantages of education and wealth. He never made a name.

30. He was occupied with important matters. He had no leisure to see visitors,
31. The Russians burnt Moscow. The French were forced to quit it.
32. The votes on each side were equal. The chairman gave his casting vote against the resolution. 33. Wolsey lost the favour of his master. He was dismissed from his high offices.
34. He is a big boy. He is very strong. He is in the foot-ball team:
35. He came to me. He wanted leave. He was ill.
36. I heard Abdul. He was shouting very loudly. He was calling me.
37. He raised his gun. He took aim. He shot the tiger.
38. He could not eat hard food. He was very old. He had lost his teeth.
39. I have told you the facts. I have nothing more to say. I will sit down.
40. I was returning home. I saw a man. He looked very ill. He was lying by the roadside.

Page 242

Exercise 89.
Combine each set of sentenced into one Simple sentence by using Nouns or Phrases in
Apposition:1. There goes my brother. He is called Sohrab.
2. The cow provides milk. Milk is a valuable food.
3. Mr. Pundit was elected President. He is a well-known Sanskrit scholar.
4. Coal is a very important mineral. It is hard, bright, black and brittle.
5. We saw the picture. It is a very fine piece of work.
6. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in 1340. He is the first great English poet.
7. Tagore's most famous work is the Gitanjali. It is a collection of short poems.
8. His only son died before him. He was a lad of great promise.
9. His uncle was a millionaire. He sent him to England for his education.
10. The dog bit the man. He was a notorious burglar.
11. Bruno is my faithful dog. I love him.
12. Jawaharlal Nehru died in 1964. He was the first Prime Minister of India.
13. De Lesseps made the Suez Canal. This Was a great work. He was a French engineer.
14. Mr. Pundit lives in Dustipore. He is the Collector. It is a large town.

Exercise 90.
Combine each set of sentences into one Simple sentence by using Prepositions with
Nouns or Gerunds:1. He attended to his duties. He earned promotion.
2. He must confess his fault. He may thus escape punishment.
3. He was ill last term. He was unable to attend school.
4. I forgave him his fault. That has not prevented him from repeating it.
5. The bugle sounded. The weary soldiers leapt to their feet.
6. The word of command will be given. You will then fire.
7. He set traps every night. He cleared his house of rats.
8. The judge gave his decision. The court listened silently.
9. He expects to obtain leave. He has already bought his steamer ticket.
10. He has a good record. It is impossible to suspect such a man.
11. Even a bird will defend its young ones. It then shows great courage.
12. There was a want of provisions. The garrison could hold out no longer.
13. You helped me. Otherwise I should have been drowned.
14. T have examined the statement. I find many errors in it.
15. He is free from disease. At least he appears to be so.
16. His son died. This gave him a shock. He never fully recovered from it
17. He took the law in his own hands. He was not justified in doing so.
18. It rained hard. The streets were flooded.
19. He made heroic efforts to succeed. He failed.
20. The weather is pleasant. It is a little cold however.
21. He was rude, I took no notice of it.
22. He has stolen the purse. There is no doubt about this.
23. She wants to marry a foreigner. Her father is opposed to this.

24. He entered the room with his hat on. His behaviour surprised me.
25. He got great honour. He saved the life of the Rajah.
26. There was an advertisement in the newspaper. His interest was aroused.
27. He amused us very much. He sang a funny song.
28. The prince was ill. The people heard of it. They crowded to the palace.
29. The prince recovered. The people received the news. They were very enthusiastic.
30. He makes a lot of money. He buys horses. He sells horses.
31. I saw a sowar. He had a lance in his hand. He had a sword by his side.
32. She stood there for hours. She did not move. She did not speak.
33. The discovery of his crime was a heavy blow. His reputation suffered. His business decreased. Page 243

Exercise 91.
Combine each set of sentences into one simple sentence by using the Nominative
Absolute construction:1. His friend arrived. He was very pleased.
2. The rain fell. The crops revived.
3. The storm ceased. The sun came out.
4. The troops were ordered out. The police were unable to hold the mob in check.
5. The holidays are at an end. Boys are returning to school.
6. The wind failed. The crew set to work with a will.
7. It was a very hot day. I could not do my work satisfactorily.
8. His house has been burned down. He lives in an hotel.
9. The king died. His eldest son came to the throne.
10. His father was dead. He had to support his widowed mother.
11. Rain was plentiful this year. Rice is cheap.
12. The secretaryship was vacant. Nobody was willing to undertake duties of the post. I offered my services.
13. The prisoner was questioned. No witness came forward. The Judge dismissed the case. 14. The sun rose. The fog cleared away. The lighthouse was seen less than a mile away.
15. He fired his gun. The ball went high. The tiger sprang on him.
16. The master was out of the room. The door was shut The boys made a lot of noise.

Exercise 92.
Combine each set of sentences into one Simple sentence by using Infinitives:1. He had no money. He could not give any away.
2. I have told you all. There is nothing more to be said.
3. He cannot afford a motor-car. He is too poor.
4. I heard of his good fortune. I was glad of that.
5. The information is of no use to us. It has come too late.
6. Your father will hear of your success. He will be delighted.
7. You did not invest all your savings in one concern. You were prudent.
8. He did not have even a rupee with him. He could not buy a loaf of bread.
9. The Pathan took out a knife, His intention was to frighten the old man.
10. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.
11. He wants to earn his livelihood. He works hard for that reason.
12. The strikers held a meeting. They wished to discuss the terms of the employers.
13. He has five children. He must provide for them.
14. Napoleon was one of the greatest of generals. This is universally acknowledged.
15. His Majesty desired to kill Gulliver secretly. Various means were employed for this purpose. 16. I will speak the truth. I am not afraid of the consequences.
17. He is very honourable. He will not break his word.

18. He has some bills. He must pay them.
19. He must apologise. He will not escape punishment otherwise.
20. He keeps some fierce dogs. They will guard his house. They will keep away robbers.

Exercise 93
Combine each set of sentences into one Simple sentence by using Adverbs or Adverbial
Phrases:1. I accept your statement. I do it without reserve.
2. He answered me. His answer was correct.
3. He forgot his umbrella. That was careless.
4. He is a bad boy. This is certain.
5. The train is very late. That is usual.
6. I shall come back. I shall not be long.
7. He kicked the goal-keeper. It was his intention to do so.

Page 244
8. He was obstinate. He refused to listen to advice.
9. He spent all his money. This was foolish.
10. He was not at the meeting. His absence was unavoidable.
11. He applied for leave. It was not granted.
12. He admitted his error. He expressed his regret.
13. I met him only once. It was in a railway carriage.
14. He has succeeded. His success has been beyond my expectation.
15. It must be done. The cost does not count.
16. I have read Bacon. It has profited me greatly.
17. He persevered. He was not deterred by obstacles.
18. The door was open. It looked rather suspicious.
19. He is not qualified for the post. He is not qualified in any degree.
20. The blow dazed him. That condition lasted only for a time.
21. I did not eat any of the poisoned food. This was lucky.
22. He solved the problem. Its .solution took him no time.
23. He visited Ooty. He did so for reasons of health,
24. He accomplished the task. He brought unflagging industry to his accomplishment.
25. Boys grow up to be men. The growth is very slow. It cannot be seen.
26. Rama struck Krishna. His blows were cruel. They were frequent. There was no reason for this.

Exercise 94.
(Miscellaneous) Combine each set of sentences into one Simple sentence:1. Homer was a great poet. He was born somewhere. Nobody knows where.
2. He was a leader. He did not follow other men. Such was his nature.
3. 1 bought this hat two years ago. It is still good. It is fit to wear.
4. He devoted himself to public affairs. He never took a holiday. This continued for thirty years. 5. Clive made proposals. Some opposed the proposals. The majority supported them.
They were carried.
6. Clive was determined to reform the administration. Reforms were needed. He informed the council accordingly.
7. The man was innocent. He could have defended himself. He refused to speak. He was afraid of convicting his friend.
8. He was in prison. His friend was in the next cell. There was a brick wall between the cells. He made a hole in the wall. He was able to talk to his friend.
9. The boy was drowning. He shouted for help. A workman heard the boy's shouts.
He plunged into the river. He risked his own life.
10. The traveller was toiling slowly over the desert. He suddenly turned round. He heard his companion's voice. His companion was crying for help.
11. We returned down the valley of the Jamuna. We came first to Delhi. Delhi is the capital of India.
12. The art of printing was introduced into England during the reign of Edward IV.

The art of printing was introduced by William Caxton. William Caxton was a native of
13. He struck his foot against a stone. He fell to the ground. He made his clothes very dirty. 14. The sun shone on the corn. The corn ripened. It did this in a short time. The farmer was filled with joy.
15. He opened his letters. He read them carefully. He sent for his clerk. He dictated answers to them.
16. He paid all his late father's debts. This was a very honest proceeding. It was very creditable to him.
17. He has two horses. He must feed them. He must water them. He must groom them.
He must bring them to his master at 12 o'clock.
18. He goes to school. He wishes to learn. He wants to grow up honest, healthy and clever. Page 245
19. There was a man hiding in my garden. He was armed with a gun. He was a Pathan.
My notice was drawn to it.
20. The soldiers were starving. Their ammunition was expended. Their clothes were in rags. Their leaders were dead. The enemy easily defeated them.
21. Napoleon was the first Emperor of the French. He was a great soldier. He inspired his armies with the most war-like spirit. This was the cause of their many victories.
22. Wellington was the greatest of English admirals. Napoleon was the greatest of French soldiers. They were contemporaries. They were the heroes of their respective countries.
23. The miser laughed. He found himself richer by a rupee. He saw his adversary outwitted. 24. He hardened his heart. He wished to punish the people mercilessly. He wanted to make an example of them once and for all.
25. He receives much gratitude. He performs kindly actions. He is not harsh in the execution of his duty. He does not oppress the poor.
26. His friends assembled. They offered him their congratulations upon his safe return.
Everybody was comfortably seated. He described all his adventures.
27. The thieves poisoned the dog. He had brought it from England/He had trained it carefully to protect his property.
28. Vultures appeared one after another. They were wheeling round and round. They were descending towards the spot. They had cruel beaks and talons.
29. The room was covered with blood. It stained the walls and ceiling. It darkened the floor. It flowed in a stream under the door. It stood in puddles everywhere.
30. The house had been pulled down. Another had been built in its place. It was difficult to identify the exact spot.
31. He earned the hatred of all good men. He incited youths to crime. He furnished them with means. He himself kept safely out of the way in time of danger.
32. He copied from the next boy. This was a mean and dishonest action. It brought disgrace upon him. He was punished for it.
33. He had not sufficient courage. He could not face the opposition of his caste fellows.
He could not go away from his native place to begin life afresh.
34. Rabindranath Tagore founded Shantiniketan. He was a Nobel laureate. He was the author of the national anthem.
35. He could not finish his work. He had no opportunity. He could not do much of it in fact. He was very often ill. He was frequently absent.
36. The criminal was a man of his own caste. He was an ungrateful and incorrigible wretch. He had often helped him.
37. He went for a walk one day. He saw a wounded bird. He picked it up. He brought it home. He carefully tended it for some time. It completely recovered. This gave him great joy.
38. I knew a boy at school. He is now famous as a soldier. He is known to the tribesmen as the “Sleepless One”. He is greatly feared by them.
39. The water had boiled. The tea was made. The food was ready, The table was spread.
They sat down to eat and drink.

40. He deserves my thanks. He found my purse. He returned it to me. He took nothing out of it.
41. I saw a dog. It had three legs. It had only one ear. It was a terrier. It was a well bred little animal.
42. He must clean all the silver. He must put it away. He must lock it up. He must bring me the key of the box. These were my orders to him.
43. The horse had many of the points of a racer. It had slim legs. It had high withers. It had powerful quarters. It had a tremendous stride.
44. He was a great statesman. He had worked well for his country. He was very popular.
He was awarded the title of “Bharat Ratna”.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 246
45. Wood was collected. Camp fires were lighted. Food was cooked. Food was eaten.
The army lay down to sleep.
46. He alienated his friends. His conduct was disgraceful. He was put in goal.
47. Rama had a wide knowledge of the business. Krishna had the necessary capital. They combined resources. They entered into partnership.
48. Their father had a large sum of money. He divided it equally between them by his will. The daughters were eagerly sought in marriage.
49. The ground is soft and marshy. There are many frogs. Snakes abound there. They are the enemies of mankind.
50. His hopes are high. His superiors are pleased with him. He is justified in hoping.
51. He rode along for hours. He did not strike his horse. He did not spur it.
52.I have some advice. I must give it to you. I must impress it strongly upon you.
53. I hear rumours about Laxman. He is an old pupil of mine. He is a good cricketer. He is a good football player. He is not a steady worker.
54. He was delighted with the intelligence and brightness of the scholars. He over looked the fact of their knowing few things by heart.
55. He built a house. It had many large doors. It had many large windows. It had wide verandahs. It had a general air of coolness and comfort.
56. He told a story. It was about a man. The man had great strength. He was a famous warrior. 57. He came to Mumbai. He wished to see his father. He had some business to settle.
58. After the storm the boat had no mast. It could not keep before the wind. It could not return to port.
59. The cage contains a tiger. The cage was strongly built. It was so built for this purpose.
60. The ancient myths of India have been preserved in the minds of the people. They have been preserved with great care. This has been done by priests. It has also been done by the learned men. These are the guardians of the lamp of learning.

Combination of two or more Simple Sentences into a single
Compound sentence
90. Simple sentences may be combined to form Compound sentences by the use of
Coordinative Conjunctions. These are of four kinds:- Cumulative, Adversative,
Alternative, and Illative.
A. 1. Night came on. The room grew dark.
Night came on and the room grew dark.
2. He is a fool. He is a knave.
He is a fool and a knave.
[Or] He is both a fool and a knave.

[Or] He is not only a fool but also a knave.
[Or] He is a fool as well as a knave.
3. The wind blew. The rain fell. The lightning flashed.
The wind blew, the rain fell, and the lightning flashed.
It will be noticed that the conjunction and simply adds one statement to another.
The conjunctions both -- and, not only -- but also, as well as are emphatic forms of and and do the same work.
Conjunctions which merely add one statement to another are Cumulative.

Page 247
B. 1. He is slow. He is sure.
He is slow but he is sure.
2. I was annoyed. I kept quiet.
I was annoyed, still (or yet) I kept quiet.
3. He failed. He persevered.
He failed, nevertheless he persevered.
4. I shall not oppose your design. I cannot approve of it.
I shall not oppose your design; I cannot, however, approve of it.
5. He was all right. He was fatigued.
He was all right; only he was fatigued.
It will be noticed that the conjunctions but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, express a contrast between one sentence and the other. Some of these conjunctions (still, yet, however, nevertheless) are more emphatic than but.
Conjunctions which express opposition or contrast between two statements are called
C. 1. Make haste. You will be late.
Make haste or you will be late.
2. Come in. Go out.
Come in or go out.
[Or more emphatically]. Either come in or go out.
3. Do not be a borrower. Do not be a lender.
Do not be a borrower or a lender.
Or: Be neither a borrower nor a lender.
It will be noticed that the conjunctions or, either -- or, neither -- nor, express a choice between two alternatives.
Conjunctions which express a choice between two alternatives are called Alternative.
D. 1. He was obstinate. He was punished.
He was obstinate; therefore he was punished.
2. I cannot see. It is very dark.
I cannot see, for it is very dark.
3. It is raining heavily. I will take an umbrella with me.
It is raining heavily, so I will take an umbrella with me.

It will be noticed that the conjunctions therefore, for, so, etc., join sentences in which one statement is inferred from the other.
Conjunctions which express an inference are called Illative.
1. Abdul is ill. He cannot study. He still attends school
Abdul is ill and cannot study, yet he still attends school jh
2. He saw the boy in the street. He stopped to speak to him. He gave him a rupee.
Seeing the boy in the street, he stopped to speak to him and gave him a rupee.

Exercise 95.
Combine each set of Simple sentences into one Compound sentence:1. He does well. He is nervous at the start.
2. The way was long. The wind was cold.
3. It is raining heavily. I will take an umbrella with me.
4. The harvest truly is plenteous. The labourers are few.
5. It was a stormy night. We ventured out.
6. Football is a vigorous and healthy game. Every boy should play it.
7. He is foolish. He is also obstinate.

Page 248
8. I am in the right. You are in the wrong.
9. We can (ravel by land. We can travel by water.
10. The train was wrecked. No one was hurt.
11. The paper is good. The binding is very bad.
12. We must hasten. The robbers will overtake us.
13. The prince married the beautiful princess. They lived happily ever after.
14. The river is deep and swift. I am afraid to dive into it.
15. He was fined. He was sent to prison.
16. You may go to the theatre. Rama may go to the theatre.
17. Bruce was lying on his bed. He looked up to the roof. He saw a spider.
18. I cried out sadly. 1 beat my head and breast. I threw myself down on the ground.
19. You may play hockey. You may play football. You must do either of the two.
20. You may be wrong. Rashid may be wrong. You cannot both be right.
21. I got up. I looked about everywhere. I could not perceive my companions.
22. In Hyderabad I visited Charminar, Golkonda Fort and Birla Mandir. I could not visit
Salar Jung Museum.
23. A is equal to B. B is equal to C. A is equal to C.
24. Most of the rebels were slain. A few escaped. They hid in the woods and marshes.
The rebellion was quickly suppressed.
25. He was my school-fellow. He has become a great man. He has grown proud. He forgets his old friends.
26. I did not see you. I should have spoken to you. I had important news. Delay was dangerous. 27. Make haste. You will be late. There is no other train till midnight. That train is a slow one. 28. Their boats are made of a kind of bark. They are very light. They can easily be carried on the shoulders.
29. The emu, or Australian ostrich, does not sit on its eggs. It covers them up with leaves and grass. It leaves them to be hatched by the heat of the sun.
30. We must catch the 5 o'clock train. There is only half an hour left. We must start without further delay.
31. A timid dog is dangerous, He always suspects ill-treatment. He tries to protect himself by snapping.
32. A husbandman had sown some corn in his fields. He had only recently done so.
Cranes came to eat the corn. The husbandman fixed a net in his fields to catch the cranes.
33. The monsoon failed. The lanks became almost empty. No grain could be sown. A famine was feared. The ryots looked anxiously for the next monsoon. It proved unusually abundant. The danger was averted.
34. The second class carriage is full. We may pay first class fare. We may not travel first class with second class tickets. That is forbidden.
35. He is a rich man. He did not earn his wealth. He does not appreciate the value of money. He squanders it.
36. He beat me in the race. He is a year older. He naturally runs faster. Next year I may do better.

37. The storm abated. The sun shone. The ship-wrecked mariners could see no sign of land. They were adrift in midocean.
38. Generally your conduct is good. You have been guilty of an act of folly. You will not he punished. I advise you to be more prudent in future.
39. I lost my way. I asked a policeman to direct me. He was new to his work. He could not help me. He called a gentleman passing by to my assistance.
40. The engine-driver saw the danger. He applied the brakes. The line was greasy. The brakes failed to act quickly. The train crashed into the gates at the crossing. The engine left the rails.
41. The rain fell steadily for several days. The river overflowed its banks. The terrified villagers abandoned their homes. They fled to the higher ground. Soon the floods retired.
The villagers were able to return.

Page 249

Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single
Complex sentence
I. Subordinate Clause a Noun Clause
91. In the following examples the Subordinate clause is a Noun clause :1. You are drunk. That aggravates your offence.
That you are drunk aggravates your offence.
2. He will be late. That is certain.
It is certain that he will be late.
3. You are repentant. I will not forget it.
I will not forget that you are repentant.
4. He may be innocent. I do not know.
I do not know whether he is innocent.
5. He is short-sighted. Otherwise he is fit for the post.
Except that he is short-sighted he is fit for the post.
6. The clouds would disperse. That was our hope. Our hope was cheering.
Our hope that the clouds would disperse, was cheering.
7. The game was lost. It was the consequence of his carelessness.
The consequence of his carelessness was that the game was lost.

II. Subordinate Clause an Adjective Clause
92. In the following examples the Subordinate clause is an Adjective clause:
1. A fox once met a lion. The fox had never seen a lion before.
A fox who had never seen a lion before met him.
2. She keeps her ornaments in a safe. This is the safe.
This is the safe where she keeps her ornaments.
3. A cottager and his wife had a hen. The hen laid an egg every day. The egg was golden.
A cottagger and his wife had a hen which laid an egg every day.

III. Subordinate Clause an Adverb Clause
93. In the following examples the Subordinate clause is an Adverb clause:1. Indira Gandhi died in 1984. Rajiv Gandhi thereafter became Prime Minister.
When Indira Gandhi died in 1984, Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister.
2. I waited for my friend. I waited till his arrival.
I waited for my friend until he came.
3. He fled somewhere. His pursuers could not follow him.
He fled where his pursuers could not follow him.
4. Let men sow anything. They will reap its fruit.
As men sow, so shall they reap.
5. You are strong. I am equally strong.
I am as strong as you are.
6. He was not there. I spoke to his brother for that reason.
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.

Page 250
7. We wish to live. We eat for that purpose.
We eat so that we may live.
8. He was quite tired. He could scarcely stand.
He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
9. Don't eat too much. You will be ill.
If you eat too much you will be ill.
10. He began late. He finished first.
He finished first though be began late.
11. I shall come. My being alone is a condition.
I shall come if I am alone.
12. I must know all the facts. I cannot help you otherwise.
Before I can help you, I must know all the facts.
13. He is superstitious. He is equally wicked.
He is as superstitious as he is wicked.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 96.
Combine each set of Simple sentences into one Complex sentence containing a Noun clause:1. He is wrong. I am sure of it.
2 .You deceived him. That was his complaint.
3. The train will arrive at a certain time. Do you know the time?
4. All the planets except for Pluto travel round the sun the same way and in the same plane. I have often told you this truth.
5. He will waste his time. That is certain.
6. Where have you put my hat? Tell me.
7. He is short-tempered. I like him all the same.
8. Is it time for the train to start ? Ask the guard.
9. It is going to rain. I am sure of it.
10. Something may be worth doing, It is only worth doing well.
11. He is a sincere worker. No one can doubt this fact.
12. He said something. I did not hear it.
13. How did you find that out? Tell me.
14. You have made a mistake. I think so.
15. Who wrote Shakuntala? Can you tell me that?
16. You stole the purse. Do you deny it ?

17. I am very sorry. I cannot adequately express my sorrow.
18. We have been deceived. That is the truth.
19. How did Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose die? It is a mystery.
20. He will succeed. We expect it.
21. What have you done? Tell me.
22. We wished to know. We were going somewhere.
23. We were nearing some waterfall. It was evident from the distant roar of water.
24. A certain number of the enemy escaped. We do not know this number.
25. The two friends qurrelled. I want to know the reason.
26. He is a great orator. This fact cannot be denied.
27. Columbus made an egg stand on its end. I will show you his method.
28. I have seen this man somewhere before. I cannot remember the place.
29. He will arrive some time. I do not know the time of his arrival.
30 He distrusts his own sons. It is difficult to understand the reason.

Exercise 97.
Combine each set of Simple sentences into one Complex sentence containing an
Adjective clause:1. The theft was committed last night. The man has been caught.

Page 251
2. The French and Italian languages are different from the Latin language. Latin was once spoken in almost every part of Europe.
3. The time was six o'clock. The accident happened then.
4. You are not keeping good health lately. Can you tell me the reason?
5. He has many plans for earning money quickly. All of them have failed.
6. A lion was proud of his strength. He despised the weakness of the mouse.
7. The grapes hung over the garden wall. The fox saw the grapes.
8. That is the school. I was taught there.
9. You put it somewhere. Show me the place.
10. My travelling companion was an old gentleman. His name is Mr. Haq. I met him in

Exercise 98.
Combine each set of Simple sentences into one Complex sentence containing an Adverb clause:1. The nurse must be very tired. She had no sleep last night.
2. A gentleman may call. Please ask him to wait.
3. He ran so quickly. He soon overtook me.
4. I will get ready. Do not go till then.
5. He spoke in a very low voice. Nobody could hear him.
6. I wound my watch this morning. It has stopped.
7. It was very stuffy last night. I could not sleep.
8. The monsoon may break this month. Otherwise the wells will run dry.
9. I may help you. I may not help you. You are sure to lose the game.
10. The fireman came out of the house. The roof collapsed that very moment.
11. Success attends hard work. Failure attends bad work.
12. You must hurry. You will miss the train otherwise.
13. The delegates arrived. The discussion was resumed.
14. He is very old. He enjoys good health.
15. No more funds are available. The work has been stopped.
16. He saw me coming. He immediately took to his heels.
17. I may be blunt. I am at least honest.
18. He was contradicted. He was annoyed.
19. He bled profusely. He died.
20. This may be true of some. It is not true of all.
21. He ran quickly. He soon overtook me.
22. I had left home. Your letter arrived afterwards.
23. He saw us. He disappeared immediately.
24. He will not go out in the rain. He is afraid of getting wet.
25. The bandits fought desperately. They could not bear the idea of being taken alive.
26. The sailors cast anchor. They did so to prevent the ship from drifting on the rocks.
27. You make a good deal of noise. I cannot work.
28. We may sail to-morrow. It depends on the weather.

29. It is very simple. Even a child can understand it.
30. He was returning from school. He was caught in a shower.
31. Robinson Crusoe discovered the print of a foot on the sand. He was puzzled.
32. He finished the work. Just then the clock struck five.
33. He is being lionized. He still keeps a level head.
34. Why do you keep your eye on me like this? Have you turned detective?
35. We travelled together as far as Kolkata. We parted company there.
36. He is a rich man. No other man in our community is equally rich.
37. You may wish to do the work. You may not wish to do the work. You must still do it.
38. He was sick. He remained at home.

Page 252
39. You have tears. Prepare to shed them now.
40. He may slay me. I will trust him.
41. He saw me. He ran away then.
42. He came to my house. I was out.
43. His father died. He has been very poor from that time.
44. He grew weaker and weaker. He died.
45. We take off our clothes. We go to bed.
46. He was hanged. He had committed murder.
47. All will respect you. Your being honest is a condition.
48. He is old. He cannot walk.
49. He won the race. He was the swiftest.
50. Life lasts a certain time. Let us be honest during that time,
51. The wolf is larger. The jackal is smaller.
52.Arjun is clever. His cleverness equals Rama's.
94. Carefully study the following sentences:1. He had read Milton. He had read it in a prose translation. He had read it when he was fourteen. He told us this.
He told us that he had read Milton, in a prose translation, when he was fourteen.
2. A bachelor may be surrounded with all sorts of luxuries. In spite of that he will always find his happiness incomplete. He must have a wife and children.
With whatever luxuries a bachelor may be surrounded, he will always find his happiness incomplete, unless he has a wife and children.
3. Pope professed to have learned his poetry from Dryden. Through his whole life he praised him with unvaried liberality. He did so whenever an opportunity was presented.
Pope professed to have learned his poetry from Dryden, whom, whenever an opportunity was presented, he praised through his whole life with unvaried liberalilty.
4. Milton did not educate his daughters in the languages. He said that one tongue was enough for a woman.
Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages, because one tongue was enough for a woman.
5. I sank into the water. I felt confused. Nothing can describe that confusion.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank into the water.
6. We had in this village an idiot boy. I well remember that boy. From a child he showed a strong propensity for bees. This was some twenty years ago.
We had in this village, some twenty years ago, an idiot boy, whom I well remember, who from a child showed a strong propensity for bees.

Exercise 99.
Combine each of the following sets of Simple sentences into one Complex sentence :1. That is the man. He gave me a dog. It went mad.
2. Rama will not play in the match. The notion is foolish. He is the best player in the school. 3. I wrote the letter. It contained the truth. He praised me for it.
4. Honesty is the best policy. Have you never heard it?
5. He came to see me. He wanted to tell me something. His father was dead. He had been ill for a long time.
6. The horse has killed a man. I wished to sell it to you. The man was trying to steal it.
7. He took the medicine. He then felt better. It cured his headache.
8. He gave an order. He is obeyed. They fear to offend him.

Page 253
9. The absence of the girl from her home was unusual. Inquiries were made. They led to no result.
10. Your conduct is very peculiar. I am unable to understand it. It has been described to me. 11. He played exceedingly well in the match. His team won in consequence. The match was played yesterday.
12. He wrote a letter. He wrote it for a certain reason. He wrote it to his superior. He told me about this.
13. I visited his garden. In it there were some beautiful rose-trees. The trees were full of bloom. These were red and white in colour.
14. He forsook his dishonest ways. No one would give him work. His dishonest ways had brought him to the depths of poverty.
15. He is sure to receive his pay. It is due to him. Why then does he worry?
16. He has very bad health. He lives very carefully. It is inexplicable to the doctor.
The doctor has attended him for years. He told me this.
17. His servants disliked him. They flattered him. He was very harsh to them.
18. I carefully sighted the rifle. I did not wish to miss. A miss might have cost me my life. 19. The speed of the boat was remarkable. It was going against the current. It was going against the wind. These facts should be kept in mind.
20. He stole a book. It had the owner's name written in it. I was told this. The name was well known to him.
21. They had marched the whole journey at top speed. They wished to surprise the enemy. The journey was very long.
22. My friend is going to Europe. He has got long leave. His brother is already there.
He wishes to become a doctor.
23. Rama will not play against the Hindu school. It has a very strong team. He has declared this to be his intention. He does not wish to tire himself before the cup-match. It takes place the next day.
24. The man talks most. That man does least. This very often happens.
25. A man did this. He must have been very strong. There is no doubt of it. Our father says so.
26. He paid a sum of money for the information. He paid it to a certain person. He paid it for some reason. I should like to know the sum, the person and the reason.
I could then prosecute him.
27. They had the treasure in some place. The treasure was very valuable. The place was never discovered. They feared pursuit and capture. They hid it in a jungle.
28. He endeavoured to hide the traces of the crime. He had committed it. The reason is not difficult to see.
29. He had not learned to read and write. He was very ignorant. He could not even talk fluently. Such a man should riot pretend to be a doctor.
30. The boy had many accomplishments. The father .fully described a large number of these to the teacher. He wished to get him admitted to the school.

31. The jackal was pursued by the dogs. It was very hungry. They were well fed. It was caught.
32. He waited longer. He got more angry. He had ordered them to be punctual.
33. You may like it. You may not like it. In either case I shall send you there. It is my duty to do so.
34. Your father succeeded well. Would you like to succeed equally well? He worked hard. You must work equally hard.
35. You have failed. I am sorry to hear it. You deserved to pass. I think it.
36. You will be allowed to enter for the examination. Your working hard is a condition.
The orders are to that effect. They were issued by the Principal.
37. Rama is more clever. Krishna is less clever. I think it. I judge by the results of the examination. Page 254
38. There is a will. There is a way too. This is generally true.
39. I heard the news. I went to the hospital. I wished to discover the extent of his injuries.
The hospital is not far from my house.
40. You may please him. You may displease him. He will promote you sooner or later accordingly. This is only right.
41. You sow in a certain way. You will reap in the same way. The proverb says this.
42. You may look everywhere. There you will see signs of industry. These signs speak well for the prosperity of the people.
43. I have done much sword-play. The sight of a sword gives pleasure to a man like me.
This is undeniable.
44. They played the game very skilfully. No one could have played it more skilfully.
They had been thoroughly well trained.
45. He is an idle and careless boy. The report was to this effect. His father received the report. He was very grieved to receive it.

Exercise 100.
Combine each of the following groups of sentences into one Compound or one Complex sentence in any way you like:1. I offered him help. He needed help. He persisted in refusing help. I left him to his fate.
2. A famished traveller was toiling over the desert. He found a bag. He was highly delighted. He opened the bag. He found nothing but pearls.
3. Hundreds of men and women have travelled in space. Some have travelled in space for a few days. Others have done it for several months.
4. I was in Sri Lanka in May last. I visited Mihintale. It is regarded as the cradle of
5. Once an oarsman was rowing by himself. He did not look behind him. He met another boat. He crashed into it. He was upset.
6. A dog was running away with a piece of meat. He passed some deep still water.
He saw there the reflected image of the meat. He dropped the meat into the deep water.
He snatched in vain at the shadow.
7. A fox saw a crow sitting on a tree with a piece of cheese in his mouth. The fox praised the crow's singing. The crow was pleased by the flattery. The crow began to sing. The crow dropped the cheese.

8. A lion was proud of his strength. He despised the weakness of the mouse. He was caught in a net. He could not escape from the net. He was set free by the exertions of the mouse. 9. John signed. John was King of England. He signed a document called the Magna
Carta. He was afraid of his barons. He did not care about liberty. He signed the document at Runnymede. Runnymede is on the Thames. It is not far from Windsor.
10. The train ran down the incline. The train attained great speed. The train turned a sharp curve at the bottom. The train oscillated under the influence of the brakes. The train threw all the passengers into a panic.
11. A half-starved mouse managed to creep into a basket of corn. The mouse rejoiced in his good fortune. The mouse fed greedily on the corn. The mouse tried to get out of the basket. His body was now too big to pass through the hole.
12. It would not be possible for any life to survive on Venus and Mercury. They are nearer to the sun than the earth. They are very hot planets.
13. A band of ruffians entered a village. The ruffians were well armed. They entered the village at night. Some of the ruffians were escaped convicts. The ruffians stole the cattle of the villagers. The villagers were asleep.
14. My fellow-traveller had a gun. He was boasting of his bravery. Suddenly a bear came behind a rock close in front of us. It stood in our way. It was growling angrily.
15. Mungo Park explored the interior regions of Africa. He was employed by the
African Association. The undertaking was hazardous. He suffered many distress. Those distresses were often alleviated by the compassion of the negroes.

Page 255
16. A lion was drinking in a clear pool. His stately mane was reflected by the pool.
The lion saw the reflection. He greatly admired his mane. He was afterwards pursued by hunters with their guns. He was pursued through a thick wood. He then found his mane useless and of no avail.
17. The King ordered me to go to a distant village. It was not possible to disobey. I set off for the village. There I was mortified to find no one willing to admit me into his house. I was regarded with astonishment and fear. I was obliged to sit the whole day without victuals. A tree protected me against the heat and the sun.
18. The night was very threatening. The wind rose. There were heavy rain clouds. The wild beasts were numerous thereabout. To escape them it would have been necessary to climb a tree and sit among the branches.
19. The sun set. I was preparing to pass the night in a tree. A negro woman stopped to observe me. She was returning from the labour of the field. She perceived my weariness and dejection. She inquired into my situation. I briefly explained it to her. With a look of compassion she told me to follow her.
20. She conducted me to her hut. She told me to remain there for the night. Then she found me hungry. She procured from outside a fine fish. She caused it to be half boiled upon some embers. She then gave it to me for supper.
21. He had made war on Saxony. He had set the Roman crown upon his own head. He had become famous throughout the whole world. But his fame had not prevented his hair from becoming grey.
22. Augustus probably died a natural death. He was in his seventy-eighth year. He had been reduced to despondency by the disaster in Germany. He was traveling at an unhealthy time of the year. He had exposed himself imprudently to the night air. And all the other particulars are quite opposed to the poison theory.
23. This is not the least part of our happiness. We enjoy the remotest products of the north and south. At the same time we are free from extremities of the weather. Our eyes are refreshed with the green fields of Britain. At the same time our palates are refreshed with tropical fruit.
24. He was a man of haughty and vehement temper. He was treated very ungraciously by the court. He was supported very enthusiastically by the people. He would eagerly take the first opportunity of showing his power and gratifying his resentment. This might be expected. 25. Bonaparte was born a Corsican. He distinguished himself at school. He joined the republican army. He started as corporal. His bravery was remarkable. His mental powers

were great. He became the head of the army of Italy. He conquered Egypt. He set aside the republic. He was proclaimed Emperor.
26. He is now gone to his final reward. He was full of years and honours. These honours were especially dear to his heart for the following reasons. They were gratefully bestowed by his pupils. They bound him to the interests of that school. He had been educated in that school His whole life had been dedicated to its service.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

95. The Sequence of Tenses is the principle in accordance with which the Tense of the verb in a subordinate clause follows the Tense of the verb in the principal clause.
(Sequence is connected with the Latin verb sequor, follow.)
The Sequence of Tenses applies chiefly to Adverb Clauses of Purpose and Noun Clauses.

Page 256
96. A Past Tense in the principal clause is followed by a Past Tense in the subordinate clause; as,
He hinted that he wanted money.
She replied that she felt better.
I found out that he was guilty.
He saw that the clock had stopped.
He replied that he would come.
I never thought that T should see him again.
I took care that he should not hear me.
They climbed higher so that they might get a better view.
I worked hard so that I might succeed.
There are, however, two exceptions to this rule:(i)A Past Tense in the principal clause may be followed by a Present Tense in the subordinate clause when the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth ; as,
Newton discovered that the force of gravitation makes apples fall.
Galileo maintained that the earth moves round the sun.
Euclid proved that the three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles.
He said that honesty is always the best policy.
(ii) When the subordinate clause is introduced by than, even if there is a Past Tense in the principal clause, it may be followed by any Tense required by the sense in the subordinate clause; as,
He liked you better than he likes me.
He helped him more than he helps his own children.
I then saw him oftener than I see him now.
He valued his friendship more than he values mine.
97. A Present or Future Tense in the principal clause may be followed by any Tense required by the sense; as,
He thinks that she is there.
He thinks that she was there.
He thinks that she will be there.
He will think that she is there.
He will think that she was there.
He will think that she will be there.
But in sentences where the subordinate clause denotes purpose, if the verb in the principal clause is Present or Future the verb in the subordinate clause must be Present; as, I eat so that I may live.
I shall nurse him so that he may live.

Exercise 101
Insert the correct tense of verb in the following:1. I waited for my friend until he ---. (To come.)
2. So long as the rain ---, I stayed at home. (To continue)
3. I did not know it until you ---. (To speak.)
4. He speaks as one who ---. (To know.)
5. He ran as quickly as he ---. (Can or could?)
6. He went where he --- find work. (Can or could?)
7. Wherever there is coal you --- find iron. (Will or would ?)
8. He behaves as one --- expect him to do.

Page 257
9. He ran away because he --- afraid. (To be)
10. He fled where his pursuers --- not follow. (Can or could?)
11. As he --- not there, I spoke to his brother. (To be.)
12. The notice was published in order that all --- know the facts.(May or might?)
13. He was so tired that he --- scarcely stand. (Can or could?)
14. You make such a noise that I --- not work. (Can or could?)
15. He finished first though he --- late. (To begin.)
16. His health has improved since he --- India. (To leave)
17. As soon as he --- the news he wrote to me. (To hear)
18. After the shower --- over, the sun shone out again. (To be)
19. Whenever we --- we talk of old times. (To meet)
20. Answer the first question before you --- further. (to proceed.)
21. Just as he --- the room the clock struck. (To enter.)
22. Now that we --- safe we stopped to take breath. (To feel.)
23. Wherever he --- the people gathered to listen. (To preach.)
24. He speaks as though he --- very angry. (To be.)
25. He ran because he --- in a hurry. (To be.)
26. I do it because I --- to. (To choose.)
27. He advanced as far as he ---. (To dare.)
28. He lost more than he --- afford. (Can or could?)
29. He eats as much as he ---. (Can or could?)
30. He rode as swiftly as he ---. (Can or could?)
31. He locked the papers up so that they --- be safe. (May or might?)
32. He walked as though he --- slightly lame. (To be.)
33. He stayed at home because he --- feeling ill, (To be.)
34. I forgive you since you ---. (To repent.)
35. He labours hard so that he --- become rich. (May or might?)
36. We shall wait here until you ---. (To come.)
37. He rested his horse, for it ---. (To limp.)
38. You may sit wherever you ---. (To like.)
39. He went to Kolkata that he --- find work. (May or might?)
40. I would die before I --- . (To lie).
41. They come to see us as often as they ---. (Can or could?)
42. I studied hard in order that I --- succeed. (May or might?)
43. He so hard that he is certain to succeed. (To work.)
44. She told me that she --- come. (Will or would?)
45. He would succeed if he ---. (To try.)
46. I asked him what --- I do. (Can or could?)
47. He came oftener than we --- . (To expect.)
48. I would not attempt it if you --- me, (To ask.)
49. He walked so fast than I --- not overtake him . (Can or could?)

Exercise 102.
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate auxiliary (Remember to observe the sequence offenses.) 1. He died so that he --- save the flag.
2. They erected signposts in order that the road --- be known.
3. We eat so that we --- live.
4. Even if he paid me to do so, I --- not live in his house.
5. You --- go only if you have permission.
6. On the understanding that you return soon, you --- go out.
7. A bridge was built in order that the dangerous ferry --- be avoided.
8. He begs from door to door that he --- keep body and soul together.
9. He was so tired that he --- scarcely stand.
10. he went to England in order he --- become a barrister.

Page 258
11. You make such a noise that I --- not work.
12. He asked again whether supper --- be ready soon.
13. In order that he --- learn the language quickly, he engaged a teacher.
14. He said that he --- do it.
15. The thieves stole whatever they --- find in the house.
16. He begged that we --- pardon him.
17. I wished that I --- come earlier.
18. He said that he --- try again.
19. He worked hard so that he --- win the prize.
20. We ran so that we --- arrive in time.
21. He said that he --- give an early reply.

Exercise 103.
Supply Verbs in correct concord in the following complex sentences:1. They sold the house because it --- old.
2. He solemnly assured them that they --- quite mistaken.
3. I come home when it --- to rain.
4. The soldiers advanced when the bugle --- .
5. I asked him what his name --- .
6. He had a cow that --- enormous quantities of milk.
7. When the sun set he --- home.
8. He told them that they --- wrong.
9. I heard that there --- a disturbance in the city.
10. Could you doubt that there --- a God ?

98. We may report the words of a speaker in two ways:(i) We may quote his actual words. This is called Direct Speech.
(ii) We may report what he said without quoting his exact words. This is called Indirect
(or Reported) Speech.
Direct. -- Rama said. “I am very busy now.”
Indirect. -- Rama said that he was very busy then.
It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not. It will be further noticed that in changing the above Direct Speech into Indirect certain changes have been made. Thus:
(i) We have used the conjunction that before the Indirect statement.(The that is often omitted especially in spoken English)
(ii) The pronoun I is changed to he. (The Pronoun is changed in Person.)
(iii) The verb am is changed to was. (Present Tense is changed to Past.)
(iv) The adverb now is changed to then.

Page 259

Rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect
99. When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all Present tenses of the
Direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses. Thus:(a) A simple present becomes a simple past.
Direct. -- He said, “I am unwell.”
Indirect. -- He said (that) he was unwell.
(b) A present continuous becomes a past continuous.
Direct. -- He said, “My master is writing letters.”
Indirect. -- He said (that) his master was writing letters.
(c) A present perfect becomes a past perfect.
Direct. -- He said, “I have passed the examination.”
Indirect. -- He said (that) he had passed the examination.
Note:- The shall of the Future Tense is changed into should. The will of the Future Tense is changed into would or should. As a rule, the simple past in the Direct becomes the past perfect in the Indirect.
Direct. -- He said, “The horse died in the night.”
Indirect. -- He said that the horse had died in the night.
99A. The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth. We can often choose whether to keep the original tenses or change them.
Direct. – “I know her address,” said Gopi.
Indirect. -- Gopi said he knows/knew her address.
Direct. -- The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”
Indirect. -- The teacher said the earth goes/went round the sun.
Direct. – “German is easy to learn”, she said.
Indirect. -- She said German is/was easy to learn.
The past tense is often used when it is uncertain if the statement is true or when we are reporting objectively.
100. If the reporting verb is in the Present Tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. For example, we may rewrite the above examples, putting the reporting verb in the Present Tense, thus:
He says he is unwell.
He has just said his master is writing letters.
He says he has passed the examination.
He says the horse died in the night.

101. The pronouns of the Direct Speech are changed, where necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker, are indicated. Observe the following examples :Direct. -- He said to me, “I don't believe you.”
Indirect. -- He said he didn't believe me.
Direct. -- She said to him, “I don't believe you.”
Indirect. -- She said she didn't believe him.
Direct. -- I said to him, “I don’t believe you.”

Page 260
Indirect. -- I said I didn't believe him.
Direct. -- I said to you, “I don't believe you.”
Indirect. -- I said I didn't believe you.
102. Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance. Thus :now -- becomes -- then here -- becomes -- there ago -- becomes -- before thus -- becomes -- so today -- becomes -- that day tomorrow -- becomes -- the next day yesterday -- becomes -- the day before last night -- becomes -- the night before
Direct. -- He says, “I am glad to be here this evening.”
Indirect. -- He says that he was glad to be there that evening.
The changes do not occur if the speech is reported during the same period or at the same place ; e.g.,
Direct. -- He said, “I am glad to be here this evening.”
Indirect. -- He said that he was glad to be there that evening.
103. Similarly, this and these are changed to that and those unless the thing pointed out is near at hand at the time of reporting the speech.
A work from S, CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

104. In reporting questions the Indirect Speech is introduced by some such verbs as asked, inquired, etc.
When the question is not introduced by an interrogative word, the reporting verb is followed by whether or if.
Direct. -- He said to me, “What are you doing ?”
Indirect. -- He asked me what I was doing.
Direct. -- “Where do you live?” asked the stranger.
Indirect. -- The stranger enquired where I lived.
Direct. -- The policeman said to us, “Where are you going ?”
Indirect. -- The policeman enquired where we were going.
Direct. -- He said, “Will you listen to such a man?”
Indirect. -- He asked them whether they would listen to such a man.
[Or] Would they, he asked, listen to such a man ?
Direct. – “Do you suppose you know better than your own father?” jeered his angry mother.

Indirect. -- His angry mother jeered and asked whether he supposed that he knew better than his own father.

Commands and Requests
105. In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing command or request, and the imperative mood is changed into the Infinitive.
Direct. -- Rama said to Arjun, “Go away.”
Indirect. -- Rama ordered Arjun to go away.
Direct. -- He said to him, “Please wait here till I return.”
Indirect. -- He requested him to wait there till he returned.
Direct. -- “Call the first witness,” said the judge.

Page 261
Indirect. -- The judge commanded them to call the first witness.
Direct. -- He shouted, “Let me go.”
Indirect. -- He shouted to them to let him go.
Direct. -- He said, “Be quiet and listen to my words.”
Indirect. -- He urged them to be quiet and listen to his words.

Exclamations and Wishes
106. In reporting exclamations and wishes the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing exclamation or wish.
Direct. -- He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect. -- He exclaimed sadly that he was undone.
Direct. -- Alice said, “How clever I am!”
Indirect. -- Alice exclaimed that she was very clever.
Direct. -- He said, “Bravo! You have done well.”
Indirect. -- He applauded him, saying that he had done well.
Direct. -- “So help me, Heaven!” he cried, “I will never steal again.”
Indirect. -- He called upon Heaven to witness his resolve never to steal again.

Exercise 104.
Turn the following into Indirect Speech:1. He said to me, “I have often told you not to play with fire.”
2. “You have all done very badly!” remarked the teacher.
3. They wrote, “It is time we thought about settling this matter.”
4. The teacher promised, "If you will come before school tomorrow, I will explain it.
5. She wrote, “I am waiting and watching and longing for my son's return.”
6. The examiner's orders were, “No one is to bring books into the room nor ask me questions about what I have told you to do.”
7. The dwarf said to her, “Promise me that when you are Queen you will give me your first-born child.”
8. “That is my horse,” said he, “and if I do not prove it in a few minutes I will give up my claim.” 9. “I will avenge your wrongs,” he cried, “I will not enter Athens until I have punished the king who had so cruelly treated you."
10. He wrote and said, “I am unable to come just now because I am ill, but I will certainly start as soon as I am well enough to do so.”
11. One day he sent for Cassim and said to him, “You are now old enough to earn your living, so you must set off, and make your own way in the world.”

Exercise 105.
Turn the following into Indirect Speech:1. “What do you want?” he said to her.
2. He said, “How's your father?”
3. “Are you coming home with me?” he asked.
4. He enquired, “When do you intend to pay me?”

5. He said to us, “Why are you all sitting about there doing nothing?”
6. “Do you really come from China?” said the prince.
7. The poor man exclaimed, “Will none of you help me?”
8. “Which way did she go?” asked the young Rakshas.
9. Aladdin said to the magician, “What have I done to deserve so severe a blow?”
10. “Don't you know the way home?” asked I.
11. “Do you write a good hand?” he said.
12. “Have you anything to say on behalf of the prisoner ?”said the judge finally.

Page 262
13. “Which is the proper way to answer this question, father?” the boy enquired.
14. “Have you anything to tell me, little bird?”. asked Ulysses.
15. The young sparrow said, “Mother, what is that queer object?”
16. Then aloud he said, “Tell me, boy, is the miller within?”
17. “Who are you, sir, and what do you want?” they cried.
18. “Dear bird,” she said, stroking its feathers, “have you come to comfort me in my sorrow?” 19. The Rajah was deeply grieved, and said to his wife, “What can I do for you?”
20. When the sun got low, the king's son said, “Jack, since we have no money, where can we lodge this night ?”
21. She said to him, “What is it that makes you so much stronger and braver than any other man ?”
22. When the Brahmin approached, the first thief said, “Why do you carry a dog on your back ? Are you not ashamed ?”

Exercise 106.
Put the following in Indirect Speech:1. “Bring me a drink of milk,” said the swami to the villagers.
2. “Sit down, boys,” said the teacher.
3. “Halt!” shouted the officer to his men.
4. “Take off your hat,” the king said to the Hatter.
5. The teacher said to him, “Do not read so fast.”
6. He said to me, “Wait until I come.”
7. “Hurry up,” he said to his servant, “do not waste time.”
8. “Run away, children,” said their mother.
9. He said, “Daughter, take my golden jug, and fetch me some water from the Well.”
10. “Go down to the bazaar. Bring me some oil and a lump of ice.” ordered his master.

Exercise 107.
Put the following in Indirect Speech:1. “What a rare article milk is, to be sure, in London !” said Mr. Squeers with a sigh.
2. “What a stupid fellow you are!” he angrily remarked.
3. He said, “My God! I am ruined.”
4. He said, “Alas! our foes are too strong.”
5. He said, “What a lazy boy you are! How badly you have done your work!”
6. “How smart you are!” she said.
7. He said. “Oh ! that's a nuisance.”
8.He said, “How cruel of him!”
9. He said, “What a pity you did not come!”
10. “Ah me!” exclaimed the Queen. “What a rash and bloody deed you have done!”

Conversion of Indirect into Direct
107. The conversion of Indirect into Direct generally presents no special difficulties, as the following examples will show :-

Indirect. -- He inquired whether his name was not Ahmed.
Direct. -- He said to him, “Is not your name Ahmed ?”
Indirect. -- As the stranger entered the town, he was met by a policeman, who asked him if he was a traveller. He replied carelessly that it would appear so.
Direct. -- As the stranger entered the town, he was met by a policeman, who asked, “Are you a traveller?” “So it would appear,” he answered carelessly.
Indirect. -- She asked how she, a girl, who could not ride or use sword or lance,

Page 263 could be of any help. Rather would she stay at home and spin beside her dear mother.
Direct. -- She said, “How can I, a girl, who cannot ride or use sword or lance, be of any help? Rather would I stay at home and spin beside my dear mother?”

Exercise 108.
Put the following in Direct Speech:1. He asked Rama to go with him.
2. Rama replied that he could not do so.
3. He asked his father when the next letter would come.
4. His father replied that there might not be another that year.
5. Rama asked me what had become of Hari.
6. I told him that I had not seen him for months.
7. The master requested that they would attend carefully to what he was saying.
8. I wrote that I would visit him next day.
9. He observed that he had never liked doing that.
10. I told them to be quiet.
11. He asked me if I had anything to say.
12. Rama asked Hari if he would change places with him.
13. He said that he was tired, and that he wished to go to bed.
14. An old mouse asked who would bell the cat.
15. John said that he wanted to be a soldier.
16. He asked me where I was going.
17. He asked me what I wanted.
18. Abdul said that he had seen that picture.
19. The boy said that he would go with us.
20. He said that the earth moves round the sun.
21. The stranger asked Alice where she lived.
22. I asked Mary if she would lend me a pencil.
23. He told us that he had waited an hour.
24. The lady inquired if he was now quite well again.
25. He said that he had come to see them.
26. He said that though he had come, it was against his will.
27. The speaker said that it gave him great pleasure to be there that evening.
28. He asked them whether they would listen to such a man.
29. He asked me if I would accompany him.
30. He ordered him to leave the room and forbade him to return.
31. The mother asked her boy where he had been all the afternoon.
32. Hari asked Rama if he had read the letter.
33. The King asked the philosopher whom he considered the happiest man living.
34. The magistrate asked the prisoner what he was doing with his hand in the gentleman's pocket. 35. The fox cried out to the goat that a thought had just come into his head.
36. He advised his sons not to quarrel amongst themselves, when he was dead but to remain united.

37. The lion told the fox that he was very weak, that his teeth had fallen out, and that he had no appetite.
38. He replied that he had promised to reward his soldiers and that he had kept his word.
108. Study the following examples, and in each case carefully note the changes made while turning from Direct into Indirect Speech:Direct. -- The Prince said, “It gives me great pleasure to be here this evening.”
Indirect. -- The Prince said that it gave him great pleasure to be there that evening.
Direct. -- He said, “I shall go as soon as it is possible”
Indirect. – He said that he would go as soon as it was possible.

Page 264
Direct. -- He said, “I do not wish to see any of you; go away.”
Indirect. -- He said that he did not wish to see any of them and ordered them to go away.
Direct. -- My teacher often says to me, “If you don't work hard, you will fail.”
Indirect. -- My teacher often says to me that if I don't work hard I shall fail.
Direct. -- He said, “We are all sinners.”
Indirect. -- He said that we are all sinners.
Direct. -- The lecturer said, “Akbar won the respect of all races and classes by his justice.” Indirect. -- The lecturer said that Akbar won the respect of all races and classes by his justice. Direct. -- He said, “Let us wait for the award.”
Indirect. -- He proposed that they should wait for the award.
Direct. – “Saint George strike for us!” exclaimed the Knight, “do the false yeomen give way?” Indirect. -- The Knight prayed that Saint George might strike for them and asked whether the false yeomen gave way.
Direct. – “Curse it!” exclaimed the driver. “Who could have foreseen such ill-luck? But for accident we should have caught the train easily.”
Indirect. -- The driver exclaimed with an oath that nobody could have foreseen such illluck. But for the accident they would have caught the train easily.
Direct. -- The general, addressing his mutinous troops said, “You have brought disgrace upon a famous regiment. If you had grievances, why did you not lay them before your own officers? Now you must first suffer punishment for your offence, before your complaints can be heard.”
Indirect. -- The general told his mutinous troops that they had brought disgrace upon a famous regiment. If they had grievances, why had they not laid them before their own officers? Now they must suffer punishment for their offence before their complaints could be heard.
Direct. -- The traveller said, “Can you tell me the way to the nearest inn?” “Yes,” said the peasant, “do you want one in which you can spend the night?” “No,” replied the traveller,
“I only want a meal.”
Indirect. -- The traveller asked the peasant if he could tell him the way to the nearest inn.
The peasant replied that he could, and asked whether the traveller wanted one in which he could spend the night. The traveller answered that he did not wish to stay there, but only wanted a meal.

Remark. -- It will be noticed that we have avoided the ugly phrases “replied in the affirmative” and “replied in the negative.”

Exercise 109.
Turn the following into Indirect Speech:1. “Cheer up, mother, I'll go and get work somewhere,” said Jack.
2. But the sea-god cried, “Do not be afraid, noble prince. I have taken pity on you and will help you.”
3. “No,” said the child; “I won't kneel, for if I do, I shall spoil my new breeches.”
4. “What a horse are they losing for want of skill and spirit to manage him!” exclaimed
5. Telemachus replied, "How can I drive away the mother, who bore me and nourished me?" 6. “Call no man happy,” was the reply of the philosopher, “until he has ended his life in a fitting manner.”
7. Then said the wolf to the fox, “Now either yield thyself as vanquished, or else certainly
I will kill thee.”
8. “I believe,” said he, “that we are in this country among a people whom we like and who like us.”
9. he said, “Take that bird away. Its gilded cage reminds me of my father whom I imprisoned.” Page 265
10. “I have just one word to say to you,” said the dealer. “Either make your purchase, or walk out of my shop.”
11. “My hour is come,” thought he. “Let me meet death like a man.”
12. “Be not cast down,” said Mentor, “remember whose son thou art, and all shall be well with thee.”
13. Bhishma said: “Boys! boys ! remember you play a game. If it be Arjuna's turn let him have it.”
14. “Friends,” said the old man, “sit down and rest yourselves here on this bench. My good wife Baucis has gone to see what you can have for supper.”
15. “Ah! you don't know what these beans are, said the man; if you plant them overnight, by morning they grow right up to the sky.”
16. “How clever I am !” he said. “All my life I have been talking prose without knowing it.” 17. “I am old and lonely,” said she. “Hast thou no pity on my lonelines? Stay with me, my best son, for thou art yet more boy than man.”
18. “I do not practice”, Goldsmith once said; "I make it a rule to prescribe only for my friends." "Pray, dear doctor," said Beauclerk, "alter your rule, and prescribe only for your enemies." 19. He said: "Who are you to speak to me like this? I am the master. Why should I help you? It is your work, not mine, to draw the cart."
20. "I cannot hope to see these trees which I am planting come in perfection," said the duke, "but it is right for me to plant for the benefit of my successors."
21. "Are you angry, my friends," said the king, "because you have lost your leader? I am your king; I will be your leader."
22. Said an old Crab to young one, "Why do you walk so crooked, child? Walk straight!"
"Mother," said the young Crab, "show me the way, will you?"
23. "Who are you?" said the Deer. The Jackal replied: "I am Kshudrabuddhi the Jackal. I live in this forest all by myself; I have neither friend nor relation."
24. One summer some elephants were very much distressed by the heat, and said to their leader: "We are absolutely perishing, for want of water. The smaller animals have bathing-places but we have none. What are we to do? Where are we to go?"
25. When the king saw him coming he said, "Pray who are you, and what do you want ?"
The Rabbit said, "I am an ambassador from His Majesty Chandra - the Moon." The
Elephant King replied, "Declare your errand."
26. A young Rajah once said to his Vizier, "How is it that I am so often ill? I take great care of myself; I never go out in the rain; I wear warm clothes; I eat good food. Yet I am always catching cold or getting fever."
27. "My sons," said he, "a great treasure lies hidden in the estate I am about to leave you." "Where is it hid?" said the sons. "I am about to leave you." said the old man, "but you must dig for it."
28. "How very well you speak French!" Lady Grizzel said. "I ought to know it," Becky modestly said. "I taught it in a school, and my mother was a Frenchwoman."
29. "What are you going to do with the tinder-box?" asked the soldier. "That's no business of yours," said the witch; "You've got your money; give me my tinder-box."

30. "My name is Noman," said Ulysses, "my kinsmen and friends in my own country call me Noman." "Then," said the Cyclops, "this is the kindness I will show thee, Noman; I will eat thee last of all thy friends."
31. "I am a dead man, Hardy," said Nelson; "I am going fast; it will be all over with me soon. Come nearer to me. Let my dear Lady Hamilton have my hair, and all other things belonging to me."
32. He said to the shoemaker: "You are a big blockhead; you have done the reverse of what I desired you. I told you to make one of the shoes larger than the other, and, instead of that, you have made one of them smaller than the other."
A work from S, CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 66
33. “I can extend no other mercy to you,” said the Raja, “except permitting you to choose what kind of death you wish to die. Decide immediately, for the sentence must be carried out.” “I admire your kindness, noble Prince,” said the jester, “I choose to die of old age.”
34. Her mother said, "You must go straight to your grandmother's cottage and not loiter on the way. There is a wolf in the wood through which you are going; but if you keep to the road he won't do you any harm/Now, will you be a good girl and do as I tell you ?"
35. Next morning at breakfast his wife said to him, "George, I think I can tell what is amiss with our clock." "Well, what is it?" he sharply asked. "It wants winding up," said his partner.
36. A fawn one day said to her mother, "Mother, you are bigger than a dog, and swifter and better winded, and you have horns to defend yourself; how is it that you are so afraid of the hounds?" She smiled and said, "All this, my child, I know fully well; but no sooner do I hear a dog bark, than, somehow or other, my heels take me off as fast as they can carry me."
37. Said a young mole to her mother, "Mother, I can see." So her mother put a lump of frank incense before her, and asked her what it was. "A stone," said the young one. "O my child !" said the mother, "not only do you not see, but you cannot even smell."
38. "What are you doing, good old woman ?" said the princess. "I'm spinning, my pretty child." "Ah, how charming ! Let me try if I can spin also."
39. "You say," said the judge, "that the bag you lost contained one hundred and ten pounds." "Yes, your honour," replied the miser. "Then as this one contains one hundred pounds it cannot be yours."
40. He answered slowly, "Alas ! my dear son, why do you ask the one thing I cannot grant you ? Your hands are too weak to rein those fiery beasts ; you do not know the path.
Come, ask something else, anything but that,"
41. The speaker said, "I entirely object to the proposal. I object to it as founded on a wrong principle, and I object to it as highly inconvenient at this time. Have you considered all that this proposal involves ? Gentlemen, I entreat you to be cautious."
42. Kausalya said to Rama, "Do not desire, O my child, to possess the moon, because it is thousands of miles off, and it is not a plaything for children and no child ever got it. If you wish I will bring some jewels that are brighter than the moon, and you can play with them." 43. The hen bird was just about to lay, and she said to her mate: "Cannot you find me some place convenient for laying my eggs?" "And is not this," he replied, "a very good place for the purpose?" "No," she answered, "for it is continually overflowed by the tide."
"Am I, then, become so feeble," he exclaimed, "that the eggs laid in my house are to be carried away by the sea ?" The hen bird laughed and said, "There is some considerable difference between you and the sea."
44. A cat hearing that a hen was laid up sick in her nest, paid her a visit of condolence, and creeping up to her, said: "How are you, my dear friend ? What can I do for you ?
What are you in want of ? Only tell me. Is there anything in the world that I can bring you ? Keep up your spirits, and do not be alarmed." "Thank you," said the hen. "Do you be good enough to leave me, and I have no fear but I shall soon be well."

45. "Sweet child," he answered, "do not fret, for I can make you happier here than ever you could have been on the earth ; I will give you beautiful things to play with, which a queen would envy. Rubies and diamonds shall be your toys, and your plates shall be of solid gold. All the beautiful things you see, belong to me, for I am king of this rich underworld." But she only replied, "I was happy playing with the pebbles on the seashore, and I care only for the sparkle of the little waves on the shining sand. Here there are no flowers, no sun," and she wept a new.

Page 267


109. A Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person.
Often, by what is called the “Error of Proximity”, the verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it instead of with its proper subject. This should be avoided as shown in the following examples:The quality of the mangoes was not good.
The introduction of tea and coffee and such other beverages has not been without some effect. His knowledge of Indian vernaculars is far beyond the common.
The state of his affairs was such as to cause anxiety to his creditors.
If it were possible to get near when one of the volcanic eruptions takes place, we should see a grand sight.
The results of the recognition of this fact are seen in the gradual improvement of the diet of the poor.
110. Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and require a plural verb; as,
Gold and silver are precious metals.
Fire and water do not agree.
Knowledge and wisdom have oft-times no connection.
Are your father and mother at home?
In him were centred their love and their ambition.
He and I were playing.
But if the nouns suggest one idea to the mind, or refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular; as,
Time and tide waits for no man.
The horse and carriage is at the door.
Bread and butter is his only food.
Honour and glory is his reward.
The rise and fall of the tide is, due to lunar influence.
My friend and benefactor has come.
The novelist and poet is dead.
111. Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as, etc., are parenthetical. The verb should therefore be put in the singular; as,
• The house, with its contents, was insured.The Mayor, with his councillors, is to be present. •

The ship, with its crew, was lost.
Silver, as well as cotton, has fallen in price.
Sanskrit, as well as Arabic, was taught there.
Justice, as well as mercy, allows it.
The guidance, as well as the love of a mother, was wanting.

112. Two or more singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb; as.

Page 268
No nook or corner was left unexplored.
Our happiness or our sorrow is largely due to our own actions.
Either the cat or the dog has been here.
Neither food nor water was to be found there.
Neither praise nor blame seems to affect him.
But when one of the subjects joined by or or nor is plural, the verb must be plural, and the plural subject should be placed nearest the verb ; as,
Neither the Chairman nor the directors are present.
113. When the subjects joined by or or nor are of different persons, the verb agrees with the nearer; as,
Either he or I am mistaken.
Either you or he is mistaken.
Neither you nor he is to blame.
Neither my friend not I am to blame.
But it is better to avoid these constructions, and to write:He is mistaken, or else I am.
You are mistaken, or else he is.
He is not to blame, nor are you.
My friend is not to blame, nor am I.
114. Either, neither, each, everyone, many a, must be followed by a singular verb; as,
He asked me whether either of the applicants was suitable.
Neither of the two men was very strong.
Each of these substances is found in India.
Every one of the prisons is full.
Every one of the boys loves to ride.
Many a man has done so.
Many a man does not know his own good deeds.
Many a man has succumbed to this temptation.
115. Two nouns qualified by each or every, even though connected by and, require a singular verb; as,
Every boy and every girl was given a packet of sweets.
116. Some nouns which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, take a singular verb ; as, The news is true.
Politics was with him the business of his life.
The wages of sin is death.

Mathematics is a branch of study in every school.
117. Pains and means take either the singular or the plural verb, but the construction must be consistent; as,
Great pains have been taken.
Much pains has been taken.
All possible means have been tried.
The means employed by you is sufficient.
In the sense of income, the word means always takes a plural verb; as,
My means were much reduced owing to that heavy loss.
His means are ample.

118. Some nouns which are singular in form, but plural in meaning take a plural verb; as,
According to the present market rate twelve dozen cost one hundred rupees.
119. None, though properly singular, commonly takes a plural verb (see § 132); as,
None are so deaf as those who wilt not hear.
Cows are amongst the gentlest of breathing creatures; none show more passionate tenderness to their young.
120. A Collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as one whole; plural verb when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of ; as,
The Committee has issued its report.
The Committee are divided on one minor point.
But we must be consistent. Thus, we should say :
The Committee has appended a note to its (not their) report.
121. When the plural noun is a proper name for some single object or some collective unit, it must be followed by a singular verb; as,
• The Arabian Nights is still a great favourite.
• The United States has a big navy.
• Plutarch's Lives is an interesting book.
• Gulliver's Travels was written by Swift.
122. When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular; as,
Fifteen minutes is allowed to each speaker.
Ten kilometers is a long walk.
Fifty thousand rupees is a large sum.
Three parts of the business is left for me to do.

Exercise 110
In each of the following sentences supply a Verb in agreement with its Subject :1. To take pay and then not to do work --- dishonest.
2. The cost of all these articles --- risen.
3. The jury --- divided in their opinions.
4. That night every one of the boat's crew --- down with fever.
5. One or the other of those fellows --- stolen the watch.
6. The strain of ail the difficulties and vexations and anxieties --- more than he could bear. 7. No news --- good news.
8. The accountant and the cashier --- absconded.
9. A good man and useful citizen --- passed away.
10. The famous juggler and conjurer --- too unwell to perform.
11. The Three Musketeers --- written by Dumas.

12. Each of the suspected men --- arrested.
13. The ebb and flow of the tides --- explained by Newton.
14. Ninety rupees --- too much for this bag.
15. The cow as well as the horse --- grass.
16. Neither his father nor his mother --- alive.

Page 270
17. There --- many objections to the plan.
18. Two-thirds of the city --- in ruins.
19. The formation of paragraphs --- very important.
20. Man's happiness or misery --- in a great measure in his own hands.

123. Words like book, table, flower and apple are “countable nouns”: they are things that can be counted. Such nouns can have' plural forms and are used with a/an.
Words like ink, milk, gold and wisdom are “uncountable nouns”: they are things that cannot be counted. Normally uncountable nouns do not have plural forms and cannot be used with a/an.
Note that the following nouns are usually uncountable in English: advice, news, information, furniture, luggage, work, business, weather, traffic, scenery, paper (= writing material), bread. Most of these are countable in Indian languages and therefore Indian students often wrongly use them with a/an and in the plural.
Wrong: -- He gave me an advice.
Right: -- He gave me some advice (or: a piece of advice).
Wrong: -- The sceneries here are very good.
Right: -- The scenery here is very good.
If you are thinking of one separate item or unit of an uncountable thing, you may say a piece of/a bottle of, etc. a piece of advice, a piece of work, a piece/bar of soap, a bottle of milk
124. The use of the Possessive (or Genitive) Case should be confined to the following :(1) Names of living beings and personified objects; as,
The Governor's bodyguards; the lion's mane; Nature's laws; Fortune's favourite.
(2) A few stereotyped phrases; as,
For conscience' sake, for goodness' sake, at his fingers' ends, out of arm's way, the boat's crew. (3) Nouns of space or time denoting an amount of something; as,
A day's work, a hand's breadth, in a year's time.
125. When two nouns in the possessive case are in apposition the apostrophe with s is added to the last only; as,
This is my uncle, the engineer's office.
My brother Harry's watch.

For thy servant David's sake.
125A. When one noun is qualified by two possessive nouns both must have the possessive sign, unless joint possession is indicated.
The King and Queen's journey to India.
Huntley and Palmer's biscuits.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 271
126. Grammarians formerly recommended that the complement of the verb to be, when it is expressed by a pronoun, should be in the nominative case. Today the use of the nominative form is considered extremely formal and over-correct. We usually use the objective form.
It is me. (Rare: It is I.)
It was him.
127. The Object of a verb or of a preposition, when it is a Pronoun, should be in the
Objective form; as,
Between you and me (not I) affairs look dark.
There is really no difference between you and me.
Let you and me (not I) do it.
Please let Jack and me go to the theatre.
Her (not she), who had been the apple of his eye, he now began to regard with something like distrust.
Him (not he), who had always inspired in her a respect which almost overcame her affection, she now saw the object of open pleasantry.
He has given great trouble to my father and me (not I).
128. A pronoun directly after than or as is usually in the objective case unless there is a verb after it. If a verb follows it, the nominative form is used.
He is taller than me.
Or: He is taller than I am. (More formal)
I swim better than him. Or: I swim better that he does. (More formal)
I am as tall as her.
Or; I am as tall as she is. (More formal)
The nominative form without a verb after it (e.g. 'He is taller than I') is old-fashioned.
129. A Pronoun must agree with its Antecedent in person, number and gender.
All passengers must show their tickets.
Every man must bear his own burden.
Each of the girls gave her own version of the affair.
I am not one of those who believe everything they (not I) hear.
130. In referring to anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each, etc., the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context; as,
I shall be glad to help everyone of my boys in his studies.
What pronoun should be used to refer back to anybody, everyone, each, etc. when the sex is not determined? Some grammarians recommend that the pronoun of the masculine gender should be used, as there is no singular pronoun of the third person to represent both male and female, e.g.,
Anybody can do it if he tries.
Everyone ran as fast as he could.

In present-day English, anybody, everyone, etc. are often followed by a plural pronoun
(they/them/their) except in very formal speech or writing.

Page 272
Anybody can do it if they try.
Everyone ran as fast as they could.
Each of them had their share.
131. The indefinite pronoun one should be used throughout, if used at all.
One cannot be too careful about what one (not he) says.
One cannot be too careful of one's (not his) good name.
One does not like to have one's word doubted.
One must not boast of one's own success.
One must use one's best efforts if one wishes to succeed.
Cannot one do what one likes with one's own?
It is better to change the form of the sentence than to keep on repeating one.
132. None is construed in the singular or plural as the sense may require; as,
Did you buy any mangoes?
There were none in the market.
Have you brought me a letter?
There was none for you.
When the singular equally well expresses the sense, the plural is commonly used; as,
None of these words are now current.
None of his poems are well known.
None but fools have believed it.
133. Anyone should be used when more than two persons or things are spoken of; as,.
She was taller than anyone (not either) of her five sisters.
134. Each, either, and neither are distributive pronouns calling attention to the individuals forming a collection, and must accordingly be followed by verbs in the singular.
Each of the scholars has (not have) done well.
Each of the men was (not were) paid Rs. 20.
Neither of them was invited to the party. Neither of the accusations is true.
Either of the roads leads to the railway station.
He asked whether either of the brothers was at home.
135. Be careful to use who (Nominative) and whom (Objective) correctly.
There's Mr. Dutt, who (not whom) they say is the best portrait painter in the town.
Who (not whom) they were I really cannot specify.
I was the man who (not whom) they thought was dead.
He was the man who (not whom) they determined should be the next mayor.
There are some who (not whom) I think are clever.
There are many who (not whom) we know quite well are honest.

One evening of each week was set apart by him for the reception of whosoever (not whomsoever) chose to visit him.
Who (not whom) did you say was there?
Who (not whom) do you think she is?
They were a people whom it was not advisable to excite.
The student, whom (not who) you thought so highly of, has failed to win the first prize.

Page 273
Whom do you wish to see?
Who (not whom) do you believe him to be?
Note that today whom is not usual except in formal English. Who replaces whom in spoken English.
Who did you meet?
Who are you going with?
This is the man who I talked about this morning.
As a relative pronoun who replaces whom only in defining clauses.
136. When the subject of a verb is a relative pronoun care should be taken to see that the verb agrees in number and person with the antecedent of the relative; as,
This is one of the most interesting novels that have (not has) appeared this year.
[The antecedent of that is novels, not one.]
He is one of the cleverest boys that have passed through the school.
One of the greatest judges that have ever lived laid this down as law.
It was one of the best speeches that have ever been made in the Parliament.
This is the only one of his poems that is (not are) worth reading.
[Here the antecedent of that is one. "Of his poems this is the only one that is worth reading."] 137. A definite word, as the antecedent of the relative pronoun which make the sentences easier to understand than is possible otherwise. Thus the sentence, "His foot slipped, which caused him to fall heavily," would be easier reading, and hence better, as ;
His foot slipped, and this caused him to fall heavily.
Similarly we should say :I went home for my umbrella, and this (rather than which) prevented me from being in time. I gave him a sovereign, and this left me penniless.
He fell heavily, and this caused him great pain.
138. And which, but which - The relative itself fulfils the purpose of a conjunction; hence no conjunction should be placed before it except to join together two relative clauses referring to the same antecedent; as,
He possessed a sandalwood table which was of excellent workmanship, and which had been in his family for generations.
But the following sentences are incorrect:He has a wardrobe of wonderful carving, and which has been in his family for generations. They wished me to drink with them, but which I declined.

Exercise 111
Fill in each blank with "who" or whom":1. I met a man today --- I had just heard was on the continent.
2. Any of you may take it; I don't care ---.
3. --- did you give that letter to?

Page 274
4. The man --- I thought was my friend deceived me.
5. There was no doubt as to --- the speaker meant.
6. The vacancy was filled by Mr. Rao --- the manager said ought to be promoted.
7. The vacancy was filled by Mr. Rao --- the manager thought worthy of promotion.
8. It is Sohrab I think is the better of the two at swimming.
9. Ali was the man they intended should be our captain next year.
10. --- do you think is the better of the two at tennis?
11. Enoch Arden, ---, his wife thought, had died many years before, suddenly reappeared.
12. The boy I trusted proved worthy of my confidence.
13. --- do you take me for?
14. --- are you speaking to?
15. --- do men declare me to be?
16. A boy --- I believed to be him just passed this way.
17. I --- am most concerned, was not consulted.
18. The man --- you wished to see is here.
19. Where is the boy about --- you were speaking?

Exercise 112
Correct the following sentences:1. Where are jour luggages?
2. What beautiful sceneries!
3. Can you give me an advice?
4. He has eaten two breads.
5. I have an important work to do.
6. What an awful weather!

Exercise 113
Tell which of the italicized forms is right, and give the reason:1. She is one of the best mothers that (has or have) ever lived.
2. You are not the first man that (has or have) been deceived by appearances.
3. One of his many good traits that (comes or come) to my mind was his modesty.
4. This is one of the things that (kills or kill) ambition.
5. Treasure Island is one of the best pirate stories that (was or were) ever written.
6. Ambition is one of those passions that (is or are ) never satisfied.
7. This is one of the songs that (was or were) most popular.
8. We lament the excessive delicacy of his ideas, which (prevents or prevent) one from grasping them.
9. Tyranny is one of those evils which (tends or tend) to perpetuate (itself or themselves).

Exercise 114
Fill in the blanks:1. All failed except ---. (he, him)
2. That is a matter between you and ---. (I, me)
3. Leave Nell and --- to toil alone. (I, me)

4. It is not --- who are to blame, (we, us)
5. You and --- are invited to tea this morning. (I, me)
6. Between you and ---, he drinks heavily. (I, me)
139. Sometimes a Pronoun is inserted where it is not required; as:
The applicant, being a householder, he is entitled to a vote. (Incorrect)

Page 275
Here the pronoun he is not required.
140. A noun or pronoun in the Possessive case should not be used as the antecedant to a relative pronoun; as,
Do not forget his enthusiasm who brought this movement so far. (Incorrect)
Change the construction to:Do not forget the enthusiasm of him who brought this movement so far. (Correct).
141. The relative pronoun is sometimes wrongly omitted when it is the Subject of the clause; as,
He has an impudence would carry him through anything. (Incorrect)
He has an impudence that would carry him through anything. (Correct)
142. When the antecedent is same, the consequent should be as or that.
That is the same man that (or as) we saw yesterday. I played with the same bat that you did. 143. Pronouns of the third person plural should not be used as antecedents to who and that; as,
They that are whole have no need of a physician. Here those is to be preferred to they.
144. Avoid the use of same as a substitute for the personal pronoun.
When you have examined these patterns please return them (not same) to us.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

145. The Adjective is correctly used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed; as,
The flowers smelt sweet (not sweetly).
She looks dainty.
That statement sounds queer.
It tastes sour.
He feels sad.
As a general rule, if any phrase denoting manner could be substituted, the adverb should be used; but if some part of the verb to be could be employed as a connective, the
Adjective is required.
The ship appeared suddenly.
The decision appears unjust.

Page 276
His friends now began to look coldly upon him.
He looks cold.
We feel warmly on the subject.
We feel warm.
He spoke angrily.
He looked angry.
146. The plural forms these and those are often used with the singular nouns kind and sort; as,
These kind of things.
Such a form of expression is, however, constanly heard and occurs in good writers.
Some grammarians insist that we should say:“This kind of things” or, better, “Things of this kind.”
147. The words, superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, and posterior, take to instead of than, as,
As a novelist Jane Austen is superior to Mrs. Henry Wood.
Hari is inferior to Rama in intelligence.
The death of King Edward VII was prior to World War I.
He is senior to me.
148. In comparing two things or classes of things the Comparative should be used ; as,
Of the two suggestions, the former is the better.
Of the two novels, this is the more interesting.
Which is the cheaper of the two?
He is the taller of the two.
This rule is, however, not strictly observed. In informal English the superlative is often used when we talk about one of only two items. We can use best, most interesting, cheapest and tallest in the sentences above.
149. When a comparison is instituted by means of a Comparative followed by than, the thing compared must be always excluded from the class of things with which it is compared, by using other or some such words; as,
He is stronger than any other man living.
[The sentence “He is stronger than any man living” suggests that the person referred to is stronger than himself, which is of course, absurd.]
Mussolini may be said to have done more for the unity of Italy than any other man.
The Nile is said to be longer than all other rivers in the eastern hemisphere.
The Taj is more beautiful than all other mausoleums. Solomon was wiser than all other men. 150. In a comparison by means of a Superlative, the latter term should include the former; as,
Solomon was the wisest of all men (not all other men. )
The crocodile is the largest of all reptiles.
The Amazon is the largest of all rivers.
Of all men he is the strongest.

Page 277
151. Of any is often used incorrectly in conjunction with a Superlative; as,
He has the lightest touch of any musician.
This should be rewritten as follows:He has a lighter touch than any other musician.
[Or] No other musician has so light a touch.
152. A very common form of error is exemplified in the following sentence:
The population of London is greater than any city in India.
The population of London is greater than that of any city in India.
The comparison is between:
(i) the population of London and
(ii) the population of any city in India.
153. Double Comparatives and Superlatives are to be avoided, though their use was once common in English. Thus, we have in ShakespeareIt was the most unkindest cut of all.
The following sentence is incorrect:
Seldom had the little town seen a more costlier funeral. [Omit more] But lesser (a double comparative) is used even by the best authors.
The lesser of the two evils.
154. Perferable has the force of a Comparative, and is followed by to. We must not say more preferable.
He has a scheme of his own which he thinks preferable to that of any other person.
155. Less (the comparative of little) is used before uncountable nouns, while-fewer (the comparative of few) is used before plural nouns.
However, less is also often used before plural nouns in informal English.
No fewer (or less) than fifty miners were killed in the explosion.
156. Certain adjectives do not really admit of comparison because their meaning is already superlative; as,
Unique, ideal, perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, full, squire, round
Do not therefore say:
Most unique, quite unique, chiefest, extremist, fullest, But we still say, for instance:
This is the most perfect specimen I have seen.
157. Older and oldest, may be said either of persons or of things, while elder and eldest apply to persons only, and are besides, strictly speaking, confined to members of the same family.
Gladstone was older than Morley.
He will succeed to the title in the event of the death of his elder brother.

Patricia is the eldest of the Vicar's family.
Old Farmer Giles is the oldest inhabitant in our village.

Page 278
158. The two first is a meaningless expression, for it implies that two things may be first.
We should say "the first two."
The first two chapters of the novel are rather dull. The first two boys were awarded gold medals. 159. Few and a few have different meanings.
Few is negative, and equivalent to not many, hardly any. A few is positive, and equivalent to some.
Few persons can keep a secret.
A few words spoken in earnest will convince him.
Similarly little = not much; a little = some, though not much.
There is little hope of his recovery.
A little tact would have saved the situation.
160. Latter is often wrongly used for last. Use latter when there are two only, last when there are more.
Of the three, tea, coffee and cocoa, the last (not latter) is his favourite.
161. Verbal is often wrongly used for oral.
Verbal means 'of or pertaining to words'; oral means, 'delivered by word of mouth' not written. Hence the opposite of written is oral, not verbal.
His written statement differs in several important respects from his oral (not verbal) statement. The lad was sent with an oral message to the doctor.
There are a few verbal differences in the two manuscripts (i.e., differences in words, not in sense).
The photograph will give the reader a far better notion of the structure than any verbal description. Were your instructions oral or written?
162. Do not say 'our mutual friend.' The proper expression is 'our common friend'.
They were introduced to each other by a common (not mutual) friend.
We happened to meet at the house of a common friend.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

163. The subject of the sentence should not be left without a verb.
The following sentence is incorrect:
He who has suffered most in the cause, let him speak.
Recast as shown below:

Let him who has suffered most in the cause speak.
[Or] He who has suffered most in the cause should speak.
164. A verb should agree with its subject, and not with the complement ; as,

Page 279
What is wanted is (not are) not large houses with modern conveniences, but small cottages. The details are a matter for future consideration.
Our followers are but a handful.
165. In a compound sentence a single verb can be made to do duty for two subjects, only when the form of the verb is such as to permit of it; as,
Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note [was heard].
But the following sentence is incorrect, because the subjects are not in the same number:
His diet was abstemious, his prayers long and fervent.
We should rewrite it as follows:
His diet was abstemious, his prayers were long and fervent.
[In a sentence like this, Mr. Fowler regards the ellipsis as permissible.]
166. Two auxiliaries can be used with one principal verb, only when the form of the principal verb is appropriate to both the auxiliaries; as,
I never have hurt anybody, and never will.
No state can or will adopt this drastic measure.
But the following sentence is incorrect:
He never has, and never will, take such strong measures.
Rewrite it as follows:
He never has taken, and never will take, such strong measures.
167. When there is only one auxiliary to two principal verbs, it should be such that it may be correctly associated with both; as,
Ten rioters have been sentenced, and five acquitted. But the following sentence is incorrect: Ten new members have been enrolled, and seven resigned.
Rewrite it as follows :
Ten new members have been enrolled and seven have resigned.
168. Carefully distinguish between the verbs lay and lie. The verb lay is transitive and is always followed by an object; the verb lie is intransitive and cannot have an object.
Lay, laid, laid.
Lay the child down to sleep.
I laid the book on the table.
The hen has laid an egg.
Lie, lay, lain Let me lie here.
He lay under that pipal-tree.

169. An Infinitive should be in the present tense unless it represents action prior to that of the governing verb; as,
I should have liked to go (not to have gone).
But we correctly say :He seems to have enjoyed his stay at Mahabaleshwar.

Page 280
170. A common blunder is to leave the Participle without proper agreement or with no agreement at all ; as,
Sitting on the gate, a scorpion stung him.
Here the word "scorpion" to which the participle "sitting" refers grammatically is not that with which it is meant to be connected in sense ; in other words, the Participle is left without proper agreement.
We should therefore recast it as shown below :Sitting on the gate, he was stung by a scorpion.
[Or] While he was sitting on the gate, a scorpion stung him.
Now read the following sentence where the Participle is left with no agreement at all:
Being a very hot day, I remained in my tent.
Here the sentence contains no word to which the Participle can possibly refer. We should therefore write :As it was a very hot day, I remained in my tent.
171. Usage, however, permits in certain cases constructions like the following:Considering his abilities, he should have done better.
Roughly speaking, the distance from here to the nearest railway station is two miles.
Taking everything into consideration, his lot is a happy one.
It will be noticed that in each sentence the unexpressed subject is indefinite. Thus:Taking everything into consideration if one should take everything into consideration.
172. A present participle should not be used to express an action which is not contemporaneous with the action of the principal verb.
The following sentence is therefore .incorrect;
He sailed for New York on Monday, arriving there on Saturday.
Rewrite it as follows:He sailed for New York on Monday, and arrived there on Saturday.
173. The Subjunctive Mood is sometimes wrongly used for the Indicative. When the statement introduced by if or though is an actual fact, or what is assumed as a fact, the proper Mood to be used is the Indicative and not the Subjunctive.
Though the war is over, there is much discontent.
If he was there, he must have heard the talk.
But the Subjunctive is correctly used in the following sentences:Mere supposition -- If I were you [but I am not ], I should agree.
If he were here, he would support me.
Though he were the Prime Minister, I would say the same.

A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Page 281
174. The verb make is followed by noun/pronoun + plain infinitive (= infinitive without to). Many students wrongly use it with the to infinitive.
She made the boy do the whole work, (not: to do the whole work.)
175. When used in the passive, make is followed by the to-infinitive:
The boy was made to do the whole work,
176. The following verbs are often wrongly used with the to infinitive: enjoy, avoid, miss, postpone, suggest. They should be used with the gerund.
• He enjoys swimming, (not: to swim)
• She avoids meeting people, (not: to avoid)
• We missed seeing the Prime Minister, (not: to see)
Note the following:1. Wrong: -- Suresh told to me about it.
Right: -- Suresh told me about it.
The verb tell is followed by an indirect object (me, him, her, etc.) without to.
2. Wrong: -- She told (that) she wouldn't come.
Right: -- She told me (that) she wouldn't come./She said she wouldn't come.
When used with a that-clause, tell takes an indirect object, while say does not.
3. Wrong: -- I want that you should meet him.
Right: -- I want you to meet him.
The verb want should not be used with a that-clause. It is used with the to-infinitive.
4. Wrong: -- I suggest you to apply for the post.
Right: -- I suggest that you (should) apply for the post.
The verb suggest should be used with a that-clause. It cannot be used with the toinfinitive.
177. The verbs discuss, describe, order and request are transitive verbs. Students often wrongly use these verbs with a preposition.
Wrong: -- We discussed about the matter yesterday.
Right: -- We discussed the matter yesterday.
Wrong: -- He described about the scenery.
Right: -- He described the scenery.
Wrong: -- I have ordered for three cups of coffee.
Right: -- I have ordered three cups of coffee.
Wrong: -- She requested for my help.
Right: -- She requested my help.

Exercise 115
Recast the following sentences:1. Being condemned to death, the scaffold was erected for his execution.
2. Born in Surat, a part of his education was received in Mumbai.
3. Observing the house on fire, the engines were sent for.
4. Being a wet day, I wore my makintosh.

Page 282
5 Having gone to bed very late, the sun woke me at about nine o'clock.
6. Referring to your esteemed inquiry, the prices of the articles are as follows.
7. Standing on the top of the hill, the eye roams over the beautiful landscape.
8. Having failed in the first attempt, no further attempts were made.
9. Bearing this in mind, no particular difficulty will be found.
10. Travelling from Karjat to Khandala, the line is most beautifully laid.
11. Being his sole companion, he naturally addressed himself to me.
12. Crossing the channel, a heavy storm arose.
13. Hoping to hear from you soon, yours sincerely.
14. Calling upon him yesterday, he subscribed a handsome sum to the Famine Relief Fun.
15. Going up the hill, an old temple was seen.
16. Resting in cool shelter, the hours were beguiled with desultory talk.
17. Having obtained information, he was arrested for complicity in the plot.
18. Weary with travelling, the destination seemed a hundred miles away.
19. Meeting my friend in the park, he told me all the news.
20. Entering the room, the light was quite dazzling.
For a detailed treatment of the uses of the Tenses and Auxiliaries, see chapters 25, 26 and
32, Book 1.

178. Adverbs should be so placed in a sentence as to make it quite clear which word or words they are intended to modify. Hence Adverbs should come, if possible, next to the word or words they modify.
He had got almost to the top when the rope broke.
179. As a general rule, only should be placed immediately before the word it is intended to modify; as,
I worked only two sums.
Only Balu succeeded in scoring a century.
I praise him only when he deserves it.
In spoken English, however, it is usually put before the verb. The required meaning is obtained by stressing the word which the only modifies ; e.g.,
He only worked two sums.
180. The adverbs ever, never, scarcely, ever are often misplaced, as in the following sentence :
Quite the most remarkable article we ever remember to have read.
[Say : we remember ever ….]

181. Two negatives destroy each other. Hence" two negatives should not be used in the same sentence unless we wish to make an affirmation. We should say:
I haven't got any (not none ).
I could not find it anywhere (not nowhere).
I have not got any (not no ) paper for my exercise.
I can't see any (not no ) wit in her.
Scarcely any one believes in such ghost stories nowadays.
(Not, No one scarcely believe ….)

Page 283.
182. Adjectives should not be used for Adverbs. We should say, for instance:He ate the sweets greedily (not greedy).
He will pay dearly (not dear) for his mistake.
183. Ever is sometimes misused for never.
We seldom or never (not ever) see those forsaken who trust in God. Such goods are made for export, and are seldom or never (not ever) used in the country.
Note:- Seldom or never and seldom if ever are both correct but seldom or ever is incorrect. 184. Else should be followed by but.
It is nothing else but (not than) pride.
185. The use of never for not is incorrect.
We met the other day, but he never referred to the matter. [Say :- he did not ever refer....]
Kipling was never born in London. [Say :- Kipling was not born ….]
I never remember having met him. [Say:- I do not remember ever having met him.]
186. Except colloquially, so as an adverb of degree must not be used absolutely (i.e.,. without a correlative.) We should say:He is very (not so ) weak.
Cricket is very (not so ) uncertain. I was very (not so ) lonely.
187. That should not be used instead of so as an adverb. We should say :He went only so (not that) far.
He was so (not that) tired that he could scarcely stand.
He was so (not that) angry that he slammed the book on the table.
188. The adverb too means “more than enough” and should not be used instead of very or much. In the following sentences too is used correctly :The news is too good to be true.
My heart is too full for words.
The work is too much for any man to do single-handed.
He is too much exhausted to speak.
189. Of course is often loosely used for certainly, undoubtedly. Strictly speaking, of course should1 be used to denote a natural or an inevitable consequence.
Does she sing well? Certainly (not of course) she does.

Exercise 116
Correct the following sentences and state your reasons for so doing:1. It was bitter cold.
2. I couldn't help not laughing at the joke.

3. I never remember to have seen a more excited football match.

Page 284
4. This novel is too interesting.
5. I haven't got any money.
6. My friend said he never remembered having read a more enjoyable book.
7. This hardly won liberty was not to be lightly abandoned.
8. I am much glad to see you.
9. No one can write as neat as he does.
10. I cannot by no means allow you to do so.
11. The flowers smell sweetly.
12. I don't know nothing whatever of the matter.

190. Except is not now used as a conjunction equivalent to unless.
I shall not come unless (not except) you need me.
Do not trouble yourself about writing to me, unless (not except) you are quite in the humour for it.
191. The use of without as conjunction equivalent to unless is now bad English.
Unless (not without) you apologize I shall punish you. I shall not go unless (not without) you do.
192. The adverb like is often wrongly used as a conjunction instead of as.
He speaks as (not tike) his father does.
But it is quite correct to say:
He speaks like his father. [Like is here a preposition.]
193. Directly should not be used as a conjunction where as soon as would in every way be better.
As soon as [not directly] the session of 1999 commenced, the Government was pressed to do something for the unemployed.
According to Fowler, “the conjunctional use of directly is quite defensible, but is chiefly colloquial.” 194. The conjunction that is sometimes redundantly repeated; as,
He must remember that, although the first people in Europe would like his society, and place him on an equality with themselves, [that] none of them would either give or lend him a farthing.
195. Instead of repeating the conjunction used in the preceding clause, some writers have a trick of introducing a subsequent clause by that; as,

If I do not speak of them it is because they do not come within my subject, and not that they are lightly esteemed by me. [Use because instead of that.]
196. Scarcely should be followed by when, and not by than.
Scarcely had he gone, when (not than) a policeman knocked at the door.
197. No sooner is followed by than, and not by but.
No sooner had he returned than (not but) he was off again.

Page 285
198. The phrase “seldom or ever” is meaningless. We should say “seldom or never”
Such goods are made for export, and are seldom or never used in this country.
199. Say:
I gave no more than I could not help (not than I could help).
200. Examine the following sentence:This is as good if not better than that.
You will notice that as is omitted after “as good”.
It is better to say:
This is as good as, if not better than, that.
But the best way to correct the sentence is to recast it, thus:
This is as good as that, if not better.
201. Care should be taken, when using correlative conjunctions, such as either.....or, neither.....nor, not only....but also, that they are followed by the same part of speech ; as,
He lost not only his ticket, but also his luggage.
But the following is incorrect:
He not only lost his ticket, but also his luggage.
202. Neither is followed by nor, not by or.
He washed neither his hands nor (not or) his face.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

203. In English, owing to the fewness of the inflexions, the order (or arrangement) of the words in a sentence is of the first importance.
The following is the usual order of words in an English sentence:(1) The subject usually comes before the verb; as,
The dog bit the horse.
The people rang the bell for joy.
(2) The object usually comes after the verb; as,
The horse bit the dog.
The King wears a crown.

(3) When there is an indirect object and also a direct object, the indirect precedes the direct; as,
Lend me your ears.
(4) When the adjective is used attributively it comes before the noun which it qualifies; as, Few cats Hike cold water.
I like the little pedlar who has a crooked nose.
King Francis was a hearty king, and loved a royal sport.

Page 286
(5) When the adjective is used predicatively it comes after the noun; as,
The child is asleep.
The horse became restive.
(6) The adjective phrase comes immediately after the noun; as,
Old Tubal Cain was a man of might.
The tops of the mountains were covered with snow.
(7) The adverb is generally placed close to the word which it modifies; as,
Nothing ever happens by chance.
John is a rather lazy boy.
He worked only two sums.
He never tells a lie.
Note:- When an adverb is intended to modify the sentence as a whole, it is placed at the beginning of a sentence; as,
Certainly he made a fool of himself.
(8) All qualifying clauses are placed as close as possible to the words which they qualify; as, He died in the village where he was born.
The dog that bites does not bark.
People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
204. The normal order of words in a sentence is sometimes altered for emphasis; as,
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
Monkeys I detest.
Money you shall have.
Blessed are the merciful.
Great is Diana of the Ephesians.
Great is the struggle, and great is also the prize.
Just and true are all Thy ways.
Fallen, fallen is Babylon! .
Silver and gold have I none, but such as I have give I unto thee.
205. Owing to faulty arrangement of words a sentence may be turned into perfect nonsense; as,
Few people learn anything that is worth learning easily.
He blew out his brains, after bidding his. wife goodbye with a gun.
A gentleman has a dog to sell who wishes to go abroad.
It is, therefore, essential that all qualifying words, phrases and clauses should be placed as near as possible to the words to which they refer.

Exercise 117
Rewrite the following sentences, improving the arrangement:1. For sale, piano, the property of a musician, with carved legs.
2. He tore up the tender letter which his mother had written him in a fit of peevish vexation. 3. The captain took the things which the gods provided with thankful good humour.
4. Sometimes you will see an alligator lying in the sunshine on the bank eight feet long.

Page 287
5. All the courtiers told the Queen how beautiful she was all the day long.
6. Mrs. Jeremy Daud was sitting with her husband on the steps of the hotel when Amy and Dulce came up, with her lap full of newspapers.
7. The man ought to be brought before a magistrate who utters such threats.
8. He visited the battlefield where Napoleon was defeated in his holidays.
9. He killed the sparrow which was eating some crumbs with a gun.
10. No magnanimous victor would treat those whom the fortune of war had put in his power so cruelly.
11. The constable said that the prisoner seizing a bolster full of rage and fury had knocked the prosecutor down.
12. A nurse maid is wanted for a baby about twenty years old.
13. I spent the three last days of my holiday in a chair with a swollen leg.
14. This monument has been erected to the memory of John Brown who was accidentally shot by his brother as a mark of affection.
15. In thirty-seven wrecks only five lives were fortunately lost.
16. The following verses were written by a young man who has long since been dead for his own amusement.
17. Many works must close if the strike lasts over the weekend owing to lack of fuel.
18. There will be a meeting of all boys who play cricket and football in the long room at
4 o’clock.

Exercise 118
Rewrite the following sentences improving the arrangement;1. These acts were pushed through Parliament in spite of opposition with but little modification. 2. The beaux of that day painted their faces as well as the women.
3. He saw countless number of the dead riding across the field of battle.
4. They only work when they have no money.
5. He refused to relieve the beggar with a frown on his face.
6. His body was found floating lifeless on the water at a short distance from where the boat was upset by a fisherman.
7. He was very fond of her; he thought of marrying her more than once.
8. It is proposed to construct a bath for males 99 feet long.
9. One day the bird did not perform certain tricks which had thought it to his satisfaction.
10. I have lately received permission to print the following tale from the author's son.
11. They left the hotel where they had been staying in a motor-car.
12. The Board of Education has resolved to erect a building large enough to accommodate 500 students three storeys high.
13. He spoke of the notion that the national debt might be repudiated with absolute contempt. 14. One of the combatants was unhurt, and the other sustained a wound in the arm of no importance.
15. Girl wanted for telephone of nice manners and appearance.
16. He repeated the whole poem after he had read it only once with perfect accuracy.

17. He was shot by a secretary under notice to quit with whom he was finding fault very fortunately without effect.
18. A clever judge would see whether a witness was deliberately lying a great deal better than a stupid jury.
19. I was rather impressed by the manner of the orator than by his matter.
20. He was driving away from the church where he had been married in a coach and six.
21. Stories have been related of these animals which are of an entirely fictitious

Page 288

206. Idioms may be defined as expressions peculiar to a language.
They play an important part in all languages.
207. Many verbs, when followed by various prepositions, or ad verbs, acquire an idiomatic sense; as,
He backed up (supported) his friend's claim.
The present disturbances will soon blow over (pass off)
The police produced evidence to bear out (substantiate) the charge of murder.
You must not build your hopes upon (rely upon) his promises.
The matter has been cleared up (explained).
I readily closed with (accepted) his offer.
He is ready to dispose off (sell) his car for Rs. 1,20,000.
Rust has eaten away (corroded) the plate.
They fixed upon (chose) him to do the work.
My good behaviour so far gained on (won the favour of) the emperor that I began to conceive hopes of liberty.
The habit of chewing tobacco has been growing upon (is having stronger and stronger hold over) him.
Please hear me out (i.e., hear me to the end).
I have hit upon (found) a good plan to get rid of him.
About an hour ago I saw a fellow hanging about (loitering about) our bungalow.
These events led up to (culminated in) the establishment of a republic.
During excavations one of the workmen lighted upon (chanced to find, discovered) a gold idol. During her long illness she often longed for (desired) death.
I could not pervail on (persuade, induce) him to attend the meeting.
For years I could not shake off (get rid of) my malaria.
I threatened to show him up (expose him).
All eyes turned to him because he was the only person who could stave off (prevent, avert) the impending war.
He is sticking out for (persists in demanding) better terms.
I must think the matter over (i.e., consider it.)
Train up (educate) a child in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not depart from it.
That fellow trumped up (concocted, fabricated) a story.
He seems to be well off (in comfortable circumstances).
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Satish bore away (won) many prizes at the school sports.
The new leader has been able to bear down (overthrow, crush) all opposition.
His evidence bears out (confirms, corroborates) the evidence of the first witness.
In his misfortune God gave him strength to bear up (to keep up spirits, not to despair).
A religious hope bears up (supports) a man in his trials.
His evidence did not bear upon (was not relevant to) the inquiry.
I trust you will bear with (have patience with, show forbearance to) me a few minutes more. 289

He broke down (failed) in the middle of his speech.
He broke off (stopped suddenly) in the middle of his story.
I gave him no cause to break with (quarrel with) me.
The burglars broke into (entered by force) the house.


His folly has brought about (caused) his ruin.
Idleness and luxury bring forth (produce, cause) poverty and want.
He brought forward (adduced) several cogent arguments in support of his scheme.
That building brings in (yields as rent) Rs. 7000 a month.
Our teacher often tells us a story to bring out (show) the meaning of a lesson.
The publishers have recently brought out (published) a cheap edition of their new dictionary. He found great difficulty in bringing her round (converting her) to his views.
She brought up (reared) the orphan as her own child.

His master called for (demanded) an explanation of his conduct.
New responsibilities often call out (draw forth) virtues and abilities unsuspected before.
Call in (summon, send for) a doctor immediately.
He called on me (paid me a brief visit) yesterday.
The old man could not call up (recollect) past events.

He agreed to carry out (execute) my orders.
His passion carried him away (i.e., deprived him of self-control).
His son carried on (managed) his business in his absence.
Many persons were carried off (killed) by plague.

The ship was cast away (wrecked) on the coast of Africa.
He was much cast down (depressed) by his loss.

How did these things come about (happen)?
How did you come by (get) his purse?
When does the Convocation come off (take place)?
At last the truth has come out (transpired).
The taxes come to (amount to) a large sum.
The question came up (was mooted or raised for discussion) before the Municipal
Corporation last week.

I expect he will come round (recover) within a week.
I hope he will come round (agree) to our views.

Men of dissolute lives cry down (depreciate) religion, because they would not be under the restraints of it.
He cried out against (protested against) such injustice.
The young author is cried up (extolled) by his friend.

Page 290

He was cut off (died) in the prime of life.
You must cut down (reduce) your expenditure.
He is cut out for (specially fitted to be) a sailor.
His wife's death cut him up (afflicted him, distressed him) terribly.

I am done for (ruined).
Having walked twenty miles, he is quite done up (fatigued, exhausted).

At last the rioters fell back (retreated, yielded).
At my friend's tea-party I fell in with (met accidentally) a strange fellow.
The measure falls in with (happens to meet) the popular demand.
The scheme has fallen through (failed) for want of support.
I am told the two brothers have fallen out (quarrelled).
It is said that the standard of efficiency in public service has recently fallen off
In the second school-term the attendance fell off (diminished).


His friends expected that he would get off (escape) with a fine.
It is hard to get on with (agree or live sociably with) a suspicious man.
The thief got away (escaped) with my cash-box.
I can't get out (remove) this stain.
The revolt of the tribal chiefs has been got under (subdued).
The dog tried to get at (attack) me.
He has got through (passed) his examination.
They soon got the fire under (under control) by pouring buckets of water over it.
You were lucky to get out of (escape from) his clutches.

We are credibly informed that the murderer has given himself up (surrendered himself) to the police.
The doctors have given him up (i.e., have no hope of his recovery).
Soon after it was given forth (published, noised abroad), and believed by many, that the
King was dead.
The fire gave off (emitted) a dense smoke.
The strikers seem determined, and are not likely to give in (submit, yield).
It was given out (published, proclaimed) that he was a bankrupt.
The horses gave out (were exhausted) at the next milestone.
The rope gave way (broke, snapped) while the workmen were hauling up the iron pillar.
He would not listen to me at first, but at last he gave way (yielded.) .

The Governor gave away (distributed, presented) the prizes.
Give over (abandon) this foolish attempt.
In his cross-examination, he ultimately gave himself away (betrayed himself).

You cannot always go by (judge from) appearances.
It is a good rule to go by (to be guided by).

Page 291
He promised to go into (examine, investigate) the matter.
Have you anything to go upon (i.e., any foundation for your statement)?
We have no data to go upon (on which to base our conclusions).
The story won't go down (be believed).
The concert went off well (was a success).
The auditor went over (examined) the balance sheet.
The poor woman has gone through (suffered) much.
I must first go through (examine) the accounts.

The rebels held out (offered resistance) for about a month.
He holds out (gives) no promise of future prospects.
They were held up (stopped on the highway and robbed) by bandits.
The subject is held over (deferred, postponed) till next meeting.

A few boys were kept in (confined after school-hours).
I was kept in (confined to the house) by a bad cold.
They kept up (carried on) a long conversation.
Little disputes and quarrels are chiefly kept up (maintained) by those who have nothing else to do.
He is trying his best to keep up (maintain) the reputation of his family.
The rubber syndicate keeps up (maintains) the price.
She kept on (continued) talking.
I shall keep back (conceal) nothing from you.

He has knocked about (wandered about) the world a great deal.
The dressing-table was knocked down (sold at an auction) for Rs. 900.
We were greatly knocked up (exhausted) after our steep climb.

The rebels laid down (surrendered) their arms.
He had laid out (invested) a large sum in railway shares.
Foolish people, who do not lay out (spend) their money carefully, soon come, to grief.
He is laid up (confined to his bed) with fever.
He resolved to lay by (save for future needs) a part of his income.

I was let into (made acquainted with) her secret.
This being his first offence he was let off (punished leniently) with a fine.

His uncle looks after (takes care of) him.
He looks down upon (despises) his poor cousins.
Look up (search for) the word in the dictionary.
The old man is looking forward to (expecting with pleasure) the visit of his grandchildren. I will look into (investigate) the matter.
I look on (regard) him as my son.
Some look to (rely on) legislation to hasten the progress of social reforms.
Look to (be careful about) your manners.
Prices of piece-goods are looking up (rising).

Page 292
His friends look up to (respect) him.
He will not look at (i.e., will reject) your offer.

Contentment makes for (conduces to) happiness.
He made over (presented, gave in charity) his bungalow to the Islam Orphanage.
I cannot make out (discover) the meaning of this verse.
I cannot make out (read, decipher) his handwriting.
You have failed to make out (prove) your case.
Some time ago the two brothers quarrelled, but they have now made it up (become reconciled). Pass
He generally passed by (overlooked) the faults of his subordinates.
The crew of the boat passed through (underwent) terrible sufferings.
He passed himself off as (pretended to be) a nobleman.
He passes for (is regarded as) a great Pundit.


The Committee picked out (selected) the best players for the team.
He lost twenty pounds in sickness, but is now picking up (regaining or recovering health). Pull
Unless we pull together (co-operate, work together in harmony) we cannot succeed.
My cousin pulled through (passed with difficulty) the examination.
The doctor says the patient will pull through (recover from his illness).
It is far easier to pull down (demolish) than to build up.
He was pulled up (scolded, rebuked) by the President

He puts on (assumes) an air of dignity.
Please put out (extinguish) the light.
He was put out (vexed, annoyed) when I refused his request for a loan.
The plaintiff was put out (disconcerted) when the suit was dismissed.
He tried to put me off (evade me, satisfy me) with promises.
He has put in (made, sent in) a claim for compensation.
While travelling I had to put up with (endure) a good deal of discomfort.
I cannot put up with (tolerate) his insolence.
They put him up to (incited him to) mischief.
I am sorry to put you to (give you) so much trouble.
He put off (postponed) his departure for a week.
The measure was put through (passed) without opposition.

On account of overwork he is run down (enfeebled).
He always runs down (disparages) his rivals.
The lease of our premises has run out (expired, come to an end).
He has run through (squandered away) his fortune.
The tailor's bill has run up to (amounted to) a large amount.
He has run into (incurred) debt.

Page 293
Recently my expenses have run up (increased) considerably.
The cistern is running over (overflowing).

I saw through (detected) the trick.
It is hard to see into (discern) his motive.
His friends were present at the station to see him off (witness his departure) .

The High Court set aside (annulled) the decree of the lower court.
He immediately set about (took steps towards) organizing the department.
He set off (started) for Peshawar early this morning.
The frame sets off the picture (i.e., enhances its beauty by contrast).
He has set up (started business) as a banker.
I have enough capital to set me up (establish myself) in trade.
He hired a palatial bungalow and set up for (pretended to be) a millionaire.
I was obliged to set him down (snub him).
You may set down (charge) his loss to me.
Who set you on (instigated you) to do it?
These seats are set apart (reserved) for ladies.
In his speech on prohibition, he set forth (explained, made known) his views at length.
The robbers set upon (attacked) the defenceless travellers.
Winter in England sets in (begins) about December.

In Mumbai there is no free library to speak of (worth mentioning).
I was determined to speak out (express my opinion freely).

They are determined to stand up for (vindicate, maintain) their rights.
Let this matter stand over (be deferred or postponed) for the present.
It is hard but I think I can stand it out (endure it to the end without yielding).
He is always standing up for (championing the cause of) the weak and oppressed.
We shall be formidable if we stand by (support) one another.

He is struck down with (attacked by) paralysis.
The Medical Council struck off (removed) his name from the register of medical practitioners. While we were planning a family picnic, my sister struck in (interrupted) with the suggestion that we invite our neighbour's children as well.

The piano takes up (occupies) too much room.
It would take up (occupy) too much time to tell you the whole story.
He takes after (resembles) his father.
At present I am reading the Essays of Bacon, but it is sometimes difficult to take in
(comprehend, understand) his meaning.
Recently he has taken to (become addicted to) opium eating.

We talked over (discussed) the matter for an hour.
I hope to talk him over (convenience him by taking) to our view.

Page 294

I am afraid your antecedents will tell against you (i.e., prove unfavourable to you).
The strain is telling upon (affecting) his health.


My advice was thrown away (wasted) upon him, because he ignored it.
The bill was thrown out (rejected) by the Assembly.
In disgust he threw up (resigned) his appointment.
When he became rich he threw over (abandoned or deserted) all his old friends.

The factory turns out (produces, manufactures) 20,000 lbs of cloth a day.
If he is lazy, why don't you turn him off (dismiss him).
He turned out (proved) to be a sharper.
His very friends turned against (became hostile to) him.
Who can say what will turn up (happen) next?
He promised to come, but he never turned up (appeared).

We tempted him with many promises, but nothing would work on (influence) him. He worked out (solved) the problem in a few minutes.
He is sure to work up (excite) the mob.
He worked upon (influenced) the ignorant villagers.

IDIOMS (Continued)
208. The student who studies the following selection of English idioms will notice that metaphor enters largely into idiomatic phraseology.

In spite of all his brag he had to eat humble pie (to apologize humbly, to yield under humiliating circumstances).
Take care what you say! You will have to eat your words (to retract your statements, to take back what you have said).
I am prepared to meet you half-way (come to a compromise with you).
It is silly to meet trouble half-way (i.e.,to anticipate it; to worry about it before it comes).
This unexpected new difficulty put me on my mettle (roused me to do my best.)
This is of a piece with (in keeping with) the rest of his conduct.
He is not worth his salt (quite worthless) if he fails at this juncture.

The cost of living has increased so much that he finds it difficult to make both ends meet
(to live within his income).

Page 295
As a social reformer, he set his face against (sternly opposed) nautch parties.
At the battle of Marengo, Napoleon was within an ace of (on the point of) defeat (i.e., he was very nearly defeated).

The belief in witchcraft is losing ground (becoming less powerful or acceptable).
Lord Roberts first won his laurels (acquired distinction or glory) in India.
It was in parliamentary debate that he won his spurs (made his reputation as a politician).
When the prodigal returned to his father's house, he was received with open arms (with a warm welcome).
How can you trust a man who plays fast and loose (says one thing and does another) ?
I took him to task (rebuked him) for reading “penny dreadfuls”.
He turned a deaf ear to (disregarded) my advice.
That argument will not hold water (stand scrutiny i.e., it is unsound).
He is determined to achieve his object by hook or by crook (by fair means or foul; by any means he can).
To all intents and purposes (practically, virtually) the Prime Minister of Nepal was the ruler of the country.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

The singer, having a slight cough, was .not in voice (unable to sing well) at the concert.
These two statements do not hang together (i.e., are not consistent with each other).
This is more than flesh and blood (human nature) can endure.
He accepted my statement without reserve (fully, implicitly).
I must take exception to (object to) your remark.
He is indulgent to a fault (i.e., he is over-indulgent; so indulgent that his indulgence is a fault). The belief in efficacy of vaccination is gaining ground (becoming more general).
From his attitude it is clear that he wants to pay off old scores (to have his revenge).
He has been working on and off (at intervals) several years to compile a dictionary.
He visits me off and on (now and then, occasionally).

Page 296

At least on the question of child-marriage we are at one (of the same opinion).
He took my advice in good part (without offence ; i.e., he did not resent it).
It was he who put a spoke in my wheel (thwarted me in the execution of my design).
At an early age he made his mark (distinguished himself) as a chemist.
I have it at my fingers' ends (know it thoroughly).
The new play has fallen flat (met with a cold reception).
Where discipline is concerned I put my foot down (take a resolute stand).
It is a matter of gratification to me that he has turned over a new leaf (changed for the better; begun a different mode of life).
I have made up my mind (resolved, decided) to retire from business.
This puts me in mind (reminds me) of an amusing incident.

There's no love lost between them (i.e., they are not on good terms, they dislike each other). Many people in that country live from hand to mouth (i.e., without any provision for the future). Steady work is sure to be rewarded in the long run (eventually, ultimately).
Whatever else one may say of him, no one dare call in question (challenge, express a doubt about) his honesty of purpose.
The police came to the scene in the nick of time (just at the right moment, opportunely).
She stood by him through thick and thin (under all conditions, undaunted by anything).
His partner threw cold water on his scheme (discouraged him by showing indifference to it). He can turn his hand to (adapt or apply himself to) anything.
The Sultan rules his subjects with a high hand (oppressively).
He is hand and glove (on very intimate terms) with my cousin.

He turns even his errors to account (i.e., profits by them).
He is accused of sitting on the fence (halting between two opinions, heistating which said to join).

Page 297
It is all one (just the same) to me whether he lives in Mumbai or Kolkata.
What is the point at issue (in dispute) ?
The inquiry has brought to light (disclosed) some startling facts.
He is not fit to hold a candle to (not to be named in comparison with) his predecessor.
He burnt his fingers (got himself into trouble) by interfering in his neighbour's affairs.
I suspect the fellow lives by his wits (i.e., he has no settled means of subsistence but picks up a living by deceit or fraud).
He bids fair (seems likely) to rival his father as a lawyer.
He strained every nerve (used his utmost efforts) to get his friend elected.

When I saw him last he was beside himself (out of his mind) with grief.
He spent over it much time and energy, and lost a large sum into the bargain (in addition, besides). When I entered the house everything was at sixes and sevens (in disorder or confusion).
Recently he has been giving himself airs (behaving arrogantly).
The attack might be launched at any time, so you must be on the alert (on your guard, ready to act).
Retrenchement is the order of the day (the prevailing state of things) in every public and private office.
In the manufacture of dyes the Germans bear the palm (are preeminent).
Agriculture in America has kept pace with (progressed at equal rate with) industrial activities. This text-book of chemistry is quite out of date (obsolete).
This is the most up-to-date (modern, recent) book on the subject.

What you say has no bearing on the subject in hand (under discussion or consideration).
It speaks volumes for (serves as a strong testimony to) Dr. Johnson's industry that he should have compiled the dictionary without anyone's help.
Poor fellow! he is hoping against hope (hoping even when the case seems hopeless).
I am told he has got into hot water (into trouble).
Ultimately I got the better of him (overcame him).

Page 298
He was found guilty, but, he got off easy (got a light sentence).
I wash my hands of the whole matter (i.e., I refuse to have anything more to do with it).
The situation seems to have got quite out of hand (beyond control).
It is said that he has a finger in the pie (has something to do with the affair, is mixed up in the affair).
That fellow sets everybody by the ears (i.e., he is a mischief-maker).

You have hit the nail on the head (said or done exactly the right thing).
Today he is in high spirits (cheerful, joyful).
How is that? You seem out of spirits (gloomy, sad).
Hello! my lad; you look as if you've been in the wars (hurt yourself).
I suspect he has an axe to grind (private ends to serve, a personal interest in the matter).
The news of Amir's death spread like wildfire (spread rapidly).
He took to heart (was deeply affected by) the death of his wife.
He was disappointed, but he took heart (cheered himself up) and tried again.
He has his heart in the right place (means well, is of a kindly and sympathetic disposition). He is coming to the front (attaining prominence, becoming conspicuous) in public life.

He is not a great lawyer but he has the gift of the gab (a talent for speaking).
Prohibition is gall and wormwood (hateful) to distillers.
The strikers have thrown out of gear (disturbed the working of) many of our important industries. Though he addressed his boys for a few minutes only, the earnestness with which he spoke went home to them (deeply appealed to them).
Just now he is simply coining money (making money very rapidly, earning large sums easily). The screen is in character (in keeping) with the rest of the furniture.
He is not in the good books of (in favour with) his master.

Page 299
I am afraid I am in his bad books (out of favour with him).
I am quite at sea (perplexed, at a loss what to do or how to act).
He does not understand that he stands in his own light (acts against his own interests, hinders his own advancement).

Although he denies it, I think he is behind the scenes (in the secret, in possession of facts not generally known).
You are sure to put your foot in it (to blunder, to get into a scrape) if you meddle in his affairs. I begged him to reconsider his decision, but he put his foot down (remained firm ; refused to yield).
He asked me to dinner, but I had to foot the bill (pay for it).
We shall fight tooth and nail (with all our power) for our rights.
The property belonged to a Nawab, but recently it changed hands (became someone else's property). He is by long odds (most decidedly) the greatest of living mathematicians.
The thief took to his heels (ran off) on seeing a policeman.
Our school is within a stone's throw of (at a short distance from) the railway station.
A few days before his death, he made a clean breast of (confessed without reserve) everything connected with that affair.

He stood his ground (maintained his position) against his adversary.
He keeps in touch with (has intimate knowledge of) the latest developments in wireless.
That is where the shoe pinches (where the difficulty or trouble lies).
I told him that I was prepared to show my hand (to reveal my plan of action, to let out my designs) provided he agreed to do the same.
The medical graduates to a man (i.e., everyone without exception) voted in favour of him.
He insisted on his orders being carried out to the letter (exactly, with adherence to every detail). For a long time he kept his father in the dark (in ignorance) about the true state of affairs.
Success has turned his head (made him quite vain).
His star is in the ascendant (i.e., fortune favours him).

The scheme appears worthless at the first blush (at first sight). It was his constant prayer that he might die in harness (continue to the last in his business or profession).

Page 300
He has too many irons in the fire (i.e., he is engaged in too many enterprises at the same time). The Sikh soldiers were true to their salt (faithful to their employers).
The latest police report says that the situation is now well in hand (under control).
He was at his wit's end (quite puzzled, at a complete loss how to act).
What's the matter with him ? He is falling foul of (quarrelling with) everybody.
I am sure he won't go back on (fail to keep) his word.
The directors of the company put their heads together (consulted one another) to formulate a new scheme.
Do not give ear to (listen to) a tale-bearer.

So far as I could see there was nothing out of the way (strange, eccentric) in the behaviour of that stranger.
A spirit of unrest is in the air (prevalent, found everywhere).
The controversy is likely to create bad blood (ill-feeling, bitterness) between the two communities. The rebels surrrendered at discretion (unconditionally).
The letter is meant to be read between the lines (i.e., it has a hidden or unexpressed meaning, not apparent on the surface).
He was murdered in cold blood (i.e., not in the heat of passion or excitement, but deliberately). Let us have your terms in black and white (in writing).
On the approach of a policeman the bully showed a clean pair of heels (ran away).
He has politics on the brain (constantly in his thoughts, as a sort of monomania).
This will suit you to a T (exactly).

His eldest son, a spendthrift, is a thorn in his side (a constant source of annoyance to him). I smell a rat (have reason to suspect something).
I nipped his scheme in the bud (i.e., made it fail before it could mature).
What you propose is out of the question (not to be thought of, impossible).

Page 301
The performance was not up to the mark (quite satisfactory).
The long and the short of it (the simple fact, the whole matter in a few words) is that I do not want to deal with that new firm.
I am told he is in the running (i.e., he has good prospects in the competition).
Now that he has nothing to fear from me, he is showing his teeth (adopting a threatening attitude). He changed colour (turned pale) when I questioned him about his antecedents.
He had made a great mistake in championing their cause, but, having done it, he stuck to his guns (remained faithful to the cause).

This is the time to take stock of (to survey) the whole situation.
What's the good of entering into negotiations with a man of straw (a man of no substance or consequence)?
The election campaign is just now in full swing (very active).
He is not wise enough to keep his own counsel (to preserve a discreet silence, to be reticent about his opinions or affairs).
That young fellow was born with a silver spoon in his mouth (born in wealth and luxury).
It stands to reason (is quite clear, is an undoubted fact) that the rich never have justice done them in plays and stories; for the people who write are poor.
This suit-case has stood me in good stead (proved useful to me) in my travels.
You have taken the wind out of my sails (made my words or actions ineffective by anticipating them).
I took him to task (reproved him) for his carelessness.
I have a bone to pick with you (some cause of quarrel with you).

It will do at a pinch (in case of emergency, if hard pressed).
When the opportunity came I paid him back in his own coin (treated him in the same way as he had treated me).
Just now my hands are full (I am very busy).
It is generally believed that he had a hand (was concerned) in the plot.
Explorers in the arctic regions take their lives in their hands (undergo great risks).
Naturally he fights shy of (avoids from a feeling of mistrust, dislikes) his young nephew, who is a gambler.

Page 302
All his schemes ended in smoke (came to nothing).
The police left no stone unturned (used all available means, adopted every possible method of search) to trace the culprits.
Later on he became unpopular because he tried to lord it over (to domineer over) his followers. As he was growing old, his friends persuaded him to rest on his laurels (to retire from active life).

The champion will have to look to your laurels (take care not to lose your pre-eminence).
I am tired of hearing him harp on the same string (dwell tediously on the same subject).
His blood ran cold (i.e., he was horrified) when he heard that his friend was murdered.
I gave him a piece of my mind (scolded him).
The dog is as good as (practically) dead.
He was as good as his word (i.e., kept his promise).
The child was as good as gold (i.e., very good).
You will have to make good the loss (to compensate me for the loss).
He kicked up a row (made great noise or fuss).
He seems ill at ease (uneasy, anxious, uncomfortable).

The old man is hard of hearing (somewhat deaf).
It will go hard with him (i.e., he will suffer severely) if he keeps company with that fellow. People say that Mr. X, the banker, is on his last legs (on the verge of ruin).
I can make neither head nor tail (nothing) of it.
You'll never get the better of (gain an advantage over) that rascal : with him it's always,
'Heads I win, tails you lose' (i.e., in any case he will be the winner).
By his advocacy of widow-remarriage, he stirred up a hornet's nest (excited the hostility or adverse criticism of a large number of people).
He made great claims for his discovery; but it turned out to be a mare's nest (a delusion, a worthless thing).
On the very first night she brought down the house (called forth general and loud applause) by her superb acting.
He is every inch (entirely, completely) a gentleman.

Page 303
You have done the handsome thing by him (behaved towards him in a magnanimous manner) in accepting his apology and foregoing the claim for damages.

He proved his worth by rising to the occasion (showing himself equal to dealing with the emergency). For some days the new professor lectured over the heads of (above the comprehension of ) his pupils.
He knows the ins and outs (the full details) of that affair.
He is over head and ears (deeply) in love (or, in debt).
Beyond all question (undoubtedly) she is a great singer.
You want to see him? Out of the question I (i.e., impossible).
The two friends agreed to differ (gave up trying to convince each other) after discussing the question for about an hour.
Since that day he has been in bad odour (out of favour, in bad repute) with his neighbours. Intimate friends need not stand on ceremony (act with reserve, insist on strict rules of etiquette being observed).
He went out of his way (took special trouble) to oblige me.

I am afraid you two are at cross-purposes (misunderstand each other).
I trusted him and he played me false (deceived me, betrayed me).
He is a shrewd man, and it will not be easy to draw him out (to elicit information from him). He made light of (treated lightly) his friend's warning.
The proposal was rejected with one voice (unanimously).
The figures which he quoted were shown to be incorrect, and this took the edge off his argument (made his argument ineffective).
We had on the way tea of a kind (of a poor kind, i.e., tea that scarcely deserved the name). I repaid his insolence in kind (in the same way, i.e., with insolence).
Beware of that fellow ! he will stick at nothing (is unscrupulous and will do anything to accomplish his purpose).
He is not the man to pocket an affront (to receive or submit to it without retaliating or showing resentment).

I am out of pocket (a loser) by the transaction.
The fate of the accused hangs in the balance (is undecided).

Page 304
He is a man of well-balanced (reasonable, moderate) opinions.
He was carried off his feet (was wild with excitement) when he was declared to have won the first prize.
He made the most of his opportunity (i.e., used it to the best advantage).
That house is put on the market (offered for sale).
He sometimes works nine hours at a stretch (continuously)
By his skill in arguing he carried his point (defeated his adversaries in debate).
He is serving his time (going through an apprenticeship) in a bank. Serves you right (i.e., you've got your deserts) !

I shall manage to serve him out (to retaliate upon him, to have my revenge on him).
He is working against time (with utmost speed).
This year the mango-crop has fallen short of my expectations (i.e., has disappointed me).
While the members of the committee were discusssing questions of finance, I felt like a fish out of water (like one out of his element; i.e., in a strange situation).
A good student works steadily, not by fits and starts (irregularly, capriciously, without steady application).
He has made his fortune and now takes things easy (does not work hard).
Mr. X first introduced the system of payments by instalments, and shortly afterwards others took a leaf out of his book (imitated him, profited by his example).
The Secretary of the Company was charged with cooking the accounts (preparing false accounts). You should take into account (consider) his past services.
You must lie in the bed you have made (take the consequences of your own acts; suffer for your own misdeeds).

He thinks better o/it now (i.e., he has thought more carefully about it and come to a wiser decision). I am sure he means business (is in earnest).
I cannot give you a definite reply on the spur of the moment (at once, without deliberation). It is the thing (the proper thing) to do.
I see you know a thing or two (are. wise nr cunning).

Page 305
He took his failure to heart (i.e., felt it deeply; grieved over it).
It goes to his heart (touches him deeply) to see so much misery.
The offer holds good (remains binding, is valid) for two days.
He is leaving India for good (permanently).
It will go hard with him (prove a serious matter for him.) if his partner retires from business. 25
Do you expect me to be at your beck and call (under your absolute control)?
I am afraid he is burning the candles at both ends (overtaxing his energies).
Let us now bury the hatchet (cease fighting, make peace), and work for the advancement of the country.
Mr. X, who is one of the trustees of a certain big charity, is suspected of feathering his won nest (making money unfairly).
It is reported that some ruffians laid hands on (assaulted) him while he was returning home. It is suspected that he had a hand in (was concerned in) the plot.
As usual he is blowing his own trumpet (praising himself).
The excuses will not pass muster (will not be accepted as satisfactory).
As a diplomat he was head and shoulders (very much) above his contemporaries.
Old sets of the Encyclopaedia Britannica are a drug in the market (unsaleable from lack of demand).

The foolish young man made ducks and drakes of (squandered) his patrimony.
She knows French after a fashion (to a certain degree, not satisfactorily).
It is all Greek (or Hebrew) to me {i.e., something which I do not understand).
The thief was caught red-handed (in the very act of committing the theft).
Late in life he tried his hand (made an attempt) at farming.
What you say is neither here nor there (foreign to the subject under discussion, irrelevant). Even his old friend Smith, who had been indebted to him for many favours in the past, gave him the cold shoulder (treated him in a cold and distant manner).

Page 306
If we are to give credence to rumours, another great war is on the cards (not improbable).
While he spoke, the audience hung on his lips (listened eagerly to his words).
The Speaker urged the Committee to take drastic action, but they hung fire (were reluctant; hesitated).

He stands well with (is well thought of by) his master.
He claims that he has given chapter and verse (full and precise reference to authority) for every statement made in his book.
The editor of that paper is accused of giving a false colouring to (misrepresenting) the incident. Throughout his speech the boys were all ears (deeply attentive).
I was all eyes (eagerly watching) to see what he would do.
I know my friend keeps a good table (provides luxurious food, entertains his guests sumptuously). With a small income and a large family to maintain, he finds it rather difficult to keep his head above water (to keep out of debt).
He will never set the Thames on fire (do some remarkable or surprising thing).
The scheme came to grief (failed) owing to want of foresight.
You will come to grief '(be ruined) if you follow his advice.

I keep the fellow at arm's length (at a distance; i.e., I hold aloof from him).
He is keeping up appearances (keeping up an outward show of prosperity) although he has lost his whole fortune.
Last year when the prince came of age (reached the age of twenty-one) he was installed on his father's gadi.
Don't trust those men; they are villains to the backbone (in every way).
You shall go, bag and baggage (with all your belongings, i.e., altogether, completely).
The account of the murder made her blood creep (filled her with horror).
That territory is a bone of contention (a subject of dispute) between the two countries.
He took away my breath (very much surprised me) when he coolly proposed that I should buy votes.
Since his easy succcess in the elections, he has become swollen-headed (conceited).

Page 307

Wherever he addressed public meetings he carried all before him (was completely successful). The cashier, having admitted defalcation, was given in charge (handed over to the police). “If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat, and if he be thirsty, give him water to drink; for thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head (return good for evil, and make him ashamed of his enmity) and the Lord shall reward thee.”
It is mean to crow over (to triumph over) a fallen foe.
He took up the cudgels for (defended vigorously) his friend.
He is currying favour (using mean acts to ingratiate himself) with his rich neighbour.
If you endorse that promissory note, you will cut your own throat (ruin yourself).
His father cut him off with a shilling (disinherited him by bequeathing a trifling sum).
While he was speaking his father cut him short (interrupted him).

The witness cut a poor figure (produced a poor impression) in his cross-examination.
When he met me in the street, he cut me dead (deliberately insulted me by ignoring me).
That Act is a dead letter (no longer in force).
A great many faults may be laid at his door (imputed to him), but he is certainly not dishonest. We must draw the line (fix the limit) somewhere. The cost of the new building should not exceed two lakhs.
Printing is not in my line (is out of my province).
He is in the cotton line (i.e., he follows that trade).
I don't expect him to see eye to eye (to be in complete agreement) with me on the question of Prohibition.
He failed to get elected, but put a good face on (bore up courageously) his defeat.
His speech on economic reform fell flat (caused no interest, produced no effect).

The joke fell flat (caused no amusement).
It is afar cry (a long way off) from Delhi to New York.
It is afar cry (no easy transition) from autocracy to democracy.
He is far and away (very much) the better of the two players.
The story of the shipwreck, as narrated by one of the survivors,made my flesh creep
(horrified me).

Page 308
A Pathan is an ugly customer (a formidable person to deal with) when his blood is up (he is excited).
She is a delicate woman but has to rough it (to endure hardship) to support her family.
He pins his faith to (places full reliance upon) technical education.
He sometimes tells lies, so people take his statements with a grain of salt (doubt).
He is not the sort of man to let the grass grow under his feet (to remain idle, to procrastinate). 32
It's no use splitting hairs (disputing over petty points, quibbling about trifles).
He is a great hand at (expert at) organizing public meetings.
By your strange conduct you will give a handle to (furnish an occasion for) suspicion and scandal. He knows what he is about (is far-sighted and prudent).
You can rely on him; he knows what's what (is shrewd and experienced, knows the ways of the world).
Mussolini seems to bear a charmed life (to be invulnerable, as he escapes death in an almost miraculous manner).
When the Arabs conquered Persia, some Persians, it is safe to say, embraced Islam for loaves and fishes (material benefits).
It never occurred to me that you would leave me in the lurch (desert me in my difficulties, leave me in a helpless condition).
In everything that he does he has an eye to the main chance (his object is to make money, he regards his own interests).
The bank won't accept the guarantee of a man of straw (a man of no substance).

His observations were beside the mark (not to the point, irrelevant).
Not to mince matters (to speak unreservedly), some of these pundits are mere charlatans.
His adversaries moved heaven and earth (made every possible effort) to get him dismissed. Do your worst ! I nail my colours to the mast (refuse to climb down or surrender).
Stick to your colours (refuse to yield, be faithful to the cause), my boys !
The murdered man was found in a state of nature (naked).

Page 309
This coat fits you to a nicety (exactly).
He refused to be led by the nose (to follow submissively).
His wife, who was the daughter of a millionaire, turned up her nose at (regarded with contempt) her husband's proposal to buy a Ford car.
Don't thrust your nose into (meddle officiously in) my affairs.

He is such an absent-minded fellow that he does not know what passes under his nose (in his very presence).
Successive ministers have found the question of employment a hard nut to crack (a difficult problem to solve).
This gentleman, having worked successfully in the business line for several years, is now resting on his oars (stopping work for a time and having rest).
A dispute in that colliery came to a head (reached a crisis) this week.
The recent outbursts of murderous rioting should warn the labour agitators that they are playing with fire (trifling ignorantly with matters liable to cause trouble or suffering).
During the war, he made a pile (made a fortune).
The famous libel case brought into play (gave an opportunity for the exercise of) his forensic abilities.
I admit that he pleaded the cause of the poor very eloquently; but will he put his hand in his pocket (give money in charity)?
To small purpose (without much practical benefit) was the Commission appointed, if its main recommendations are not adopted.
Just now flying is all the rage (extremely popular).

He is rather blunt, but his heart is in the right place (he is faithful and true hearted).
He is regarded as his chiefs right-hand man (most efficient assistant).
His letters to his ward speak volumes for (serve as strong testimony to) his forbearance and good sense.
The new cotton mill is mortgaged up to the eyes (completely, to its full extent).
You don't look quite up to the mark (in excellent health) this evening.
Now, don't you call me any names, or you will find that two can play at that game (i.e., I can retaliate in the same way).
He was a man who could put two and two together (draw a correct inference reason logically). Page 310
You see he has two strings to his bow (has two sources of income to rely upon); he deals in curios, and also does miniatures.
Her uncle has taken her under his wing (under his protection).
I suspect that fellow has sent us on a wild-goose chase (a foolish and fruitless search).

The policeman, having disarmed the thief, had the whip-hand of (was in a position to control) him.
I did not notice in him anything out of the way (strange, eccentric).
I am told your cousin is in hot water (in trouble) over that speech.
There is nothing so bad as washing one's dirty linen in public (discussing unpleasant private matters before strangers).
If their demands are not granted, the strikers threaten war to the knife (a bitter and deadly struggle). They are at daggers drawn (i.e., their relations are strained) ever since the dissolution of the partnership between them.
When plague first broke out in Mumbai, Dr. X did yeoman's service (excellent work).
He is still in the vigorous health, although he is on the wrong side of sixty (more than sixty years of age).
You can safely trust him; he is a man of his words (a man to be depended on, a trustworthy man).
He finds no little difficulty in keeping the wolf from the door (keeping off starvation).

Beware of that wolf in sheep's clothing (hypocrite)!
The doctor says the patient has turned the corner (passed the crisis).
He very cleverly turned the tables on his opponent (i.e., brought him to the position of disadvantage lately held by himself).
I am afraid you have caught a Tartar in him (i.e., found him more formidable than you expected). I should like to have that matter settled immediately, because it keeps a man on tenterhooks (in a state of suspense and anxiety).
He is under the thumb of (completely under the influence of) his wife.
He carried out his project in the teeth of (in defiance or regardless of )opposition from his community. Page 311
Only ten years ago he was a junior barrister, but he is now at the top of the tree (at the head of his profession).
We must avoid saying or writing anything that would tread on their toes (give offence to them). His master put the screw on (brought pressure to bear on) him to vote for his friend.

In the contest he came off second-best (was defeated, got the worst of it).
I sent him about his business (dismissed him peremptorily) as I could stand his insolence no longer.
People who talk shop (talk exclusively about their business or professional affairs) are generally unbearable.
He appears to have an old head on young shoulders (to be wise beyond his years).
As a rule, they eat but one square meal (full meal) a day.
In his travels he claims to have rubbed shoulders (come into close contact) with people of all sorts and conditions.
Although much remains to be done in this direction, the gradual increase in the number of schools clearly shows that the school master is abroad (education is spreading in every direction and ignorance is diminishing).
His boorish manners occasionally set his refined cousin's teeth on edge (i.e., irritated him). When the Inspector entered the class some of the pupils shook in their shoes (trembled with fear).

There are black sheep (bad characters, scoundrels) in every community.
One of our best workers was ill, so we had to make shift (get along as best as we could) without him.
I threatened to show him up (to disclose his villainy) if he did not mend his ways.
That solicitor is guilty of sharp practice (underhand or questionable dealings).
The usurper cannot maintain his position without the sinews of war (money).
As a writer he has often snapped his fingers at (defined) convention.
The speaker was unmercifully heckled, but he manfully stood to his guns (i.e., maintained his own opinion).

Page 312

209. Punctuation (derived from the Latin punctum, a point) means the right use of putting in Points or Stops in writing. The following are the principal stops:(1) Full Stop or Period (.)
(2) Comma (,)
(3) Semicolon (;)
(4) Colon (:)
(5) Question Mark (?)
(6) Exclamation Mark (!)
Other marks in common use are the Dash:- Parentheses ( ); Inverted Commas or
Quotation Marks" ".
210. The Full Stop represents the greatest pause and separation. It is used to mark the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence; as, Dear, patient, gentle, noble Nell was dead.
211. The Full stop can be used in abbreviations, but they are often omitted in modern style. M.A. or MA
M.P. or MP
U.N.O. or UNO
Note that in current English Mr and Mrs occur without a full stop, as these have come to be regarded as the full spellings.
212. The Comma represents the shortest pause, and is used :(1) To separate a series of words in the same construction; as,
England, France and Italy formed an alliance.
He lost lands, money, reputation and friends.
It was a long, dull and wearisome journey.
He wrote his exercise neatly, quickly and correctly.
Note:- A comma is generally not placed before the word preceded by and.
(2) To separate each pair of words connected by and; as,
We should be devout and humble, cheerful and serene.
High and low, rich and poor, wise and foolish, must all die.
(3) After a Nominative Absolute; as,
This done, she returned to the old man with a lovely smile on her face.
The wind being favourable, the squadron sailed.
The genius making me no answer, I turned about to address myself to him a second time.

(4) To mark off a Noun or Phrase in Apposition ; as,
Paul, the apostle, was beheaded in the reign of Nero.
Milton, the great English poet, was blind.
Pandit Nehru, the first prime Minister of India, died in 1964.

Page 313
(5) To mark off words used in addressing people
Come into the garden, Maud.
How are you, Mohan?
Lord of the universe, shield us and guide us.
But when the words are emphatic, we ought to use the Note of Exclamation; as,
Monster! by thee my child's devoured!
(6) To mark off two or more Adverbs or Adverbial phrases coming together ; as,
Then, at length, tardy justice was done to the memory of Oliver.
(7) Before and after a Participial phrase, provided that the phrase might be expanded into a sentence, and is not used in a merely qualifying sense; as,
Caesar, having conquered his enemies, returned to Rome.
(8) Before and after words, phrases, or clauses, let into the body of a sentence; as,
He did not, however, gain his object.
It is mind, after all, which does the work of the world.
His behaviour, to say the least, was very rude.
His story was, in several ways, improbable.
Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between thee and me.
The essay-writers, whose works consisted in a great measure of short moral dissertations, set the literary taste of the age.
The people of Orleans, when they first saw her in their city, thought she was an angel.
(9) To indicate the omission of a word, especially a verb; as,
Rama received a fountain pen; Hari, a watch.
He was a Brahmin; she, a Rajput.
He will succeed; you, never.
(10) To separate short co-ordinate clauses of a Compound sentence; as,
The rains descended, and the floods came.
Men may come and men may go, but I go on for ever.
I came, I saw, I conquered.
The way was long, the wind was cold.
The minstrel was infirm and old.
When there is a conjunction the comma is sometimes omitted; as,
He came and saw me.
(11) To mark off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence; as,
"Exactly so," said Alice.
He said to his disciples, "Watch and pray."
"Go then," said the ant, "and dance winter away."
(12) Before certain co-ordinative conjunctions; as,

To act thus is not wisdom, but folly.
(13) To separate from the verb a long Subject opening a sentence; as,

Page 314
The injustice of the sentence pronounced upon that great scientist and discoverer, is now evident to us ail.
All that we admired and adored before as great and magnificent, is obliterated or vanished. (14) To separate a Noun clause-whether subject or object preceding the verb; as,
Whatever is, is right.
How we are ever to get there, is the question,
That he would succeed in his undertaking, no one ever doubted.
(15) To separate a clause that is not restrictive in meaning, but is co-ordinate with the
Principal clause; as,
Sailors, who are generally superstitious, say it is unlucky to embark on a Friday.
During my stay in Sri Lanka I visited Mihintale, which is regarded as the cradle of Buddhism.
When the Adjective clause is restrictive in meaning the comma should not be applied; as,
This is the house that Jack built.
The Lord is nigh upto them that are of a broken heart.
The echoes of the storm which was then raised I still hear grumbling round me.
The design was disapproved by everyone whose judgement was entitled to respect.
(16) To separate an Adverbial clause from its Principal clause; as,
When I was a bachelor, I lived by myself.
If thou would 'st be happy, seek to please.
When the Adverbial clause follows the Principal clause the comma is frequently omitted; as, Seek to please if thou would'st be happy
213.The Semicolon represents a pause of greater importance than that shown by the comma. It is used :(1) To separate the clauses of Compound sentence, when they contain a comma; as,
He was a brave, large-hearted man; and we all honoured him.
(2) To separate a series of loosely related clauses; as,
Her court was pure ; her life serene;
God gave her peace; her land reposed.
Today we love what tomorrow we hate; today we seek what tomorrow we shun; today we desire what tomorrow we fear.
214. The Colon marks a still more complete pause than that expressed by the Semicolon.
It is used (sometimes with a dash after it): (1) To introduce a quotation; as,

Bacon says :- “Reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man.”
(2) Before enumeration, examples, etc; as,
The principal parts of a verb in English are: the present tense, the past
Tense, and the past participle.

Page 315
The limitation of armaments, the acceptance of arbitration as the natural solvent of international disputes, the relegation of wars of ambition and aggression to the categories of obsolete follies : these will be milestones which mark the stages of the road.
(3) Between sentences grammatically independent but closely connected in sense; as,
Study to acquire a habit of thinking: no study is more important.
215. The Question Mark is used, instead of the Full Stop, after a direct question; as,
Have you written your exercise?
If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you trickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not have revenge?
But the Question Mark is not used after an indirect question; as
He asked me whether I had written my exercise.
216. The Exclamation Mark is used after Interjections and after Phrases and Sentences expressing sudden emotion or wish ; as,
Alas ! -- Oh dear !
What a terrible fire this is !
O, what a fall was there, my countrymen ! -- Long live the King !
Note:- When the interjection O is placed before the Nominative of Address, the
Exclamation Mark, if employed at all, comes after the? noun; or it may be placed at the end of the sentence; as,
O father ! I hear the sound of guns.
O Hamlet, speak no more !
217. Inverted Commas are used to enclose the exact words of a speaker, or a quotation; as, "I would rather die," he exclaimed, "than join the oppressors of my country."
Babar is said by Elphinstone to have been "the most admirable prince that ever reigned in
If a quotation occurs within a quotation, it is marked by single inverted commas; as,
"You might as well say," added the March Hare, "that 'I like what I get' is the same thing as 'I get what I like,”
218. The Dash is used:(1) To indicate an abrupt stop or change of thought; as,
If my husband were alive – but why lament the past ?
(2) To resume a scattered subject; as,.
Friends, companions, relatives - all deserted him.

219. The Hyphen - a shorter line than the Dash - is used to connect the parts of a compound word; as,
Passer-by, man-of-war, jack-of-all-trades.
It is also used to connect parts of a word divided at the end of a line. Page 316
220. Parentheses or Double Dashes are used to separate from the main part of the sentence a phrase or clause which does not grammatically belong to it; as,
He gained from Heaven (it was all he wished) a friend.
A remarkable instance of this kind of courage - call it, if you please, resolute will - is given in the history of Babar,
221. The Apostrophe is used:(1) To show the omission of a letter or letters; as, Don't, e'er, I've.
(2) In the Genitive Case of Nouns.
(3) To form the plural of letters and figures.
Dot your i's and cross your t's.
Add two 5 's and four 2 's.

Capital Letters
222. Capitals are used :(1) To begin a sentence.
(2) To begin each fresh line of poetry.
(3) To begin all Proper Nouns and Adjectives derived from them : as,
Delhi, Rama, Africa, African, Shakespeare, Shakespearian.
(4) For all nouns and pronouns which indicate the Deity; as, The Lord, He is the God.
(5) To write the pronoun / and the interjection O.

Exercise 119.
Insert commas, where necessary, in the following sentences:1. The necessity of amusement made me a carpenter a bird-eager a gardener.
2. Speak clearly if you would be understood.
3. Even a fool when he holdeth his peace is counted wise.
4. When we had dined to prevent the ladies leaving us I generally ordered the table to be removed.
5. My orchard was often robbed by schoolboys and my wife's custards plundered by the cats.
6. Whenever I approached a peasant's house towards night-fall I played one of the most merry tunes.
7. By conscience and courage by deeds of devotion and daring he soon commended himself to his fellows and his officers.
8. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought.
9. Beware lest thou be led into temptation.
10. Brazil which is nearly as large as the whole of Europe is covered with a vegetation of incredible profusion.
11. We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing while others judge us by what we have already done.
12. Some are born great some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them.

13. I therefore walked back by the horse way which was five miles round.
14. Read not to contradict nor to believe but to weigh and consider.
15. The leaves as we shall see immediately are the feeders of the plant.

Page 317
17. Sir I would rather be right than be President.
18. In fact there was nothing else to do.
19. At midnight however I was aroused by the tramp of horse's hoofs in the yard.
20. Spenser the great English poet lived in the time of Queen Elizabeth.
21. One of the favourite themes of boasting with the Squire is the noble trees on his estate which in truth has some of the finest that I have seen in England.
22. When he was a boy Franklin who afterward became a distinguished statesman and philosopher learned his trade in the printing office of his brother who published a paper in Boston.
23. We had in this village some twenty years ago an idiot boy whom I well remember who from a child showed a strong propensity for bees.
24. Margaret the eldest of the four was sixteen and very pretty being plump and fair with large eyes plenty of soft brown hair a sweet mouth and white hands of which she was rather vain.
25. A letter from a young lady written in the most passionate terms wherein she laments the misfortune of a gentleman her lover who was lately wounded in a duel has turned my thoughts to that subject and inclined me to examine into the causes which precipitate men into so fatal a folly.

Exercise 120.
Insert commas, where necessary, in the following sentences:1. In the old Persian stories Turan the land of darkness is opposed to Iran the land of light. 2. History it has been said is the essence of innumerable biographies.
3. Attention application accuracy method punctuality and dispatch are the principal qualities required for the efficient conduct of business of any sort.
4.When I was in Delhi I visited the Red Port, Qutab Minar, Raj Ghat, India Gate and
Chandni Chowk.
5. He was now in the vigour of his days forty-three years of age stately in person noble in his demeanour calm and dignified in his deportment.
6. Your wife would give you little thanks if she were present to hear you make this offer.
7. A high-bred man never forgets himself controls his temper does nothing in excess is courteous dignified and that even to persons whom he is wishing far away.
8. All that I am all that I hope to be I owe to my angel mother.
9. We all or nearly all fail to last our “lease” owing to accidents violence and avoidable as well as unavoidable disease.
10. Nuclear bomb testing fills the air with radioactive dust and leaves many areas uninhabitable for centuries.
11. In a strict and legal sense that is properly the domicile of a person where he has his true fixed permanent home and principal establishment and to which whenever he is absent he has the intention of returning.

Exercise 121.
Punctuate the following :-

1. As Caesar loved me I wept for him as he was fortunate I rejoice at it as he was valiant I honour him but as he was ambitious I slew him.
2. The shepherd finding his flock destroyed exclaimed I have been rightly served why did
I trust my sheep to a wolf.
3. However strange however grotesque may be the appearance which Dante under takes to describe he never shrinks from describing it he gives us the shape the colour the sound the smell the taste.
4. Perhaps cried he there may be such monsters as you describe.
5. Sancho ran as fast as his ass could go to help his master whom he found lying and not able to stir such a blow he and Rozinante had received mercy on me cried Sancho did I not give your worship fair warning did I not tell you they were windmills and that nobody could think otherwise unless he had also windmills in his head.
6. Modern ideas of government date back to the 1960s when for the first time people began to question a kings right to rule once through to be god given.

Page 318
7. When I look upon the tombs of the great every emotion of envy dies in me when I read the epitaphs of the beautiful every inordinate desire goes out when I meet with the grief of parents upon a tombstone my heart melts with compassion. When I see the tomb of the parents themselves I consider the vanity of grieving for those whom we must quickly follow 8. They had played together in infancy they had worked together in manhood they were now tottering about and gossiping away in the evening of life and in a short time they will probably be buried together in the neighbouring churchyard.
9. Take away that bauble said Cromwell pointing to the mace which lay upon the table and when the House was empty he went out with the key in his pocket.
10. One day walking together up a hill I said to Friday do you not wish yourself in your own country again yes he said what would you do there said I would you turn wild and eat mens flesh again he looked full of concern and shaking his head said no.
11. When a great office is vacant either by death or disgrace which often happens five or six of these candidates petition the emperor to entertain his majesty and the court with a dance on the rope and whoever jumps the highest without falling succeeds to the office
12. That familiarity produces neglect has been long observed the effect of all external objects however great or splendid ceases with their novelty the courtier stands without emotion in the royal presence the rustic tramples under his foot the beauties of the spring with little attention to their colours or their fragrance and the inhabitant of the coast darts his eye upon the immense diffusion of waters without awe wonder or terror.
13. If you look about you and consider the lives of others as well as your own if you think how few are born with honour and how many die without name or children how little beauty we see and how few friends we hear of how many diseases and how much poverty there is in the world you will fall down upon knees and instead of repining at one affliction will admire so many blessings which you have received from the hand of God.
14. We thank Thee for the place in which we dwell for the love that unites us for the peace accorded us this day for the hope with which we expect the morrow for the health the work the food and the bright skies that make our life delightful for our friends in all parts of the earth.
15. Androcles who had no arms of any kind now gave himself up for lost what shall I do said he I have no spear or sword no not so much as a stick to defend myself with.
16. My quaint Ariel said Prospero to the little sprite when he made him free I shall miss you yet you shall have your freedom thank you my dear master said Ariel but give me leave to attend your ship with prosperous gales before you bid farewell to the assistance of your faithful spirit.
17. O master exclaimed Ananda weeping bitterly and is all the work undone and all by my fault and folly that which is built on fraud and imposture can by no means endure returned Buddha.
18. Wretch said the king what harm did I do thee that thou shouldst seek to take my life with your own hand you killed my father and my two brothers was the reply.

Exercise 122.
Punctuate the following:-

1. Nothing is so easy and inviting as the retort of abuse and sarcasm but it is a paltry and an unprofitable contest.
2. Think how mysterious and often unaccountable it is that lottery of life which gives to this man the purple and fine linen and sends to the other rags for garments and dogs for comforters. 3. The human mind is never stationary it advances or it retrogrades.
4. The laws of most countries today are spilt into two kinds criminal law and civil law.
5. Islam is one of the worlds Jargest religions with an estimated ] 100-1300 million believers it was founded in the 7th centurv bv the Prophet Mohammad.

Page 319
6. There is a slavery that no legislation can abolish the slavery of caste.
7. Truly a popular error has as many lives as a cat it comes walking long after you have imagined it effectually strangled.
8. So far from science being irreligious as many think it is the neglect of science that is irreligious it is the refusal to study the surrounding creation that is irreligious.
9. None of Telleyrand's mots is more famous than this speech was given to man to conceal his thoughts.
10. There is only one cure, for the evils which newly acquired freedom produces and that cure is freedom.
11. If you read ten pages of a good book letter by letter that is to say with real accuracy you are for evermore in some measure an educated person.

Final consonant
223. One-syllable words ending in single vowel + single consonant double the consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel. beg + ed = begged -- rob + er = robber run + ing = running -- sad + est = saddest but: wish + ed = wished (two consonants) fear + ing = fearing (two vowels)
224. Words of two or three syllables ending in single vowel + single consonant double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed. begin + ing = beginning -- occur + ed = occurred permit + ed = permitted -- control + er = controller
The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed. benefit + ed = benefited -- suffer + ing = suffering
These words are exceptions: worship, kidnap, handicap. worship + ed = worshipped -- handicap + ed = handicapped kidnap + er = kidnapper
225. In British English the consonant l is doubled, even if the stress does not fall on the last syllabi quarrel + ed = quarreled -- signal + ing = signalling travel + er = traveler -- distil + er = distiller
Note the exception:parallel + ed = paralleled
226. If the word to which the suffix ful is added ends in ll, the second l is dropped. skill + ful = skilful -- will + ful = wilful

Final e
227. Words ending in silent e drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. live + ing = living -- move + ed = moved home + ing = homing -- drive + er = driver

Page 320
The e remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant, hope + ful = hopeful engage + ment = engagement
Note the exceptions:true + ly = truly whole + ly = wholly due + ly = duly nine + th = ninth argue + ment = argument awe + ful = awful
228. Notice the special case of words ending in ce and ge which keep the e when adding able and ous. notice + able = noticeable peace + able = peaceable change + able = changeable courage + ous = courageous
In such words the c and g are pronounced soft before e. Sometimes the e is retained to avoid confusion with a similar word. singe + ing = singeing (avoids confusion with singing) swinge + ing = swingeing (avoids confusion with swinging)
229. Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix. see + ing = seeing agree + ment = agreement
230. Words ending in ie change the ie to y when ing is added. die, dying tie, tying, lie, lying

Final y
231. A final y following a consonant changes to i before a suffix except ing. happy + ly = happily carry + ed = carried beauty + ful = beautiful marry + age = marriage
carry + ing = carrying marry + ing = marrying

But y following a vowel does not change. pray + ed = prayed play + er = player
Notice a few exceptions:pay + ed = paid day + ly = daily say + ed = said gay + ly = gaily lay + ed = laid

ie or ei
232. When ie or ei is pronounced like ee in 'jeep', i comes before e except after c. believe -- receive relieve -- receipt achieve -- deceive grieve -- deceit, yield -- conceive field -- conceit
Some exceptions :
Seize -- protein -- counterfeit
Weird -- surfeit -- plabeian

Page 321

233. Such words as are not derived or compounded or developed from other words are called Primary Words. They belong to the original stock of words in the language.
(i) Compound Words, formed by joining two or more simple words; as, Moonlight, nevertheless, undertake, man-of-war.
(ii) Primary Derivatives, formed by making some change in the body of the simple word; as, Bond from bind, breach from break, wrong from wring.
Note:- The most important class of words formed by internal change consists of the Past
Tenses of Primary Verbs, which are not usually classed as Derivatives.
(iii) Secondary Derivatives, formed by an addition to the beginning or the end; as, unhappy; goodness.
An addition to the beginning of a word is a Prefix, an addition to he end is a Suffix.

234. Compound words are, for the most part, Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs.
235. Compound Nouns may be formed from:(1) Noun + Noun ; as,
Moonlight, chess-board, armchair, postman, railway, airman, manservant, fire-escape, jailbird, horse-power, shoemaker, ringleader, screwdriver, taxpayer, teaspoon, haystack, windmill. (2) Adjective + Noun; as,
Sweetheart, nobleman, shorthand, blackboard, quicksilver, stronghold, halfpenny.
(3) Verb + Noun; as,
Spendthrift, makeshift, breakfast, telltale, pickpocket, cut-throat, cutpurse, daredevil, scarecrow, hangman.
(4) Gerund + Noun; as,
Drawing-room, writing-desk, looking-glass, walking-stick, blotting paper, stepping-stone, spelling-book. (5) Adverb (or Preposition) + Noun ; as,
Outlaw, afterthought, forethought, foresight, overcoat, downfall, afternoon, bypath, inmate, off-shoot, inside.

(6) Verb + Adverb ; as,
Drawback, lock-up, go-between, die-hard, send-off.
(7) Adverb + Verb ; as,
Outset, upkeep, outcry, income, outcome.
236. Compound Adjectives may be formed from :-

Page 322
(1) Noun+Adjective (or Participle); as,
Blood-red, sky-blue, snow-white, pitch-dark, breast-high, skin-deep, purse-proud, lifelong, world-wide, headstrong, homesick, stone-blind, seasick, note-worthy, heartrending, ear-piercing, time-serving, moth-eaten, heartbroken, bed-ridden, hand-made, sea-girl, love-lorn.
(2) Adjective + Adjective; as,
Red-hot, blue-black, white-hot, dull-grey, lukewarm
(3) Adverb + Participle; as,
Long-suffering, everlasting, never-ending, thorough-bred, well-deserved, outspoken, down-hearted, far-seen, inborn.
237. Compound Verbs may be formed from:(1) Noun+Verb; as,
Waylay, backbite, typewrite, browbeat, earmark.
(2) Adjective+Verb; as,
Safeguard, whitewash, fulfil.
(3) Adverb+Verb; as,
Overthrow, overtake, foretell, undertake, undergo, overhear, overdo, outbid, outdo, upset, ill-use. Note:- In most compound words it is the first word which modifies the meaning of the second. The accent is placed upon the modifying word when the amalgamation is complete. When the two elements of the compound are only partially blended, a hyphen is put between them, and the accent falls equally on both parts of the compound.

Exercise 123.
Explain the formation of the following compound words:Newspaper, football, moonstruck, turncoat, brand-new, jet-black, onlooker, soothsayer, stronghold, ice-cold, worldly-wise, tempest-tossed, race-horse, ear-ring, cooking-stove, over-dose, fire-proof, top-heavy, heaven-born, skin-deep, widespread, snake-charmer, lifelong, upland.

(1) Formation of Nouns from Verbs and Adjectives.

Verbs -- Nouns
Advise -- advice

Bear -- bier
Bind -- bond
Bless -- bliss
Break -- breach
Burn -- brand
Choose -- choice
Chop -- chip
Deal -- dole
Deem -- doom
Dig -- ditch, dike
Float -- fleet
Gape -- gap
Grid -- girth
Grieve -- grief
Live -- life
Lose -- loss
Prove -- proof
Sing -- song
Sit -- seat
Speak -- speech
Strike -- stroke
Strive -- strife
Wake -- watch
Weave -- web, woof

Adjectives -- Nouns
Dull -- dolt
Hot -- heat
Proude -- pride

Page 323

(2) Formation of Adjectives from Verbs and Nouns
Verbs -- Adjectives
Float -- fleet
Lie -- low

Nouns -- Adjectives
Milk -- Milch
Wit -- wise

(3) Formation of Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives
Nouns -- Verbs
Bath -- bathe
Belief -- Believe
Blood -- Weed
Breath -- breathe
Brood -- breed
Cloth -- clothe
Drop -- drip
Food -- feed
Glass -- glaze
Cool -- chill
Hale -- heal
Gold -- gild
Grass -- graze
Half -- halve
Knot -- knit
Price -- prize
Sale -- sell
Sooth -- soothe
Tale -- tell
Thief -- thieve
Wreath -- wreathe

English Prefixes
A-, on, in; abed, aboard, ashore, ajar, asleep.
A-, out, from, arise, awake, alight.
Be-, by (sometimes intensive); beside, betimes, besmear, bedaub.
For-, thoroughly ; forbear, forgive.
Fore-, before ; forecast, foretell.
Gain-, against; gainsay.

In-, in ; income, inland, inlay.
Mis-, wrong, wrongly ; misdeed, mislead, misjudge.
Over-, above, beyond ; overflow, overcharge.
To-, this; to-day, to-night, to-morrow.
Un-, not; untrue, unkind, unholy.
Un-, to reverse an action ; untie, undo, unfold.
Under-, beneath, below ; undersell, undercharge, undergo, under ground.
With-, against, back ; withdraw, withhold, withstand.
Note:- There are only two prefixes of English origin that are still applied freely to new words, mis and un, the former with the force of the adjective bad and the latter with the force of a negative.

Latin Prefixes
Ab, (a, abs), from, away ; abuse, avert, abstract.
Ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, a), to; adjoin, accord, affect, aggrieve, allege, announce, appoint, arrest, assign, attach, avail.

Page 324
Ambi (amb, am), on both sides, around; ambiguous, ambition, amputate.
Ante (anti, an), before; antedate, anticipate, ancestor.
Bene, well; benediction, benefit.
Bis, (bi, bin), twice, two; biscuit, bisect, binocular.
Circum (circu), around ; circumnavigate, circumference, circuit.
Con (col, com, cor) with, together; contend, collect, combine, correct.
Contra (counter), against; contradict, counteract, counterfeit.
De, down; descend, dethrone, depose.
Dis, (dif, di), apart; disjoin, differ, divide.
Demi, half ; demigod.
Ex (ef, e), out of; extract, effect, educe.
Extra, beyond, outside, of; extraordinary, extravagant.
In (il, im, ir, en, em), in, into; invade, illustrate, immerse, irrigate, enact, embrace.
In (il, im, ir), not; insecure, illegal, imprudent, irregular.
Inter (intro, enter), among, within; intervene, introduce, entertain.
Male (mal), ill, badly ; malevolent, malcontent.
Non, not; nonsense.
Ob (oc, of), the way of, against; object, occupy, offend.
Pen, almost; penultimate, peninsula.
Per (pel), through ; pervade, pellucid.
Post, after ; postscript, postdate, postpone.
Pre, before ; prefix, prevent, predict.
Preter, beyond ; preternatural.
Pro (por, pur), for; pronoun, portray, pursue.
Re, back, again ; reclaim, refund, renew, return.
Retro, backwards ; retrospect, retrograde.
Se (sed) ; apart; secede, separate, seduce, sedition.
Semi, half; semicircle, semicolon.
Sine, without; sinecure.
Sub (sue, suf, sug, sum, sup, sur, sus), under; subdue, succeed, suffer, suggest, summon, support, surmount, sustain.
Subter, beneath ; subterfuge.
Super, above ; superfine, superfluous.
Trans, (tra, tres), across ; transmit, traverse, trespass.
Vice, in the place of; viceroy, vice-president.

Page 325

Greek Prefixes
A (an), without, not; atheist, apathy, anarchy.
Amphi, around, on both sides; amphitheatre, amphibious.
Ana, up, back; anachronism, analysis.
Anti (ant), against; antipathy, antagonist.
Apo (ap) from; apostate, apology.
Arch (archi) chief; archbishop, archangel, architect.
Auto, self; autocrat, autobiography, autograph.
Cata, down; cataract, catastrophe, catalogue.
Di, twice; dilemma.
Dia, through; diagonal, diameter.
Dys, badly; dyspepsia, dysentery.
En (em), in,; encyclopaedia, emblem.
Epi, upon; epilogue, epitaph.
Eu, well; eulogy, euphony, eugenics.
Ex (ec), out of; exodus, eccentric.
Hemi, half; hemisphere.
Homo (hom), like ; homogeneous, homonym.
Hyper, over, beyond ; hyperbole, hypercritical.
Hypo, under ; hypothesis, hypocrite.
Meta (met), implying change ; metaphor, metonymy.
Mono, alone, single ; monoplane, monopoly.
Pan, all; panacea, panorama, pantheism.
Para, beside, by the side of; parallel, paradox, parasite.
Peri, round ; period, perimeter, periscope.
Philo (Phil),love; philosophy, philanthropy.
Pro, before; prophesy, programme.
Syn, (sym, syl, sy),with, together; synonym, sympathy, syllable, system.

English Suffixes
(1) Denoting agent or doer
-- er (-ar, -or, -yer); painter, baker, beggar, sailor, lawyer.
-- ster ; spinster, punster, songster.
-- ter (-ther) ; daughter, father.
(2) Denoting state, action, condition, being, etc.
-- dom ; freedom, martyrdom, wisdom.
-- hood (-head); manhood, childhood, godhead.
-- lock (-ledge); wedlock, knowledge.
-- ness ; darkness, boldness, goodness, sweetness.
-- red ; kindred, hatred.

-- ship ; hardship, friendship, lordship.
-- th : health, stealth, arnwth.

Page 326
(3) Forming Diminutives.
-- el (-le) ; satchel, kernel, girdle, handle.
-- en ; maiden, kitten, chicken.
-- ie ; dearie, birdie, lassie.
-- kin ; lambkin, napkin.
-- let; leaflet.
-- ling ; duckling, darling, stripling, weakling.
-- ock ; hillock, bullock.

-- ed, having ; gifted, talented, wretched, learned.
-- en, made of; wooden, golden, woollen, earthen.
-- fid, full of; hopeful, fruitful, joyful.
-- ish, somewhat like ; boorish, reddish, girlish.
-- Jess, free from, without; fearless, shameless, hopeless, senseless, boundless.
-- ly, like ; manly, godly, sprightly.
-- some, with the quality of; wholesome, meddlesome, gladsome, quarrelsome.
-- ward, inclining to ; forward, wayward.
-- y, with the quality of; wealthy, healthy, windy, slimy, greedy, needy, thirsty, dirty.

-- en, causative, forming transitive verbs; weaken, sweeten, gladden, deaden, strengthen.
-- se, to make ; cleanse, rinse.
-- er, intensive or frequentative: chatter, glitter, glimmer, fritter, flutter.

-- ly, like ; boldly, wisely.
-- long, headlong, sidelong.
-- ward, (-wards), turning to; homeward, backwards, upwards.
-- way, (-ways); straightway, anyway, always.
-- wise, manner, mode ; likewise, otherwise.
Note:- We still feel the force of a few English suffixes. These are:-- er, denoting the actor or agent; as driver.
-- hood, indicating rank or condition ; as, boyhood.
-- kin. ling, diminutives, as. lambkin, vearling.

Page 327
-- ness, ship, th, indicating abstract nouns ; as, loveliness, friendship, truth.
-- en, ful, ish, less, ly, some, ward, y, adjective and adverb, endings ; as, golden, hopeful, oldish, helpless, manly, lonesome, homeward, mighty.

Latin Suffixes OF NOUNS
(1) Denoting chiefly the agent or doer of a thing.
-- ain (-an, -en, -on) ; chieftain, artisan, citizen, surgeon.
-- air, (-er, -eer, -ier, -ary ); scholar, preacher, engineer, financier, missionary.
-- ate (-ee, -ey, -y) ; advocate, trustee, attorney, deputy.
-- or, (-our, -eur, -er); emperor, saviour, amateur, inteipreter.
(2) Denoting state, action, result of an action.
-- age; bondage, marriage, breakage, leakage.
-- ance (-ence); abundance, brilliance, assistance, excellence, innocence.
-- cy; fancy, accuracy, lunacy, bankruptcy.
-- ion; action, opinion, union.
-- ice (-ise) ; service, cowardice, exercise.
-- ent ; punishment, judgement, improvement.
-- mony ; parsimony, matrimony, testimony.
-- tude ; servitude, fortitude, magnitude.
-- ty ; cruelty, frailty, credulity.
-- ure ; pleasure, forfeiture, verdure.
-- y ; misery, victory.
(3) Forming diminutives.
-- cule (-ule, -eel, -sel, -el, -le); animalcule, globule, parcel, damsel, chapel, circle.
-- et; owlet, lancet, trumpet.
-- ette ; cigarette, coquette.
(4) Denoting place.
-- ary (-ery, -ry); dispensary, library, nunnery, treasury.
-- ter (tre) ; cloister; theatre.

-- al; national, legal, regal, mortal, fatal.
-- an (-ane) ; human, humane, mundane.
-- ar; familiar, regular.
-- ary; customary, contrary, necessary, ordinary, honorary.
-- ate; fortune, temperature, obstinate.

Page 328
-- ble (-ible, able) ; feeble, sensible, laughable.
-- esque; picturesque, grotesque.
-- id; humid, vivid, lucid.
-- ile; servile, fragile, juvenile.
-- ine; feminine, canine, feline, divine.
-- ive; active, attentive, shortive
-- lent; corpulent, indolent, turbulent, virulent.
-- ose (ous); verbose, dangerous, onerous, copious.

-- ate; assassinate, captivate, exterminate.
-- esce; acquiesce, effervesce.
-- fy; simplify, purify, fortify, sanctify, terrify.
-- ish; publish, nourish, punish, banish.

Greek Suffixes
-- ic (-ique); angelic, cynic, phonetic, unique.
-- ist; artist, chemist.
-- isk; asterisk, obelisk.
-- ism (-asm); patriotism, despotism, enthusiasm.
-- ize; civilize, sympathize, criticize.
-- sis (-sy); crisis, analysis, heresy, poesy.
-- e (-y); catastrophe, monarchy, philosophy. '
Note:- We still feel the force of a number of suffixes of foreign, origin. These are :ee (French), added to nouns to denote, usually, the person who takes a passive share in an action; as, employee, payee, legatee, mortgagee, trustee, referee. or, ar, er, eer, ier, denoting a person who perfoms a certain actor function; as, emperor, scholar, officer, engineer, gondolier. ist, denoting a person who follows a certain trade or pursuit; as, chemist, theosophist, artist, nihilist. ism, forming abstract nouns; as, patriotism. ble, forming adjectives that have usually a passive sense; as, tolerable, bearable. ize orise, forming verbs from nouns and adjectives; as, crystallize, moralize, baptize.

Exercise 124.
(a) Give examples showing the use and meaning of the following prefixes :super-, trans-, con-, sub-, auto-, mis-, ante-, post-, vice-, extra-, pre-, arch-.

(b) Give examples of adjectives formed from nouns by the addition of the suffixes -en, ish, -less, and explain the meaning of the suffixes.

Page 329
(c) Show by the use of suffixes that we can use a single word to express the meaning of each of the following groups of words:A little river, the state of being a child, to make fat, that which cannot be read, unfit to be chosen. (d) Give the meanings of the prefixes and suffixes in the following words:Incredible, antidote, anarchy, misconduct, monarch, sympathy, manhood, hillock, archbishop, amiss, bicycle, dismantle, freshen.
(e) Form Adjectives from the following nouns:Circumstance, habit, stone, miser, irony, labour, circuit.
(f) Form Verbs from:Friend, bath, fertile, grass, clean, sweet, critic.
(g) Form Nouns from:Sustain, attain, confess, attach, fortify, oblige, give, cruel, hate, govern, sweet.
(h) Form Adjectives from:Muscle, hazard, worth, quarrel, admire, thirst, god.
(i) Add to each of the following words a prefix which reverses the meaning:Fortune, legible, visible, agreeable, ever, fortunate, practicable, honour, patience, sense, truth, resolute, legal, capable, organize, credible, creditable.
(j) What is the force or meaning of the (1) Prefixes: in-, bene-, post-, dys-, dis-, (2)
Suffixes;-en, -fy, -ness, -isk, -ing IName the language from which each is derived.
(k) Mention two prefixes which denote (1) reversal of an action; (2) something good; (3) something bad; (4) a negative.
(l) Name the primary derivatives of the following words:Hale, glass, high, sit, dig, strong, deep.
(m) By means of a suffix turn each of the following words into an abstract noun:Grand, discreet, supreme, rival, certain, warm, desolate, dense.
240. A Root is the simple element common to words of the same origin.

A few Latin Roots
Equus, equal: equal, equator, equivalent, adequate.
Ager, afield : agriculture, agrarian.

Ago, actus, I do : agent, agile, active, actor. Aus,another : alien, aliquot, alias, alibi. Amo,
I love : amiable, amateur, amorous, inimical. Angulus, a corner : angle, triangle.
Anima, life; animus, mind : animal, animate, unanimous, magnanimous, Annus, a year : annual, biennial, perennial. Aperio, apertus, I open : aperture, April. Aqua, water : aquatic, aquarium, aqueduct.

Page 330
Appello, I call: appeal, repeal
Ars, artis, art : artist, artisan, artifice.
Audio, I hear : audible, audience, auditor.
Bellum, war : belligerent, rebel, rebellious.
Bene, well: benefit, benevolent, benefactor.
Brevis, short: brevity, abbreviate, abridge.
Caedo, caesus, I cut, kill: suicide, homicide, concise,
Candeo, I shine: candle, candid, candour, incandescent.
Capio, captus, I take : captive, capacious, accept.
Caput, capitis, the head : capital, decapitate, captain.
Caro, carnis, flesh : carnivorous, carnage.
Cedo cessum, I go, yield : concede, proceed, accede.
Centrum, centre : eccentric, centralize, concentrate.
Centum, a hundred : cent, century, centipede.
Cerno, cretus, I distinguish : discern, discreet.
Civis, citizen : civil, civilize.
Clamo, I shout: clamour, claim, exclaim.
Claudo clausus, I shut: exclude, conclude, closet.
Colo, cultus, I till; colony, culture, cultivate, agriculture.
Cor, cordis, the heart: core, cordial, concord, discord, accord, courage.
Corpus, the body : corpse, corps, corporation, corpulent.
Credo, I believe : creed, credible, credence, miscreant.
Cresco, I grow : increase, decrease, crescent.
Crux, a cross : crucify, crusade.
Culpa, a fault: culprit, culpable.
Cura, care : curator, sinecure, accurate, secure, incurable.
Deus, God : deity, deify, divine.
Dico, dictus I say : dictation, contradict, predict, verdict. .
Dies, a day : diary, daily, meridian.
Do, datus, I give : add, date, tradition, addition, condition.
Doceo, doctus, I teach : docile, doctrine.
Dominus, a lord : dominion, dominant.
Duco, ductus, I lead : adduce, conduit, product, education.
Duo, two : dual, duel, double, duplicate, duodecimal.
Durus, hard lasting : durable, obdurate, duration.
Eo, itum, I go : exit, circuit, transition, ambition.
Esse, to be : essence, essential, present, absent.
Facio, I make : fabric, counterfeit, manufacture.
Fero, latus, I carry : infer, confer, refer, relate.
Fido, I trust: confide, infidel, defy.
Finis, an end : finite, infinite, confine.
Flecto flexus, I bend : inflict, inflexible, reflection.
Forma, a form : formal, deformed, reform.
Fortis, strong : fort, fortress, fortify, fortitude, reinforce.

Frango, fractus, I break : fragment, fragile, fraction, infringe.
Frater, a brother; fraternal, fratricide.
Frons, frontis, forehead : front, affront, frontier, confront.
Fugio, 1 flee : fugitive, refugee, refuge, subterfuge.
Fundo, fusus, I pour : profuse, diffuse, confuse, refund.
Fundus, the bottom : found, foundation, profound, fundamental, founder.
Gens, gentis, a race : congenial, indigenous.
Gradior, grassus, I go: grade, degrade, transgress, progress.
Gratia, favour : gratitude, gratis, ingratiate, grateful.
Gravis, heavy : gravity, gravitation, grief, grievous.
Habeo, I have : habit, habitable, habituate, exhibit, inhabit, prohibit.

Page 331
Homo, a man : homage, homicide, human, humane.
Impero, I command: imperative, imperial, emperor, empire.
Jacio, jactus, I throw: ejaculate, reject.
Judex, judicis, a judge: judicial, judgment, judicious, prejudice.
Jungo, junctus, I join: junction, conjunction, juncture.
Labor, lapsus, I glide, lapse, collapse, relapse, elapse.
Laus, laudis, praise: laudable, laudatory.
Lego, lectus, I gather, read : collect, neglect, select.
Lego, legatus, I send : delegate, legation.
Levis, light: levity, alleviate, elevate, leaven.
Lex, legis, a law : legal, legislate, legitimate, loyal.
Liber, free : liberal, libertine, deliver.
Ligo, I bind : ligature, ligament, religion, league, obligation.
Litera, a letter : literal, literary, literate, literature.
Locus, a place : local, locality, locomotive.
Loquor, locutus, I speak : loquacious, elocution, eloquence.
Ludo, lusum, I play : elude, delude, ludicrous
Lumen, a light: luminous, luminary.
Luo, lutus, I wash : lotion, ablution, deluge, dilute, pollute.
Lux, lucis, light: lucid, elucidate.
Magnus, great: major, mayor, magnate, magnify, magnitude.
Malus, bad : malady, malice, maltreat, malaria.
Manus, hand : manuscript, amanuensis, manual.
Mare, the sea : marine, mariner, submarine, maritime.
Mater, a mother : maternal, matriculate, matron, matrimony.
Medius, the middle : medium, mediate.
Memor, mindful: memory, memorable, memoir.
Miles, militis, a soldier : military, militia, militant.
Mitto, missus, I send : admit, missionary, promise.
Moneo monitus, I advise : monitor, admonish.
Mons, montis, a mountain : mount, dismount, surmount.
Moveo, motus, I move : motor, motion, commotion, promote
Multus, many; multitude, multiple.
Munus, muneris, a gift : munificent, remunerate.
Navis, a ship : navy, nautical.
Noceo, I hurt: innocent, noxious, nuisance.
Novus, new : novel, novice, innovation.
Nox, noctis, night: nocturnal, equinox.
Omnis, all : omnipotent, omnipresent, omnibus.
Pando, passus, I spread out: expand, compass, trespass.
Pars, partis, a part: part, partial, particle.
Pater, a father : paternal, patron, patrimony.
Patior, passus, I suffer : passive, patient.
Pello, pulsus, I drive : compel, expel, repel.

Pendeo, pensum, I hang : depend, suspend.
Pes, pedis, a foot: biped, quadruped, pedestrian, pedestal.
Peto, petitus, I seek : petition, competition, impetuous.
Pleo, I fill: complete, replete, replenish, supplement.
Pono, positus, I place : position, preposition, composition.
Porto, I carry : portable, portmanteau, import, export.
Primus, first: primary, primitive, prince, premier, principal.
Probo, I try : probation, probable, approval.
Puto, putatus, I cut, think : amputate, dispute, compute.
Rapio, raptus. I seize : rapacious, ravenous.
Rego, rectus, I rule : regal, regent, correct, regulate.
Rumpo, ruptus, I break : rupture, rout, bankrupt, eruption.
Sanctus, holy : sanctuary, sanctify, saint.

Page 332
Scio, I know: science, conscience, omniscience.
Scribo, scriptus, I write: describe, scribble, postscript, inscription, manuscript.
Seco, I cut: bisect, dissect, sickle.
Sentio, I feel: sentiment, sensation, nonsense, sensual.
Sequor, secutus, I follow: sequel, sequence, consequence, prosecute, execute.
Servio, I serve: servant, serf, service, servitude.
Signum, a sign: signal, significant, design.
Similis, tike: similar, dissimilar, resemblance.
Solvo, solutus, I loose: solution, resolution, absolve, dissolve, resolve.
Specio, spectus, I see: specimen, spectator, suspicion.
Spiro, I breathe: aspire, conspire, inspire, expire.
Stringo, strictus, I bind: stringent, strict, restrict.
Struo, structus, I build: structure, construction.
Sumo, sumptus, I take: assume, presume, resume.
Tango, tactus, I touch: tangent, contact, contagion.
Tempus, temporis, time: tense, temporal, contemporary.
Tendo, tensus, I stretch: tend, contend, attend, extend.
Teneo, tentus, I hold: tenant, tenure, content, retentive.
Terminus, an end: term, terminate, determination.
Terra, the earth: inter, subterranean, terrestrial.
Texo, textus, I weave: textile, texture, context.
Torqueo, tortus, I twist: distort, torture, torment.
Traho, tractus, I draw: contract, abstract, portrait.
Tribuo, I give: tribute, contribute.
Unus, one: union, unique, unanimous.
Valeo, I am well: valid, invalid, equivalent, valiant.
Venio, I come: venture, adventure, convene, prevent.
Verbum, a word: verb, adverb, proverb, verbose, verbal.
Verto, versus, I turn: convert, converse, reverse, diversion.
Verus, true: verify, verdict, aver, veracious.
Video, visus, I see: vision, surve. evident, television.
Vinco, victus, I conquer: victor, invincible, convince.
Vivo, victum, I live: vivid, vivacious, revive, survive.
Voco, vocatus, I call: vocal, vocation, vociferous, invoke, revoke.
Volo, I wish: voluntary, benevolent, malevolence.
Volvo, I roll: revolve, involve, revolution.
Voro, I eat: voracious, omnivorous, carnivorous, devour.
Voveo, votus, I vow: vote, devote, devotee, votary.
Vulgus, the common people: vulgar, divulge.

A Few Greek Roots
Ago, I lead: demagogue, pedagogue, stratagem.
Agon, a contest: agony, antagonist.
Anthropos, a man: anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropist.

Aster, astron, a star: asterisk, astronomy, astrology.
Autos, self: autocrat, autograph, autonomy, autobiography.
Biblos, a book; Bible, bibliography, bibliomaniac.
Bios, life: biology, biography.
Chole, bile: choleric, melancholy.
Chronos, lime: chronicle, chronology, chronometer, chronic.
Deka, ten: decagon, decade.
Demos, the people: democracy, demagogue, epidemic.
Doxa, opinion .- orthodox, dogmatic.
Gamos, marriage: monogamy, bigamy, polygamy.
Geo, the earth: geology, geography, geometry.

Page 333
Gonia, an angle: diagonal, polygon, hexagon.
Grapho, I write: biography, telegraph, telegram, phonograph.
Helios, the sun: heliograph, heliotrope.
Hippos, a horse: hippopotamus, hippodrome.
Hodos, a way: period, method, episode.
Homos, the same: homogeneous, homonym.
Hudor, water: hydrogen, hydrophobia, hydrant.
Idios, one's own: idiot, idiom, idiosyncrasy.
Isos, equal: isosceles.
Kosmos, the world: cosmopolite.
Kratos, strength: democrat, autocrat, aristocrat, plutocrat
Kuklos, a circle: cycle, cyclone, encyclopaedia.
Lithos, a stone: lithography, aerolite.
Logos, a word, speech: dialogue, catalogue, astrology.
Luo, I loosen: analysis, paralysis.
Meter, a mother; metropolis.
Metron, a measure: thermometer, barometer.
Mikros, little: microscope.
Monos, alone: monarch, monopoly.
Nomos, a, law: astronomy, economy, autonomy.
Ode, a song: prosody, parody.
Onoma, a name: anonymous, synonymous.
Orthos, right: orthodoxy, orthography.
Pan, all: pantheist, pantomime, panacea.
Pathos, feeling: pathetic, sympathy, antipathy,.
Petra, a rock: petrify, petroleum.
Phileo, I love: philosophy, philanthropy.
Phone, a sound: phonograph, telephone.
Phos, photos, light; phosphorus, photograph.
Phrasis, a speech: paraphrase, phraseology.
Poleo, I make: poem, onomatopoeia.
Polis, a city: police, policy, politic, metropolis
Polus, many: polygamy, polygon.
Poiis, podos, afoot: antipodes, tripod.
Rheo, I flow: rheumatic, diarrhoea, catarrh.
Skopeo, I see: telescope, microscope.
Sophia, wisdom: philosopher, sophist.
Techne, an art: technical, architect, pyrotechnics.
Tele, afar: telegraph, telegram, telephone, telescope, telepathy, telemail.
Temno, I cut: anatomy, epitome.
Theos, a god: theism, theology, theosophy.
Thermos, warm: thermometer.
Thesis, a placing: hypothesis, synthesis, parenthesis.
Treis, three: triangle, tripod, trinity.

Tupos, impression: type, stereotype, electrotype.
Zoon, an animal: zoology, zodiac.

241. A Figure of Speech is a departure from the ordinary form of expression, or the ordinary course of ideas in order to produce a greater effect.
242. Figures of Speech may be classified as under:(1) Those based on Resemblance, such as Simile, Metaphor, Personificatiopn and

Page 334
(2) Those based on Contrast, such as Antithesis and Epigram.
(3) Those based on Association, such as Metonymy and Synec doche.
(4) Those depending on Construction, such as Climax and Anticlimax.
243. Simile:- In a Simile a comparison is made between two objects of different kinds which have however at least one point in common.
The Simile is usually introduced by such words as like, as or so. Examples:1. The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold.
2. The righteous shall flourish as the palm tree.
3. As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so panteth my soul after Thee, O God.
4. Words are like leaves: and where they most abound,
Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found.
5. How far that little candle throws his beams !
So shines a good deed in a naughty world.
6. Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale
Vexing the dull ear of a drowsy man.
7. Thy soul was like a star, and dwelt apart:
Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea.
8. O my Love's like a red, red rose
That's newly sprung in June;
O my Love's like the melodie.
That's sweetly played in tune.
The following are some common similes of everyday speech:Mad as a March Hare; as proud as a peacock; as bold as brass; as tough as leather; as clear as crystal; as good as gold; as old as the hills; as cool as a cucumber.
Note:- A comparison of two things of the same kind is not a Simile.
244. Metaphor:- A Metaphor is an implied Simile. It does not, like the Simile, state that one thing is like another or acts as another, but takes that for granted and proceeds as if the two things were one.
Thus, when we say, 'He fought like a lion' we use a Simile, but when we say, 'He was a lion in the fight', we use a Metaphor.
Examples:1. The camel is the ship of the desert.
2. Life is a dream.
3. The news was a dagger to his heart.
4. Revenge is a kind of wild justice.
Note 1:- Every Simile can be compressed into a Metaphor and every Metaphor can be expanded into a Simile.

Thus, instead of saying, we can say,
Richard fought like a lion (Simile),

Page 335
Similarly, instead of saying,
The camel is the ship of the desert (Metaphor). we may expand it and say,
As a ship is used for crossing the ocean, so the camel is used for crossing the desert
Other examples:Variety is the spice of life (Metaphor).
As spice flavours food, so variety makes life more pleasant (Simile).
The waves broke on the shore with a noise like thunder (Simile).
The waves thundered on the shore. (Metaphor)
Note 2:- Metaphor should never be mixed. That is, an object should not be identified with two or more different things in the same sentence.
The following is a typical example of what is called a Mixed Metaphor.
I smell a rat; I see it floating in the air; but I will nip it in the bud.
245. Personification:- In Personification inanimate objects and abstract notions are spoken of as having life and intelligence.
Examples:1. In Saxon strength that abbey frowned.
2. Laughter holding both her sides.
3. Death lays his icy hand on kings.
4. Pride goeth forth on horseback, grand and gay,
But Cometh back on fool, and begs its way.
246. Apostrophe:- An Apostrophe is a direct address to the dead, to the absent, or to a personified object or idea. This figure is a special form of Personification.
Examples:1. Milton ! thou should'st be living at this hour.
2. O Friend ! I know not which way I must look
For, comfort,
3. Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean-roll !
4. O death ! where is thy sting ? O grave ! where is thy victory ?
5. O liberty, what crimes have been committed in thy name ?
6. Wave, Munich, all thy banners wave,
And charge with alt thy chivalry !
7. O judgement! thou art fled to brutish beasts.
8. O Solitude ! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face ?
247. Hyperbole:- In Hyperbole a statement is made emphatic by overstatement.

Examples:1. Here's the smell of blood still; all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. 2. Why, man, if the river were dry, I am able to fill it with tears.
3. O Hamlet ! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.

Page 336
4. Surely never lighted on this orb, which she hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful vision than Marie Antoinette.
5. I loved Ophelia: Torn thousand brothers Could not with all then' quantity of love
Make up the sum.
248. Euphemism:- Euphemism consists in the description of a disagreeable thing by an agreeable name.
Examples:1. He has fallen asleep (i.e., he is dead).
2. You are telling me a fairy tale (i.e., a lie).
249. Antithesis:- In antithesis a striking opposition or contrast of words or sentiments is made in the same sentence. It is employed to secure emphasis.
Examples:1. Man proposes, God disposes.
2. Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.
3. Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay.
4. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
5. Speech is silver, but silence is golden.
6. To err is human, to forgive divine.
7. Many are called, but few are chosen.
8. He had his jest, and they had his estate.
9. The Puritans hated bear-baiting, not because it gave pain to the bear, but because it gave pleasure to the spectators.
10. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds; therefore, let him season ably water the one and destroy the other.
250. Oxymoron:- Oxymoron is a special form of Antithesis, whereby two contradictory qualities are predicted at once of the same thing.
Examples:1. His honour rooted in dishonour stood.
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.
2. So innocent arch, so cunningly simple.
3. She accepted it as the kind cruelty of the surgeon's knife.
251. Epigram:- An Epigram is a brief pointed saying frequently introducing antithetical ideas which excite surprise and arrest attention.
Examples:1. The child is father of the man.
2. A man can't be too careful in the choice of his enemies.
3. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
4. In the midst of life we are in death.
5. Art lies in concealing art,
6. He makes no friend, who never made a foe.

7. Know then thyself, presume not God to scan;
The proper study of mankind is man,
8. The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool,
9. Lie heavy on him, earth, for he (Vanbrugh, the Architect)
Laid many a heavy load on thee.

Page 337
10. Here lies our Sovereign Lord the King.
Whose word no man relies on,
Who never said a foolish thing
And never did a wise one.
252. Irony:- Irony is a mode of speech in which the real meaning is exactly the opposite of that which is literally conveyed.
Examples:1. No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.
2. The atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honourable gentle man has, with such spirit and decency, charged upon me. I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny.
3. Here under leave of Brutus and the rest
(For Brutus is an honourable man:
So are they all, all honourable men)
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me;
But Brutus says he was ambitious,
And Brutus is an honourable man.
253. Pun:- A Pun consists in the use of a word in such a way that it is capable of more than one application, the object being to produce a ludicrous effect.
Examples:1. Is life worth living?-It depends upon the liver.
2. An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.
254. Metonymy:- In Metonymy (literally, a change of name) an object is designated by the name of something which is generally associated with it.
Some familiar examples:The Bench, for the judges.
The House, for the members of Lok Sabha.
The laurel, for success.
Red-coats, for British soldiers.
Bluejackets, for sailors.
The Crown, for the king.
Since there are many kinds of association between objects, there are several varieties of
Thus a Metonymy may result from the use of:(i)The sign for the person or thing symbolized; as,
You must address the chair (i.e., the chairman).
From the cradle to the grave (i.e., from infancy to death).

(ii)The container for the thing contained; as,
The whole city went out to see the victorious general.
The kettle boils.
Forthwith he drank the fatal cup.
He keeps a good cellar.
He was playing to the gallery.
He has undoubtedly the best stable in the country.
(iii) The instrument for the agent; as,
The pen is mightier than the sword.

Page 338
(iv) The author for his works; as,
We are reading Milton.
Do you learn Euclid at your school ?
(v) The name of a feeling or passion for its object;
He turn'd his charger as he spake
Upon the river shore,
He gave the bridle-reins a shake,
Said 'Adieu for evermore,
My love !
And adieu for evermore.'
255. Synecdoche:- In Synecdoche a part is used to designate the whole or the whole to designate a part.
(i) A part used to designate the whole; as,
Give us this day our daily bread (i.e., food),
All hands (i.e., crew) to the pumps.
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
A fleet of fifty sail (i.e., ships) left the harbour.
All the best brains in Europe could not solve the problem.
He has many mouths to feed.
(ii) The whole used to designate a part; as,
England (i.e., the English cricket eleven) won the first test match against Australia.
256. Transferred Epithet:- In this figure an epithet is transferred from its proper word to another that is closely associated with it in the sentence.
Examples:1. He passed a sleepless night.
2. The ploughman homeward plods his weary way.
3. A lackey presented an obsequious cup of coffee.
257. Litotes:- In Litotes an affirmative is conveyed by negation of the opposite, the effect being to suggest a strong expression by means of a weaker. It is the opposite of
Examples:1. I am a citizen of no mean (= a very celebrated) city.
2. The man is no fool (= very clever).
3. I am not a little (= greatly) surprised.
258. Interrogation:- Interrogation is the asking of a question not for the sake of getting an answer, but to put a point more effectively.
This figure of speech is also known as Rhetorical Question because a question is asked merely for the sake of rhetorical effect.

Examples:1. Am I my brother's keeper?
2. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
3. Shall I wasting in despair.
Die because a woman's fair?
4. Who is here so vile that will not love his country?
5. Breathes there the man with soul so dead
Who never to himself hath said.

Page 339
6. Can storied urn or animated bust
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?
259. Exclamation:- In this figure the exclamatory form is used to draw greater attention to a point than a mere bald statement of it could do.
Examples:1. What a piece of work is man !
2. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank !
3. O what a fall was there, my countrymen !
260. Climax:- Climax (Gk. Klimax = a ladder) is the arrangement of a series of ideas in the order of increasing importance.
Examples:1. Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime.
2. What a piece of work is man ! How noble in reason, how infinite in faculties ! In action, how like an angel ! In apprehension, how like a god!
261. Anticlimax:- Anticlimax is the opposite of Climax-a sudden descent from higher to lower. It is chiefly used for the purpose of satire or ridicule.
Examples:1. Here thou, great Anna ! whom three realms obey,
Dost sometimes counsel take-and sometimes tea.
2. And thou, Dalhousie, the great god of war,
Lieutenant-Colonel to the Earl of Mar.

Exercise 125.
Name the various Figures of Speech in the following:1. The more haste, the less speed.
2. I must be taught my duty, and by you !
3. Plead, Sleep, my cause, and make her soft like thee.
4. Charity suffereth long, and is kind.
5. He makes no friend, who never made a foe.
6. He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He
No see?
7. Let not ambition mock their useful toil.
8. To gossip is a fault; to libel, a crime; to slander, a sin.
9. Oh ! what a noble mind is here overthrown!
10. Excess of ceremony shows want of breeding.
11. Why all this toil for triumphs of an hour?
12. Fools who came to scoff, remained to pray.
13. The Puritan had been rescued by no common deliverer from the grasp of no common foe. 14. The cup that cheers but not inebriates.
15. You are a pretty fellow.

16. Hasten slowly.
17. Hail ! smiling morn.
18. Can two walk together, except they be agreed?
19. Curses are like chickens; they come home to roost.
20. A thousand years are as yesterday when it is past.
21. The prisoner was brought to the dock in irons.
22. We had nothing to do, and we did it very well.
23. Boys will be boys.
24. The cloister opened her pitying gate.
25. Lowliness is young Ambition's ladder.
26. Language is the art of concealing thoughts.

Page 340
27. Must I stand and crouch under your humour?
28. Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells !
29. He followed the letter, but not the spirit of the law.
30. One truth is clear: whatever is, is right.
31. I came, I saw, I conquered.
32. Labour, wide as the earth, has its summit in heaven,
33. Just for a handful of silver Vie left us.
34. They were swifter than eagles; they were stronger than lions.
35. Swiftly flies the feathered death.
36. It is a wise father that knows his own child.
37. Brave Macbeth, with his brandished steel, carved out his passage.
38. Sweet Thames ! run softly, till I end my song.
39. There is only one cure for the evils which newly acquired freedom produces-and that cure is freedom.
40. Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain,
Where health and plenty cheered the labouring swain.
41. So spake the seraph Abdiel faithful found.
Among the faithless, faithful only he.
42. Youth is full of pleasure,
Age is full of care.
43. Like the dew on the mountain,
Like the foam on the river.
Like the bubble on the fountain,
Thou art gone and for ever.
44. Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust,
Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?
45. Golden lads and girls all must,
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust.
46. Sweet are the uses of adversity.
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,
Wears still a precious jewel in its head.
47. The naked every day he clad
When he put on his clothes.
48. O mischief, thou art swift
To enter in the thoughts of. desperate men.
49. Knowledge is proud that it knows so much,
Wisdom is humble that it knows no more.
50. At once they rush'd
Together, as two eagles on one prey
Come rushing down together from the clouds,
One from east, one from west.
51. Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow,
He who would search for pearls must dive below,
52. The best way to learn a language is to speak it.

53. Sceptre and crown
Must tumble down,
And in the dust be equal made
With the poor crooked scythe and spade.
54. O Solitude ! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face?
55. I thought ten thousand swords must have leapt from their scabbards to avenge a look that threatened her with insult.
56. The soldier fights for glory, and a shilling a day.
57. His honour rooted in dishonour stood,
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.
58. They speak like saints, and act like devils.
59. He was a learned man among lords, and a lord among learned men.
60. Speech was given to man to conceal his thoughts.

Page 341


Pattern 1
This is the simplest of verb patterns. The subject is followed by an intransitive verb, which expresses complete sense without the help of any other words.
Subject -- Verb
1. Birds -- fly.
2. Fire -- burns.
3. The moon -- is shining.
4. The baby -- is crying.
5. Kamala -- was singing.
6. The bell -- has rung.
7. The sun -- rose.

Pattern 2
Subject+verb+subject complement
The complement usually consists of a noun (examples 1&2), a pronoun (3 & 4), or an adjective (5,6, 7 & 8).
Subject -- Verb -- Subject Complement
1. This -- is -- a pen.
2. His brother – became -- a soldier.
3. It -- is -- I me
4. That book -- is-- mine.
5. Gopal -- looks -- sad.
6. My father -- grew -- angry.
7. The children -- kept -- quiet.
8. The milk -- has turned -- sour.

Pattern 3
Subject + verb + direct object
Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object

1. I -- know -- his address.
2. The boy -- has lost -- his pen.
3. Mohan -- opened -- the door.
4. Who -- broke -- the jug?
5. Mr, Pill -- has bought -- a car.
6. You -- must wash -- yourself.
7. We -- should help -- the poor.

Page 342

Pattern 4
Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object
Subject -- Verb -- Indirect -- Direct Object
1. I -- lent -- her -- my pen.
2. The teacher -- gave -- us -- homework.
3. We --have paid -- him -- the money.
4. The old man -- told --us -- the whole story.
5. You -- must tell -- the police -- the truth.
6. I -- have bought --my sister --a watch.
7. He -- didn't leave -- us -- any.
8. - -- Show -- me -- your hands.

Pattern 5
Subject + verb + direct objects preposition + prepositional object
Subject -- Verb -- Direct -- Preposition -- Prepositional object

I -- lent -- my pen -- to -- a friend of mine.
The teacher -- gave -- homework -- to -- all of us.
We -- have paid -- the money -- to -- the proprietor.
He -- told -- the news -- to -- everybody in the village.
He -- promised -- the money -- to -- me (not to you).
I -- have bought -- a watch -- for -- my sister.
Mr. Raman -- sold -- his car -- to-- a man from Mumbai.
She -- made -- coffee -- for -- all of us.

Many verbs can be used both in Pattern 4 and in Pattern 5. Pattern 5 is preferred when the direct object is less important or when the indirect object is longer than the direct object.

Pattern 6
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + adjective
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- Adjective
1. The boy -- pushed -- the door -- open.
2. The smith -- beat -- it --flat.
3. She -- washed -- the -- plates -- clean.
4. The -- thief -- broke -- the safe --open.
5. He -- turned -- the -- lamp -- low.
6. You -- have made -- your shirt -- dirty.
7. I -- like -- my coffee -- strong.
8. We -- found -- the trunk -- empty.

In examples 1-6, the adjective denotes a state that results from the action expressed by the verb. In the last two examples the noun and the adjective combine to be the object of the verb. The chief verbs used in this pattern include, keep, beat, drive,make, paint, leave, turn, find, like, wish.

Page 343

Pattern 7
Subject + verb + preposition + prepositional object
Subject -- Verb -- Preposition -- Prepositional Object
1. We -- are waiting -- for -- Suresh.
2. He -- agreed -- to -- our proposal.
3. You -- can't count -- on -- his help.
4. These -- books -- belong -- to -- me.
5. His uncle -- met -- with -- an accident.
6. She -- complained -- of -- his rudeness.
7. He -- failed -- in -- his attempt.

Pattern 8
Subject + verb + to-infinitive (as object of the verb)
Subject --Verb -- to-infinitive, etc. (object of the verb)
1. She -- wants -- to go.
2. I -- forgot -- to post the letter.
3. He -- fears -- to speak in public.
4. They -- intend -- to postpone the trip.
5. Ramesh -- proposes -- to go into business.
6. We -- would like -- to visit the museum.
7. I -- hoped -- to get a first class.
8. He -- decided -- not to go there.
The commonest verbs used in this pattern are: like, love, prefer, begin, start, agree, try, attempt, choose, continue, intend, propose, desire, wish, want, hate, dislike, hope, expect, promise, refuse, fear, remember, forget, offer, learn.

Pattern 9
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + to-infinitive.
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- to-infinitive, etc.
1. I -- would like -- you -- to stay.
2. We -- asked -- him -- to go.
3. He -- helped -- me -- to carry the box.
4. She -- advised -- him -- to study medicine.
5. The doctor -- ordered -- Gopi -- to stay in bed.
6. They -- warned -- us -- not to be late.
7. I -- can't allow -- you -- to smoke.
8. Who -- taught -- you -- to swim?

The chief verbs used in this pattern include ask, tell, order, command, persuade, encourage, urge, want, wish, request, intend, expect, force, tempt, teach, invite, help, warn, like, love, hate, allow, permit, remind, cause, mean, dare.

Page 344

Pattern 10
Subject + verb + gerund.
Subject -- Verb -- Gerund, etc.
1. She -- began -- singing.
2. He -- has finished -- talking.
3. I -- hate -- borrowing money.
4. You -- mustn't miss -- seeing him.
5. Mr Bannerjee -- loves -- teaching.
6. My brother -- enjoys -- playing cricket.
7. I -- suggest -- burning that letter.
8. - -- Don't keep -- saying that.
In this pattern the gerund is the object of the verb. The chief verbs used in this pattern include begin, start, love, like, hate, stop, finish, enjoy, prefer, fear, remember, forget, mind, miss, suggest, practise, try, understand, keep, help, advise, admit, avoid, consider, intend, delay, deny.

Pattern 11
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + present participle
Subject --Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- Present Participle
1. I -- saw -- him -- crossing the bridge.
2. We -- smell -- something -- burning.
3. We -- noticed -- the boy -- walking down the street.
4. She -- caught -- him -- opening your letters.
5. They -- found -- him -- playing cards.
6. She -- kept -- the fire -- burning.
7. - -- (Please) start -- the clock -- going.
The verbs used in this pattern include see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice, find, observe, listen, get, catch, keep, leave, set, start

Pattern 12
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + plain infinitive
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- Plain infinitive
1. I -- saw -- him -- go out.
2. She -- watched -- him -- steal the watch.
3. We --Heard -- her -- sing.
4. The thief -- felt -- someone -- touch his arm,
5. - -- Let -- me -- go.
6. We -- made -- Tom -- behave well.
7. He -- bade -- them -- leave the house.

The chief verbs used in this pattern are: see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, let, help, bid.

Page 345

Pattern 13
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + past participle.
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- Past Participle
1. I -- heard -- my name -- called.
2. I -- want -- this letter -- typed.
3. She -- felt -- herself -- lifted up.
4. You -- should get -- that tooth -- pulled out.
5. He -- had -- his suit -- cleaned.
6. We -- found -- the house -- deserted.
The verbs used in this pattern are: see, hear, find, feel, want, wish, like, make, prefer, get, have. Pattern 14
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + (to be + ) complement
The complement may be an adjective, adjective phrase or noun.
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/Pronoun -- (to be + ) Complement
1. I -- consider -- the plan -- (to be) unwise.
2. We -- thought -- him -- (to be) foolish.
3. People -- supposed -- him -- (to be) a patriot.
4. They -- reported -- Robert -- (to be) a reliable person.
5. The court -- appointed -- her -- guardian of the orphan child.
6. The club -- chose -- Mr Sunder -- treasurer.
7. She -- called -- him -- a fool.
The chief verbs used in this pattern are: appoint, choose, elect, make, call, name, nominate, crown, christen.

Pattern 15
Subject + verb + that-clause (object of the verb)
Subject -- Verb -- that-clause (object of the verb)
1. I -- suppose -- (that) he it not at home.
2. I -- expect -- (that) it will rain.
3. We -- hoped -- (that) you would succeed.
4. He -- says -- (that) he has met your uncle.
5. The teacher -- said -- he was very busy.
6. Padma -- suggested -- that we should go to the park.
7. He -- admitted -- that he had written the letter,
8. They -- complained -- that they had not been fairly treated.

That is often omitted, especially after say, think, suppose, hope, expect.
Among the important verbs used in this pattern are say, think, suppose, imagine, know, believe, admit, confess, declare, suggest, complain, hope, expect, fear, feel, hear, intend, notice, propose, show, understand, wonder.

Page 346

Pattern 16
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + that-clause.
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/Pronoun -- that-clause
1. He -- told -- me -- (that) he was coming on Sunday.
2. I -- warned -- him -- that there were pickpockets in the crowd.
3. She -- has assured -- me -- that she is ready to help.
4. Venu -- promised -- us -- that he would be here at five.
5. -- We -- have informed -- him -- that we are leaving this afternoon.
6. -- He -- satisfied -- me -- that he could do the work well.
The chief verbs used in this pattern are tell, inform, promise, warn, remind, teach, assure, satisfy. Pattern 17
Subject + verb + interrogative + clause
Subject -- Verb -- Interrogative + clause
1. I -- asked -- where he was going.
2. Nobody -- knows -- when he will arrive.
3. I -- wonder -- what he wants.
4. She -- showed -- how annoyed she was.
5. Tom -- could not decide -- what he should do next.
6. I -- can't imagine -- why she has behaved like that.
7. - -- Find out -- when the train is due.
The important verbs used in this pattern are say, ask, wonder, know, believe, imagine, decide, discuss, understand, show, reveal, find out, suggest, tell (especially in the interrogative and negative).

Pattern 18
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + interrogative + clause
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/Pronoun -- Interrogative + clause
1. She -- asked -- me -- when you had gone.
2. - -- Tell -- us -- what it is.
3. I -- showed -- them -- how they should do it.
4. - -- (Please) advise -- me -- what I should do.
5. - -- (Please) inform -- me -- where I should turn off the road.
6. Can -- you tell -- me -- where he lives?
The chief verbs used in this pattern are tell, ask, show, teach, advise, inform.

Page 347

Pattern 19
Subject + verb + interrogative + to-infinitive
Subject -- Verb -- Interrogative + to-infinitive, etc.
1. I -- don't know -- how to do it.
2. I -- wonder -- where to spend the weekend.
3. She -- knows -- how to drive a car.
4. He -- forgot -- when to turn.
5. Tom -- couldn't decide -- what to do next.
6. We -- must find out -- where to put it.
7. - -- Remember -- how to do it.
The commonest verbs used in this pattern are know, understand, wonder, remember, forget, decide, settle, find out, enquire, see, explain, guess, learn, consider.

Pattern 20
Subject + verb + noun/pronoun + (interrogative + to-infinitive.)
Subject -- Verb -- Noun/ Pronoun -- Interrogate + to-infinitive
1. I -- shall show -- you -- how to operate it.
2. He -- has taught -- me -- how to play chess.
3. They -- informed -- us -- where to turn off the road.
4. - -- (Please) advise -- me -- what to do.
5. - -- (Please) tell -- us -- how to get there.
6. We -- asked -- him -- where to get tickets.
The chief verbs used in this pattern are those illustrated in the table.

Exercise 126.
Make up five sentences on each of the patterns. (Do not copy the examples given in the tables.) CHAPTER 31
(1) Question Tags.
It is a common practice in conversation to make a statement and ask for confirmation; as,
'It's very hot, isn't it?' The later part ('isn't it?') is called a question tag. The pattern is (i) auxiliary+n 't +subject, if the statement is positive, ((7) auxiliary + subject, if the statement is negative.
(i) It's raining, isn't it?
You are free, aren't you?

She can swim well, can't she?
Gopi broke the glass, didn't he?
Your sister cooks well, doesn't she?
(ii) You aren't busy, are you?
She can’t swim, can she?

Page 348
Mohan doesn't work hard, does he?
They haven't come yet, have they?
Note that the subject of the question tag is always a pronoun, never a noun.
Note these peculiarities:
I am right, aren't I?
Let's go to the beach, shall we?
Wait a minute, can you?
Have some more rice, will you?
There is a mosque in that street, isn't there?
There are some girls in your class, aren't there?
Somebody has called, haven't they?

(2) Short Answers.
The following is the most usual form of short answers to verbal questions (i.e., questions beginning with an auxiliary):
Yes + pronoun + auxiliary
Or: No + pronoun + auxiliary + n't (not)
Are you going to school? -- Yes, I am.\ No, I am not.
Can you drive a car? -- Yes, I can.\ No, I can't.
Is your son married? -- Yes, he is.\ No, he isn't.
Does Venu work hard? -- Yes, he does.\ No, he doesn't.
Did he say anything? -- Yes, he did.\No, he didn't.

(3) Agreements and Disagreements with Statements.
Agreements with affirmative statements are made with Yes/So/Of course + pronoun + auxiliary. It is a good film. - Yes, it is.
Mohan has already come. - So he has.
He can speak Hindi very well. - Of course he can.
He looks dishonest. - Yes, he does.
Agreements with negative statements are made with No + pronoun + auxiliary + n't/not.
The apples aren't good. - No, they aren't. She doesn't like fish. No, she doesn't. He can't help coughing. No, he can't, They haven't played well. No, they haven't.
Disagreements with affirmative statements are made with No/Oh no + pronoun + auxiliary + n't/not. But is used in disagreement with a question or an assumption.
He is drunk. - No, he isn't.
You are joking. - Oh no, I'm not.
Why did you beat him? - But I didn't.
I suppose she knows Bangali, - But she does’nt.

Page 349
Disagreements with negative statements are made with (Oh) yes/ (Oh) but + pronoun + auxiliary. You can't understand it. - Yes, I can.
He won't come again. - But he will.
You don't know him. - Oh yes, I do.
I didn't break it. - Oh but you did.

(4) Additions to Remarks.
Affirmative additions to affirmative remarks are made with So + auxiliary + subject.
Anand likes oranges. So do I.
She must go home. So must I.
He was late for the meeting. So were you.
I've finished my homework. So has my sister.
Negative additions to negative remarks are made with Nor/Neither + auxiliary + subject.
Ramesh doesn't like sweets. Nor do I.
He didn't believe it. Neither did I.
I can't do the sum. Nor can my father.
Tom wasn't there. Neither was Peter.
Negative additions to affirmative remarks are made with But + subject + auxiliary + n't/not. He knows German. But I don't.
I understood the joke. But Mary didn't.
He knows how to cook. But his wife doesn't.
I can play chess. But my brother can't.
Affirmative additions to negative remarks are made with But + subject + auxiliary.
He doesn't know her. But I do.
I didn't see the film. But Gopi did.
He can't play cricket. But I can.
She wasn't late. But you were.

Exercise 127
Add question tags to the following:1. It's very hot today, --2. You like him,---.
3. Kishore will come, ---.
4. We must hurry, ---.
5. He will never give up, ---.
6. Your father is a doctor, ---.
7. You have tea for breakfast ---.
8. I didn't hurt you, ---.

9. You aren’t going out, ---.
10. They have sold the house, ---.
11. I needn't get up early tomorrow, ---.
15. He didn't paint it himself, ---.
13. Gopal hasn't passed the exam, ---.
14. They will go home soon, ---.
12. It isn't ready yet, ---.
13. Gopal has’nt passed the exam, ---.
14. They will go home soon, ---.
15. He did’nt paint it himself, ---.

Exercise 128
Answer the following questions (a) in the affirmative, (b) in the negative.
1. Can you swim?
2. Do you like sweets?
3. Are you angry with me?
4. Is it going to rain?
5. Am I in your way?
6. Does your father smoke?
9. Is Suresh staying with his uncle?
8. Will they be at the cinema?
7. Did you go to college yesterday?
8. Will they be at the cinema?
9. Is Suresh staying with his uncle?
10. Has he met you?

Page 350

Exercise 129
I. Agree with the following statements, using Yes/So/Of course +pronoun + auxiliary.
1. Children like playing.
2. He has left already.
3. My aunt came yesterday.
4. They are playing beautiful music.
6. Abdul has come to see you.
5. Mr, Mukherji knows ten languages.
II. Agree with the following statements, using No + pronoun + auxiliary + n't/not.
1. He doesn't like tea.
2. You haven't played well.
3. Your brother doesn't look his age.
4. She didn't complain.
6. Ramesh didn't attend the party.
5. He can't speak English fluently.
III. Disagree with the following statements. (Use the pattern No/Oh no/But + pronoun auxiliary + n't/not).
1. He lied.
2. She has promised to obey you.
3. Why nave you spoiled my pen?
4. The boy will hurt himself.
6. You are in the wrong.
5. I suppose he is honest.
IV. Disagree with the following statements, using the pattern (Oh)yes/(Oh) But + pronoun + auxiliary).
1. You can't do the sum.
2. Radha doesn't like you.
3. He isn't reading.
4. She won't come.
6. I don't know where you went.
5. I am not in your way.

Exercise 130
I. Add to the following remarks either freely or using the suggestions in brackets.
(Pattern: So + auxiliary + subject).
1. Venu came late. (Gopi)

2. My friend lives in Mumbai.(his sister)
3. Oranges were very dear, (bananas)
4. I've read the book, (my brother)
5. Madhu can speak Tamil, (his wife)
6. I must leave today, (you)
II. Add to the following remarks, either freely or using the suggestions in brackets.
(Pattern: Nor/Neither + auxiliary + subject).
1. I don't like meat, (my wife)
2. She could't help laughing. (I)
3. This book doesn't belong to me. (that)
4. Monday's debate wasn't very interesting. (Wednesday's)
5. She doesn't know me quite well, (her husband)
6. You didn't notice him. (I)
III. Add contradictory statements to the following, either freely or using the suggestions in brackets. (Pattern: But + subject + auxiliary + n 't/not. )
1. He can type well. (I)
2. I won the election, (my friend)
3. My sister can speak Marathi, (I)
4. I like playing chess, (she)
5. He knows me well, (his brother)
6. Hindi is easy to learn. (English)
IV. Add contradictory statements to the following either freely or using the suggestions in brackets. (Pattern; But/+subject+auxiliary).

Page 351
1. I don't know Telugu. (my wife)
2. My sister doesn't like films. (I)
3. He won't leave tomorrow. (We)
4. I didn't do the homework, (others)
5. He didn't thank me. (she)
6. I didn't know the way. (my friend)

(1) Preparatory There + be + subject.
There + be -- Subject, etc.
1. There is -- a book on the desk.
2. There is -- a hotel near the station.
3. There is -- a lamp beside the bed.
4. There was -- someone at the door.
5. There are -- twelve months in a year.
6. There are -- plenty of pins in a drawer.
The structure “There + be –“ is generally used when the subject is indefinite, i.e., when the subject is preceded by a, an, some, much, many, a few, etc.
(2) to-infinitive after adjectives expressing emotion or desire.
Subject + verb -- Adjective -- to-infinitive etc.
1. We were -- glad -- to see him.
2. She is -- afraid -- to go alone.
3. My brother is -- eager -- to join the army.
4. I shall be -- happy -- to accept your invitation.
5. He was -- anxious -- to meet you.
6. They are -- impatient -- to start.
(3) It + be + adjective + of+ noun/pronoun + to-infinitive.
It + be -- Adjective -- Of+ noun/ pronoun -- to-infinitive etc.
1. It is -- kind -- of you -- to help us.
2. It was -- clever -- of Mohan -- to find his way here.
3. It was -- careless -- of her -- to make a mistake.
4. It was -- unwise -- of me -- to lend him money.
5. It was -- foolish -- of Mr. Ramesh -- to accept the offer.
6. It is -- wicked -- of him -- to say such things.

The following adjectives can be used in this pattern: kind, good, generous, considerate, foolish, stupid, unwise, clever, wise, nice, wrong, polite, brave, cowardly, silly, wicked, cruel, careless, etc.
(4) to-infinitive after easy, difficult, hard, impossible, etc.
Subject + verb -- Adjective -- to-infinitive, etc.
1. This book is -- easy -- to read
2. This rug is -- difficult -- to wash
3. His actions are -- impossible -- to justify
4. The subject is -- hard -- to understand
5. His speech was -- difficult -- to follow
6. The food is -- difficult -- to digest.
7. This medicine is -- pleasant -- to take.

Page 352
(5) It + be + adjective + to-infinitive
It + be – Adjective -- to-infinitive, etc.
1. It is -- easy -- to learn Hindi.
2. It will be -- difficult -- to give up smoking.
3. It may be -- difficult -- to get the job.
4. It is -- bad -- to borrow money.
5. It is -- cruel -- to treat animals in that way.
6. It was -- impossible -- to lift the box.
(6) It + be + no good, etc. + gerundial phrase.
It + be -- Gerundial Phrase
1. It is no good -- asking him for help.
2. It was no good -- talking to her.
3. It's no use -- worrying about it.
4. It is worth -- seeing the film.
5. It was worthwhile -- seeing the exhibition
6. It is amusing -- watching monkeys.
7. It has been a pleasure -- meeting you.
(7) It + be + adjective/noun + noun clause
It + be -- Adjective/ Noun -- Noun Clause
1. It is -- strange -- that he should have behaved like that.
2. It is -- likely -- that there will be rain this afternoon.
3. It is -- possible -- that he doesn't understand Hindi.
4. It is -- doubtful -- whether he will be able to come.
5. It is -- a pity -- that you didn't try harder.
6. It was -- fortunate -- that you escaped the accident.
7. It is -- a mystery -- who can have taken my book.
(8) It + to take + me, him, etc. + time phrase + to-infinitive.
It + to take -- Time phrase -- to-infinitive etc.
1. It took me -- fifteen minutes -- to reach the stadium.
2. It will take you -- only five minutes -- to walk to the park.
3. It took him -- two months -- to recover from his illness.
4. It will take us -- ten minutes -- to get there.
5. It took me -- one year -- to learn Kannnada.
6. It has taken me -- one hour -- to write my composition.
(9) too + adjective/adverb + to-infinitive,

Subject + verb -- too + Adjective/ Adverb -- to-infinitive, etc.
1. She is -- too weak -- to carry the box.
2. I am -- too busy -- to attend the party.
3. He talks -- too fast -- to be understood.
4. My sister is -- too young -- to go to school.
5. She is -- too proud -- to Listen to me.
6. The boy is -- too lazy -- to work.
7. He worked -- too slowly -- to be of much use to me.

Page 353
(10) Adjective/Adverb + enough + to-infinitive
Subject + verb -- Adjective/ Adverb + enough -- to-infinitive etc.
1. She is -- strong enough -- to carry the box.
2. He is -- clever enough -- to understand it.
3. The police ran -- fast enough -- to catch the burglar.
4. You are -- old enough -- to know better.
5. She was hit -- hard enough -- to be knocked down.
6. He is -- tall enough -- to reach the picture.
7. She is -- stupid enough -- to believe us.
(11) So + adjective/Adverb + that-clause
Subject + Verb -- so + adjective/ adverb -- that-clause
1. It is --so dark -- that I can see nothing.
2. He talks -- so fast -- that you can hardly follow him.
3. The box fell -- so heavily -- that it was broken.
4. It was -- so hot -- that we had to postpone our trip.
5. He was -- so furious -- that he couldn't speak.
6. He walked -- so quickly -- that we couldn't catch him up.
7. I was -- so tired -- that I couldn't walk any further.
(12) Patterns of exclamatory sentences
(i) What + (adjective +) noun (+ subject + verb)
What(+Adjective+) Noun -- (Subject +Verb)
1. What a charming girl -- (she is) !
2. What a lovely garden -- (it is) !
3. What a good idea !
4. What a terrible noise !
5. What a fool -- you are !,
6. What a (large) nose -- he has !
7. What beautiful music -- they are playing !
8. What a pity !
(ii) HOW + Adjective/Adverb + Subject + Verb
How +Adjective/Adverb -- Subject +Verb
1. How charming -- she is !
2. How lovely -- the garden is !
3. How clever -- you are !
4. How sweet -- the song is 1
5. How tall -- you have grown !

6. How well -- she dances !
7. How quickly -- the holiday has passed !

Page 354
(13) Conditionals : type 1 (open condition)
If-clause Simple Present -- Main clause Will shall can may +plain infinitive
1. If you study hard -- you will get a first class.
2. If it rains -- we shall postpone our picnic.
3. If I find the pen -- I shall give it to you.
4. If he runs all the time -- he can - get there in time.
5. If her uncle arrives -- she may not come with you.
6. If you hit the dog -- it will bite you.
Conditionals of this type tell us that something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled. The condition may or may not be fulfilled.
(14) Conditionals : Type 2 (Improbable or imaginary condition)
If-clause Simple Past (Subjunctive) -- Main clause would/shauld/could/might + plain infinitive 1. If you studied hard -- you would get a first class.
2. If I were you -- I should not do that
3. If we started now -- we could be in time
4. If you were a millionaire -- how would you spend your time ?
5. If he stopped smoking -- he might get fat
6. If I had a degree -- I could get a job easily.
Conditionals of this type are used when we talk about something which we don't expect to happen or which is purely imaginary.
(15) Conditionals : Type 3 (Unfulfilled condition)
If-clause Past perfect Main clause would/should/could/might + perfect infinitive ,
1. If you had studied hard -- you would have got a first class.
2. If I had tried again -- I should have succeeded.
3. If I had seen him -- I could have saved him from drowning,
4. If you had left that wasp alone -- it might not have stung you.
5. If you had come to me -- I would not have got into trouble.
Conditionals of this type say that something did not happen because a certain condition was not fulfilled.

Exercise 131
Make up five sentences on each of the patterns.

Page 355

If you look at any printed prose book, you will see that each chapter is divided up into sections, the first line of each being usually indented slightly to the right. These sections are called Paragraphs. Chapters, essays and other prose compositions are broken up into paragraphs, to make the reading of them easier, for the beginning of a new paragraph marks a change of topic, or a step in the development of an argument or of a story. In writing essays or other compositions, it is important to know how to divide them properly into paragraphs; for an essay not so broken up, looks uninteresting and is not easy to read.
Definition:- A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic; or, a group of related sentences that develop a single point.
These definitions show that the paragraphs of a composition are not mere arbitrary divisions. The division of a chapter into paragraphs must be made according to the changes of ideas introduced.
There is, therefore, no rule as to the length of paragraphs. They may be short or long according to the necessity of the case. A paragraph may consist of a single sentence, or of many sentences.
(Note.-In. this respect, the paragraphs of a piece of prose differ from the stanzas or verses of a poem. The stanzas of a poem are usually of the same length and pattern; but paragraphs are long or short according to the amount of matter to be expressed under each head).

1. UNITY:- The first and most important principle to be observed in constructing a paragraph is that of Unity. Just as each sentence deals with one thought, each paragraph must deal with one topic or idea- and with no more than one. In writing an essay, for example, every head, and every sub-head, should have its own paragraph to itself. And every sentence in the paragraph must be closely connected with the main topic of the paragraph. The paragraph and every part of it must be the expression of one theme or topic. (Note:- A good practice is to read a chapter in a book, and give a short heading or title to each paragraph, which will express in a word or brief phrase the subject of the paragraph). Page 356
The topic, theme or subject of a paragraph is very often expressed in one sentence of the paragraph - generally the first. This sentence is called the topical sentence (because it states the topic), or the key-sentence (because it unlocks or opens the subject to be dealt with in the paragraph).
2.ORDER:- The second principle of paragraph construction is Order - that is, logical sequence of thought or development of the subject. Events must be related in the order of their occurrence, and all ideas should be connected with the leading idea and arranged according to their importance or order.
(Note:- The two most important sentences in the paragraph are the first and the last. The first, which should as a rule be the topical sentence, should arouse the interest of the reader; and the last should satisfy it. The first, or topical, sentence states the topic - a fact, a statement, or a proposition; the last should bring the whole paragraph on this topic to a conclusion, or summing up).
3.VARIETY:- A third principle of paragraph construction is Variety; by which is meant that, to avoid monotony, the paragraph of composition should be of different lengths, and not always of the same sentence construction.
To sum up:- the essentials of good paragraph construction are - (1) Unity. (2) A good topical sentence. (3) Logical sequence of thought. (4) Variety. (5) A full and rounded final sentence in conclusion.

Now let us examine a few paragraphs by standard authors, in illustration of these principles of paragraph construction.
1. “Hence it is that it is almost a definition of a gentleman to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about him; and he concurs with their movements rather than takes the initiative himself. His benefits may be considered as a parallel to what are called comforts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature, like an easy chair or good fire, which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them.” - J.E. Newman.
This is a paragraph from Cardinal Newman's famous description of a “Gentleman” in his
The Idea of a University, Notice that the paragraph is confined to one point in the character of a gentleman, which is clearly stated in the first, or topical sentence viz., that
"he is one who never inflicts pain." The rest of the paragraph is simply a development and illustration of the topical sentence. And the concluding sentence drives home the statement of the subject with its similies of the easy chair and the good fire.

2. "The Road is one of the great fundamental institutions of mankind. Not only is the Road one of the great human institutions because it is fundamental to social existence, bin also because its varied effects appear in every department of the State, It is the Road which determines the sites of many cities and the growth and nourishment of all. It is the
Road which controls the development of strategies and fixes the sites of battles. It is the
Road that gives framework to all economic development. It is the Road which is the channel of all trade, and, what is more important, of all ideas, In its most humble function

Page 357 it is a necessary guide without which progress from place to place would be a ceaseless experiment; it is a sustenance without which organised society would be impossible, thus the Road moves and controls all history." - Hilaire Belloc.
In this paragraph, the first sentence states the subject. It is the topical sentence. The body of the paragraph consists of examples which prove the statement in the first sentence. The final sentence sums up the whole.
3. "Poetry is the language of the imagination and the passions. It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to the human mind. It comes home to the bosoms and businesses of men; for nothing but what comes home to them in the most general and intelligible shape can be a subject for poetry. Poetry is the universal language which the heart holds with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for himself, or for anything else. Wherever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony, as in the motion of a wave of the sea, in the growth of a flower, there is poetry in its birth." - William Hazjitt.
Here again, the first sentence is the topical sentence. The sentences that follow enforce or restate the statement that "poetry is the language of the imagination and the passions"; and the concluding sentence reinforces it by showing that poetry exists wherever men feel a sense of beauty, power or harmony.
In all these paragraphs, the principles of Unity and Order are observed, and also the general rules about the place of the topical sentences and the rounding off the whole with a good conclusion.

So far we have been treating of paragraphs which are sections of a more or less lengthy composition, like an essay or the chapter of a book. But students are often asked in examinations to write short separate paragraphs, instead of essays, on subjects of ordinary interest. Such single paragraphs are really miniature essays; but the same principles as we have discussed above (except the principle of variety), must be followed in their construction. Each paragraph must be a unity, treating of one definite subject, and must follow a logical order of thought. In most cases, too, the rules about the topical sentences and the conclusion should be borne in mind.
A few examples should make this clear. Suppose, for example, you are asked to write a paragraph on “The Cat.” It is obvious that you cannot treat this subject fully, as you might in a long essay. And yet you must, according to the principle of unity, confine your paragraph to one definite topic. You must, therefore, choose one thing to say about a cat, and stick to it throughout. You might, for example, write of one characteristic of the cat, say, its love of comfort and attachment to its home. In that case, you might write a paragraph something like this:-

The Cat
There is some truth in the common saying that while dogs become attached to persons, cats are generally attached to places. A dog will follow his master anywhere, but a cat keeps to the house it is used to; and even when the house changes hand, the cat will remain there, so long as it is kindly treated by the new owners. A cat does not seem to be capable of the personal devotion often shown by a dog. It thinks most of its own comfort and its love is only cupboard love.

Page 358
Notice the construction of this paragraph. It begins with the topical sentence, which clearly states the subject. The following sentence explains the statement by expanding it; and the last sentence, by giving a reason for the attachment of a cat to a particular house forms a fitting conclusion. The paragraph is therefore a Unity, treating of one characteristic of cat character: and it follows an orderly plan.
The paragraph on the cat is descriptive. Now take an example of a narrative paragraph, in which you are required to tell a story. Suppose the subject is to be a motor-car accident; you might treat it in this way:-

A Motor-Car Accident
It is the mad craze for speed that is responsible for many motor accidents. Only last year I witnessed what might have been a fatal accident on the Kashmir Road. I was motoring down from Srinagar; and as I was nearing Kohala, I came upon the wreckage of two cars on the road. The smash had been caused by a car coming down, which swept round a sharp comer at forty mites an hour and crashed into a car coming up. Happily no one was killed; but several were badly injured, and the two cars were wrecked. To drive at such a speed down a twisting mountain road is simply to court disaster.
In this paragraph, the topical sentence is again first; the narrative that follows is simply an illustration of the statement in the topical sentence that many accidents are caused by a mad craze for speed; and the concluding sentence sums the paragraph up by a restatement of the topical sentence in other words.
The following is an example of a reflective paragraph; that is, one that expresses some reflection or thought on an abstract subject:-

To forgive an injury is often considered to be a sign of weakness; it is really a sign of strength. It is easy to allow oneself to be carried away by resentment and hate into an act of vengeance; but it takes a strong character to restrain those natural passions.
The man who forgives an injury proves himself to be the superior of the man who wronged him, and puts the wrong-doer to shame. Forgiveness may even turn a foe into a friend. So mercy is the noblest form of revenge.
The topical sentence of a paragraph is usually the first, or at latest the second; and this is the best place for it. But for the sake of variety it may be placed in a different position. In this paragraph, it comes last - "So mercy is the noblest form of revenge". But the opening sentence is also a good introduction to the subject, and is calculated to arouse interest by stating an apparent paradox.
To sum up:- In writing single paragraphs, the principles of Unity and Order must be kept in mind, and also the rules of the topical and concluding sentences. The language should

be simple, the style direct, and the sentences short; and, as a paragraph is limited, all diffuseness must be avoided.

Exercise 132.
Write short paragraphs on the following subjects:1. A Rainy Day.
2. A Walk.
3. The Cow.
4. Trees.
5. Politeness.
6. Anger.
7. A picnic.
8. A Fire.
9. A Flood.
10. Some Pet Animal.
11. Rivers.
12. Cricket.
13. Contentment.
14. Gymnastics.
15. Gratitude.
16. A Holiday.
17. The Elephant.
18. The Cobra.
19. The Tailor.
20. The Astronaut.
21. Revenge.
22. Thrift.
23. Stars.
24. The Crow
25. Robots
26. To-day’s Weather.
27. Your hobby.
28. Humility.
29. The Mango.
30. Examination.

Page 359

To tell even a simple story well requires some practice. An uneducated person generally tells a tale badly. He does not mentally look ahead as he tells it and plans it out. So he repeats himself, omits important items, which he drags in afterwards out of place, and dwells too long on minor details and fails to emphasise the leading points. To write a good story, you must have the whole plot clear in your mind, and the main points arranged in their proper order.
In this exercise you are not asked to make up a story. The plot of each story is given to you, more or less fully, in the outlines provided. But an outline is only a skeleton; it is your work to clothe the skeleton with flesh and breathe life into it. You must try to produce a connected narrative, and to make it as interesting as you can.

1. As has been already said, see that you have a clear idea of the plot of the story in your mind before you begin to write.
2. Follow the outline given; i.e., do not omit any point, and keep to the order in which the points are given in the out line.
3. Be careful to connect the points given in the outline naturally, so that the whole will read well as a connected piece of good composition. Otherwise the whole will be disconnected and jerky. You must use your imagination in filling in the details of action, gesture and conversation that should connect one point with the next.
4. Where possible, introduce dialogue or conversation; but be careful to make it natural and interesting.
5. The conclusion of a story is important. The whole story should be made to lead up to it naturally, and then it should come as a bit of surprise.
6. If you are asked to supply a heading or title to the story, you may choose the main character, object or incident of the story (e.g.,"The Barber of Baghdad," or "The Pot of
Olives,"or "An Accident"); or, a proverb or well-known quotation that suits the story
(e.g.,"No pains, no gains," "Sorrow's Crown of Sorrow", etc.)
7. See that your composition is grammatical and idiomatic and in good simple English.
Revise your work, and if necessary rewrite it, until it is as good as you can make it.

Specimen Outline
Boy set to guard sheep-told to cry “Wolf!” if he sees a wolf near the flock- watches the sheep for several days-gets tired of the monotonous work-so one day shouts "Wolf !" as a joke-all the villagers hasten to his help-they find no wolf- boy laughs at them-villagers angry-plays the same joke a few days later-some villagers take no notice-some come runing-finding nothing, they beat the boy-at last wolf really comes-boy is terrified and shouts "Wolf ! Wolf-villagers take no notice-wolf kills several sheep.

Page 360

Complete Story
One of the boys in a village was sent out into fields to look after the sheep.
“Mind you take care of them and don't let them stray,” said the villagers to him. “And keep a good look out for wolves. Don't go far away: and if you see a wolf coming near the sheep, shout out 'Wolf!' as loudly as you can, and we will come at once to help you.”
"All right !" said the boy, "I will be careful."
So every morning he drove his sheep out to the hillside and watched them all day. And when evening came, he drove them home again.
But after a few days he got rather tired of this lonely life. Nothing happened and no wolves came. So one afternoon he said to himself: "These villagers have given me a very stupid job. I think I will play a trick on them just for fun."
So he got up and began shouting as loudly as he could, "Wolf ! Wolf !"
The people in the village heard him, and at once they came running with sticks.
"Wolf ! Wolf !" shouted the boy; and they ran faster. At last they came up to him. out of breath. "Where is the wolf ?" they panted. But the boy only laughed and said: '"There is no wolf.
I only shouted in fun. And it was fun to see you all running as hard as you could !"
The men were very angry.
"You young rascal !" they said. "If you play a trick like that again, we will beat you instead of the wolf."
And they went back to their work in the village.
For some days the boy kept quiet. But he got restless again, and said to himself: "I wonder if they will come running again if I cry 'Wolf !' once more. It was such fun the last time."
So once more he began shouting , "Wolf ! Wolf !"
The villagers heard him. Some said. "That boy is up to his tricks again." But others said,
"It may be true this time; and if there really is a wolf, we shall lose some of our sheep."

So they seized their sticks, and ran out of the village to the hillside.
"Where is the wolf ?" they cried, as they came up.
"Nowhere !" said the boy laughing. "It was fun to see you running up the hill as fast you could." "We will teach you to play jokes," shouted the angry men; and they seized the boy and gave him a good beating, and left him crying instead of laughing.
A few days later a wolf really did come. When the boy saw it, he was very frightened and began shouting "Wolf ! Wolf ! Help ! Help !" as loudly as he could.
The villagers heard him, but they took no notice.
"He is playing his tricks again," they said. "We won't be made fools for a third time. You can't believe a boy after you have caught him lying twice."
So no one went to his help, and the wolf killed several sheep and frightened the boy nearly out of his wits.

Exercise 133.
Construct readable stories from the following outlines
1. An old lady becomes blind – call in a doctor – aggress to pay large fee if

Page 361 cured, but nothing if not-doctor calls daily-covets lady's furniture- delays the cure-every day takes away some of her furniture-at last cures her-demands his fees-lady refuses to pay, saying cure is not complete-doctor brings a court case-judge asks lady why she will not pay-she says sight not properly restored-she cannot see all her furniture-judge gives verdict in her favour-moral.
2. A jackal wants crabs on the other side of a river-wonders how to get across-tells camel there is sugarcane the other side-camel agrees to carry him across in return for the information-they cross-jackal finishes his meal-plays trick on camel-runs round the fields howling- villagers rush out-see camel in sugarcane-beat him with sticks-camel runs to river-jackal jumps on his back-while crossing, camel asks jackal why he played him such a trick-jackal says he always howls after a good meal-camel replies he always takes a bath after a good meal-rolls in the river-jackal nearly drowned-tit-for-tat.
3. A son is born to a Rajah-the mother dies in childbirth-a young mother with a baby is chosen as nurse-she nurses both babies together-enemies of the Rajah plot to kill his sonthey bribe the guards and get into the palace-the nurse is warned just in time-quickly changes the children's dresses-leaves her own child dressed as prince and flies with real prince-murderers enter room and kill the child left behind-so prince is saved-Rajah offers nurse rewards-she refuses them and kills herself-Rajah grieved-erects splendid tomb for the faithful nurse.
4. A miser loses a purse of a hundred pieces of gold-in great distress-goes to town criercrier says he must offer a reward-offers reward of ten pieces of gold--the crier announces this -a few days later a farmer comes to the miser-he has picked up the purse-returns it to miser-miser counts the money-a hundred pieces of gold-thanks the farmer-the farmer asks for the reward-miser says there were a hundred and ten pieces in the purse, so the farmer has already taken his reward of ten pieces-they quarrel-farmer appeals to the judge---the judge hears the case, and asks for the purse-sees that it only just holds a hundred pieces-decides it cannot be the miser's purse-so gives the purse to farmer-the miser had overreached himself.
5. A king distressed-his people lazy-to teach them a lesson he had a big stone put in the middle of the road one night-next day merchants pass and go round it-an officer driving in his carriage did the same-a young soldier came riding, did the same-all cursed the stone and blamed the government for not removing it-then the king had the stone removed- under it was an iron box, marked, “For the man who moves away the stone”inside a purse full of money-the people were ashamed.
6. Tiger kills an Indian lady travelling through the jungle-as he eats her body, he notices her gold bangle-keeps it as he thinks it may be useful-later he hides himself by a pooltraveller comes to pool, dusty and tired-strips and bathes in cool water-sees the tiger in bushes watching him-terrified-tiger greets him-with a mild voice-says he is pious and

spends time in prayer-as a sign of goodwill, offers the traveller the gold bangle-traveller's greed overcomes his fear-crossed pool to take bangle-tiger springs on him and kills him.
7. A young man setting out on a journey-accompanied part way by an old man-they part under a pipal tree-young man asks old man to keep Rs. 100 for him till he returns-old man agrees and takes money-old man says he never gave him any to keep-young man takes him before judge- judge sends young man to summon tree to court--a long time away- judge asks old man, "Why?"-old man says tree is long way off-judge sees that the old man knows which tree it is-when young man returns, judge gives verdict in his favour. Page 362
8. A poor Brahmin travelling through forests-comes across a tiger caught in a trap-tiger begs him to let him out-Brahmin in pity does so-tiger knocks him down-Brahmin pleads for his life and says the tiger is ungrateful-tiger agrees that he may appeal to three things against tiger- '. Brahmin first asks a pipal tree-tree says all men are ungrateful-tree gives them shade and they cut its branches-Brahmin next asks the road- the road says that in return for its services men trample on it with heavy boots-Brahmin then asks a buffalobuffalo says her, master beats her and makes her turn a Persian wheel-Brahmin in despair-consults a jackal-jackal asks how tiger got into cage-tiger jumps in to show himjackal shuts cage and walks away with Brahmin.
9. Baghdad merchant, about to go with a caravan to Damascus, suddenly falls ill-entrusts his bales of silk to a camel-driver-says he will go to Damascus as soon as he is well-will pay camel-driver when he arrives- camel-driver waits in Damascus--merchant does not come-camel-driver sells the silk for a large sum--shaves his beard, dyes his hair and dresses in fine clothes-Baghdad merchant at last arrives-searches all Damascus for cameldriver-one day recognises him-camel-driver pretends to be a merchant of SamarkandBaghdad merchant brings him before the judge-judge decides he can do nothing, as there are no witnesses- as camel-driver leaves court, judge suddenly calls out "Camel !"- driver
-he stops and turns round-judge puts him in prison, and makes him pay money to
Baghdad merchant.
10. A slave in ancient Carthage-cruel master-slave runs away into desert-sleeps that night in a cave-waked up by terrible roar-sees lion coming into cave-terrified-but lion quite gentle-holds up wounded paw-slave takes out a big thorn-lion grateful and wags his tail-slave and lion live together as friends-at last slave homesick-goes back to Carthage-is caught by his master-condemned by judge to be thrown to lions-thousands go to amphitheatre to see man fight lion- slave brought out-lion rushes to attack him-but when he sees slave lies down and licks his feet-same lion-great astonishment-governor sends for slave-hears his story-frees slave and gives him the lion.
11. King Solomon noted for his wisdom-Queen of Sheba heard of his fame-came to visit him-impressed by his wealth and grandeur-wanted to test his power of solving puzzlesshowed him two garlands of flowers, one in right hand and one in left-one real, the other artificial-asks, “Which is which?”-courtiers puzzled-both garlands look the sameSolomon silent-Queen feels triumphant-Solomon ordered windows to be opened-bees flew in from garden-buzzed about the Queen-all settled on garland in her right handSolomon said the flowers in right hand real, in left hand artificial-Queen impressed with his wisdom.
12. Ship of pirate becalmed near rocky coast-pirate sees bell fastened to dangerous submerged rock-asks what it is-is told it was placed there to warn sailors in storms-thinks it would be a joke to take the bell-rows across in boat to rock-they cut the chain and sink the bell-wind rises and they sail away-years after pirate returns to same coast-sea covered with fog and storm rising-pirate does not know where he is-a terrible crash-ship strikes on

the same rock-as they go down the pirate realizes his ship wrecked on the same rockwishes he had left the bell alone.
13. Rich nobleman gives a grand feast-many guests-his steward tells him a fisherman has brought a fine fish-nobleman tells him to pay him his price-steward says his price is a hundred lashes--nobleman thinks this a merry jest-sends for fisherman-fisherman confirms steward's report – nobleman agrees – fisherman quietly receives fifty lashes then

Page 363 stops-says, he has;i partner to whom he promised half the price-“Who is he ?”nobleman's porter-“Why ?”-porter refused to let him in if he did not agree-porter brought in and given the other fifty lashes- guests enjoy joke-nobleman rewards fisherman.
14. Ali, a barber in Baghdad-Hassan, a wood-seller-Hassan brings AH load of wood on a donkey-they bargain about the price-at last Ali offers so much for “all the wood on the donkey's back”-Hassan agrees- unloads the wood-Ali claims donkey's wooden saddlesHassan protests-quarrel-Ali seizes saddle and drives Hassan away with blows- Hassan appeals to Khalif-Khalif gives him advice-some days later Hassan goes to Ali's shop-asks
Ali to shave him and a friend for so much-Ali agrees-shaves Has san first-"Where is your friend?"-"Outside"-Hassan fetches in his donkey-Ali refuses to shave donkey- drives
Hassan away-Hassan reports to Khalif-Khalif sends for Ali- forces him to fulfill his bargain-Ali has to shave Hassan's friend, the donkey, before all the courtiers-great laughter, and shame for Ali.

What you have to do in these exercises,, is to tell in your own words the story which is told in a poem. The first thing, then, is to read the poem as a story, so that you know what the story is; and the next is, to tell the same story over again in your own words and your own way.

1. Read the whole poem through, slowly and carefully. If after the first reading, the story is not quite clear, read the poem again, and yet again, until you feel you understand it thoroughly. 2. Write down briefly the chief facts of the story, in order to guide you in your narration.
Do not leave out any important point.
3. Now try to write out the story in simple, straightforward English, telling the incidents of the story in their natural order.
4. Do not copy the language of the poem. You must use your own words in telling the story. But do not try to use the fine language; be simple and choose plain words.
5. When you have finished the exercise, read it through to see whether you have left out any important fact, or have stated any wrongly.
6. Finally, examine your composition for mistakes in spelling, grammar and punctuation.
And see that your sentences are properly constructed, and that the whole composition reads well.

1. Tell concisely in the form and style appropriate to a prose-narrative the story of the following poem:-

Page 364

King Francis was a hearty king, and loved a royal sport;
And one day, as his lions strove, sat looking on the court;
The nobles filled the benches round, the ladies by their side,
And 'mongst them Count de Lorge, with one he hoped to make his bride.
And truly 'twas a gallant thing, to see the crowning show.
Valour and love, and a king above, and the royal beasts below.
Ramped and roared the lions, with horrid laughing jaws;
They bit, they glared, gave blows like beams, and went with their paws;
With wallowing might and stifled roar they rolled one on another,
Till all the pit, with sand and mane was in a thund'rous smother;
The bloody foam above the bars came whizzing through the air;
Said Francis then, “Good gentlemen, we're better here than there!”
De Lorge's love overheard the king, a beauteous lively dame,
With smiling lips, and sharp bright eyes, which always seemed the same;
She thought, “The Count, my lover, is as brave as brave can be;
“He surely would do desperate things to show his love of me !
“King, ladies, lovers all look on; the chance is wondrous fine;
"I'll drop my glove to prove his love; great glory will be mine !"
She dropped her glove to prove his love; then looked on him and smiled;
He bowed, and in a moment leaped among the lions wild;
The leap was quick; return was quick; he soon regained his placeThen threw the glove, but not with love, right in the lady's face !
"Well done!" cried Francis, "bravely done!" and he rose from where he sat:
"No love,” quoth he, "but vanity, sets love a task like that !"

King Francis was a great lover of all kinds of sport; and one day he and his courtiers, noblemen and ladies, sat watching wild savage lions fighting each other in the enclosure below. Amongst the courtiers sat Count de Lorge beside a beautiful and lively lady of noble birth whom he loved and hoped to marry. The lions roared, and bit and tore each other with savage fury, until the king said to his courtiers, "Gentlemen, we are better up here than down there !"
The lady, hearing him, thought she would show the king and his court how devoted her lover was to her : so she dropped her glove down among the fighting lions, and then looked at Count de Lorge and smiled at him. He bowed to her, and leaped down among the savage lions without hesitation, recovered the glove, and climbed back to his place in a few moments. Then he threw the glove right in the lady's face.
King Francis cried out. "Well and bravely done ! But it was not love that made you lady set you such a dangerous thing to do. but her vanity !'"
2. Tell the story of Leigh Hunt's "Plate of Gold" in five short paragraphs:-

One day there fell in great Benares' temple-court
A wondrous plate of gold, whereon these words were writ;
“To him who loveth best, a gift from Heaven.”
There at
The priests made proclamation : “At the midday hour, Each day, let those assemble who for virtue deem Their right to heaven's gift the best; and we will hear The deeds of mercy done, and so adjudge.”
The news
Ran swift as light, and soon from every quarter came

Page 365
Nobles and munshis, hermits, scholars, holy men, And all renowned for gracious or for splendid deeds. Meanwhile the priests in solemn council sat and heard What each had done to merit best the gift of Heaven. So for a year the claimants came and went.
At last,
After a patient weighing of the worth of all, The priests bestowed the plate of gold on one who seemed The largest lover of the race-whose whole estate. Within the year, had been parted among the poor. This man. all trembling with his joy. advanced to take The golden plate-when lo! at his first finger touch It changed to basest lead ! All stood aghast: but when The hapless claimant dropt it clanging on the floor, Heaven's guerdon was again transformed to shining gold. So for another twelve month sat the priests and judged,
Thrice they awarded-thrice did Heaven refuse the gift. Meanwhile a host of poor, maimed beggars in the street Lay all about the temple gate, in hope to move That love whereby each claimant hoped to win the gift. And well for them it was (if gold be charity), For every pilgrim to the temple gate praised God. That love might thus approve itself before the test. And so the coins rained freely in the outstretched hands; But none of those who gave, so much as turned to look Into the poor sad eyes of them that begged.
And now
The second year had almost passed, but still the plate Of gold, by whomsoever touched, was turned to lead. At length there came a simple peasant-not aware Of that strange contest for the gift of God-to pay A vow within the temple. As he passed along The line of shrivelled beggars, all his soul was moved Within him to sweet pity, and the tears welled up And trembled in his eyes.
Now by the temple gate
There lay a poor, sore creature, blind, and shunned by all; But when the peasant came, and saw the sightless face And trembling, maimed hands, he could not pass, but knelt,
And took both palms in his, and softly said; "O thou, My brother ! bear the trouble bravely. God is good." Then he arose and walked straightway across the court, And entered where they wrangled of their deeds of love Before the priests.
A while he listened sadly; then
Had turned away; but something moved the priest who held The plate of gold to beckon to the peasant. So He came, not understanding, and obeyed, and stretched His hand and took the sacred vessel. Lo ! it shone With thrice its former lustre, and amazed them all !
"Son", cried the priest, "rejoice. The gift of God is thine. Thou lovest best !" And all made answer, "It is well." And, one by one, departed. But the peasant knelt And prayed, bowing his head above the golden plate; While o'er his soul like morning streamed the love of God.

Page 366

One day a wonderful plate made of gold fell from Heaven into the court of a temple at
Benares; and on the plate these words were inscribed; "A gift from Heaven to him who loves best." The priests at once made a proclamation that every day at twelve o'clock, all who would like to claim the plate should assemble at the temple, to have their kind deeds judged. Every day for a whole year all kinds of holy men, hermits, scholars and nobles came, and related to the priests their deeds of charity, and the priests in solemn council heard their claims. At last they decided that the one who seemed to be the greatest lover of mankind was a rich man who had that very year given all his wealth to the poor. So they gave him the plate of gold, but when he took it in his hand, it turned to worthless, lead; though, when he dropped it in his amazement on to the floor, it became gold again.
For another year claimants came; and the priests awarded the prize three times. But the same thing happened, showing that Heaven did not consider these men worthy of the gift.
Meanwhile a large number of beggars came and lay about the temple gate, hoping that the claimants who came would give them alms to prove they were worthy of the golden plate. It was a good time for the beggars, because the pilgrims gave them plenty of money; but they gave them no sympathy, nor even a look of pity.
At last a simple peasant, who had heard nothing about the plate of gold, came; and he was so touched by the sight of the miserable beggars, that he wept; and when, he saw a poor blind and maimed wretch at the temple gate, he knelt at his side and took his maimed hands in his and comforted him with kind words. When this peasant came to the temple, he was shocked to find it full of men boasting of their kind deeds and quarrelling with the priest. One priest, who held the golden plate in his hand, seeing the peasant standing there, beckoned to him; and the peasant came, and knowing nothing about the plate, took it in his hands. At once it shone out with three times its former splendour, and the priests said : "Son, the gift is yours : for you love best."

Exercise 134
1. Tell in your own words the story of Leigh Hunt's "Abou Ben Adherri," What is the moral of the legend? [Wren's "Lotus Book of English Verse", No. 128. Wren's "Story
Poems", No. 20.].
2. Imagine yourself to be King Bruce, and tell the story of "King'Bruceand the Spider"
["Lotus", No. 5. "Story Poems", No. 10]
3. Tell the story of "Bishop Hatto" in a letter to friend ["Lotus", No. 59. "Story Poems",
No. 37]

4. Tell at length the story told in Campbell's "Adelgitha," supplying details left out by the poet. ["Story Poems" No. 62]
5. Tell in your own words the story of "The Blind Men and the Elephant" as told by J.G.
Saxe. ["Lotus", No. 16. "Story Poems", No. 1.]
6. Tell the story of Southey's "Inchcape Rock" in your own words. ["Lotus". No. 60
"Story Poems", No. 9]
7. Tell the story of "Androcles and the Lion", as related by Androcles. ["Story Poems",
No. 14.]
8. Tell the story of Browning's "Incident of the French Camp" in your own words.
["Lotus". No. 108. "Story Poems", No. 21.]
9. Relate in a few plain sentences the bare facts narrated in W. R. Spencer's "Beth
Gelert". ["Lotus". No. 51. "Story Poems", No. 36.]
10. Rewrite the story of "The Fisherman and the Porter", as told by the fisherman. ["Story
Poems", No. 39.]
11. Tell the story of Leigh Hunt's "Mahmoud", using the dialogue form for the conversational parts. ["Lotus", No. 61. "Story Poems", No. 41]
12. Put yourself in the place of Ibrahim, and tell the story told in Lowell's “Yussouf” from his point of view [“Lotus”, No. 62 “Story Poems”,No. 42]

Page 367
13. Tell the story narrated in Trench's "Harmosan," as told by a member of the Caliph's retinue. ['"Lotus", Nr 53. "'Story Poems", No. 43.]
14. Read the poem "John Maynard". _nd then describe in your own words the heroism of
John Maynard. ["Story Poems", No. 55]
15. Imagine yourself to be the country mouse; then tell the story of "The Town and the
Country Mouse". ["Story Poems," No. 57]
16. The two poems, Campbell's "Earl March" and Scott's "Maid of Neidpath", are two versions of the same incident. Read both these poems and then tell in simple language the one story which both relate. ["Story Poems', No. 94 and 95.]
17. Tell in your own words the story of Thackeray's "Canute and the Tide". ["Lotus", No.
18. "Story Poems". No. 64.1
18. Tell in your own words the beautiful legend related in W. Bruce's poem "The
Stranger". ["Story Poems", No. 81.]
19. Relate in your own words, the Talmudic legend about Solomon and the Bees as narrated in verse by J.G. Saxe. ("Lotus", No. 64, "Story Poems", No. 89.]
20. Relate in simple language and in the form of a dialogue the incidenttold in J.
Merrick's "Chameleon". ["Lotus", No. 17. "Story Poems". No. 77.]
21. Tell the story of Hay's "Enchanted Shirt" in your words. ["Lotus", No. 8. "Story
Poems", No. 65.]
22. Tell in your own words the story of the jester who, condemned to death, saved, his life by his wits. |"Story Poems" No. 72.]
23. Read Lowell's "Dara" : then relate in four paragraphs (a) the early life and rise of
Dara : (b) the jealousy which his rise excited; (c) the incident of the chest and id) trie clearing of the suspicion about his integrity. ["Lotus", No. 66. Story Poems". No. 66.

Every educated person should know how to write a clear and readable letter. Everyone has sometimes to write bussiness letters of some sort, and may have to face the problem of writing an important letter that will vitally affect his interests in life. The art of letterwriting is, therefore, no mere ornamental accomplishment, but something that every educated person must acquire for practical reasons.

Letters are messages, and certain letter-forms have been established by experience and custom as the most useful forms learned and used by every letter-writer, for neglect of them is a sign of ignorance and carelessness.
There are several different kinds of letters (such as friendly letters, business letters, etc.) each of which has its own particular form; but there are certain matters of form which apply to all, and these may be explained first.
In all kinds of letters there are six points of form to be attended to, namely:1. The Heading consisting of (a) the writer's address and (b) the date.
2. The courteous Greeting or Salutation.
3. The Communication or Message-The body of the letter.
4. The subscription, or couteous Leave – talking, or conclusion.

Page 368
5. The Signature.
6. The Superscription en the envelope.
1. The HEADING:- This informs the reader where you wrote the letter, and when. The where, (which should be the writer's full postal address) gives the address to which the reader may reply; and the when is for reference, as it gives him the date on which you wrote. The position of the heading is the top right-hand corner of the first page-the address above and the date just below it. The heading and the date may alternatively go on the left. 24 Poorvi Marg
New Delhi 110 057
10 October 2001
The date may be written in any of the following ways:
4 June 2001
4th June 2001
June 4, 2001
4-6-2001 -- To a British person this means the fourth of
4.6.2001 -- June; to an American it is the sixth of April.
4/6/2001 -- (Americans put the month before the day.)
2. SALUTATION or Greeting. The form of Greeting will depend upon the relation in which you stand to the person to whom you are writing.
To members of your family, for example, it will beDear Father, My dear Mother, Dear Uncle, Dear Hari, etc.
To friends, it will beDear Shri Desai, or Dear Desai, or Dear Ramchandra, etc.
To business people, it will beDear Sir, Dear Sirs, etc.
[Full examples will be given for each kind of letter later.]
Note:- The use of the term Dear is purely formal, and is a mere polite expression, not necessarily implying any special affection.
The position of the Salutation is at the left-hand of the first page, at a lower level than the
3. The COMMUNICATION or Body of the letter:- This is, of course, the letter itself, and the style in which it is written will depend upon the kind of letter you wish to write. The style of a letter to anintimate friend will be very different from that of a purely business

letter or an official communication. But a few hints that apply to all letters are given below. (a) Divide your letter (unless it is very short) into paragraphs, to mark changes of
Subject-matter, etc.
(b) Use simple and direct language and short sentences. Do not try to be eloquent, and drag in long words, just because they are long words. Be clear about what you want to say, and say it as directly as possible.
(c) Try to be complete. It is a sign of slovenly thinking when you have to add postscripts at the end of a letter. Think out what you want to say before you begin to write; and put down your points in some: logical order.
(d) Write neatly. Remember that your correspondent has to read what you write, and do not give him unnecessary trouble with bad penmenship and slovenly writing.

Page 369
(e) Mind your punctuation, and put in commas and semicolons and full stops in their proper places. Incorrect punctuation may alter the whole meaning of a sentence.
4. The SUBSCRIPTION or courteous Leave-taking:- A letter must not end abruptly, simply with the writer's name. This would look rude. So certain forms of polite leavetaking are prescribed. Such as:Yours sincerely, Your sincere friend, Yours faithfully, etc.
[Different leave-taking forms are used in different kinds of letters, and these will be given under their proper heads.]
The subscription, or Leave-taking phrase, must be written below the last words of the letter, and to the right side of the page. This is the traditional method. Note that today there is a growing tendency to place the subscription on the left side.
Note:- The first word of the Subscription must begin with a capital letter; e.g.,
Sincerely yours
5. The SIGNATURE or name of the writer:- This must come below the Subscription.
Thus :
Yours sincerely,
K.R. Deshpande
In letters to strangers, the signature should be clearly written, so that the reader may know whom to address in reply.
A woman should prefix to the name Miss or Mrs (or: Kumari or Smt) in brackets. Ms can be used by a woman who does not wish to be called Miss or Mrs.
Yours faithfully,
(Mrs.) J.L. Desai
6. The address on the envelope (or postcard): The address on the envelope or postcard should be written clearly, like this:
Postage Stamp
96 Hill Road
Mumbai 400050
To sum up:-

In writing a letter, first write your address and under it the date in the top right-hand corner of the first page. You may alternatively write them on the left.
Then write the Salutation {e.g., Dear Shri Desai,) lower down at the left side of the page, beginning with a capital and putting a comma after it.
Next begin your letter (with a capital letter) on the next lower line, to the right of the salutation. At the end of the letter write the Subscription, or words of leave-taking (e.g., Yours sincerely), at the right/left side of the page, with your signature below it.
For Example:-

Page 370
16 North Usman Road
Chennai 600 017
4 October 2001
Dear Sir,
I shall be much obliged if you send me as soon as possible the books which I ordered a week ago.
Yours faithfully,
Abdul Ghani

Letters may be classified according to their different purposes. Thus :
(1) Social Letters, including Friendly Letters and Notes of Invitations.
(2) Business Letters; including Letters of Application, Letters to government officers and
Letters to Newspapers.
These have different characteristics which must be considered.

I. Social Letters
Letters to relations and intimate friends should be written in an easy, conversational style.
They are really of the nature of friendly chat; and, being as a rule unpremeditated and spontaneous compositions, they are informal and free-and-easy as compared with essays.
Just as in friendly talk, so in friendly letters, we can touch on many subjects and in any order we like; and we can use colloquial expressions which would in formal essays be quite out of place. But this does not mean that we can be careless and slovenly in dashing off our letters, for it is insulting to ask a friend to decipher a badly-written, ill-composed and confused scrawl; so we must take some care and preserve some order in expressing our thoughts. Above all, it must be remembered that, however free-and- easy may be our style, we are just as much bound by the rules of spelling, punctuation, grammar and idiom in writing a letter as we are in writing the most formal essay. Such ungrammatical expressions as “an advice” “those sort of things” and "he met my brother and I," are no more permissible in a friendly letter than in a literary article. Mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar at once stamp a letter-writer as uneducated.
Forms of address:- In friendly letters to relations and intimate friends, the proper form of address is the name (without title) of the person to whom you are writing, prefixed by such qualifying terms as Dear, My dear, Dearest, etc. For example:Dear Father or Mother, Dear Brother, Dearest Sister, Dear Edward, My dear Abdul, etc.

But if you are writing to an ordinary friend who is much older than you are, or of superior rank, it is respectful to use a prefix like Mr. Mrs. Shri. etc. e.g. Dear Mr Krishna Rao.
(N.B.-Students writing)

Page 371 friendly letters to their teachers or professors, should always address them thus).
The forms of subscription are varied. The following can be used in letters to relatives and near friends:- Yours affectionately, Your affectionate (or loving) son, or brother or friend,
Yours very sincerely (to friends); or you can use some such form as this:With love and best wishes,
From your affectionate friend,
Ahmad Hassan
In concluding letters to friends or acquaintances whom you address as "Shri or Mr " (e.g.,
My Dear Shri Durga Prasad) you should use the word sincerely or very sincerely, in the subscription; and this may be preceded by With kind (or very kind or kindest) regards.
Thus:With kind regards,
Yours sincerely,
Chaman Lal
(N.B:- Sincerely should not be used in letters beginning with the formal Dear Sir, after which the proper word of subscription is faithfully or truly.)
[To your uncle on his 70th birthday]
18 Patel Road
Mumbai 400014
24 Sept. 2001
My dear Uncle,
I have just remembered that it is your birthday on Saturday and so I must send you a birthday letter at once And I begin with the old greeting, Many happy returns of the day !
I hope the day itself will be peaceful and happy for you and. that you will be spared in happiness and health to us all for years yet. You have always been a kind and generous uncle to me, and I take this opportunity of thanking you from the bottom of my heart for all you have done for me. And I know all your nieces and other nephews feel the same.
I was so glad to hear from father that you are still hale and hearty, and can take your fourmile walk every day, and still play a good set of tennis.
I am sending you a book which I think you will like. You were always a great reader, and
I am glad that your eyesight remains as good as ever-so father says.
I am getting on well in my business and hope to enlarge it considerably before the end of the year.
With love and best wishes,
Your loving nephew,

[From a boy in a boarding-school to his mother, telling her that he dislikes the life of a boarder.]
St. Dominic's
Pune 411 002
24th October 2001
Dearest Mother,
I was so glad to get your letter yesterday. Thank you so much! I read it just after morning school; but it made me feel very homesick. It seems years since I left home thought it is really only about a month. It seems a month. It seems ages to the Christmas holidays, when Page 372
I shall be able to come home. It was much nicer when I was at the day-school, and came home every afternoon.
I do hate being a boarder. I am in a big dormitory, with about twenty other boys. Some of them are all right; but the bigger boys are always playing nasty jokes on us smaller ones; and we daren't say anything, or we should get a most awful licking. The master comes round to see all lights out, but all the larking goes on after he has gone; so he knows nothing about it. And I don't like the masters. They simply make you work all day, and cane you for every fault. Most of the boys are horrid; but 1 like two or three.
Please ask Dad to put me into a day-school again. I should be much happier there.
With Love,
From your loving
[The mother's reply]
Hill-top House
26th October, 2001
My dear Tommy,
Thank you for your letter. But I am sorry you are so unhappy at St. Dominic's. I don't wonder you feel rather homesick, for it is the first time you have been away from home; and I, too, often want you home again, my child. But you know, we can't always have what we want in life. If I were selfish, I would keep you always at home, for I don't like any of my children to be away; but then how would you ever get your education and grow up to be a man able to manage your own life ? Your father thinks that a few years at a boarding-school is necessary for all boys, to make men of them; and he knows best.
So my dear boy, you must be brave and stick to your school. I am sure you will soon get to like it, as other boys do. Don't mind the jokes boys play on you, and if you do, don't letthem know you do. When they see you don't mind, they will soon get tired of teasing you. So cheer up ! and be a brave laddie.
With much love,
From your loving

Exercise 135
Write a short letter:1. To your cousin, requesting the loan of a camera during your holidays.
2. From a boy in a boarding-school to his mother who is keeping poor health.

3. To your father who has been away from home for a fortnight, about anything of interest that has taken place in his absence.
4. To your cousin about what particularly pleased you at the circus.
5. From a boy at a boarding-school to his parents on the approaching vacation.
6. From a son to his father, stating how he hopes to fare in the approaching SchoolLeaving Examination.
7. To your younger brother, scolding him for having neglected his studies.
8. Reply to the above.
9. From a mother to her daughter, on receiving a bad report from her boarding-school.
10. Reply to the above.
11. You have recovered from a long illness. Write about your experience in bed etc., to your cousin.

Page 373
12. You have been delayed one night by a railway accident near a small country outstation. Write a letter home relating your experience.
[To a friend in a hospital]
Race Cottage
Lucknow 226 003
28th December, 2001
Dear Mela Ram,
I have only just heard from your brother that you have been ill in the hospital for the last two weeks. 1 am very sorry. If I had known, I should have written before. But I am glad to know that the worst is now over, and you are much better. He says he saw you the other day, and you were quite comfortable and cheery. I hope you will soon be all right, and coming out again. As soon as you can, write and let me know how you are.
Yours very sincerely,
Sant Ram
[To a friend, about your favourite game]
I8 East Road
6th March, 2001
Dear Sharif,
Thanks for your letter, with your praises of cricket as the finest game in the world. I don't want to dispute that; but it is not my favourite. I have two favourite games, one for outof-doors, and one for indoors.
For exercise and interest, I like tennis best of ail outdoor games. Football and hockey are too violent to suit me; cricket is too slow; badminton is childish. But tennis gives you plenty of exercise; it develops quickness of eye and limb; and it calls your brain, your thinking power, into action. A few sets of tennis in the evening keep me physically and mentally fit.
For indoors, chess is the queen of games. 1 take no interest in card games; and draughts after chess is like water after wine. People say chess is a selfish game, because only two can play at a time. Well, I don't see that bridge is only less selfish, simply because four play instead of two. They also say it is slow. No chess-player ever says this. For an outsider it may look slow to see two men sitting silent and making a move only every few minutes. But to the two players, it is all the time intensely exciting. There is no game that so absorbs you like chess.
You will probably scoff; but I don't mind.
Yours very sincerely,

Lai Khan
[To a friend, describing a football match in which you were referee]
54 Khazanchi Road
Patna 800 004
5 Jan. 2001
Dear Devi Prasad,
My advice to those who are about to act as football referees is-Don't ! Why? Hear my sad story. We have here two local teams called the Brilliants and the Valiants. They are easily the best teams in the district and in every tournament the fight in the end is between these two. And when their blood is up, they both fight to win, by fair means or foul- mostly foul. Moreover, the town is divided into two bitterly opposed factions-Brilliants and
Valiants, who roll up, to the matches to cheer and jeer, and to see "fair" play.

Page 374
The game had not long begun, before I had to turn off one of the Brilliants for foul play.
The team protested, the crowd roared and things looked ugly; but I stuck to my point, and they settled down. But they were sulky. Then the Valiants scored; and the Brilliants looked sulkier still.
But the fun began when I awarded the Valiants a penalty kick close to goal, by which they promptly scored again. Then all the Brilliants rushed on to the field, yelling and shouting, and went for me. I was jostled, struck and kicked and knocked down; and the match came to an end in free fight between the two parties.
I am sitting up, nursing my wounds, and vowing, “No more refereeing for me!”
Yours in sorrow
Ahmad Din

Exercise 136
Write a short letter:1. To a friend, telling him how you play your favourite game, assuming that he knows nothing about it.
2. To a friend, describing your favourite hobby.
3. To a friend, describing a recent exciting cricket match in which your side won.
4. To a friend, describing a football match.
5. To a friend, describing a tennis tournament.
6. To your friend whom you are sending a photograph recently taken of your school football team, referring to some common friends in the group.
7. Reply to the above.
8. To a friend, describing your mishaps in an obstacle race in the school.
9. To a friend, describing a magic show
10. To a friend, describing a film which appealed to you very much.
11. To an English boy, describing the Indian Juggler.
12. To your friend, about some memory Teats you have witnessed or heard about.
13. To a friend who has failed to take his defeat well.
14. Friend's reply to the above.
15. To your friend who did not "play fair".
16. Friend's reply to the above.
17. To a friend, expressing your preference for outdoor games.
18. Friend's reply, expressing preference for indoor games.
19. To your sister, about a real or imaginary flight in an aeroplane.
[To a friend, arranging for an excursion together.]
5 Railway Road
Allahabad 3
15th May, 2001

Dear Smith,
We both have a holiday next Monday. What do you say to a trip to Murree and a ramble in the gullies ? We could start early, say 6 a.m., in my car, and take some grub with us, and make a day of it up in the cool. It would be a change from this heat down here. If you agree, I will arrange the picnic, and be round at your house at a quarter to six on Monday morning. Bring your camera with you.
Yours sincerely
R.P. Brown

Page 375
[Reply, accepting]
Circular Avenue
16th May, 2001
Dear Brown,
Many thanks for your invitation. I shall be delighted to go, and shall be ready for you at
5-45 a.m., next Monday. A day in Murree will be a grand change. Yes, I'll bring my camera, and hope to get some good snapshots.
Yours for ever,
A.B. Smith .
[Reply, regretting inability to join]
Circular Avenue
Allahabad 1
16th May, 2001
Dear Brown,
It is awfully good of you to propose a day's picnic at Murree. I only wish I could join you as I am sick of this heat. But I am sorry to say I shall not be able to get away, as I have already promised to see a friend in Jehlum next Monday. Thanks all the same.
Yours very sincerely,
A.B. Smith
[Write a letter of introduction for a friend to take to another friend who lives in a different part of the country. Say why you think each will enjoy knowing the other. ]
5 Armernian Lane
Kolkata 700 005
7th February, 2001
My dear Haider Ali,
You have often heard me speak of my friend, Abdul Latif, who is a barrister here. He is an old friend of mine, and one for whom, I have a great admiration. Well, he is going to
Mumbai in a few days and will probably make a fairly long stay there. And as I want you two to meet and get to know each other, I am giving him this letter for you as an introduction. I am sure you will do your best to make his stay in Mumbai happy. At first you will do it for my sake; but in the end you will do it for his also. For I know you will like him and both of you will find you have many interests in common.

Abdul Latif is, like you, very interested in social reform of all kinds. He also makes
Islamic history a hobby, as you do. And, perhaps above all, he plays chess; and you are a chess enthusiast. He is also a good tennis-player. So you should get on well together.
I hope you have got rid of your cold,' and are keeping quite well.
Yours very sincerely,
Ghulam Samdani
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 137
Write a short letter:1. To a friend, giving a brief description of a holiday tour you intend to make.
2. To a friend, telling him how you spent your summer vacation.

Page 376
3. To your friend, about the longest journey made by you.
4. To an English friend giving him an idea of the life in your town or village.
5. To a friend, describing your visit to some notable public building.
6. A friend writes to say that he is spending a week in your town. Write a letter saying how sorry you are that you will be away, but telling him what he ought to
[From a boy to his friend who has met with an accident)
Old Gate
1st April, 2001
My dear Ahmad,
Razak told me this morning that you had been knocked off your bicycle by a tonga yesterday and badly hurt. I am awfully sorry; but T hope it is not really as bad as Razak made out. If you can write, please let me know how you are. Those tongawallas are awfully careless beggars. I had a nasty spill myself a few weeks ago in the same way.
Happily no bones were broken. Mind you let me know how you are getting on.
Yours for ever,

Exercise 138
Write a short letter:1. To a friend, giving details of a railway accident (real or imaginary).
2. From a boarding-school girl to her friend, describing a terrible accident that happened to some of her friends while swinging.
3. To a friend, giving an account of a striking incident which happened to you or another.
4. To a friend, describing a thunderstorm in which you were recently caught.
5. To a friend, giving an account of a brave deed, real or imaginary, noticed by you in your street.
6. To a friend, about a striking example (real or imaginary) of presence of mind.
[To a schoolfellow who has been absent from school for a week.]
High School
16th February, 2001
Dear Yaqub,
What is the matter with you ? You have not been at school for a week, and the
Headmaster is asking where you are and what you are up to. I hope you are not ill. Please write, and say when you arc coming back.

You missed the football match against the Mission School last Monday, and I can tell you the Captain was jolly cross when he found you were not there. Salim took your place.
However, in spite of your absence, we won by two goals to one.
I hope you will soon be back again.
Yours sincerely,
Ahmed Din

Exercise 139
1. Write to a friend who needlessly runs down the school he used to attend some time ago. 2. It is a fortnight to your examination, and you are unprepared. Write to your friend about your difficulty.
3. reply to the above.

Page 377
4. Write a letter to your friend who works on Sundays as well as on other holidays.
5. "It is better to wear out than to rust out." Discuss this saying in a letter to a friend who holds this view.
6. “A short life and a merry one.” Write a replay to a friend who holds this view.
7. Write to a friend who is exclusively occupied with his studies, advising him to take pan in athletic games.
8. Write a letter of advice to a friend who complains that he does not know how to spend his spare time.
9. In a letter to your very intimate friend, write plainly about his faults; also dwell upon the good points of his character
[Letter accompanying a birthday present]
42 Ashok Marg
Lucknow 226 001
16 December 2001
My dear Charley,
It is your birthday on Saturday, so-Many happy returns of the day ! I am sending you a camera to celebrate the event, as I know you are keen on photography, and hope you will find it useful.
With all best wishes for the best of luck from your friend,
[Reply to the above.]
26 M.G. Street
Ahmedabad 380 005
18 December 2001
My dear Tom,
Ever so many thanks for your good wishes and your jolly present. The camera is a beauty-just the kind I have been wanting for a long time. I shall be able to take some really fine pictures with it. Thank you very much !
Yours affectionately,
[To a friend who has recently lost his mother.]
72 Patel Street
Mumbai 400 014
6 Jan. 2001
Dear Fred,

It was with real sorrow that I heard this morning of your great loss. I knew your mother was ill, for your brother told me several weeks ago; but, as he at that time did not seem to think the illness was very serious, the news of your mother's death came to me as a shock.
You have my sincere and heartfelt sympathy, my dear fellow, in your sorrow. I know you will feel it deeply, for you always thought so much of your mother and loved her so truly.
I feel it also as a personal loss to myself; for your mother was always very kind to me, and I admired her as a good and noble woman. Her death must be a terrible grief to your father, too; please assure him also of my sincere sympathy.
Words, I know, are poor comforters. "The heart knoweth its own sorrow," and in such sorrows we are always alone. But it is not mere words when I say that I fcei with you in your sorrow.
Your sincere friend,

Page 378
[Reply to the above]
16 Church Street Pune41I 003 9 Jan. 2001
My dear Jack,
Thank you very much for your most kind and sympathetic letter. You say that words are poor comforters; but the sympathy of true friends like yourself is a great comfort in times of sorrow; and I am grateful to you for its expression.
Mother's death was a great shock to me, though I do not fully realize it even yet. We were always so much to each other; and it is hard to face the fact that I must live the rest of my life without her.
Happily her end came very peacefully. She had no pain, and passed away quietly in her sleep. She was fond of you, and spoke of you several times towards the end.
You will excuse me from writing more at present. 1 don't feel equal to it.
With many thanks, again from,
Your sincere friend, Fred
[To a friend, from a girl who is going abroad with her father and mother.]
Jaiprakash Nagar
Mumbai 400 062
10th March, 2001
My dear Nora,
I am awfully excited ! My daddy and mummy are going abroad on a long tour; and I am going with them. We shall be away for about two months. We are leaving on 20th.
We are going first to Hong Kong, where my father has some business. Then we are travelling to Japan. Think of it ! I shall see the Japanese and all their interesting ways. We shall stay there some time, and then fly to San Francisco. After that we are to travel to
New York, and stay there for some time. Then we shall travel to England.
By the time we get home, I shall have seen half the world and will be a much travelled person. I shall write you long letters from all the places we stay in and tell you of all the new and strange things we see.

With best wishes,
Very sincerely yours,
3 Naomi

Exercise 140
Write a short letter:1. From a young man who has recently become possessed of a fortune left him by his uncle, to his intimate friend.
2. To a friend, advising him to insure his life.
3. To the same giving information about life-insurance.
4. To a friend, proposing the formation of a debating union.
5. Reply to the above.
6. To a friend, describing a pleasant dream.
7. To a friend, describing a horrid dream.
8. To a friend, giving an account of your favourite story-book or author.
9. To a friend, asking him to return a book which you lent him a long time ago.
Couch your letter in such terms that your friend will not take offence.
10. To a friend, apologizing for not having kept an appointment.

Page 379
11. To a sick friend, congratulating him on the good progress he is making.
12. To a sick friend in a hospital.
13. To a friend who has long been silent.
14. Reply to the above.
15. From a sister to her brother, describing her visit to an orphanage.
16. To your uncle in Japan, asking for information about the habits and customs of the
17. Reply to the above.
18. From a son to his father, asking permission to become a lawyer.
19. The father's reply to the above.

Exercise 141
1. Write a letter to a village-boy, your cousin, telling him what your town is like..
2. An uncle has sent you a present of Rs. 300. Write a letter thanking him and telling him how you propose to spend it.
3. Write a letter to your American friend to accompany a small model of the Taj Mahal at
Agra which you are sending him.
4. Reply, referring to the sky-scrapers of New York.
5. Your friend is a member of a large family; you are not. Write to him.
6. Reply to the above.
7. Write a letter to a friend, telling him that you have shifted to a new house, and describe your new neighbourhood.
8. In a letter to your sick friend, advise him to go to a hospital as, owing to various circumstances, he cannot be looked after properly at home.
9. Imagine that you have returned from a visit to your uncle. Write a letter, thank ing him for his kindness and describing your journey.
10. Write a letter to a friend, describing a book you have just read and strongly recommending it to him.

A formal invitation is generally written in the third person, and should contain no heading, no salutation, and no complimentary close. The writer's name should appear in the body of the letter. The address of the writer and the date should be written to the left, below the communication.
The reply to such a note should also be in the third person, and should repeat the date and time mentioned in the invitation.
[Formal note of invitation. ]
Mr. and Mrs. V.A. Paul request the pleasure of Mr. K. Gopalan's company at dinner on
Friday, 14 July, at eight o'clock.
18 Peters Road
Chennai 600 014

[Formal note of acceptance.]
Mr. K. Gopalan has pleasure in accepting the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. V.A. Paul to dinner on Friday, 14 July, at eight o'clock.
12 Kamaraj Salai
Chennai 600 005
[Formal note of refusal]
Mr. K. Gopalan regrets that a previous engagement prevents his accepting the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. V.A. Paul to dinner on Friday, July.
12 Kamaraj Salai
Chennai 600 005

Page 380
Informal notes of invitation, acceptance and refusal are like ordinary friendly letters, though using more formal language. They are addressed to the recipient by name (My dear Shri Joshi), and the formal close is usually any of the following:Sincerely yours, Yours sincerely, Yours very sincerely, Yours affectionately (to relations, or intimate friends),
[Informal note of invitation.]
12 Alwarpet
22 November
Dear Pramila,
Will you give me the pleasure of your company at dinner on Sunday, the 27th at 8 o'clock? Yours sincerely,
V. Saroja
[Informal note of acceptance.]
Poes Garden
23 November
My dear Saroja,
I shall be pleased to be with you at dinner on Sunday, the 27th. Thanks a lot for your invitation. Yours sincerely,
S. Pramila
[Informal note of refusal.]
Poes garden
23 November
My dear Saroja,
I am very sorry that a previous engagement will prevent me from joining you at dinner on
Sunday. Thank you very much for your kind invitation.
Yours sincerely,
S. Pramila
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

II. Business Letters
Business letters should be terse, clear, and to the point. Businessmen are busy men, and have no time to read long, rambling and confused letters.
Business letters are naturally much more formal in style than friendly letters. Certain forms of polite expression are used, such as"I shall be much obliged if you will send me,"
"Please despatch at your earliest convenience," etc.
At the same time certain phrases of business "jargon" should be avoided. They are commonly used, but are not good English; and the meaning can be conveyed as clearly in simple, everyday language.
Examples of such expressions are:-

Page 381
"Yours of even date to hand."
"Despatch same at once."
Avoid so far as possible abbreviations (like advt. for advertisement, exam, for examination, etc.) and the omission of I or we (e.g., "Have received" instead of "We have received"). In business letters ordering goods, care should be taken to give clear and exact descriptions of the articles wanted. An itemized list of the goods wanted should be supplied, with the quality and quantity required.
Directions for forwarding should be given (by rail, post, etc.) and the manner in which payment will be made indicated (by Money Order, V.P.P., cheque, or by debiting to the writer's account). Everything should be clear and precise.
FORM:- The form of business letters is the same as already described, with one addition, viz., the Address (i.e., the name of the firm or businessman to whom the letter is addressed), which should be written on the first page, lower down than the Heading and to the left of the page. (It may be placed at the end of the letter lower than the signature and at the left side of the page, but the usual position is at the beginning.)
MODES OF ADDRESS:- The modes of address vary. (1) To a tradesman:Shri B.V. Rao
12 Ring Road
Being Dear Sir, and conclude Yours faithfully.
(2) To a firm:Messrs K.R. Das & Co.
Tea Merchants
24 Ring Road
Begin Dear Sirs, and conclude with Yours faithfully.
Note:- If the firm has an impersonal title, Messrs should not be prefixed. For example:Eurasia Publishing House, Vijay Trading Co.
(3) To professional men or private gentlemen:Mr. K. Bhaskar Chartered Accountant Pratibha House Thiruvananthapuram 695 002

Mr. K.R. Misra
32 Bhandarkar Road
Pune 411 004
Begin Dear Sir or My dear Sir, and conclude Yours faithfully,
Oyurs truly, etc. (not Your’s Sincerely).

Page 382
When a clerk signs a business letter on behalf of his employer, he puts the letter p.p.
(Latin per pro = on behalf of) or for before the name of the firm, and writes his signature beneath. For example:Yours faithfully
For R. Gomes & Sons
K.S. Kumar
If a gentleman is entitled to be called Honourable, he is addressed, for example, as The
Hon. Shri K.R. Patil.
(N.B.:- The title The Hon. cannot be used by itself; you must not write The Hon. K.R.
REPLIES:- In replying to a business letter, always quote the number of reference (if there is one) and the date of the letter you are answering. For example :
"In reply to your letter No. 502/P, dated July 26, 20 , I would like to say," etc.
[Example to show the form of a business letter.]
16 Church Street
Anaparthi 533 341
14 Dec. 2001
The Manager
Southern Agency
Rajahraundry 533 101
Dear Sir,
I shall be grateful if you will kindly supply the following items of Godrej furniture:
1 almirah - model 2
3 chairs - model 4
2 chairs - model 6
1 table - model 101
Please send them carriage forward to the above address, and your bill will be paid on receipt. Yours faithfully,
V.J. Manohar
(Letter to a bank manager asking him to .stop payment of a cheque)
37 Nrupatunga Road
Bangalore 560 001

3 December 2001
The Manager
Indian Bank Bangalore 560 001
Dear Sir,
Would you please stop the payment of cheque 104662 dated 2 December ? I signed it in favour of Mr. K. Ramakrishna. The sum was Rs. 500
Yours faithfully,
K.V. Gokak
(Account no. 986)
( Note:- A cheque has to be stopped only where there is some good reason for it, such as fraud.) Page 383
[Ordering a journal]
Gurgaon 122 001
1 December 2001
The Business Manager
'Employment News'
East Block IV
Level-7, R.K. Puram .
New Delhi 110 066
Dear Sir,
I enclose a draft for Rs. 120 for one year's subscription to your journal Employment
News. Kindly arrange to put this order into effect immediately so that I may receive the next issue.
Yours faithfully,
Abdul Rahim
[From a shopkeeper to a customer, asking for the settlement of an overdue account]
Fashion and Style Ltd. R.G. Street Mumbai 400 012 5 Jan. 2001
Mr. V.N. Patil
43 Park lane
Pune 411 004
Dear Sir,
We wish to call your attention to our bill for Rs. 650, payment of which is long. overdue.
We have sent you several reminders, but have received from you no reply. We must ask you to settle this account without further delay, or we shall be obliged to take legal steps to recover the amount due to us.
Yours faithfully,
S. Nazeeruddin Manager
(Order for books)
16 Ring Road
Ravulapalem 533 238
30 November 2001
The Manager
Sudhitha Book Centre .
Kakinada 533 001

Dear Sir,
I shall be grateful if you will send me by VPP one copy each of the following books
(Collin's Retold classics, published by Messrs S. Chand & Company Ltd.) as early as possible. 1. David Copperfield
2. Huckleberry Finn
3. Treasure Island

Page 384
4. Monte Cristo
5. Pickwick Papers
My address is as above.
Yours faithfully,
N. Chaitanya

Exercise 142
1. Write a letter to Messrs Babcock and Singer, complaining that the watch lately bought from them does not keep good time.
2. Write a letter to a landlord, asking that certain repairs be done to the house in which you are living.
3. During the last two weeks your baker has been supplying bread of a quality inferior to what you were getting previously. Write a letter calling his attention to this.
4. Draft out the baker's apology.
5. Write a letter to your baker, telling him not to deliver any bread while you are away on a holiday.
6. Shri. Ramesh Bannerjee sends a letter to a firm, asking for their catalogues. The firm reply that the catalogues are being reprinted, and that they will send one as soon as possible. Write these two letters.
7. Write on behalf of your father to a house-agent about a suitable flat, stating clearly your requirements.
8. Write the house-agent's reply.
9. Write to the local Gas or Electric Company, saying that you need the light, etc., on your premises, and asking them to forward the lowest estimate. Do not forget to supply full particulars of your requirements.
10. You have sprained your ankle while playing football. Copy out the letter your father writes to your family doctor.
11. M.O. of Rs. 100 to your aunt-no reply from aunt-no receipt from Post Office. Write to the Post Master.
12. Write a letter to a railway company, complaining that your furniture has been damaged in transit, and claiming damages.
13. Write a letter to the manager of a factory, asking permission for a party to visit the factory. 14. Write a letter to the secretary of a joint-stock company of which you are a share holder, notifying your change of address.

A letter applying for employment should contain:(a) A short introduction stating whether the writer is answering an advertisement or is applying on his own responsibility.
(b) A statement of his age, education and experience.

(c) A conclusion giving references, testimonials, or an expression of the applicant's earnestness of purpose.
Letters of application should be in the form of business letters.
[Reply to an advertisement for a junior clerk.)
24 Old Gate
3rd October, 2001
Messrs Abdul Rahim & Sons
I wish to apply for the position of junior clerk, advertised in today’s The Hindu.
I am 18 years old, and have just passed the matriculation examination.

Page 385 from the Saranpur High School. I have also taken a course in type-writing and bookkeeping. I enclose some testimonials, and would refer you to the Principal of the Saranpur School for my character.
If I am given the post, I can assure you I will do my best to give you satisfaction.
Yours faithfully, Nathu Ram Baxi

Exercise 143
1. Answer the following advertisement:Wanted a clerk with a good knowledge of English and Arithmetic. Apply Manager, New
Press, Allahabad.
2. Apply for position as book-keeper, advertised in a daily paper, staling age. education, experience, qualification, reasons for leaving last position, references, previous salary, salary required, etc.
3. Speaking to a friend, a prominent businessman said, '"I require a successful applicant for employment under me to demonstrate that he is sober, energetic and adaptable, and that he possesses practical knowledge of the work he proposes to undertake." Make an application to the gentleman, saying you possess the required qualifications.
4. Sir, having tried very earnestly to fit myself for advancement in your organisation, I would like to approach you in the matter of an advance in salary. In support of my request, I would like to point out the following facts:Finish this letter, referring to the length of your service, last promotion, why you deserve promotion, etc.

(Request to the Postmaster)
46 Kingsway
Nagar 440 001
18 Jan. 2001
The Postmaster
Head Post Office
Nagpur440 001
Dear Sir,
I have recently shifted from 25 Park Street, Nagpur 440 002 to 46 Kingsway, Nagpur 440
001.1 shall be grateful if you could kindly redirect my letters to the new address.

Yours faithfully, K. Joseph
(Letter of inquiry to an educational institution)
Vetapalem 523187
21 May 2001
The Director
4/7 Brodiepet
Guntur 522 002
Dear Sir,
I have passed the B.Sc. degree examination with Electronics as the main subject. I intend to have a course in Computer Science and would like to know the details

Page 386 of the courses taught at your institution. Could you please send me a copy of your prospectus? Yours faithfully,
N. Mahesh

Exercise 144
Write:1. To the Director of Education, applying for appointment as a teacher in the Educational
2. To the Commissioner of Police, about the grant for an appointment as Sub-Inspector.
3. To the Commissioner of Police, about the grant of licence to carry arms, stating reasons. 4. To the Municipal Commissioner on the necessity of public parks in a crowded city like
5. To the Postmaster of your town, asking for particulars about Post Office Cash
6. To the Superintendent, Government Central Press, asking for a list of Government publications relating to dairying in India, and inquiring if any periodical is published on the subject.
7. To the Jailor, Yerawada Prison, as from a prisoner's mother, asking permission to see her son.

These should always be addressed to "The Editor," and they usually end with Yours faithfully. The form of Salutation is Sir/Dear Sir.
If the writer gives his address for publication, it is often placed below the letter and to the left of the signature.
If the writer does not wish his name to be published, he can sign his letter with a non-deplume (such as "Interested", "Anxious", "One who knows", etc.); but in any case he must give his name and address (in a covering letter) to the Editor, for no respectable newspaper will publish anonymous letters.
[To a newspaper, about a bad piece of road that is in need of repair.]
The Editor
"The Hindu"
Our Municipality wants waking up; and, as private appeals to their office have had no effect, perhaps a little publicity will do no harm. For the last month Chetry Road has been almost impassable. The surface is badly broken up by the heavy rains, and on a dark night

it is positively dangerous for motors or carriages to pass that way-Moreover, there are heaps of roadmetal on both sides of the road, which leave very little room in the middle.
It is scandalous that we should be inconvenienced in this way for weeks, and I hope the public will bring pressure to bear on those responsible so that the road may be put in thorough repair without further delay.
Yours faithfully,
4 Bazar Road

Page 387

Exercise 145
Write:1. To the Editor of a newspaper, on reckless driving.
2. To a newspaper, drawing attention to the insanitary condition of the city bazaars.
3. To a newspaper, protesting against street noises.
4. To a newspaper, advocating the establishment of a Free Library in your town.
5. To a newspaper, appealing for the funds for an orphanage.
6. To a newspaper, complaining of the bad quality and inadequate supply of Municipal water in your town.
7. To a newspaper, suggesting to the public the desirability of a Social Service League in your town.
8. To a newspaper, on the evils of street-begging.
9. To a newspaper, appealing for funds to relieve the sufferers from a flood.

[To a very near neighbour about quiet for the benefit of a person who is seriously HI]
21 Osborne Street
7th May, 2001
Dear Shri Naik,
I am sorry to have to worry you with my troubles, but when I have explained I am sure you will understand. I regret to say that Mrs. Pradhan is seriously ill. The doctor, who has just been, says she is in a critical condition, and that absolute calm is essential for her recovery. She has had several bad nights, and cannot get sufficient sleep. I am sure you will not be offended if, in the circumstances, I ask you to tell your servant and your children to make as little noise as they can during the next few days. Our houses are so close together that we cannot help hearing shouting, and even talking; and the slightest noise disturbs my wife, who is in a very low, nervous state. If she can only have a few days and nights of calmness, I think it will work wonders.
Apologizing for putting you to this inconvenience.
Yours sincerely
Satish Pradhan
[A father reports to the police that his son has not returned home from school, giving particulars of the boy, his dress, etc.]
35 Patel Street
4 Jan. 2001
The Inspector of Police
Police Station II

Dear Sir,
My son, Abdur Rashid, a lad twelve years old, is missing, and I am very anx-lQus about him. As all my efforts to trace him have failed., I must appeal to you for "telp. He went to school this morning as usual, but although it is now nearly eight 0 clock, he has not returned. He generally comes home before 4-30 p.m., everyday. I nave made inquiries at the school (the Government High School), but the headmaster cannot throw any light on the matter. He says Abdur Rashid left school as usual about ^'5 p.m., and he was quite well. The only clue I can find is from one of his school 'riends (a boy called Mhd.
Hussain) who says he saw my son going along the canal bank"at about 4-30 p.m., with a man whom he did not know. He cannot describe this "^n, but says he was wearing a white pagri and a brown jacket.

Page 388
Abdur Rashid was wearing a red fez, a white coat and trousers. He is rather tail for his age, and walks with a slight limp.
I cannot think he has got into mischief, as he has always been a good boy and most regular in his habits. In view of the kidnapping case a few weeks ago, I naturally very anxious lest he may have suffered from some foul play. Please do your best to trace him, and let me know as soon as you have anything to report.
Yours faithfully,
Abdur Rahim
[Certificafe to a pupil]
Ideal College
12 May 2001
Ahmad Hasan has studied in this college for two years, and has just appeared in the
Intermediate Examination. As he has worked well and is intelligent, he stands a good chance of passing. His conduct has been most satisfactory and he bears a good character.
Physically he is robust and active, and was a member of the college football team. I am sure he will do any work entrusted to him conscientiously and efficiently.
N. Solomon

Exercise 146
1. Write a courteous letter to a neighbour whose dog annoys you by barking at night.
2. Reply to the above.
3. Write as from the father of a boy to a gentleman who rescued his son from drowning.
4. Your father thinks you are a precious boy; so he writes, “There have been many men whose early life was full of brilliant promise, but whose careers have ended HI failure, owing to lack of industry.” Write to him, assuring him that you will nor belief me promise of your boyhood.
5. Write, as from a father to his son, about a drunkard and his unhappy family.
6. Write an imaginary letter as from a great-grandfather to his great-grandson about the means of communication in his days.
7. You have left school and are seeking a situation. Write to your Headmaster, asking for a testimonial.
8. Write to your Headmaster, asking for a Setter of recommendation and explaining what you want.
9. Write a letter to your Headmaster, thanking him for the testimonial.
10. Write to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals about a case of cruelty to a bullock, giving details including the date and place and name and address of the guilty person.

11. "It is often the steady plodder who gets prizes." Write as from a father to his son.
12. Write to a friend, setting forth your views on prize-giving in schools.
13. It is wonderful how a rumour grows. In an imaginary letter to your friend, give a story which, though foolish enough, was accepted by a large number of credulous people.
14. Write to a friend who, you think, is "a rolling stone".
15. Write as from a grandfather to his grandson who lives beyond his income.
16. Write a letter to your younger brother, advising temperance,
17. "It is often at school that life-friendships are made." A father makes this observation when writing to his son at a boarding school. Imagine the letter and copy it out.
18. Write as from a father to his son, asking him to make a habit of reading the daily newspaper, and pointing out what portions he should particularly read, etc.

Page 389
19. Write to a prince, as from his teacher who believes. "There is no royal road to learning. 20. Write a letter from a shopkeeper to another shopkeeper about "cut-throat competition." 21. Write to your sportmaster, criticising the decision of the referee in a hockey match.
22. Write a letter to the manager of a local paper, enclosing an advertisement of your school conceit.
23. You have advertised your bicycle for sale, reply to an inquirer, and give him full details. 24. You see in a local paper an advertisement offering a second-hand bicycle. Write to the advertiser, asking for an appointment, as you wish to inspect the bicycle with a view to purchase.
25. Draft these advertisements:(i) Seeking a cheap second-hand typewriter.
(ii) Offering for sale of your car.
(iii) Announcing the loss of your dog and offering a substantial reward.

A comprehension exercise consists of a passage, upon which questions are set to test the student's ability to understand the content of the given text and to infer infromation and meanings from it.
Here are a few hints:1. Read the passage fairly quickly to get the general idea.
2. Read again, a little slowly, so as to know the details.
3. Study the questions thoroughly. Turn to the relevant portions of the passage, read them again, and then rewrite them in your own words, neatly and precisely
4. Use complete sentences.
5. If you are asked to give the meaning of any words or phrases, you should express the idea as clearly as possible in your own words. Certain words require the kind of definition that is given in a dictionary. Take care to frame the definition in conformity with the part of speech.

Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow it.
It has been part of Nelson's prayer that the British fleet might be distinguished by humanity in the victory which he expected. Setting an example himself, he twice gave orders to cease firing upon the Redoubtable, supposing that she had struck because her great guns were silent; for as she carried no flag, there was no means of mstantly ascertaining the fact. From this ship, which he had thus twice spared, he received his death. A ball fired from her mizzen-top which, in the then situation of the two vessels

was not more than fifteen yards from that part of the deck where he was standing, struck the epaulette on his left shoulder about a quarter after one, just in the heat of action. He fell upon his face on the spot which was covered with his poor secretary's blood. Hardy who was a few steps from him turning round, saw three men raising him up. “They have done for me at last Hardy !” said he. “I hope not !” cried

Page 390
Hardy. “Yes,” he replied; “my backbone is shot through !” Yet even now not for a moment losing his presence of mind, he observed as they were carrying him down the ladder, that the tiller-ropes which had been shot away, were not yet replaced and ordered that new ones should be roped immediately. Then that he might not be seen by the crew, he took out his handkerchief and covered his face and his stars. Had he but concealed these badges of honour from the enemy, England perhaps would not have had cause to receive with sorrow the news of the battle of Trafalgar. The cockpit was crowded with wounded and dying men; over whose bodies he was with some difficulty conveyed, and laid upon a pallet in the midshipmen's berth. It was soon perceived, upon examination, that the wound was mortal. This, however, was concealed from all, except Captain
Hardy, the chaplain, and the medical attendants. He himself being certain, from the sensation in his back, and the gush of blood he felt momently within his breast, that no human care could avail him, insisted that the surgeon should leave him and attend to those to whom he might be useful.

1. What is meant by 'supposing that she had struck’?
2. How can Nelson be said to have been partly responsible for his own death?
3. What do you understand by the 'mizzen-top' ?
4. Why did Nelson insist that the surgeon should leave him and attend to others?
5. What qualities in Nelson's character are revealed by this passage?

1. 'Supposing that she had struck means 'thinking that the men in the ship had surrendered'. 2. Nelson ordered his men two times to cease firing on the Redoubtable.
From the same ship a ball was fired at him and brought about his death.
He was thus partly responsible for his death.
3. The 'mizzen-top' is the platform round the lower part of the mast nearest the stern.
4. Nelson was certain that it would be impossible to save his life. He, there fore, insisted that the surgeon should leave him and attend to others.
5. His patriotism, his humanity and his powers of endurance are revealed by this passage.
A work from S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Exercise 147
Read the passages carefully and answer briefly the questions appended below:-

People talk of memorials to him in statues of bronze or marble or pillars and thus they mock him and belie his message. What tribute shall we pay to him that he would have appreciated ? He has shown us the way to live and the way to die and if we have not understood that lesson, it would be better that we raised no memorial to him, forthe only

fit memorial is to follow reverently in the path he showed us and to do our duty in life and in death.
He was a Hindu and an Indian, the greatest in many generations, and he was proud of being a Hindu and an Indian, to-him India was dear, because she had represented throughout the age's certain immutable truths. But though he was intensely religious and came to be called the Father of the Nation which he had liberated, yet no narrow religious or national bonds confined his spirit. And so he became the great internationalist, believing in the essential unity of man, the underlying unity of all religions, and he needs of humanity, and more specially devoting himself to the service of the poor, the distressed and the oppressed millions everywhere.

Page 391
His death brought more tributes than have been paid at the passing of any other human being in history. Perhaps what would have pleased him best was the spontaneous tributes that came from the people of Pakistan. On the morrow of the tragedy, all of us forgot for a while the bitterness that had crept in, the estrangement and conflict of these past months and Gandhiji stood out as the beloved champion and leader of the people of India, of india as it was before partition cut up this living nation.
What was his great power over the mind and heart of man due to ? Even we realize, that his dominating passion was truth. That truth led him to proclaim without ceasing that good ends can never be attained by evil methods, that the end itself is distorted if the method pursued is bad. That truth led him to confess publicly whenever he thought he had made a mistake - Himalayan errors he called some of his own mistakes. That truth led him to fight evil and untruth wherever he found them, regardless of the consequences.
That truth made the service of the poor and the dispossessed the passion of his life, for where there is inequality and discrimination and suppression there is injustice and evil and untruth. And thus he became the beloved of all those who have suffered from social and political evils, and the great representative of humanity as it should be. Because of that truth in him wherever he sat became a temple and where he trod was hallowed ground. -Jawaharlal Nehru

1. About whom is the passage written?
2. Why does Nehru make the difference about being a "Hindu" and an "Indian"? Is there any difference really?
3. What great lesson did this great man show us for life?
4. Mention some of the virtues of "the great internationalist."
5. Nehru seems to suggest that his hero was "the beloved champion and leader of the people of India" only before the partition of Pakistan and India.' Do you agree with that?
6. What did "truth" mean to this great man ?
7. Give the meaning of the following : memorials, immutable; essential, estrangement, spontaneous, discrimination, dominating, Himalayan.

The Voice had to be listened to, not only on account of its form but for the matter which it delivered. It gave a message to the country that it needed greatly. It brought to the common people a realization of their duty to concern themselves with their affairs.
The common, people were made to take an interest in the manner in which they were governed in the taxes they paid in the return they got from those taxes. This interest in public affairs - politics as you may call it - was to be the concern no longer of the highly educated few but of the many - the poor, the propertyless, the workingmen in town and country. Politics was not to be the concern of a small aristocracy of intellect

property of the masses. And with the change in the subjects of politics that Voice bought about also a change in the objects of polities'. Till then politics had busied itself mainly with the machinery of Government towards making its personnel more and more native, with proposals for a better distribution of political power, with protests against the sins of omission and of commission of the administration. This Voice switched politics on to concern for the needs of the common people. The improvement of the lot of the poor was to be the main concern of politics and the politician. The improvement, especially of the lives of the people of the neglected villages, was to be
Placed before Governments and political organizations as the goal of all political en deavour. The raising of the standard of living of the people of the villages, the finding of subsidiary occupations which would give the agricultural poor work for their enforced leisure during the off season and an addition to (heir exiguous income, the improvement of the housing of the poor, the sanitation, of the villages – these were to be the object-

Page 392 tives to be kept in view. In the towns, the slums and cheries were to receive especial attention. There was especially a class of the poor for which that compassionate Voice pleaded and protested. This was for the so-called depressed class, the outcastes of Hindu society. The denial of elementary human rights to this class of people it considered the greatest blot on Hindu society and history. It raised itself in passionate protest against the age-old wrongs of this class and forced those that listened to it to endeavour to remove the most outrageous of them like untouchability. It caused a revolution in Hindu religious practice by having Hindu temples thrown open to these people. It made the care of them a religious duty of the Hindus by re-naming them Harijans.
-Mr. Ruthnasami

1. Why had people to listen to "The Voice" of Mahatma Gandhi?
2. Why had people to take an interest in politics?
3. What was the change brought about in the objects of politics?
4. What improvements were made for the common man?
5. Explain:(a) Sins of omission and of commission of the administration.
(b) No longer the monopoly of the classes, but the property of the masses.

The next ingredient is a very remarkable one: Good Temper. “Love is not easily provoked”. Nothing could be more striking than to find this here. We are inclined to look upon bad temper as a very harmless weakness. We speak of it as a mere infirmity of nature, a family failing, a matter of temperament, not a thing to take into very serious account in estimating a man's character. And yet here, right in the heart of this analysis of love, it finds a place; and the Bible again and again returns to condemn it as one of the most destructive elements in human nature. The peculiarity of ill temper is that it is the vice of the virtuous. It is often the one blot on an otherwise noble character. You know men who are all but perfect, and women who would be entirely perfect, but for an easily ruffled quick-tempered or "touchy" disposition. This compatibility of ill temper with high moral character is one of the strangest and saddest problems of ethics. The truth is there are two great classes of sins-sins of the Body, and sins of Disposition. The Prodigal son may be taken as a type of the first, the Elder Brother of the second. Now society has no doubt whatever as to which of these is the worse. Its brand falls, without a challenge, upon the Prodigal. But are we right? We have no balance to weigh one another's sins, and coarser and finer are but human words; but faults in the higher nature may be less venial than those in the lower, and to the eye of Him who is Love, a sin against Love may seem a hundred times more base. No form of vice, not worldliness, not greed of gold, not drunkenness itself does more to un-christianise society than evil temper. For embittering life, for breaking up communities, for destroying the most sacred relationships, for devastating homes, for withering up men and women, for taking the bloom off childhood; in short for sheer gratuitous misery-producing power, this influence stands alone.
Jealousy, anger, pride, uncharity, cruelty, self-righteous-ness, touchiness, doggedness,

sullenees - in varying proportions these are the ingredients of all ill temper. Judge if such sins of the disposition are not worse to live in. and for others to live with than sins of the body. There is really no place in Heaven for a disposition like this. A man with such a mood could only make Heaven miserable for all the people in it.
-Henry Druromond

1. What is the popular notion about “bad temper”?
2. How is bad temper “the vice of the virtuous”?
3. Which class of sins is worse, and why – since of the body, since of the disposition ?

Page 393
4. Mention some evils of bad temper.
5. Why according to the author will there be no place in Heaven for bad tempered folk?
6. Find words from the passage which mean; breaking up; running; scandalising; souring; easily or quickly offended.

Yes, there were giants before the Jam Sahib (the great Indian cricketer, Kumar Shree
Ranjitsinhji, better known to the world of cricket as Ranji). And yet I think it is undeniable that as a batsman the Indian will live as the supreme exponent of the
Englishman's game. The claim does not rest simply on his achievements although, judged by them, the claim could be sustained. His season's average of 87 with a total of over
3,000 runs, is easily the high-water mark of English cricket. Thrice he has totalled over
3,000 runs and no one else has equalled that record. And is not his the astonishing achievement of scoring two double centuries in a single match on a single day - not against a feeble attack, but against Yorkshire, always the most resolute and resourceful of bowling teams ?
But we do not judge a cricketer so much by the runs he gets as by the way he gets them.
"In literature as in finance," says Washington Irving, "much paper and much poverty may co-exist." And in cricket too many runs and much dullness may be associated. If cricket is menaced with creeping paralysis, it is because it is losing the spirit of joyous adventure and becoming a mere instrument for compiling tables of averages. There are dull, mechanic fellows who turn out runs with as little emotion as a machine turns out pins.
There is no colour, no enthusiasm, no character in their play. Cricket is not an adventure to them; it is a business. It was so with Shrewsbury. His technical perfection was astonishing; but the soul of the game was wanting in him. There was no sunshine in his play, no swift surprise or splendid unselfishness. And without these things without gaiety, daring, and the spirit of sacrifice cricket is a dead thing. Now, the Jam Sahib has the root of the matter in him. His play is as sunny as his face. He is not a miser hoarding up runs, but a millionaire spending them, with a splendid yet judicious prodigality. It is as though his pockets are bursting with runs that he wants to shower with his blessings upon the expectant multitude. It is not difficult to believe that in his litttle kingdom Nawangar where he has power of life and death in his hands he is extremely popular for it is obvious that his pleasure is in giving pleasure.
-A.G. Gardiner

1. Correct the following statistics, if necessary:(a) His season's average of 87 with a total of over 3,000 runs is easily the high-water mark of English cricket.
(b) Thrice he has totalled over 3,000 runs, and no one else has equaled that record.
(c) He scored two double centuries in a single match on a single day.
2. "Many runs and much dullness may be .associated." Prove this.

3. Mention some reasons why cricket is losing its lustre.
4. What gives cricket its "character"?
5. How should real cricket be played ?
6. Describe in your own words the secret of the Jam Sahib's wizardry with the bat.
7. Make a list of “do’s” and “don’ts” for a promising cricketer.

Page 394

Supposing you have to make a payment of Rs. 100, you can do so in rupee-coins; but it would be cumbersome to pay in nickel or copper coins, because they are heavy to carry and also because it takes much time to count them. The Government therefore permits you to make the payment in rupee-notes. What are these rupee-notes really? They are a kind of money, right enough, although they are made of paper instead of metal. You can use them in just the same way that you use ordinary money. The reason why they are made of paper and used is that they save the trouble of carrying metal coins about - of course, paper is lighter than metal and they also save using silver and other metals when they are scarce.
What makes these mere pieces of paper bear the value of the number of rupees that is printed upon them? Why should a piece of paper, with “100” printed on it be worth twenty times as much as a piece of paper with "five" printed on it - and also worth a hundred times as much as a silver rupee-coin? The reason is that Government guarantees that the piece of paper is worth the amount printed on it and promises to pay that amount to anybody who wishes to exchange this paper for the rupee-coins. Also, if you think about it you can easily realize that crores and crores more of rupee-coins would have to be minted, if all paper-money were abolished.
Perhaps you may ask, "Then why not have paper money only ? Why use silver and nickel and copper at all ?" The answer is - because money must as we have already said, be something so useful that everyone wants. Also because the metals are the best form of money; and thirdly because it would be impossible to print just the right amount of paper money that would keep prices at their proper natural level. If any Government prints too much paper money, then prices go up at once. The supply of money is increased and therefore its value (in food, clothes, books, houses, land, tools and everything else) goes down. You may think at first that it is queer to talk of having too much paper money and that money is so nice and useful that you cannot have too much of it. But if you think that, I am afraid you are forgetting that money is only useful for what it will buy; so it is no good at all having more money if there are no more things to buy with it. The more money there is, the higher will be the prices of everything. The same thing happens with rupee-coins as with paper money. But it is not likely to happen, for this reason : it is very easy to print a great deal of paper money, but not at all easy to increase the amount of rupee-coins. Silver has to be dug out of mines, and very difficult to get; so the amount there is if it keeps very steady and changes very little. In fact that is one of the chief reasons why it was chosen to make coins of.
-Ernest F. Row

1. Why does the Government allow payment to be made in paper notes?
2. What is more valuable, to have 100 rupee-coins in silver or a Rs. 100 note, in paper?

3. If metal is so cumbersome, why should we not have only paper money?
Why should we not print as much of it as possible?
4. What is the real use of money?
5. Why should the prices of commodities go up when there is plenty of paper money?
6. Why does the Government print only a certain number of paper notes, and not as many as it likes arbitrarily?

You seemed at first to take no notice of your school-fellows, or rather to set yourself against them because they were strangers to you. They knew as little of you as you did of them; so that this would have been the reason for their keeping aloof, from you as well, which you would have felt as a hardship. Learn never to conceive a

Page 395 prejudice against other because you know nothing of them. It is bad reasoning, and makes enemies of half the world. Do not think ill of them till they behave ill to you; and then strive to avoid the faults which you see in them. This will disarm their hostility sooner than pique or resentment or complaint. I thought you were disposed to criticize the dress of some of the boys as not so good as your own. Never despise any one for anything that he cannot help - least of all, for his poverty. I would wish you to keep up appearances yourself as a defence against the idle sneers of the world, but I would not have you value yourself upon them. I hope you will neither be the dupe nor victim of vulgar prejudices.
Instead of saying above "Never despise anyone for anything that he cannot help," I might have said, "Never despise anyone at all"; for contempt implies a triumph over and pleasure in the ill of another. It means that you are glad and congratulate yourself on their failings or misfortunes.
You have hitherto been a spoilt child, and have been used to have your own way a good deal, both in the house and among your playfellows, with whom you were too fond of being a leader; but you have good nature and good sense, and will get the better of this in time. You have now got among other boys who are your equals, or bigger and stronger than yourself and who have something else to attend to besides humouring your whims and fancies, and you feel this as a repulse or piece of injustice. But the first lesson to learn is that there are other people in the world besides yourself. The more airs of childish self-importance you. give yourself, you will only expose yourself to be the more thwarted and laughed at. True equality is the only true morality or wisdom. Remember always that you are but one among others and you can hardly mistake your place in society. In your father's house you might do as you pleased; in the world you will find competitors at every turn. You are not born a king's son, to destroy or dictate to millions; you can only expect to share their fate, or settle your differences amicably with them. You already find ii so al school, and I wish you to be reconciled to your situation as soon and with as little pain as you can.
- William Hazlitt

1. Can you tell who is writing to whom in this passage? What would you call this kind of writing - a speech, a diary, a letter, a sermon?
2. What reasons does the author give for not harbouring a prejudice against others?
3. What are some of the blessings of living with others in the same class or the same school? 4. Paraphrase:(a) True equality is the only true morality or true wisdom.
(b) To be the dupe or victim of vulgar prejudices.
(c) Settle your differences amicably with them.
5. "Contempt implies a triumph over and pleasure in the ill of another."
Who are those who feel like this and why ?

6. The author says that "in the world you will find competitors at every turn." But competition is a very good thing. Why does he seem to warn his son about it ?

Unquestionably a literary life is for the most part an unhappy life; because, if you have genius, you must suffer the penalty of genius; and, if you have only talent, there are so many cares and worries incidental to the circumstances of men of letters, as to make life exceedingly miserable. Besides the pangs of composition, and the continuous disappointment which a true artist feels at his inability to reveal himself, there is the everrecurring difficulty of gaining the public ear. Young writers are buoyed

Page 396 up by the hope and the belief that they have only to throw that poem at the world's feet to get back in return the laurel-crown; that they have only to push that novel into print to be acknowledged at once as a new light in literature. You can never convince a young author that the editors of magazines and the publishers of books are a practical body of men, who are by no means frantically anxious about placing the best literature before the public. Nay, that for the most part they are mere brokers, who conduct their business on the hardest lines of a Profit and Loss account. But supposing your book fairly launches, its perils are only beginning. You have to run the gauntlet of the critics. To a young author, again, this seems to be as terrible an ordeal as passing down the files of Sioux or
Comanche Indians, each one of whom is thirsting for your scalp. When you are a little older, you will find that criticism is not much more serious than the bye-play of clowns in a circus, when they beat around the ring the victim with bladders slung at the end of long poses. A time comes in the life of every author when he regards critics as comical rather than formidable, and goes his way unheeding. But there are sensitive souls that yield under the chastisement and, perhaps after suffering much silent torture, abandon the profession of the pen for ever. Keats, perhaps, is the saddest example of a fine spirit hounded to death by savage criticism; because, whatever his biographers may aver, that furious attack of Clifford and Terry undoubtedly expedited his death. But no doubt there are hundreds who suffer keenly hostile and unscrupulous criticism, and who have to bear that suffering in silence, because it is a cardinal principle in literature that the most unwise thing in the world for an author is to take public notice of criticism in the way of defending himself. Silence is the only safeguard, as it is the only dignified protest against insult and offence.
-P.A. Sheehan

1. Why is the Literary Life mostly an unhappy one?
2. What are the ambitions of a young author?
3. Are editors and publishers sympathetic to young authors?
4. What are some of the ordeals awaiting the young authors from the critics?
5. What attitude should an author adopt in the face of bitter critics?
6. Explain: Sioux Indians; abandon the profession of the pen; laurel-crown; to run the gauntlet; hounded to death.
7. Write in simple English: the pangs of composition; buoyed up by the hope; mere brokers; thirsting for your scalp.

Then one day there passed by that way a Pashupata ascetic. And he said to the Brahman :
"My son, what are you doing here ?" So he replied: "Reverend Sir, I am performing penance, for the expiation of sin, on the banks of the Ganges." Then the ascetic said:"What has this miserable puddle to do with the Ganges," And the Brahman said :"Is this, then, not the Ganges ?" And the ascetic laughed in his face, and said .'Truly, old as I am, I did not think that there had been folly like this in the world. Wretched man, who has deluded you ? The Ganges is hundreds of miles away, and resembles this

contemptible brook no more than Mount Meru resembles an ant-hill.' Then the Brahman said :"Reverend Sir, I am much obliged to you." And taking his pot and staff, he went forward, till at length he came to a broad river. And he rejoiced greatly, saying: "This must be the sacred Ganges." So he settled on its banks and remained there for five years, bathing every day in its waters. Then one day there came by a Kapalika, who said to him,
"Why do you remain here, wasting precious time over a river of no account or sanctity, instead of going to the Ganges ?" But the Brahman was amazed, and said; "And is this, then, not the Ganges ?" Then the Kapalika replied -."This is the Ganges! Is a jackal a lion or a Chandala a Brahman ? Sir, you are dreaming." Then the Brahman sighed deeply.
And he said, "Sir, I am enlightened by you." And he took his pot and staff, and went forward. Page 397
But he was now very old and feeble. And long penance had weakened his frame and exhausted his energies. And as he toiled on in the heat of the day over the burning earth, the sun beat on his head like the thunderbolt of Indra, and struck him with fever. Still he gathered himself together and struggled on, growing weaker and weaker day by day, till at last he got no further, but fell down and lay dying on the ground. But collecting all his remaining strength, with a last desperate effort he dragged himself up a low hill in front of him. And lo! there before him rolled the mighty stream of Ganges, with countless numbers of pilgrims doing penance on its banks and bathing in its stream. And in his agony he cried aloud : "O Mother Ganges ! alas ! alas ! I have pursued you all my life and now I die here helpless in sight of you." So his heart broke, and he never reached its shore. -F.W. Bain Questions
1. Explain the allusion to Mount Meru and the comparison between it and an ant-hill.
What was "the thunderbolt of Indra" ?
2. What is a "Pashupata" ascetic, a Kapalika or a Chandala ?
3. What do you suppose is the intention of the author in telling this very sad story ? Quote phrases from the text to show the pathos.
4. Comment on the significance and the author's use of the following expressions:(a) "This is the Ganges ! Is a jackal a lion ---?"
(b) "O Mother Ganges ! alas ! alas !"
5. What is the purpose of the words : "Reverend Sir, I am performing penance, for the expiation of sin .

One common mistake that many people have made is this: they have thought that it would be a very good thing if everybody had exactly the same amount of money, no matter whether they worked hard or lived quite idly. They forget that very few people would work at all if it were not for the money their work brings them, and that without work there would be no money. And they have imagined that if all the money in the country were equally divided everybody would be rich. Now that is a very great mistake, because there simply is not enough money to make everybody rich. If it were shared equally all round every one then would, on the basis of the calculations made in 1935, receive only about Rs. 65 a year. Today with a rise in the price level it might be Rs. 150 a year. That may be more than you receive now or it may be less, but would certainly not make you really rich. It is quite true that there are in this country a small number of very rich people; but they are so few in comparison with the whole population that even if they were to share out all their wealth among the rest, it would make very little difference. It is said that if you flattened out that great French mountain Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Europe, and spread it over the whole of France you would only raise the level of the land by about six inches. See if you can think out what that has to do with the question I have been talking about.

Many people, unfortunately, seem to think also that Government can always pay out money quite easily and in any quantity, and they forget, of else they do not know, that the
Government can only pay out money that it has received in taxes - money that the taxpayer has had to work for.
And now here is one final mistake that I should like to warn you against, Don't ever imagine that there is any thing to be ashamed of, or anything undignified, to grumble about in having to work hard for your living. If when you start work you can go into a job that suits you, so that you can really enjoy the work itself, so much the better: I hope that is what will happen, But if the work is not exactly the kind that you would choose, you must try to remember that you are helping to produce the things that other people need; you are "doing your bit" and playing your part In the work of the world- You are like a wheel, even if it is only 5 very tiny wheel, in the great world-

Page 398 machinery of trade and industry that is always busily at work providing for the wants of hundreds of millions of people, and you must "put your back into it" and see to it that your particular task is always done as well as you can possibly do it.
- Ernest F. Row

1. Why is it really necessary to work?
2. If all the money in the world were equally divided, everybody would be very happy.
Do you agree?
3. The author tells us about flattening Mont Blanc and the little difference it would make in raising the level of France. What is his point in giving us this example?
4. Which is the best job in the world? Why must you embrace it lovingly?
5. What is the meaning of: “put your back into it?” “doing your bit”?
6. Paraphrase :"You are like a wheel…..millions of people."

All Great Thinkers live and move on a high plane of thought. It is only there they can breathe freely. It is only in contact with spirits like themselves they can live harmoniously and attain that serenity which comes from ideal companionship. The studies of all great thinkers must range along the highest altitudes of human thought, i cannot remember the name of any illuminative genius who did not drink his inspiration from fountains of ancient Greek and Hebrew writers; or such among the moderns as were pupils in ancient thought, and, in turn, became masters in their own. I have always thought that the strongest argument in favour of the Baconian theory was, that no man, however indubitable his genius, could have written the plays and sonnets that have come down to us under Shakespeare's name who had not the liberal education of Bacon. How this habit of intercourse with the gods makes one impatient of mere men. The magnificent ideals that have ever haunted the human mind, and given us our highest proofs of a future immortality by reason of the impossibility of their fulfilment here, are splintered into atoms by contact with life's realities. Hence comes our sublime discontent.
You will notice that your first sensation after reading a great book is one of melancholy and dissatisfaction. The ideas, sentiments, expressions, are so far beyond those of ordinary working life that you cannot turn aside from one to the other without an acute sensation and consciousness of the contrast. And the principles are so lofty, so superhuman that it is a positive pain, if once you become imbued with them, to come down and mix in the squalid surroundings of ordinary humanity. It may be spiritual or intellectual pride that is engendered on the high plane of intellectual life. But whatever it is, it becomes inevitable. An habitual meditation on the vast problems that underline human life, and are knit into human destinies-thoughts of immortality, of the littleness of mere man, of the greatness of man's soul, of the splendours of the universe that are invisible to the ordinary traffickers in the street, as the vastness of St, Peter's is to the spider that weaves her web in a corner of the dome-these things do not fit men to understand the average human being, or tolerate with patience the sordid wretchedness of the unregenerate masses. It is easy to understand, therefore, why such thinkers fly to the

solitude of their own thoughts, or the silent companionship of the immortals; and if they care to present their views in prose or verse to the world, that these views take a sombre and melancholy setting from "the pale cast of thought" in which they were engendered.
-P.A. Sheehan

1. On what plane must great thinkers live and move?
2. Is a liberal education necessary to produce great literature?
3. Why does the reading of a great book, according to the author, make one melancholy and disappointed?
4. What are the things that make it hard to understand the average human being?

Page 399

Although religion does not inhibit the accusation of wealth, although it does not hold up large fortunes as evil, the tenor of its teaching, by and large, is to induce an attitude of indifference to worldly things, things which gratify one's lower self and keep one engrossed in money-making. The student should be made to realize that the real goods of life are spiritual, love of things of the spirit and service of one's fellowmen, joy of an ordered disciplined life. These are blessings money cannot buy. What is wealth before such things of the spirit? Of all religious teachers Jesus Christ has dealt more comprehensively than any other with the problem of wealth in all its aspects. He may be called the greatest exponent of the science of the wealth. With only four words "Blessed are ye poor!" he changed altogether the values which man attached to human existence and human happiness and acquisition and possession of wealth. Real bliss consisted, he taught, not in riches nor in anything else which the world regarded as prosperity or felicity, but in the joy and happiness derived from being at peace with one's fellowmen through perfect love and fellowship and selfless service and sacrifice.
The word "poor" on the lips of the Master had a spiritual significance - the poor so far as they were poor in spirit, humble before God, simple, God-fearing, teachable, faithful. It could surely not have been his intention to hold up destitution and privation as a blessing in itself. That would have turned life into a terrible ordeal and it would have been heartless to exhort the poor to believe that money was not necessary for one's sustenance or the joys and blessings of life. Even things of the spirit cannot be had without money.
Extreme poverty is as liable to lead to the stagnation and impoverishment of the soul as excessive wealth. Not outward poverty but inward spirit was what Jesus Christ desired and demanded. Every religion asks a man to regard his wealth as a trust. Giving in charity for the relief of the poor and public welfare is not merely an act of compassion, not merely d religious duty, but also an act of social justice. All the gospels of wealth are based on the fundamental concept that none can claim an absolute or inherent right to property. Everyone holds it in trust from God to promote the good of mankind. AU rights to private property are subject to this primary obligation to God and man.
- R.P. Masani

1. What, according to the author, is the meaning of "indifference"? "Is it applicable to all religions? 2. Which are some of the real goods of spiritual living ? Is it easy to make the student realise this?
3. In what sense can it be said that Jesus Christ has dealt more comprehensively with the problem of wealth ? Did Mahatma Gandhi teach a similar doctrine ?
4. What do you understand by the phrase : "poor in spirit" ? In that case, would it be more perfect to give-away all your belongings and property and live like a pauper ?
5. Describe some of the drawbacks of poverty and show how money is absolutely necessary in life.

6. Write a short paragraph developing the idea contained in the following: "Every religion asks a man to regard his wealth as a trust."
7. Bernard Shaw has said that poverty is a crime. Do you agree ?

The third great defect of our civilization is that it does not know what to do with its knowledge. Science has given us powers fit for the gods, yet we use them like small

Page 400 children. For example, we do not know how to manage our machines. Machines were made to be man's servants; yet he has grown so dependent on them that they are in a far way to become his masters. Already most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. An the machines are very stern masters. They must be fed with coal, and given petrol to drink, and oil to wash with, and they must be kept at the right temperature. And if they do not get their meals when they expect them, they row sulky and refuse to work, or burst with rage, and blow up, and spread ruin and destruction all round them. So we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all that we can to keep them in a good temper. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without the machines, and a time may come when they will rule us altogether, just as we rule the animals. And this brings me to the point at which I asked, "What do we do with all the time which the machines have saved for us, and die new energy they have given us ?" On the whole, it must be admitted, we do very little. For the most part we use our time and energy to make more and better machines; but more and better machines will only give us still more time and still more energy, and what are we to do with them ? The answer, I think, is that we should try to become mere civilized. For the machine themselves, arid the power which the machines have given us, are not civilization but aids to civilization. But you will remember that we agreed at the beginning that being civilized meant making and liking beautiful things, thinking freely, and living rightly and maintaining justice equally between man and man. Man has a better chance today to do these things than he ever had before; he has more time, more energy, less to fear and less to fight against. If he will give his time and energy which his machines have won for him to making more beautiful things, to finding out more and more about the universe, to removing the causes of quarrels between nations, to discovering how to prevent poverty, then I think our civilization would undoubtedly be the greater, as it would be the most lasting that there has ever been.
- C.E.M. Joad

1. Instead of making machines our servants the author says they have become our masters. In what sense has this come about ?
2. The use of machines has brought us more leisure and more energy. But the author says that this has been a curse rather than a blessing. Why ?
3. What exactly is the meaning of "civilization" ? Do you agree with the author's views ?
4. "Making more beautiful things" What does this expression mean ? Make a list of die beautiful things that you would like to make and how you would make them.
5. Mention some plans you may have to prevent poverty in the world. Who would receive your most particular attention, and why ?
6. The author uses phrases like, "fed with coal"; "given petrol to drink"; "oil to wash";
"kept at the right temperature" What machines would require these things ?

The other day we heard someone smilingly refer to poets as dreamers. Now, it is accurate to refer to poets as dreamers, but it is not discerning to infer, as this person did, that the dreams of poets have no practical value beyond the realm of literary diversion, The truth is that poets are just as practical as people who build bridges or look into microscopes; and just as close to reality and truth, Where they differ from the logician and the scientist is in the temporal sense alone; they are ahead of their time, whereas logicians and scientists are abreast of their time. We must not be so superficial that we fail to discern the practicableness of dreams. Dreams are the sunrise streamers

Page 401 heralding a new day of scientific progress, another forward surge. Every forward step man takes in any field of life, is first taken along the dreamy paths of imagination. Robert
Fulton did not discover his steamboat with full steam up, straining at a hawser at some
Hudson River dock; first he dreamed the steamboat, he and other dreamers, and then scientific wisdom converted a picture in the mind into a reality of steel and wood. The automobile was not dug out of the ground like a nugget of gold; first men dreamed the automobile and afterward, long afterward, the practical-minded engineers caught up with what had been created by winging fantasy. He who looks deeply and with a seeing eye into the poetry of yesterday finds there all the cold scientific magic of today and much which we shall not enjoy until some tomorrow. If the poet does not dream so clearly that blueprints of this vision can immediately be drawn and the practical conversions immediately effected, he must not for that reason be smiled upon as merely the mental host for a sort of harmless madness. For the poet, like the engineer, is a specialist. His being, tuned to the life of tomorrow, cannot be turned simultaneously to the life of today.
To the scientist he says, "Here, I give you a flash of the future." The wise scientist thanks him, and takes that flash of the future and makes it over into a fibre of today.
- Glen Falls

1. Are poets dreamers? In what sense?
2. Is a poet a practical man? In what way?
3. Are dreams, according to the author, useful to the world? Why?
4. What was Fulton's achievement?
5. If the poet did not dream, what would happen?
6. In what way is the poet a specialist?

This romantic life in Kashmir was drawing to its end after three glorious months. Miss
Joan was leaving a week