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The “wonder material”, known as grapheme holds many superlative qualities allowing for it to be integrated into a huge number of applications. At the start, grapheme will be used to help improve the performance and efficiency of current materials and substances, but soon after it will be developed in conjunction with other two-dimensional crystals to create more amazing compounds to suit a wider range of applications. The following are a few science fields where grapheme may be used in the future.

Biological Engineering graphene offers a large surface area, high electrical conductivity, thinness and strength, it would make a good contender for the development of fast and efficient bioelectric sensory devices. The bioelectric sensory devices would be able to monitor such things as glucose levels, haemoglobin levels, cholesterol and even DNA sequencing. Eventually graphene would be used as an antibiotic or even anticancer treatment. Furthermore, due to its molecular make-up and potential biocompatibility, it could be utilized in the process of tissue regeneration.
Optical Electronics
Graphene will soon be used on a commercial scale in optoelectronics, including touchscreeens, liquid crystal displays (LCD). In order for graohene to be used in the optical electronics field, it must be able to transmit more than 90% of light, offer high electrical conductive properties with low electrical resistance. Graphene being nearly transparent, being able to transmit 97.7% of light and the other requirements as mentioned above can all be found within the superlative qualities of grpahene. Currently the most widely used material is indium tin oxide (ITO), However, recent tests have shown that graphene is potentially able to match the properties of ITO. Potential electronic applications such as graphene based e-paper with the ability to display interactive and updatable information and flexible electronic devices including portable computers and televisions in the near future.
Graphene only allows water to pass through while it is completely impermeable to liquids and gases. Signifying that graphene could be used as a filtration medium to act as a barrier between two substances. Graphene is much stronger and less brittle than aluminium oxide, which is currently used in filtration applications. This concludes that graphene will be able to develop to be used in water filtration systems, desalination systems and more viable biofuel creation.

Aircrafts and composite materials
Graphene is strong, stiff and very light. Currently, aerospace engineers are incorporating carbon fibre into the production of aircraft as it is also very strong and light. However, graphene is much stronger whilst being much lighter. Eventually it is expected that graphene will be utilized to create a material that can replace steel in the structure of aircraft, improving fuel efficiency, range and reducing weight. Due to its electrical conductivity, it could be used to coat aircraft surface material to prevent electrical damage resulting from lightning strikes. The graphene coating could also be used to measure strain rate, notifying the pilot of any changes in the stress levels that the aircraft wings are under. These characteristics would also help in the development of body armour for military personnel and vehicles.
Photovoltaic Cells
Having a low level of light absorption whilst also offering high electron mobility means that graphene can be used as an alternative to silicon in the manufacture of photovoltaic cells. Silicon is currently widely used in the production of photovoltaic cells, but while silicon cells are very expensive to produce, graphene based cells would potentially be much less. A lot of potential energy is lost as heat while using silicon. While silicon is able to generate electricity from certain wavelength of light, graphene would be able to work on all wavelengths. Being flexible and thin means that graphene based photovoltaic cells could be used in clothing; to help rechargedevices, in curtains to help power your home, and many more.
Energy Storage
Currently there are problems for storing energy in batteries and capacitors, a battery can potentially hold a lot of energy, but it can take a long time to charge, a capacitor, on the other hand, can be charged very quickly, but can’t hold that much energy. The solution is to develop energy storage components such as either a supercapacitor or a battery that is able to provide both of these positive characteristics without compromise. Graphene based micro-supercapacitors will likely be developed for use in low energy applications such as smart phones and portable computing devices.

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