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Growth Policies of Bangladesh

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Bangladesh began implementing structural policy reforms to increase the market orientation of its economy in the late 1970s. The authorities adopted significant reforms in agriculture, industry, and trade, and also pursued reforms in the financial and infrastructure sectors. These reforms helped accelerate growth from an annual average of 3 percent in the 1970s to 4 percent in the 1980s and to 5 percent in the 1990s. Sound and sustained macroeconomic management ensured macroeconomic stability, contributing to Bangladesh’s ability to maintain one of the lowest growth volatilities in the world.

Major Policy Reforms Contributed to Growth Acceleration: * Agricultural policy * Industrial policy * Trade policy * Infrastructure policy * Financial policy * Macroeconomic policies * Human Development policies

Macroeconomic policies
Following the initial debacle of the 1972–75 periods, Bangladesh was able to maintain a broad degree of stability of macroeconomic policies, as reflected in relatively low inflation and a stable real exchange rate. Fiscal, monetary and exchange rate management was broadly on track for most of the period until around the end of the 1990s. This long-term good macroeconomic management served Bangladesh well, contributing to incentives for private investment and exports.
Inflation has now been reduced to 3–4 percent annually (Chart 7). The correction of the macroeconomic imbalances started in the late 1970s and continued during the 1980s and 1990s. The inflation rate declined from nearly 20 percent in the 1970s to the single digits in the 1980s. Management of fiscal and monetary policy further improved in the 1990s. The average inflation rate fell to 5.6 percent, lower than most other countries in South Asia, averaging 7.1 percent in China, 8.6 percent in India, and 9.2 percent in Pakistan.

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