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Hana Suitecas


Submitted By kevein
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EnrichmEnt GuidE

– A true story

School Dates:

September 14 – OctOber 5, 2007

Adapted by Emil Sher Based on the book by Karen Levine Originally published by Second Story Press

Media Sponsor:

nal dditiovisit For a rials, mate! FirstS

Please be sure to share this guide with all teachers who are taking their students to see this production. Photocopy or download additional copies from

INSIDE THE GUIDE preparing for the play

HANA’S SUITCASE is the true story of Jewish girl who died at Auschwitz at the age of thirteen and how, although her life was taken at such a young age, her memory and spirit continue to live on today. Adapted from the book of the same title by Karen Levine, HANA’S SUITCASE explores the journey of teacher and children at the Tokyo Holocaust Education Center take to find out who Hana Brady is—all from a suitcase the Center received with Hana’s name, birth date, and the word waisenkind (orphan) written on it. The children at the Center are captivated by this suitcase, and the girl who once owned it, and they begin flooding Fumiko Ishioka, the Center’s Director, with question after question about Hana. Fumiko recognizes the importance of uncovering Hana’s story for her students. This tragic event cannot be summed up in numbers or facts— it affected individuals, young and old, who each had a story, families, and hopes and dreams. As Fumiko slowly but determinedly reveals Hana’s story, she discovers that Hana was sent to live in Theresienstadt, a Jewish ghetto, and eventually died at Auschwitz. However, as devastating as this is for Fumiko and the children at the Center to find out, they also learn that Hana had an older brother who survived the Holocaust and was now living with his family in Canada. Fumiko and the children write to George Brady, asking him to share Hana’s story with them. Weeks later, Fumiko receives a package from Canada, which includes a letter from George and pictures of Hana and the Brady family before they were ripped apart during the Holocaust. Hana always wanted to be a teacher when she grew up. Through her story, she has taught thousands of children about this tragic event in history from a child’s perspective, and with that, she teaches them even more important values: tolerance, respect, kindness, and empathy. HANA’S SUITCASE deals with a disturbing and painful point in history. However, this story looks at the event through the eyes of children—with continual hope and compassion for each other and the world around them. By sharing Hana’s story, we want to share with young people those values so important to Hana, which she is still teaching today. Enclosed in this enrichment guide is a range of materials and activities intended to help you discover connections within the play throughout the curricula. In addition to this, we have also provided resources and suggestions for teaching the Holocaust to young children, and ideas on how to make this enormous event relevant and pertinent to the lives of young people today. It is our hope that you will use the experience of attending the theater and seeing HANA’S SUITCASE with your students as a teaching tool. As educators and parents, you know best the needs and abilities of your students. Use this guide to best serve your students—pick and choose, or adapt, any of these suggestions for discussions or activities. We encourage you to take advantage of the enclosed student worksheets—please feel free to photocopy the sheets for your students, or the entire guide for the benefit of other teachers. Enjoy the show!

Setting the Stage

Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 About the Playwright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Additional reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Pre-Show discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Curriculum connections before or after the play artS For teacherS

create a holocaust monument . . . . .22

LangUage artS

i am a Ally of tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Oppression Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Glossary of the holocaust . . . . . . . .9-10 Q & A About the holocaust . . . . . 11-12 timeline of the Brady Family and the holocaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15 the range of resistance Activity . . .16 Oppression Exists today Worksheet.19 Japan’s involvement in WWii . . . . . . .19 War time Propaganda Worksheet. . .21

SociaL StUDieS

Math/geograPhY Math

map Studies Worksheet . . . . . . . . 23-24 Population density Worksheet . 25-26

cUrtain caLL
Post-Show discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Who Said it!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

Julia Newby Education Director 414-267-2971

• Because of union regulations the use of recording equipment and cameras is strictly • Food, drink, candy and gum are not permitted in the theater. • Any portable radios brought to the theater by students will be kept by the house manager • there is no smoking in the theater, by order of the Fire marshal. • Should a student become ill, suffer an injury or have another problem, please escort him or • in the unlikely event of a general emergency, the theater lights will go on and someone her to the theater lobby and ask an usher to notify the house manager immediately. will come on stage to inform the audience of the problem. remain in your seats, visually locate the nearest exit and wait for First Stage ushers to guide your group from the theater. during the performance and returned to the group leader at the conclusion of the play. forbidden in the theater.

Who Said it!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 map Studies Worksheet Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Population density Worksheet Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

Seating for people with disabilities: if you have special seating needs for any student(s) and did not indicate your need when you ordered your tickets, please call the Box Office at (414) 267-2962 nOW. Our knowledge of your needs will enable us to serve you better upon your group’s arrival at the theater.



2000, the Tokyo Holocaust Center received a special donation—the suitcase of a Jewish child in the Holocaust, a child’s sock and shoe, a child’s sweater, and a can of Zyklon B poisonous gas. The suitcase intrigued the children more than the other articles, mainly because this suitcase did not belong to just any child, it belonged to a girl named Hana Brady. However, her name, birth date, and the fact that she was an orphan was the only information they had on this girl.
Hana Brady

This package consisted of drawings Hana created while living in Theresienstadt. Every new piece of information Fumiko and the children collected was like a new piece of puzzle that would eventually come together to form Hana’s story. Soon after the Tokyo Holocaust Center received this package from the Jewish Museum in Prague, Fumiko had the opportunity to visit Terezin. When she got there, her first mission was to visit the Terezin Ghetto Museum. Although the Museum was understaffed on the day Fumiko was visiting, she begged the curator to help her find out information on Hana. But when Ludmila, the curator, was apprehensive to assist Fumiko initially, she realized how vital it was to Fumiko to find out more information on Hana Brady. She stopped everything and the two women scoured through books, documents, and charts for any reference to Hana Brady. Finally, Ludmila found a mention of Hana Brady—listed was Hana’s name and birth date, and beside her name was a check mark. This check mark insinuated that Hana died at Auschwitz, along with almost 15,000 other children from Theresienstadt. Above Hana’s name was the name George Brady, who was born three years earlier than Hana, in the same town. Because the Nazis tended to list families together, the women knew George Brady was most likely Hana’s older brother. And there was no check mark beside George’s name, which meant he possibly survived the Holocaust, and could still be alive today. Even better, Ludmila discovered the name of George’s bunk mate at Theresienstadt, who was also still alive and happened to be an acquaintance of Ludmila’s who lived in Prague. With this renewed sense of hope, Fumiko left Terezin and traveled to Prague, where she was able to meet up with Michaela Hajek at the Jewish Museum. Michaela made several phone calls to contact Kurt Kotouc. After much difficulty getting a hold of Mr. Kotouc, Michaela and Fumiko finally spoke with his secretary and scheduled for them to meet later that evening. Kurt Kotouc could not only believe Fumiko had Hana’s suitcase, but he was stunned at the amazing effort she was taking to unveil Hana’s story. Mr. Kotouc told Fumiko that George was living in Toronto, Canada, and had a wife and four children. He then gave Fumiko George’s contact information, telling her to begin her communication with him through a letter. Kurt reminded Fumiko to be sensitive—it was incredibly difficult for George to loose his younger sister, and

Fumiko Ishioka, director of the Center, was determined to educate children in Japan about the Holocaust, specifically through the eyes of the children who went through it; and this suitcase was the first step. When Fumiko showed Hana’s suitcase to the children at the center, they were filled with questions about the Holocaust and WWII. More so, the children wanted to know who was Hana Brady, and what is her story. Fumiko hoped that by uncovering Hana’s story, the children in Japan would begin to comprehend and understand the enormity of the Holocaust. She believed in promoting the understanding of the history of the Holocaust, so a tragic event like this would never be repeated again. Fumiko began writing letters to Holocaust Museums and Informational Centers around the world, asking them to help her uncover Hana Brady’s story. Her initial inquiries had her hitting brick walls; no one could help her expose Hana’s story. The children at the Center, headed by two eager kids—Akira and Maiko—decided they would help Fumiko find out the story of Hana, and make her story - and the story of other children in the Holocaust - known to children throughout Japan. Akira and Maiko formed a group called Small Wings, that published a newsletter once a month consisting of informational facts and stories of life about the Holocaust and the victims, and drawings and poems created by both the children of the Holocaust and children at the Tokyo Holocaust Center. Recognizing the children’s sincere interest in learning Hana’s story, Fumiko became even more driven to uncover any information she could on Hana. One day, Fumiko received a letter from the Auschwitz Museum, saying they had found Hana Brady’s name on a list revealing that she arrived at Auschwitz from Theresienstadt, a Jewish ghetto in the country that used to be Czechoslovakia. Soon after, Fumiko received another package from the Jewish Museum in Prague.

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bringing Hana up may be too painful for him to relive. Fumiko understood, and was grateful to Kurt for meeting with her and getting her one step closer to finding Hana. When Fumiko returned to Japan, she told the children at the Holocaust Center about her discoveries of Hana’s story during her trip. Although the children were devastated to discover that Hana died at Auschwitz, they were eager to make contact with her brother and find out about who Hana was before she died. Fumiko immediately wrote to George in Canada, and the children included photographs of Hana’s suitcase and the drawings she did at Theresienstadt, and they also added the poems and drawing that Hana’s story inspired them to create. Weeks passed, and Fumiko heard nothing from George. Suddenly one day, a package from Canada was delivered to the Center. Inside this package was a letter from George, and four photographs of Hana and the Brady family, before the war. In his letter, George shared the story of Hana: what types of family she came from, what she enjoyed doing, how their family was separated, how Hana endured this separation and living as an orphan in Theresienstadt, and how she was taken to die at Auschwitz. Hana and George Brady grew up in a small town named Nove Mesto na Morave, in Czechoslovakia. Their parents, Marketa and Karel, ran a general store in town and the entire family helped out in the store. They were a close family, who would cross-country ski, ice skate, and snuggle in bed on Sunday mornings together. As the war began to escalate, talk of the persecution of Jews was beginning to fill the air. Occasionally, a Jewish refugee from Germany would knock on the door of the Brady household, begging for food and shelter—which the Brady family always gave to anyone who came to their home. One night, after George and Hana were sent to bed, Marketa and Karel held a meeting at their house with other Jews in the town. They began discussing the events that occurred in Germany on Kristallnacht—The Night of Broken Glass, where the windows of Jewish stores were smashed and Synagogues were burned to the ground—and how events like this could soon spread to their small town of Nove Mesto na Morave. Although George and Hana were supposed to be asleep, they snuck out of their bedrooms and secretly listened to the adult conversation going on in the living room. The children were scared, but couldn’t believe how an incident like that could happen in their town. Days after this meeting, the Brady family went to the movie theater together, but had to leave the theater immediately when they saw a huge projection fill the movie screen proclaiming: JUDEN EINTRIT VERBOTEN—No Jews Allowed. Hana could not understand why Jews were being banned from the movie theater; it made no sense to her. However, soon Jews were not only forbidden from the movie theater, but also the park, sports field, skate pond, and the schools. In addition to this, Jews could only shop at certain stores, and were not allowed out of their homes after eight o’clock every night. It was quickly becoming harder and harder to be a Jew. Hana and George’s parents hired a tutor to give the children their lessons at home, but it wasn’t the same. Hana and George couldn’t play with their school friends anymore, and they were lonely and felt confined to their home.

Hana was hurt and angry, and George tried to comfort and console her. One day, he brought a bottle, pencil, and pad of paper out into the yard where Hana was playing. He told Hana to write out everything she felt angry and sad about, and everything she wished for on the paper. George stuffed the bottle with the paper, buried the bottle, containing all of their fears and wishes, in the yard. He told Hana that after the war, when life went back to normal, they would dig up the bottle and read what they had written—and laugh! However, things did not get better anytime soon. In 1941, Hana and George’s mother was arrested by the Gestapo and sent to a work camp in Ravensbruck. Marketa promised Hana and George that she would return as soon as possible. It was two months before Hana and George received any news from their mother. On Hana’s tenth birthday, Marketa sent Hana a letter and a few charms in the shape of hearts that she made out of stale bread. That was the last they heard from their mother. Life in Nove Mesto na Morave continued to get more difficult for Jews. Now, all Jews were required to pin a yellow Star of David on their clothes whenever they left their homes, so they could be everyone could identified as being Jewish. One man in the town rebelled against this new law and, because of it, the Nazi officials

Hana and Geaorge Brady

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in Nove Mesto na Morave declared that the town must be made judenfrei—free of Jews, right away. All Jewish men were taken away, including Karel Brady. Hana and George were left alone, and scared. When their Uncle Ludvik, a Christian who married Karel’s sister, heard of the news, he took Hana and George to live with him and their Aunt Heda. The Brady children lived with their aunt and uncle for a little over six months, but then Uncle Ludvik received a letter ordering Hana and George to report to a deportation center at Trebic, near Nove Mesto na Morave. There was nothing Uncle Ludvik and Aunt Heda could do to save their niece and nephew. Hana and George celebrated her eleventh birthday in a crowded warehouse in Trebic, only a day before they were deported to Theresienstadt, a Jewish ghetto. At Theresienstadt, each Jew was allowed to bring in one suitcase. When they arrived, the Nazis separated George and Hana, and Hana was sent to in Kinderheim L410, a large barrack for girls. This is where she lived for the next two years. Hana was allowed out of the barrack for only a few hours each week, and her and George would spend anytime they had together. In Kinderheim L410, secret classes in art, music, and sewing took place at night. Hana’s art teacher was a famous Viennese artist, Friedl Dicker-Brandeis. Friedl became very close to Hana, and encouraged Hana and the other children to convey their emotions, fears, and wishes through drawings. She wanted to make the girls’ lives even just a little better through art. As the weeks and months passed, Theresienstadt became more and more crowded. During this time, George was being trained as a plumber. Hana and George hoped to be reunited with their parents, but Marketa and Karel never made it to Theresienstadt. However,

their grandmother did come to the ghetto. She was very sick and disheveled, and the Nazis treated the old, sick, and weak even worse than the other Jews. Hana’s grandmother was confined to an overcrowded, stuffy attic, and her meager food portions were crawling with bugs. She only survived in Theresienstadt for three months before she passed away. By the fall of 1944, the Nazis began to realize they were losing the war, and so they announced that they would be sending more Jews from Theresienstadt to the east—to Auschwitz. George was sent first, and because he had training as a plumber, he was spared his life and forced into labor. Hana was taken to Auschwitz a few months later. She did not know where she was being taken to, but was hopeful of being reunited with her brother and parents. However, immediately upon arriving to Auschwitz, Hana was sent to her death in the gas chambers. George survived the Holocaust, and was liberated from Aushwitz after the war ended. His first mission was to find Hana. One day in Prague, he met a girl who lived with Hana at Theresienstadt, and she informed George of how Hana had died. Akira and Maiko, who listened as Fumiko read George’s letter, decided it was up to them to share Hana’s story with all the children in Japan—it was up to the children to create peace in the world, so an event of this horrific proportion would never happen anywhere in the world ever again. The Tokyo Holocaust Center brought George Brady to Japan in 2001, to honor him, and for other children to learn of his family’s story. The children created a play based on Hana and George’s story, wrote and performed poems, and kept Hana and her story alive with their remembrance.

1. hana’s family spent every Sunday together—snuggling in bed, cross-country skiing, going to the movies, and visiting their Aunt and uncle’s house for Sunday dinners. What are some special things you do with your family that you look forward to every week? What makes these events so special? 2. the nazi regime had no tolerance for Jews, and their bias reached levels so high that it resulted in genocide of Jews. When was a time in your life when you or someone you know was treated unjustly and unfairly? how did you handle the situation? 3. the nazis placed very strict and harsh rules on all Jews. hana and George were no longer allowed to attend school, play in the park or with any of their friends, or even go to certain stores or the movie theater. George came up with a game for them to play, to make them feel better: they put all their feelings, fears, and wishes down on paper, stuffed the paper in a bottle, and buried it. if your lifestyle and independence was suddenly stripped away from you, what might you do to give yourself strength and feel better, even if just temporarily? 4. hana was only allowed to pack one suitcase when she was deported to theresienstadt. She packed her clothing, a sleeping bag, and a charm her mother made her. She didn’t even have enough space in her suitcase to pack her favorite doll, nana. if you were forced to leave your home with only one suitcase full of your special possessions, what would you take, and why? 5. it is essential that we respect and tolerate each other, and the differences that make each of us unique. What is unique about you? What can you do in your school community to encourage and promote tolerance and respect? 6. Why do you think it is important for young people to learn about the holocaust?

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Taken directly from Metro Theater Company’s Hana’s Suitcase Educator Guide: http://www.

I had not yet finished reading Hana’s Suitcase when my mind began to spin with the possibilities of turning a beautiful story into a powerful play. As I read certain passages I pictured them on stage and knew I could use all the tools theatre has to offer: sets, costumes, music, slides, masks, even silence. A well-timed pause can speak volumes and tell us more about a character or situation than any amount of dialogue. From the very start, I knew bringing Hana’s Suitcase to life on stage would present certain challenges... and many rewards. How far into the darkness of the Holocaust do you go, knowing young children will be watching the play? How do you condense layered lives into ninety minutes on stage? How much of the book do you preserve, and what gets left behind? Process is as important as production when creating a play, especially an adaptation. That process includes working with colleagues— a director, a dramaturge—who offer feedback and insights as the play takes shape from draft to draft to draft. A world of its own emerges, a world with its own rules and rituals. In the world of this play, the past and present are braided but never blend: Akira and Maiko imagine Hana’s story as it unfolds but cannot affect it; unable to change the past, they unearth their potential to shape the future. And so a play about the Holocaust ends on a positive note: the last image of the play is of a Japanese girl pretending she is a Jew in Czechoslovakia. It is a small but hopeful gesture that reminds us of the power of theatre to scatter seeds, seeds that all of us—on stage and behind the scenes—have to believe will take root. Emil Sher Toronto, Canada

Taken directly from:

Born and raised in Montreal, Emil Sher taught English at a secondary school in rural Botswana before returning to Montreal to pursue a degree in creative writing. He has written professionally ever since in a variety of genres, including stage plays, radio dramas, short fiction, essays and children’s television. He is particularly drawn to character-driven stories, narratives fuelled by individuals struggling to navigate their way through a world rarely of their own making. His works for stage include the adaptation of Hana’s Suitcase, Mourning Dove, Derailed and Sanctuary. His radio plays have been broadcast around the world, and three have been collected in Making Waves. Emil lives in Toronto with his wife and two daughters but spends summers (and as many weekends as he can squeeze in) in Morin Heights, Quebec.

Taken directly from:

Karen Levine is a prizewinning producer with CBC Radio in Canada. She is the only Canadian to have won the prestigious Peabody Award (the Oscars for radio journalism) twice. Karen has also received awards for her work highlighting issues or human rights and social justice. Hana’s Suitcase is Karen Levine’s first book. It is based on her prizewinning radio documentary of the same name. To date, the book has been on the Canadian bestseller list for three years winning more awards than any other Canadian children’s book of the last forty years. Karen lives in Toronto, Canada with her partner Michael and her son, Gabriel.


SUGGESTED READING hana’s Suitcase on Stage: Levine, Karen and Sher, Emil the children We remember: Abells, Chana remember not to Forget: Finkelstein, Norman Grey-Striped Shirt: how Grandma and Grandpa Survived the holocaust: Jules, Jacqueline the Lily cupboard: Oppenheim, Shulamith Levey A Picture Book of Anne Frank: Adler, David A. child of the Warsaw Ghetto: Adler, David A. i Am a Star: child of the holocaust: Auerbacher, Inge A nightmare in history: the holocaust, 1933-1945: Chaikin, Miriam the hidden children: Greenfield, Howard Star of Fear, Star of hope: hoestlandt, Jo i never Saw Another Butterfly: children’s drawings and Poems from theresienstadt concentration camp, 1942-1944 the Big Lie: A true Story: Leitner, Isabella number the Stars: Lowry, Lois the devil’s Arithmetic: Yolen, Jane the upstairs room: Reiss, Johanna Best Friends: Reuter, Elisabeth the Shadow children: Schnur, Steven

United States holocaust Memorial Museum: tokyo holocaust education resource center: auschwitz Museum:

the theresienstadt/terezin Memorial: hana’s Suitcase website:

hana’s Suitcase Book Study guide:

Museum of tolerance:

Jewish holocaust Links:

Metro theater company’s hana’s Suitcase educator guide: allen & Unwin Book Publishers, teacher notes for hana’s Suitcase, the Book: a teacher’s guide to the holocaust:

This interview was taken directly from: ://

Mr. george Brady, hana’s brother, and his daughter Lara hana came to Japan in March 2001, and visited the tokyo holocaust education resource center. here are Q & A between George Brady and Small Wings children: Q: what sort of girl was hana A: Hana was a very sensitive and kind girl, as well as a wonderful sister. When we were in Theresienstadt, she worried that I would need more food since I was older and larger. She would sometimes save her bread to give to me. Q: what were your parents like? A: Our mother, Marketa, was a cheerful woman who made people laugh. She acted as the social head of our family. Our father, Karel, was very involved in the local town life. He played soccer and was a volunteer fireman. They were very busy because they had a shop which they ran together. The store was open everyday except Sunday, so that was our special family day. Often we would pile into our parent’s bed for breakfast and silliness. Some Sunday afternoons, we would travel to a nearby castle for a picnic. Q: what did hana put in her suitcase? A: She packed her clothing and sleeping bag, but there was no space for her favorite doll. Q: what were you thinking when you were in auschwitz? A: I kept thinking that if I survived Auschwitz, I would never treat people like the Nazis did. I knew that I wanted to help fight the possibility of this sort of evil happening again. Q: how did you overcome the loss of your family, friends, and your terrible experiences? A: I wanted to be a person who would make my parents proud. I decided that it would be better if I didn’t dwell on the past, but instead looked forward and built a happy future.


Resources: Metro Theater Company Hana’s Suitcase Educator Guide; Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance Library and Archives, The Holocaust Educational Resource Kit; Remember Our Faces—Teaching About the Holocaust, ERIC Digest

the holocaust is a greatly significant event in world history, and has had a profound effect on the state of the world today. Approximately six million Jews, 1.5 million being children, were persecuted and murdered by the nazi regime and its collaborators. moreover, the systematic persecution that took place against the Jews and other groups discriminated against was legal. this deep-seated prejudice was translated into the organization of a set of laws that was enforced by judicial and bureaucratic authorities. Few events in history have had the impact or repercussions that the holocaust has had. teaching young people about this period in time presents many challenges, and can be a painful subject to breach. it reminds us of a horrific time in history where much of the world was without humanity—a time where hatred and bigotry lead to genocide. Yet the holocaust must be continually remembered. Our educational goal for teaching young people about the holocaust is for them to become aware of the dangers of prejudice, apathy and indifference. this is an opportunity to teach young people that there are consequences to being indifferent or remaining silent in regards to others’ oppression. it is our responsibility to enhance students’ knowledge and understanding of the history of the world, so one day they can make judgments and actions to improve the world.

the US Holocaust memorial museum lists the following as key guidelines for teachers: complex history • Avoid that justanswers tothe Holocaust • Show simple because it was inevitable happened doesn’t mean stereotypes • Avoidstudents distinguish types of sources • Have generalizations andyou teach • contextualize the history • translate statistics into people • be sensitivebalance of perspectives • Strive for a to appropriate content • Select appropriate learning materials • ensure a strong opening and closing


Stonozka, The Centipede Song in the secret classes held late at night in hana’s dorm in theresienstadt, the girls learned new songs during their music classes. the girls would have to sing very quietly, so they wouldn’t be heard by the nazi guards. At the end of each class, one girl was chosen to teach one of her favorite songs from home to the rest of the students. When hana was chosen to lead the song, she always sang a song called Stonozka—the centipede Song.

Her life is not a piece of cake. Imagine how she suffers when She walks until her tootsies ache. She’s got good reason to complain. So when I want to cry the blues I just recall the centipede. Consider walking in her shoes And then life seems sweet indeed.
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Taken from: Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance Library & Archives; Educational Resource Kit—The Holocaust, 1933 – 1945

concentration caMPS (Konzentrationslager, KZ)

camps in which people were imprisoned without regard to the accepted norms of detention. An essential part of nazi systematic oppression, they were constructed almost immediately after hitler came to power in Germany. they were used for the imprisonment of all “enemies of the third reich.” in the beginning (1933-1936), the camps primarily imprisoned political and ideological opponents of the regime, (e.g. communists, Social democrats Later (1936-1942), concentration camps were expanded and non-political prisoners (e.g. Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, handicapped and other “asocials”). the extensive camp system of over 9000 camps and sub-camps included labor camps, transit camps, prisoner of war (POW) camps and extermination camps. death, disease, starvation, crowded and unsanitary conditions and torture were a daily part of concentration camp life.


the deportation was the forced relocation of Jews, in nazi occupied countries, from their homes to “resettle” elsewhere. it meant removal either to a ghetto or a concentration camp and later to extermination camps.

FinaL SoLUtion

nazi code name for the “Final solution of the Jewish question” – the physical destruction of European Jewry. Beginning in december 1941, Jews were rounded up and sent to extermination camps in the East. the program was deceptively disguised as “resettlement in the East.”

genociDe aLLieS

the deliberate and systematic destruction of a religious, racial, national, or cultural group.

the twenty-six nations led by the united States, Britain, and the former Soviet union who joined in fighting nazi Germany, italy and Japan during World War ii.


antiSeMitiSM arYan race

Prejudice and/or discrimination towards Jews, based on negative perceptions of their beliefs. “Aryan” was originally applied to people who spoke any indoEuropean language. the nazis, however, primarily applied the term to people with a northern European racial background. their aim was to avoid what they considered the “bastardization of the German race” and to preserve the purity of European blood. (See nurEmBErG LAWS.)

German acronym for Geheime Staatspolizei - Secret State Police. Established in April 1933 by herman Goering the Gestapo monitored and suppressed all opposition to the hitler regime. the Gestapo had total freedom to spy, arrest, interrogate and deport Jews, intellectuals, Gypsies, homosexuals, and anyone deemed an enemy of the third reich.



Auschwitz was the site of one of the largest extermination camps. in August 1942 the camp was expanded and eventually consisted of three sections: Auschwitz i - the main camp; Auschwitz ii (Birkenau) - the extermination camp; Auschwitz iii (monowitz) the i.G. Farben labor camp, also known as Buna. in addition, Auschwitz had 48 sub camps. it became the largest center for Jewish extermination.

An italian word, it refers to a quarter or street separated from the other parts of the city, in which Jews lived in the middle Ages. the nazis revived the italian medieval ghetto and created their compulsory “Jewish Quarter” (Wohnbezirk), where all Jews from the surrounding areas were forced to reside. the ghettos, surrounded by barbed wire or walls, were overcrowded, unsanitary and sealed from the world without food, medicine and heat. daily, people died in the streets from starvation and disease. the Germans constantly harassed the Jewish residents of the ghetto, randomly seizing people on the streets, raiding their apartments, and subjecting them to beatings and humiliation, leaving them to die in the streets. the ghettos were established mainly in Eastern Europe (e.g. Lodz, Warsaw, Vilna, riga, minsk). All ghettos were eventually liquidated and the Jews, Gypsies and others were deported to extermination camps.


Fuhrer und reichskanzler (Leader and reich chancellor). (1889-1945) Although born in Austria, he settled in Germany in 1913. At the outbreak of World War i, hitler enlisted in the Bavarian Army, became a corporal and received the iron cross First class for bravery. returning to munich after the war, he joined the newly formed German Workers Party, which was soon reorganized, under his leadership, as the national Socialist German Workers Party (nSdAP). in november 1923, he unsuccessfully attempted to forcibly bring Germany under nationalist control. When his coup, known as the “Beer-hall Putsch,” failed, hitler was arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison. it was during this time that he wrote mein Kampf. Serving only 9 months of his sentence, hitler quickly reentered German politics and soon outpolled his political rivals in national elections. in January 1933, Paul vom hindenburg (reich President) appointed hitler chancellor of a coalition cabinet. hitler, who took office on January 30, 1933, immediately set up a dictatorship. in 1934, the chancellorship and presidency were united in the person of the Fuhrer. Soon, all other parties were outlawed and opposition was brutally suppressed. in addition, he initiated antisemitic policies and programs. By 1938, hitler implemented his dream of a “Greater Germany,” by the annexation of Austria, the Sudetenland and, finally, czechoslovakia itself. On September 1, 1939, hitler’s armies invaded Poland. By this time western democracies realized that no agreement with hitler could be honored and World War ii had begun. Although initially victorious on all fronts, hitler’s armies suffered setbacks after the united States joined the war in december 1941. the war was obviously lost by early 1945, but hitler insisted that Germany fight to the death. On April 30, 1945, hitler committed suicide rather than be captured alive.

hitLer, aDoLF


A process of separating prisoners upon their arrival at the Auschwitz concentration camp. most people were directed to the gas chambers and were killed immediately. the rest, if they were considered fit to work, were sent to forced labor in Auschwitz and other camps.

Shoah (hebrew) SS (german)

destruction and/or catastrophe. the terms Shoah and holocaust are linked to the destruction of European Jewry during World War ii. An acronym for Schutzstaffel (“Protective Squad”) Originally formed in 1925 as hitler’s personal bodyguard, heinrich himmler, between 1929 and 1939, transformed it into a giant organization. Although various SS units were assigned to the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.

Der StUrMer

(German) (“the Attacker”) An antisemitic German weekly newspaper, founded and edited by Julius Streicher, and published in nuremberg from 1923 and 1945. the phrase “die Juden sind unser ungluck” (“the Jews are our misfortune!”) appeared on each issue at the bottom of the front page. Established in early 1942 outside Prague as a “model” ghetto, terezin was not a sealed section of town, but rather an eighteenthcentury Austrian garrison. it became a Jewish town, governed and guarded by the SS. When the deportations from central Europe to the extermination camps began in the spring of 1942, certain groups were initially excluded: invalids; partners in a mixed marriage, and their children; and prominent Jews with special connections. these were sent to the ghetto in terezin. they were joined by old and young Jews from the Protectorate, and, later, by small numbers of prominent Jews from denmark and holland. its large barracks served as dormitories for communal living; they also contained offices, workshops, infirmaries, and communal kitchens. the nazis used terezin to deceive public opinion. they tolerated a lively cultural life of theatre, music, library, lectures, art and sports. thus, it could be shown to officials of the international red cross. in reality, however, terezin was only a station on the road to the extermination camps; about 88,000 were deported to their deaths in the East. in April 1945, only 17,000 Jews remained in terezin, where they were joined by 14,000 Jewish concentration camp prisoners, evacuated from camps threatened by the Allied armies. On may 8, 1945, terezin was liberated by the red Army. (see BAEcK, LEO).






holocaust derived from the Greek word, holokauston, “an offering consumed by fire,” and has a sacrificial connotation to what occurred. As of the 1950’s the term refers to the destruction of some 6 million Jews by the nazis and their collaborators in Europe between the years 1933-1945. Other individuals and groups were persecuted and suffered grievously during this period, but only Jews were marked for complete and utter annihilation. German for “children’s transport.” immediately after Kristallnacht (november 9-10, 1938), the British government, with the aid of Jewish, British and Quaker relief organizations, set up the Kindertransport to evacuate children from nazi oppression to Great Britain. nearly 10,000 children were rescued from Germany, Austria, Poland and czechoslovakia. most of these children never saw their parents again. it is believed that 20-25% eventually made their way to the united States and canada.


(night of Broken Glass): On november 9-10, 1938, a centrally planned countrywide program and riot, known as Kristallnacht was carried out against the Jews. Arson and destruction of Jewishowned property and synagogues took place in every town throughout Germany and Austria. it came in retaliation for the assassination of Ernst vom rath in Paris by a 17 year-old Jewish youth named herschel Grynzspan. 7,500 businesses and 101 synagogues were destroyed, almost 100 Jews were killed and several thousand were arrested and sent to concentration camps.


naZi PartY

Short term for national Socialist German Workers’ Party nationalsozialistische deutsche Arbeiter-Partei nSdAP). A rightwing, nationalistic and antisemitic political party formed in 1919 and headed by Adolf hitler from 1921 to 1945.

Map of Theresienstadt Ghetto.


Taken directly from: Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance Library & Archives; Educational Resource Kit—The Holocaust, 1933 – 1945

1. when speaking about the “holocaust,” what time period are we referring to?
Answer: The “Holocaust” refers to the period from January 30, 1933, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, to May 8, 1945 (V-E Day), the end of the war in Europe.

2. how many Jews were murdered during the holocaust?
Answer: While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish victims, statistics indicate that the total was over 5,860,000. Six million is the round figure accepted by most authorities.

3. how many non-Jewish civilians were murdered during world war ii?
Answer: While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number, the recognized figure is approximately 5,000,000. Among the groups which the Nazis and their collaborators murdered and persecuted were: Gypsies, Serbs, Polish intelligentsia and priests, resistance fighters from all the nations, German opponents of Nazism, homo-sexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, habitual criminals, and the “ anti- social,” e.g. beggars, vagrants, and hawkers.

4. how did the germans define who was Jewish?
Answer: On November 14, 1935, the Nazis issued the following definition of a Jew: Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who belonged to the Jewish community on September 15, 1935, or joined thereafter; was married to a Jew or Jewess on September 15, 1935, or married one thereafter; was the offspring of a marriage or extramarital liaison with a Jew on or after September 15, 1935.

5. why were the Jews singled out for extermination?
Answer: The explanation of the Nazis’ implacable hatred of the Jew rests on their distorted world view, which saw history as a racial struggle. They considered the Jews a race whose goal was world domination and who, therefore, were an obstruction to Aryan dominance. They believed that all of history was a fight between races which should culminate in the triumph of the superior Aryan race. Therefore, they considered it their duty to eliminate the Jews, whom they regarded as a threat. Moreover, in their eyes, the Jews’ racial origin made them habitual criminals who could never be rehabilitated and were, therefore, hopelessly corrupt and inferior. There is no doubt that other factors contributed toward Nazi hatred of the Jews and their distorted image of the Jewish people. These included the centuries-old tradition of Christian antisemitism which propagated a negative stereotype of the Jew as a Christ-killer, agent of the devil, and practitioner of witchcraft. Also significant was the political antisemitism of the latter half of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries, which singled out the Jew as a threat to the established order of society. These combined to point to the Jew as a target for persecution and ultimate destruction by the Nazis.

6. Did all germans support hitler’s plan for the persecution of the Jews?
Answer: Although the entire German population was not in agreement with Hitler’s persecution of the Jews, there is no evidence of any large scale protest regarding their treatment. There were Germans who defied the April 1, 1933 boycott and purposely bought in Jewish stores, and there were those who aided Jews to escape and to hide, but their number was very small. Even some of those who opposed Hitler were in agreement with his anti-Jewish policies. Among the clergy, Dompropst Bernhard Lichtenberg of Berlin publicly prayed for the Jews daily and was, therefore, sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis. Other priests were deported for their failure to cooperate with Nazi antisemitic policies, but the majority of the clergy complied with the directives against German Jewry and did not openly protest.

7. Did the allies and the people in the Free world know about the events going on in europe?
Answer: The various steps taken by the Nazis prior to the “Final Solution” were all taken publicly and were, therefore, reported in the press. Foreign correspondents commented on all the major anti-Jewish actions taken by the Nazis in Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia prior to World War II. Once the war began, obtaining information became more difficult, but reports, nonetheless, were published regarding the fate of the Jews. Thus, although the Nazis did not publicize the “Final Solution,” less than one year after the systematic murder of the Jews was initiated, details began to filter out to the West. The first report which spoke of a plan for the mass murder of Jews was smuggled out of Poland by the Bund (a Jewish socialist political organization) and reached England in the spring of 1942. The details of this report reached the Allies from Vatican sources as well as from informants in Switzerland and the Polish underground. Eventually, the American Government confirmed the reports to Jewish leaders in late November 1942. They were publicized immediately thereafter. While the details were neither complete nor wholly accurate, the Allies were aware of most of what the Germans had done to the Jews at a relatively early date.


8. Did the Jews in europe realize what was going to happen to them?
Answer: Regarding the knowledge of the “Final Solution” by its potential victims, several key points must be kept in mind. First of all, the Nazis did not publicize the “Final Solution,” nor did they ever openly speak about it. Every attempt was made to fool the victims and, thereby, prevent or minimize resistance. Thus, deportees were always told that they were going to be “resettled.” They were led to believe that conditions “in the East” (where they were being sent) would be better than those in ghettos. Following arrival in certain concentration camps, the inmates were forced to write home about the wonderful conditions in their new place of residence. The Germans made every effort to ensure secrecy. In addition, the notion that human beings-let alone the civilized Germans-could build camps with special apparatus for mass murder seemed unbelievable in those days. Since German troops liberated the Jews from the Czar in World War I, Germans were regarded by many Jews as a liberal, civilized people. Escapees who did return to the ghetto frequently encountered disbelief when they related their experiences. Even Jews who had heard of the camps had difficulty believing reports of what the Germans were doing there. Inasmuch as each of the Jewish communities in Europe was almost completely isolated, there was a limited number of places with available information. Thus, there is no doubt that many European Jews were not aware of the “Final Solution,” a fact that has been corroborated by German documents and the testimonies of survivors.

9. how did germany’s allies, the Japanese and the italians, treat the Jews in the lands they occupied?
Answer: Neither the Italians nor the Japanese, both of whom were Germany’s allies during World War II, cooperated regarding the “Final Solution.” Although the Italians did, upon German urging, institute discriminatory legislation against Italian Jews, Mussolini’s government refused to participate in the “Final Solution” and consistently refused to deport its Jewish residents. Moreover, in their occupied areas of France, Greece, and Yugoslavia, the Italians protected the Jews and did not allow them to be deported. However, when the Germans overthrew the Badoglio government in 1943, the Jews of Italy, as well as those under Italian protection in occupied areas, were subject to the “Final Solution.” The Japanese were also relatively tolerant toward the Jews in their country as well as in the areas which they occupied. Despite pressure by their German allies urging them to take stringent measures against Jews, the Japanese refused to do so. Refugees were allowed to enter Japan until the spring of 1941, and Jews in Japanese-occupied China were treated well. In the summer and fall of 1941, refugees in Japan were transferred to Shanghai but no measures were taken against them until early 1943, when they were forced to move into the Hongkew Ghetto. While conditions were hardly satisfactory, they were far superior to those in the ghettos under German control.


While Hana lived in the girls’ home L410, in Theresienstadt, teachers and artists visited daily to hold secret classes with the children. One of those teachers was the renowned Viennese artist, Friedl Dicker-Brandeis. Dicker-Brandeis was involved in textile design, printmaking, bookbinding, and typography in Vienna, Berlin, and Prague, before being transported to Theresienstadt in 1942. When she discovered she was heading to the ghetto of Theresienstadt, she filled her one suitcase with art supplies for the children she would be living with in the ghetto, instead of packing it with cherished personal belongings. She believed that sharing her art with the children in Thereseinstadt would help them understand their emotions and environment better and, therefore, was absolutely crucial to their survival. She continually strived to help the children find life and beauty among the gloomy surroundings of ghetto life. In 1944, Dicker-Brandeis was deported to Auschwitz. However, before she was taken away, she filled two suitcases with 4,500 drawings created by herself and the children, and hid them in a secret place. After the war, the suitcases filled with drawings were recovered and given to the Jewish Museum in Prague.
A drawing by Hana Brady while living in Theresienstadt.


Taken from:, and Metro Theater Company’s Hana’s Suitcase Guide, Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance Library & Archives; Educational Resource Kit—The Holocaust, 1933 – 1945 c

1928 1931 1928 — 1938 1933 1934 1935 1937

February 9 – George brady is born in czechoslovakia, to Karel and marketa brady. May 16 – Hana is born in Nove mesto in the moravian part of czechoslovakia, a town of 3500 once known for making skis.
Six days a week the brady family works at their general store. George and Hana’s job is to make sure the shelves are stocked at all times. Sundays are family time. In the winter, they ski and skate together, while in the summer they have picnics with extended family members.

January 30 – Hitler is named German chancellor. March 22 – Dachau, the first concentration camp, is established in Germany. april 1 – the German boycotts against the Jewish population begins. May 10 – public burning of books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the State. July 14 – Law stripping east european Jewish immigrants of German citizenship. august 2 – Hitler proclaims himself Fuhrer und reichskanzler (Leader and reich chancellor). Armed forces must now swear allegiance to him. September 15 – the anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws are passed in reichstag, the German parliament building. As a result, Jewish people lose their citizenship and civil rights in Germany. Jews could not marry Aryans; nor could they fly the German flag. who identifies as a Jew.

november 15 – Germany defines a “Jew”: anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents July 15 buchenwald concentration camp opens in Weimar, Germany.

March 13 – Anschluss (annexation of Austria by Germany): all anti-Semitic decrees immediately implemented in Austria, as Hitler takes the country.

September 30 – After the munich Agreement, Hitler’s forces annexed the border regions of czechoslovakia.


november 9 – Kristallnacht (Night of broken Glass) this was the anti-Semitic riots and destruction of Jewish institutions in both
Germany and Austria. As a result, 26,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps and all Jewish children are expelled from schools.

november 12 – Decree forces all Jews to transfer retail businesses to Aryan hands. new Years eve
– George and Hana eavesdrop on their parents and neighbors listening to the news on their father’s radio. At the end of the news broadcast the adults discuss the Nazis and their treatment of the Jewish population.

page 13

January 30 – Hitler in reichstag speech: “If war erupts it will mean the Vernichtung (extermination) or european Jews.” March 15
– the Germans march into czechoslovakia and declare the Jewish people evil and a bad influence; from now on the brady family has to live by different rules. Jewish people were only allowed to leave their homes at certain hours of the day. this meant no more visits with family members outside of town. Jewish people are restricted to shopping at a few stores at certain hours of the day. the brady’s were forced to tell the Nazis about everything they owned - art, jewelery, bank books. the Nazis’ confiscated their father’s radio.


September 1 – Germany invades poland, and the Nazis take over the free city of Danzig. As a result, britain and France give Hitler an ultimatum. When he ignores them, they declare war on September 3, 1939.

october 12 – Germany begins deportation of Austrian and czech Jews to poland. october 28 – First polish ghetto established in piotrkow november 23 – Jews in German-occupied poland forced to wear an armband or yellow star.

As the war continues, Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads) follow the German army into conquered lands, rounding up Jews and other “undesirables.” april 9 – Germans occupy Denmark and southern Norway May 10 – Germany invades the Netherlands, belgium, Luxembourg, and France. May 20 – SS authorities begin construction of the Auschwitz camp in poland. Spring 1941 – Hana and George’s mother, marketa brady, is arrested by the Gestapo (Hitler’s secret police) and transported to ravensbrück (a women’s concentration camp).


autumn – Nazis’ declare that Jewish children can not attend school. therefore, Hana’s parents hire a young woman from the next town to tutor Hana and an old refugee professor to teach George. Hana and George can no longer see their friends.

September 27 – rome-berlin-tokyo Axis declaired. September 1 – German Jews required to wear the yellow star of David with the word Jude on it. George and Hana’s father, Karel

brady, comes home with three squares of cloth, each with the Star of David on them. He cuts the stars out and tells his children that they must pin the stars to their clothes whenever they leave the house.


September – Karel is taken away by the Gestapo along with all of the other adult Jewish men in Nove mesto, leaving Hana and her brother alone. Uncle Ludvik and Aunt Heda take George and Hana to live with them. their father is taken to Iglau, a Gestapo prison.

november 24 – Germans establish the theresienstadt ghetto in the ancient walled czech town of terezin. December 7 – the Japanese attack pearl Harbor and as a result, the U.S. and britain declare war on Japan. Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.

January 20 – Senior Nazi officials decide to implement “the final solution to the Jewish question.” the Nazis begin deporting Jews from ghettos to six Nazi death camps.

March 17 – extermination begins in belzec; by the end of 1942, 600,000 Jews murdered. May 4 – SS officials begin operation of gas chambers at Auschwitz-birkenau. more than one million people died there by the end of


the war—nine out of ten deaths were Jews. May 18 – Hana and George brady are sent to theresienstadt—a Jewish ghetto. Summer – Deportation of Jews to killing centers from belgium, croatia, France, the Netherlands, and poland. July – Karel brady dies in Auschwitz october – marketa brady dies in Auschwitz December – Friedl Dicker-brandeis arrives at theresienstadt, and begins teaching art lessons to children in the camp, including Hana.

winter – Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece, and Norway to killing centers.

page 14


april 19

– Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants. this came to be known as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising—the first mass revolt in Nazi-occupied europe.

May 16 – Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto. July – George and Hana find their grandmother in the ghetto of theresienstadt. She dies three months later. March 19 – Germany occupies Hungary. May 15 – Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews; over 380,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz. June 6 – british and American troops invade German-occupied France, in an operation known as D-Day. the war begins to


turn against the Germans. July 23 – the International red cross visits theresienstadt. they report that the Jews are being treated well there. September – George is sent to Auschwitz, where he is selected for a work crew. His skills as a plumber save his life. october 6 – Friedl Dicker-brandeis is sent to Auschwitz where she is killed. october 23 – Hana is sent to Auschwitz where she is killed.


april—May – Auschwitz is liberated by the Allies. George brady is freed. May 8 – After Germany surrenders, theresienstadt is liberated. august 8 & 9 – the United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. September 2 – Japan surrenders, ending World War II.

6 million Jews died in the Holocaust. 1.5 million were children.

Entrance to Theresienstadt, which was enclosed by a brick wall.

page 15

Adapted from:

Listen carefully to me. You are unhappy and scared. That’s just how the Nazis want to see us, all of us. You can’t give them the satisfaction, Hana. You can’t give them what they want. We are stronger and better than that. You must dry up those tears, Hana, and put on a brave face. – Ella objectives:


• • •

narrate the historical outline of the holocaust research and discuss the evidence of resistance to the holocaust dialogue the moral questions and dilemmas inherent in confrontation with any resistance to the nazi regime

1. in small groups, have students research the historical timeline of WWii and the holocaust. a. Students may use references from the internet, books, and the timeline included in this Enrichment Guide. b. Ask students to pay attention to all accounts of rebellion against the nazi regime. i. incidents of rebellion occurred at the Sobibor, treblinka, and Auschwitz death camps and in the Warsaw Ghetto. ii. Great internet resources for information regarding acts of resistance: change_table.asp?gate=1-7 2. have student groups share their facts about resistance activities during the holocaust. how did people rebel against the nazis, and what was the outcome of their rebellious activities? 3. Split the class into two groups, and assign one set of questions below to each group. After allowing the groups time to exchange ideas and opinions, bring the class together and have each group share their discussion with the class. a. Group 1: in a society where all forces of law and order are directed against one select group, what are the likely outcomes of violent resistance—for those fighting, and for those whom the fighters intend to protect? What do those rebelling want to accomplish by violent resistance? b. Group 2: during the holocaust, it was common for a group or community to be punished for a single individual’s violation or resistance to the rules. is it right to challenge forces of law and order, knowing that the actions may put an entire group—including friends and family—at risk of punishment? can one individual’s resistant actions have any effect on weakening the forces against them? 4. After discussing events of violent resistance against the nazi regime, and the ethical dilemmas that those rebelling against the nazis had to face, share the other forms resistance took during the nazi genocide. a. resistance… usually refers to a physical act of armed revolt. during the holocaust, it also meant partisan activism that ranged from smuggling messages, food, and weapons to actual military engagement. But resistance also embraced willful disobedience: continuing to practice religious and cultural traditions in defiance of the rules; creating fine art, music, and poetry inside ghettos and concentration camps. For many, simply maintaining the will to remain alive in the face of abject brutality was the surest act of spiritual resistance. b. Share information on Friedl dicker-Brandeis with students. Ask students how dickerBrandeis’s work in theresienstadt was a form of resistance. c. have students use the internet to research additional examples of non-violent resistance, using keywords: religious observance, art, music, and poetry. i. have students share their finding with the class. Ask students to include examples of poetry and artwork they found in their research. 5. conclude this activity by discussing the following question with students: a. how can remembering the holocaust and preserving it as a historical event be portrayed as an act of resistance against the forces that brought it about?


Resource: The National D-Day Museum, New Orleans; When they came for me, there was no one left to speak up; Department of Education lesson plan

during WWii and the holocaust, citizens who did not comply with the laws that were put into order by the nazi regime were punished. People were scared of the nazis and did not want to do anything to put their safety, or the safety of their family and community, in jeopardy. these bystanders—people who were aware of, but took no part in what was happening—made up the largest group of people involved in the holocaust. After the war, many of these bystanders claimed to not have known the true nature of the holocaust. Others declared to simply be following the rules and regulations put into place by the powerful nazi regime. And some defended their position as a bystander by arguing, what can one person do? however, there was a small group of brave non-Jewish people who risked their safety and lives to protest against the holocaust and save Jews. this group, known as the righteous Among the nations, refused to give in to the nazis. they rebelled against the climate of the government through secret radio broadcasts and pamphlets against the nazi regime, spying on and sabotaging nazi war strategies, hiding Jews from the nazis, and sometimes even breaking out into battle with nazi soldiers. Some of these resistance efforts were carried out by organized and large groups of people, while others were completed by individuals.

Taken from: Metro Theater Company’s Hana’s Suitcase Educator Guide; Southern Poverty Law Center’s web project,

Showing tolerance towards others requires us to recognize and respect others’ differences—including differences in physical appearance, cultural and/or religious beliefs and practices, and lifestyles choices. the nazi regime had no tolerance for the Jews, and their bias—an attitude that favors one group or person over another group or person—against them reached levels so high that it resulted in genocide of the Jews. Biases can start very small, with name-calling, but can escalate quickly. Below are ways that people demonstrate bias against other people, or groups of people. By identifying these forms of bias, we can begin to understand how some of our actions may aid in promoting bias against others. Once we understand how we show bias against others, we can then take steps in eliminating these biases and practice demonstrating tolerance towards others.

• Name Calling: • Stereotype: • Prejudice:

Associating a person or group with a negative image. Idiot! Four eyes! Book worm!

An exaggerated belief, image, or distorted truth about people—a generalization that allows for little or no individual differences. A stereotype can be positive or negative. All black people can play basketball. White people don’t have any rhythm. All girls like to play with dolls.

• Discrimination:

An opinion, prejudgment, or attitude about a group or its individual members. this attitude is almost always negative and unflattering. Women just aren’t as good at some jobs as men are. Blondes aren’t very smart. All Muslims are terrorists. Behavior that treats people unequally because of their group memberships. Blacks denied access to schools. Women denied equal pay for equal work. People with disabilities denied access to public space and facilities.

Discussion Starter
Taken from: The Museum of Tolerance My Experience with Injustice lesson plan

Ask students to think about a time in their lives when they witnessed the unjust, biased or prejudicial treatment of another person. Allow students to share their stories with the class. Begin a dialogue with the class regarding bias and prejudice, starting with the following questions: How did the event affect the person targeted by the injustice? How did it affect you and other people who witnessed the event? How do you think this event has, or will influence your reactions to similar events?


Adapted from: Teaching Tolerance;, Metro Theater Company, Hana’s Suitcase Educators Guide

the holocaust was made up of four distinct groups of people: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Victims: Jews and other groups of people who became the target of nazi discrimination. Perpetrators and Collaborators: nazis, and people who supported and worked with the nazi regime. The Righteous Among Nations: non-Jews who rebelled against the nazi regime and risked their lives to save the victims of the holocaust.

Bystanders: People who were aware of what was happening, but took no part in supporting or resisting the nazis and the holocaust. Surprisingly, this group made up the largest group of people within the holocaust.

An ally is someone who supports and stands up for the rights and dignity of individuals and identity groups other than their own. the righteous Among the nations acted as allies to the victims of the holocaust. injustice, bias, prejudice, and hatred still occur today. however, we have the ability to become allies towards victims of injustice. Brainstorm a list of social problems you notice occurring locally in your school community, or on a global level—such as racism, sexism, religious intolerance, and bullying;

Fill in the Ally Statement below to identify the viewpoint you are taking. With this Ally Statement, make a personal choice and commitment to serve as an ally for this particular group of victims. Example: I, as a white person, want to be an ally with Arabs and Arab Americans to end racism; I, as a man want to be an ally with women to end sexism; I, as an eighth grader, want to be an ally with sixth graders to end bullying of younger students at my school; i, as a_____________________________________, want to be an ally with_____________________________________________to end ____________________________________________________________.

Five ways i will work individually to be allies with_____________________________________________________________: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


Taken from: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust;


• •

to identify newspaper articles that deal with human rights issues, prejudice, ethnic wars, anti-Semitism, racism, and inequality to relate recurrent themes of prejudice existent in our society today with the holocaust.

1. Over a two-week period, have students scan local and national newspapers, current event and news magazines, and news websites for articles that focus on human rights issues, prejudices, and the oppression of a group of people. a. have students gather as many articles as they can—a minimum of five. b. the Amnesty international website maintains a library of past news releases and offers an excellent page of links to related human rights websites. 2. With each articles, have students write a brief summary of the article, and identify the types of prejudices, oppression, or human rights issues they discovered in the article. 3. have students paste their articles and summaries on a poster board, so they can all be viewed and compared easily. 4. have students share their posters with the class, briefly summarizing the prejudice and human rights issues highlighted in the articles, and making general comparisons regarding all of their articles. 5. hold a discussion with the class, comparing prejudices and oppressions in current events with those that initiated the holocaust. a. how are the two worlds the same? how are they different? Why is prejudice and inequality ever present? Are there any solutions?

Taken directly from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Holocaust Encyclopedia:

World War ii involved most of the world’s nations. the war was fought chiefly between two major alliances: the Axis and the Allies. the tripartite Pact of September 27, 1940, allied Germany, italy, and Japan and became known as the Berlin-rome-tokyo Axis, or Axis alliance. these three countries recognized German hegemony over most of continental Europe; italian hegemony over the mediterranean; and Japanese hegemony over East Asia and the Pacific. during World War ii, the Axis came to include Slovakia (november 1940), hungary (november 1940), romania (november 1940), and Bulgaria (march 1941). Finland fought with Germany against the Soviet union but did not sign the tripartite Pact and was not technically part of the Axis alliance. Yugoslavia joined the Axis alliance on march 25, 1941, but withdrew two days later after an anti-German coup. After Germany and its allies invaded and partitioned Yugoslavia, the newly established fascist satellite state of croatia joined the Axis on June 15, 1941. Although an anti-democratic state sympathetic to the Axis, Spain refused either to join the Axis alliance or to enter the war with the Allies. World War ii began in Europe with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Great Britain and France--which had agreed to defend Poland in case of attack--in response declared war on Germany on September 3. italy entered the war on June 10, 1940. Japan, at war in Asia since the 1930s, expanded the conflict with a surprise attack on the American fleet on december 7, 1941, at Pearl harbor in hawaii. the Axis was defeated in the course of World War ii. italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943. Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies in may 1945, as did Japan in September 1945.


Resource: The National D-Day Museum, New Orleans; When they came for me, there was no one left to speak up; Department of Education lesson plan

In Germany they came first for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up. -Martin Niemoller, 1945 take some time to read through and think about the quote above, by martin niemoller. Although niemoller wasn’t simply a bystander during WWii, he felt he could have done more to combat against the nazi regime and stand up for the people who were being wrongly oppressed and persecuted in the holocaust. After the war ended, he helped compose the “Stuttgart confession of Guilt,” which recognizes and admits the collective guilt of all Germans for the holocaust. now it is your turn to create a petition for personal and collective responsibility in our world today. think about a societal issues you care about—either within your school or local community, or a world-wide issue. Examples are: pollution, racism, school bullying, civil rights. take niemoller’s quote and rewrite it to defend your position against the oppression, and persuade others to agree with your stance. You can use niemoller’s structure, or create your own! Be creative, be convincing, and stick up for your beliefs and the rights of others and everyone! Examples: First they picked on the chess club members…; First they polluted the Great Lakes…; First they started racial profiling…’


Adapted from: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust

Antisemitic cartoon by Seppla (Josef Plank), showing an octopus with a Star of David over its head and its tentacles encompassing a globe. —Used with permission from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum


• •

to analyze the effectiveness of visual representations to understand the power of suggestion through symbols and colors, and how messages can be conveyed through images


1. discuss the meaning of propaganda with students. What is the definition of propaganda, and why and how was it used by the nazi regime during WWii? a. Propaganda is tricky to define—it can be classified in many different terms, and can be labeled as both positive and negative. however, in its simplest form, propaganda is a set of messages, ideas, and images all placed together in order to influence and, ultimately, change the opinions or behavior of a large number of people. b. nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda. the propaganda was used to serve two primary nazi agendas: 1. to convince the German pubic that it was necessary for nazi Germany to go to war, and that the public should join the nazi forces in their fight. 2. to begin the extermination of races, primarily the Jewish race, which hitler and the nazi’s deemed inferior. c. German wartime propaganda utilized a variety of forms in its delivery. much of the propaganda was implemented through the recently invented radio, as well as through speeches from the main nazi leaders. Posters and other visual material were also widely circulated and vital to the persuasion. much other visual and printed material, such as books and leaflets, was only circulated to specific groups, such as nazi party members or soldiers. however, almost all the propaganda was spread though a variety of media. 2. Share the two included anti-Semitic nazi Propaganda illustrations with the class. After allowing students a few moments to look at and interpret these images, have students get into small groups and discuss the following: a. What symbols are used in this poster? i. Are the symbols clear, memorable, dramatic? b. What messages does this cartoon send? i. Are the messages in the poster primarily visual, verbal, or both? c. What stereotypes are used in this cartoon? d. Who do you think is the intended audience for the poster? e. What fears are drawn upon in this poster? Were these fears accurate? does that matter? f. What does the nazi Government hope the audience will do, after viewing this poster? g. how does the timing of these cartoons, published between 1938 and 1941, coincide with the holocaust? Why is that important? 3. Bring the students back into one large group. Allow students to share the thoughts and feelings they dialogued in the small groups, regarding the anti-Semitic propaganda. a. continue the discussion by asking the students the following: i. how does seeing these anti-Semitic images make you feel? Why? ii. Are there messages you see or hear in modern life that invoke similar stereotypes? iii.What can we do to counter such images and messages? 4. have students create cartoons promoting equality, justice, inclusion, and respect of everyone. a. Brainstorm with students what colors, symbols, and images they can use to support this message. b. Share these cartoons with the class, and allow students to discuss their cartoons and their messages.


Taken from: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust;


• •

to understand and use the expressive power of shapes, forms, and spaces to understand that different memorials have different purposes


1. in this activity, students will be using different geometric shapes to create their own holocaust monument. this lesson is appropriate for students who have already studied the holocaust and have enough understanding of the historical event, as well as personal accounts, so they are ready to express their own individual response to what they have learned. 2. discuss different geometric shapes with the class, and review the definitions of the shapes. 3. Once a number of shapes have been identified, discuss the emotional response we have to certain shapes. a. Which shapes seem more inviting? Which seem dangerous? b. compare several circles with a row of acute triangles. c. consider the position, size, and orientation of shapes. i. For example: a triangle resting on its base is a very stable shape, but inverted it is unstable. rectangles tipped at an angle become dynamic, suggesting either action or the potential for movement. A large shape leaning toward us can seem very threatening, but two shapes leaning against each other can be stable and even suggest shelter. 4. Explain what a memorial is to students. a. A memorial or monument can take many forms, and express many different themes. Some are dedicated to the memory of victims of a particular event in history. Other monuments commemorate the struggle, agony, or resistance of the victims of a historical event. Still others portray the heroism of rescuers and liberators of incidents throughout history. b. Show students pictures of various memorials. have students identify the shapes used in the different memorials, and what those shapes communicate. 5. tell students that they will be creating the design of their own holocaust memorial—using only different geometric shapes. As a class, brainstorm events, people, and feelings they may choose to portray in their memorial, and how they can use different shapes to illustrate these ideas. 6. have students first make a pencil sketch of their memorial, playing with various arrangements of shapes. Allow students to share and discuss their preliminary sketches in small groups. 7. Once the preliminary sketches have been created, give each student a few pieces of one single color of construction paper. a. Students may use rulers, a compass, and their knowledge of geometry to draw and cut their shapes from their single color of construction paper. b. Once the shapes are cut out, have them arrange their shape memorial on a second sheet of contrasting colored construction paper. Students should check their designs and make any last minute changes before gluing the shapes down. 8. Once their monuments are completed, have students write a brief paragraph expressing the theme they chose to illustrate in their monument, and why they used the shapes they did, and how the arrangement of these shapes conveys their theme. 9. hang these memorials, and their descriptions, throughout the classroom for students to observe.

Left, Holocaust Memorial in Miami, Florida. Right, Holocaust Memorial located in the cemetary at Theresienstadt.

page 22

Adapted from: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust;

Students: use these two maps below of europe in 1942 and europe today to help you answer the questins on the following page.

europe 1942

europe today


Using the maps on the previous page, answer the following questions:
1. Fill in the names of the countries shown on the maps of Europe today, and Europe in 1942. 2. List three differences you notice between the maps of Europe today and Europe in 1942.

3. compare the size of Germany in each of the maps. in which map does Germany have the most land? What do you think caused the change of Germany’s borders?

4. make a list of all the countries shown on the map of Europe today that were under nazi rule in 1942. You may need to use internet and text book references to help you answer this questions.

5. Which countries in Europe remained neutral during WWii? You may need to use internet and text book references to help you answer this questions.

page 24

Adapted from: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust; Student Worksheet

milwaukee county is approximately 241.56 square miles, with a population of about 915,097. Wisconsin’s population is about 5.6 million, with land of 54,310 square miles. By the year 2025, it is estimated that Wisconsin be home to 6.3 million. Los Angeles is the most densely populated city in the united States. there are approximately 12 million people living in Los Angeles, which is about 2,000 square miles. the uS population is about 270 million people, with 3,618, 770 square miles of land. during WWii, when the nazis took over Poland in 1939, 230,000 Jews were forced from their homes and deported to live in the ghetto of Lodz, which was approximately 4.3 square miles. By 1941, 25,000 additional people were brought to the ghetto to live. in 1940, the Warsaw ghetto confined nearly 400,000 Jews in the 3.5 square miles area. the area was surrounded by a 10-foot high wall. Jews were forbidden to leave the area, and if they were caught going outside the ghetto they were shot on sight.

to calculate the population density for a city—how many people there are in per square mile of land—divide the number of people by the number of square miles. 1.calculate the population density for milwaukee county.

2.calculate the population density for the city of Los Angeles.

3.calculate the population density for the Lodz Ghetto in 1939.

4.calculate the population density for the Lodz Ghetto in 1941.

5.calculate the population density for the Warsaw Ghetto in 1940. ;


6.Fill in the graph chart below, comparing population densities of milwaukee county today, Los Angeles today, the Lodz Ghetto in 1939, the Lodz Ghetto in 1941, and the Warsaw Ghetto in 1940.

120,000 115,000 110,000 105,000 100,000 95,000 90,000 85,000 80,000 75,000 70,000 65,000 60,000 55,000 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 1,000 page 25




LODZ 1939

LODZ 1941


citieS/LocationS page 26

DECLARATION OF TOLERANCE taken from, the Southern Poverty Law center’s web project. tolerance is a personal decision that comes from a belief that every person is a treasure. i believe that America’s diversity is its strength. i also recognize that ignorance, insensitivity and bigotry can turn that diversity into a source of prejudice and discrimination. to help keep diversity a well- spring of strength and make America a better place for all, i pledge to have respect for people whose abilities, beliefs, culture, race, sexual identity or other characteristics are different from my own. to fulfill this pledge, i will ...

and overcome them, • examine my own biasesfor mywork to and friends, set a positive example family • work for tolerance in my own community, and • speak out against hate and injustice. •

________________________________________________________________________________________ declaration of tolerance Signature Please sign and mail a copy to: 101 Tools, c/o, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104 You may sign the pledge online at

1. how would you describe hana and George’s life in nove mesto na morave before the nazis took over the city? how did their life change after the nazis took control of nove mesto na morave? What parts of their life, before the nazis invasion, are similar to your life now? 2. When the nazis did invade nove mesto na morave, the Brady’s life changed drastically. List three things hana and George could no longer do once the nazis came into power in nove mesto na morave. 3. Why was hana and George’s mother arrested by the Gestapo? When did they finally receive a letter from her, and what was included with the letter? Why was the present included with the letter so important to hana? 4. Why don’t you think more people in nove mesto na morave, and other nazi occupied territories, resisted the nazi regime and their intolerant actions against Jews? do you think the holocaust might have had a different outcome if more people defied the nazis and defended the victims? if so, how? 5. hana and the other prisoners of theresienstadt lived in crowded, unsanitary, disease ridden conditions. there was never enough food or clean water, and they shared their beds with bugs and rats. however, despite the hopelessness that surrounded hana, her spirit remained strong. Who are the people that helped hana survive, and how did they relieve some of her pain? 6. After seeing hana’s Suitcase, and learning about the holocaust, how has your attitude towards the tolerance and respect of others changed, if at all? What will you do in your school community when you witness the discrimination of a person or a group of people? 7. the young people in Small Wings believe they can make a difference in promoting peace and tolerance. how can young people make changes in their community to advance the tolerance and respect of all people and groups? What can one kid do to support this change?


1. 2. 3. 4. She was an orphan. A Waisenkind. that’s what is ways on her suitcase. Waisenkind. And if we did learn hana’s story and discovered it didn’t have a happy ending. Would you still want to hear it? “Over the course of World War two, more than 140,000 Jews were sent to theresienstadt—15,000 of them were children under the age of 15.” the children were taught by an artist, Friedl dicker-Brandeis. She hid some of the drawings by the children of theresienstadt and they were found when the war ended. have you ever seen one? A Jew. the work you do—children in tokyo need to know about the children of theresienstadt. two children—maiko and Akira—want to know about one child: hana. i tell the children everything. Eventually. Still, i have more questions than answers. i understand. But when he learns how much his sister means to the children, he might want to help. can you help me find George? George and i are still friends. You never forget the friends you made at theresienstadt. he is alive and well and living in canada.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. We must speak for those who are no longer here. 11. it is getting difficult being a Jew. 12. it helps to write things down. You’ll see. tell me something you’re afraid of. 13. the nazi official declared nove mesto na morave must be made judenfrei, free of Jews, right away. 14. maybe mommy and daddy are at theresienstadt. 15. Please, i beg you. can i stay with my brother? 16. there was never enough room, never enough food, never a chance for a private moment. there were too many people, too many bugs and rats, too many rules. 17. We can begin by drawing the world around us. don’t be afraid to draw what you see. 18. i’m not sharing it with you. i want you to have it all. Bigger brothers have bigger stomachs. 19. i don’t know what makes people do what they do. But i believe, Akira, that when you open hearts, you open up minds. A closed mind is a dead end. 20. i promised mother and Father that i would take care of you so we can all be a family again. i don’t want to break that promise, so i need your help. You must be as strong as you can until we see each other again. 21. You don’t see what i see. that’s what you taught us. to see things not everyone else sees. i will always see things differently, because of you. 22. What was hana thinking as the train went east? 23. i miss her, too. do you know what i mean?


1. 2. 3. 4. She was an orphan. A Waisenkind. that’s what is ways on her suitcase. Waisenkind. akira And if we did learn hana’s story and discovered it didn’t have a happy ending. Would you still want to hear it? Fumiko “Over the course of World War two, more than 140,000 Jews were sent to theresienstadt—15,000 of them were children under the age of 15.” Maiko the children were taught by an artist, Friedl dicker-Brandeis. She hid some of the drawings by the children of theresienstadt and they were found when the war ended. Fumiko have you ever seen one? A Jew. akira the work you do—children in tokyo need to know about the children of theresienstadt. two children—maiko and Akira—want to k now about one child: hana. Fumiko i tell the children everything. Eventually. Still, i have more questions than answers. Ludmilar i understand. But when he learns how much his sister means to the children, he might want to help. can you help me find George? Fumiko George and i are still friends. You never forget the friends you made at theresienstadt. he is alive and well and living in canada. Kurt Kotouc

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. We must speak for those who are no longer here. Fumiko 11. it is getting difficult being a Jew. Karel 12. it helps to write things down. You’ll see. tell me something you’re afraid of. george 13. the nazi official declared nove mesto na morave must be made judenfrei, free of Jews, right away. Fumiko reading george’s letter 14. maybe mommy and daddy are at theresienstadt. hana 15. Please, i beg you. can i stay with my brother? hana 16. there was never enough room, never enough food, never a chance for a private moment. there were too many people, too many bugs and rats, too many rules. Fumiko 17. We can begin by drawing the world around us. don’t be afraid to draw what you see. Friedl 18. i’m not sharing it with you. i want you to have it all. Bigger brothers have bigger stomachs. hana 19. i don’t know what makes people do what they do. But i believe, Akira, that when you open hearts, you open up minds. A closed mind is a dead end. Fumiko 20. i promised mother and Father that i would take care of you so we can all be a family again. i don’t want to break that promise, so i need your help. You must be as strong as you can until we see each other again. george 21. You don’t see what i see. that’s what you taught us. to see things not everyone else sees. i will always see things differently, because of you. hana 22. What was hana thinking as the train went east? akira 23. i miss her, too. do you know what i mean? akira


1. map of 1942 Europe today filled in.

map of Europe today filled in.

2. Germany took over most of Poland and half of France in 1942; the czech republic did not exist in 1942; the country of Bohemia does not exist today in Europe; denmark was under the rule of Germany in 1942; Germany today is half the size it was in 1942; 3. Germany had more land in 1942 because the nazi regime took control of Germany’s surrounding countries, and beyond. After the war, the nazis were no longer in control of Germany or the countries they conquered, so borders were changed and reestablished. 4. most of France, Belgium, denmark, Germany, ukraine, central Poland, Bohemia and moravia, Slovenia, Austria, the city of Venice from italy, Luxembourg, czechoslovakia 5. Sweden, Switzerland and Paraguay, Lichtenstein, monaco, Andorra, turkey, nepal, Afghanistan, Yemen, Bhutan, Spain, Portugal. however, no European country remained completely neutral. Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland all worked to some extent with the Axis. page 30

1.calculate the population density for milwaukee county. (3,788.28 people/square mile) 2.calculate the population density for the city of Los Angeles. (10,500 people/square mile) 3.calculate the population density for the Lodz Ghetto in 1939. (53,488.37 people/square mile) 4.calculate the population density for the Lodz Ghetto in 1941. (59,302.33 people/square mile) 5.calculate the population density for the Warsaw Ghetto in 1940. (114,285.71 people/square mile) 6.Fill in the graph chart below, comparing population densities of milwaukee county today, Los Angeles today, the Lodz Ghetto in 1939, the Lodz Ghetto in 1941, and the Warsaw Ghetto in 1940.

120,000 115,000 110,000 105,000 100,000 95,000 90,000 85,000 80,000 75,000 70,000 65,000 60,000 55,000 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 1,000




LODZ 1939

LODZ 1941


citieS/LocationS page 31


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