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How to Guide for REFLECTION

How to Guide for REFLECTION

The National Service-Learning Cooperative
ServeAmerica K-12 Clearinghouse
Pennsylvania Institute for Environmental and Community Service Learning
Northeast Regional Technical Assistance Center

Compiled by
Lorraine Parrillo
Cooperative/Clearinghouse Coordinator
Northeast Regional Technical Assistance Center
December 5, 1994
Used with their permission


This module includes a summary of materials currently used to support reflection in the service learning movement. Crucial information presented includes:

1. Introductory materials on Reflection by Diane Hedin and Dan Conrad

2. Reflective teaching techniques using eleven different forms of reflection rather than just using journals and asking how participants feel about service

3. Basic critical thinking skills that may be used in reflection sessions 4. Bibliography


Reflective learning techniques are not the lone providence of service activities. All thinking and dialogue requires some form of reflection if learning is to take place. Individuals need time and reconsideration of events to put facts and ideas into sequence and eventually into a better understanding as to what happened during a specific event. Everyone in their life-time will be required to repeat this process endlessly. Nevertheless, schools do little to prepare their students for reflection.

Reflection activities allow students a sense of intellectual ownership and a better understanding of oneself and one's own abilities. Reflection is more than problem solving which has an excessive concern for right answers. It focuses on how questions arise. This always requires greater synthesis and creativity than does simple answers. Service...

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