Premium Essay

Impact of Wto on Globalization


Submitted By kireeti16
Words 2421
Pages 10
Impact of WTO on Globalization Trade Policy
World Trade Organization (WTO), found in 1995 and headquarters is in Geneva, has its clearly main purposes since its beginning that to promote economic and trade development all over the world. Up to the end of 2008, there are more than 135 members in the organization. In particularly, with the expansion of globalization trade, international business is more often than any time in the history. As one of the most crucial carrier of economic globalization, WTO establishes a set of international trade rules focusing on the liberalization, which play a strong role of encouraging and guiding in the process of economic globalization (Pauwelyn, 2005). This essay will mainly discuss WTO’s influence on the rules of globalization trade in combination with the current reform of trade policy. It will explain the topic from the following four aspects in detail: first, the basic rules WTO set up for the international trade, then, rules on e-commerce, the new rising global business, third, the preferential rules made by WTO for developing countries, and at last, it will discuss the impacts of WTO’s regulations on environmental issues when doing global trade.
Basic Rules WTO set up for the Global Trade
WTO's main objective is to provide adequate competitive opportunities for the trade among the members, which needs recognized common rules and principles for members to abide. There are two basic principles, namely the MFN principle (referred to as MFN) and national treatment principle. MFN can ensure that all members enjoy equal opportunities for competition, and national treatment guarantees the products of exporter and importer have equal opportunity to compete.
The relevant WTO provisions require that the members of different countries need to open their markets to the others; when developing foreign trade, there should

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Reactions to Globalization Xuewu Gu The accession of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001 marked one of the most important steps of the Chinese government towards deepening the integration of the Chinese economy into the world economy and therewith going more deeply into the globalization. This development, however, does not mean that the issue of globalization is not controversial in China. Indeed, the fifteen years since 1986 in which China actually underwent a tremendous negotiation process with the WTO, as well as with its members, have been accompanied by an intense domestic debate about the sense and the meaning of globalization. Even through today, the Chinese membership in the WTO is certainly not inevitable; the globalization debate in China continues, reflecting the fact that the Chinese feel strongly challenged by globalization and are trying to search for ways to deal effectively with it. This paper regards it as its main task to examine systematically the Chinese reactions to globalization. To achieve this goal, the analysis will focus on three questions. Firstly, it will find out the general understanding of globalization by the Chinese elite. The term “general understanding” means in this sense the understanding which most Chinese scholars and politicians seem to share regardless of whether he or she is “pro-globalization” or “anti-globalization”. Secondly, it will try to identify the main strains of the Chinese debate on globalization. In doing...

Words: 3900 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay


...Guide Week 6 (Ref. Ferrell et al. Chapter 10; Mander, J., Baker, D. and Korten, D. Does Globalization Help the Poor?) Business Ethics in a Global Economy Does Globalization Help the Poor? by Jerry Mander, Debi Baker and David Korten IFG Bulletin, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 3, International Forum on Globalization During the past few years, we have heard steady proclamations emanating from the advocates of economic globalization and leaders of the Bretton Woods institutions - the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Trade Organization (WTO), et. al. - that their deepest purpose in pushing economic globalization is to help the world's poor. More specifically, they contend that removing barriers to corporate trade and financial investments is the best path to growth, which they say offers the best chance to lift the poor from poverty. They also assert that the millions of people who have visibly opposed the economic globalization model are harming the interests of the poor. Everyone should please back off and leave it to corporations, bankers and global bureaucracies to do the planning and solve the world's problems. Such claims are routinely replayed in the media. One prominent national columnist, for example, says, "protesters are choking the only route out of poverty for the world's poor." In other words, if the protests would stop, the IMF, the World Bank, the WTO, Nike and Monsanto would save the day. Is this true? Are the interests of global corporations...

Words: 2613 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...Drake Gutierrez 04/04/2012 Professor Hallsted English 1A A Global Market: Corporation Domination Globalization will indubitably strain the process of development of third world countries and would in fact deteriorate already developed countries. With the implementation of fair trade policies and the straining policies that the WTO (World Trade Organization) initiates, globalization will become a threat to the current status of power around the world. Globalization is the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of politics through communication, transportation, and trade. Globalization will create a one world economy, where big global corporations make a fortune exploiting slave labor on the other side of the world. With the treat of these global corporations taking control of the world economy because of fair trade policies, Naomi Klein’s argument about disaster capitalism that is discussed in her book The Shock Doctrine, can be directly related. Globalization helps develop third world countries in response to the outsourcing of jobs that multinational corporations carry out. As more capital is poured in to developing countries, those countries will acquire economic stability and increase their standard of living. In return the economy that those individuals belong to will also begin to grow. As stated in Forbes Magazine, “Per-person income in China has climbed from $16 a year in 1978 to $2,000 now...

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

World Trade Federation

...The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body whose purpose is to promote free trade by persuading countries to abolish import tariffs and other barriers. As such, it has become closely associated with globalization. The WTO is the only international agency overseeing the rules of international trade. It polices free trade agreements, settles trade disputes between governments, and organizes trade negotiations. WTO decisions are absolute and every member must abide by its rulings. So, when the US and the European Union are in dispute over goods, it is the WTO, which acts as judge and jury. WTO members are empowered by the organization to enforce its decisions by imposing trade sanctions against countries that have breached the rules. Based in Geneva, the WTO was set up in 1995, replacing another international organization known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt). Gatt was formed in 1948 when 23 countries signed an agreement to reduce customs tariffs. The WTO has a much broader opportunity than Gatt. Whereas Gatt regulated trade in merchandise goods, the WTO also covers trade in services, such as telecommunications and banking, and other issues such as intellectual property rights. Membership of the WTO now stands at 153 countries (as at July 2008). China formally joined the body in December 2001 after a 15-year battle. Russia wants admission, but must first convince the EU and US that it has reformed business practices. (Daniels...

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Positive Impacts of Globalization in Bangladesh Economy (a Case Study of Bd).

...| |[Year] | | |Grizli777 | | | | | |SOHEL | |[Type the document title] | |[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the | |document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] | ACKHOWLEDGEMENT It is my great pleasure to convey my deep respect and indebtedness to my teacher Dr. Md Azam Khan, Chairmen, Department of Economics, Jagannath University for cordial guidance, pragmatic suggestions and continuous encouragement and inspirations of my term paper work, which enabled me to complete my dissertation work successfully. I would also like to offer my heartfelt thanks, gratitude, deep respect and indebtedness to Soma Bhattacharjee, Lecturer of Economics, Jagannath University for his continuous guidance, thoughtful suggestion and inspirations during the entire time of my term paper. I am indebted to the respondents of the study area who provided data and suggestions to complete the work. Contents ...

Words: 7048 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Concept of Mnc

...CONCEPT OF MNC A multinational corporation is an enterprise that carries on business operations in more than one country. It extends its manufacturing and marketing operations through a network of branches and subsidiaries which are known as its foreign affiliates. According to a report of international labour office the essential nature of multinational enterprises lies in the fact that its managerial headquarters are located in one country while the enterprise carries out operations in a number of other countries as well.´ CHARACTERISTICS OF MNC: * Large size * Worldwide operations * Centralized control * Sophisticated technology * Professional management * International market * High brand equity ROLES OF MNC 1) MNC’s help to increases the investment level & thereby the income & employment in host country. 2) The transnational corporations have become vehicles for the transfer technology, especially to developing countries. 3) They also initiate a managerial revolution in host countries through professional management and employment of highly sophisticated management techniques. 4) The MNCs enable that host countries to increases their exports & decreases their import requirements. 5) They work to equalize cost of factors of production around the world. 6) MNC’s provide and efficient means of integrating national economies. 7) The enormous resources of multinational enterprises enable them to...

Words: 10294 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

International Financial Management of Wto

...Trade Organization (WTO) officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). It is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade and to resolve trade disputes. Based on these objectives of WTO and our papers, we will divide our presentation into three parts. First, I will talk about economic sanctions and its impact on trade, then Lisa is going to impact of trade liberalization in developing countries, and finally Jessie will present developing country use of the WTO dispute settlement system. Economic sanctions was defined as economic pressures or punishments which are utilized by “sender countries” against the “target countries” And sanctions can be classified into three main types, which are “boycotts”, “embargoes” and “financial sanctions”, respectively. Economic sanctions are often directly associated with retaliatory action resulting from the conclusion of a WTO dispute settlement process (which will discuss further by my partner Jessie later). One example is the withdrawal of trade concessions by the United States in retaliation against the European Union’s banana regime, which was found to be inconsistent with WTO’s rule of trade liberalization. However, economic sanctions can also be adopted by countries under WTO provisions but which are unrelated to the WTO dispute settlement process. The legal basis of their justification under WTO rules is the protection...

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Wto and Its Imapact from 1992 to Present

...SUBJECT- MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS TOPIC- IMPACT OF WTO ON INDIAN ECONOMY FOR THE PAST 10 YEARS. NAME - NITESH SHUKLA DIV - C ROLL.NO -324332 INTRODUCTION WTO is basically an internationally recognized global organization which clearly defines the role of trade between the nations and to avoid conflict over it. The primary goal of WTO is to help various intermediaries conduct their business. It also aims to improve the welfare of the people of the member countries. CONCEPTS: * WTO is basically a place where trade problems are sorted out with each other which the countries face as a whole and also with each other. * The rules or better say agreements which are made in WTO are scrutinized and negotiated by the bulk of the world’s trading nations before being passed. * WTO not just supports carrying out trade in a peaceful way but also supports maintaining of trade barriers. Ex: protecting consumers and nation as a whole. * WTO works upon the rules framed with the participation of all the member countries with the prime focus on settlement of disputes. * WTO has a characteristic feature of ‘member-driven’ wherein...

Words: 2426 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Chapter 1 International Management Notes

...CHAPTER 1 GLOBALIZATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe the process of globalization and how it affects markets and production. 2. Identify the two forces causing globalization to increase. 3. Summarize the evidence for each main argument in the globalization debate. 4. Identify the types of companies that participate in international business. 5. Describe the global business environment and identify its four main elements. CHAPTER OUTLINE: Introduction International Business Involves Us All Technology Makes It Happen The Global Relay Race Globalization Globalization of Markets Reduces Marketing Costs Creates New Market Opportunities Levels Uneven Income Streams Yet Local Needs Are Important Globalization of Production Access Lower-Cost Workers Access Technical Expertise Access Production Inputs Forces Driving Globalization Falling Barriers to Trade and Investment World Trade Organization Regional Trade Agreements Trade Agreements and Trade Growth Technological Innovation E-mail and Videoconferencing Internet and World Wide Web Company Intranets and Extranets Advancements in Transportation Technologies Measuring Globalization Untangling the Globalization Debate Today’s Globalization in Context The Current Globalization Backlash Leaving the Anarchists Behind Before We Go On Globalization’s Impact on Jobs and Wages Globalization Costs Jobs and Lowers Wages Eliminates Jobs in Developed Nations Forces Wages Lower in Developed Countries ...

Words: 2641 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

As Truly Global Economies Emerge Distinct National Economies Are Increasingly Irrelevant

...grows close together in terms of pursuing the same goals; yet drift farther apart with regard to achieving progress and development (Akram, Faheem, Dost & Abdullah 2011, p. 293). The increasing irrelevance of national borders, including social, economic, cultural and technological borders, is one of the fundamental characteristics of the incident of globalization. Innovative technologies such as the Internet have facilitated the dismantling of national boundaries. As a consequence, the world is rapidly turning into one massive village; not only in political terms, but economic terms as well (Kemeny 2011, p. 17). At present, global exchanges and interactions continue to be the order of the day. All areas of society, including the economic aspects, are constantly being reshaped by the process of globalization as forces that outweigh and transcend national borders exert their influence. The rate of global change is quite rapid today; consequently, the emergence of global economies makes national economies, as well as strategies geared towards national economic management, irrelevant or entirely obsolete. Economic globalization has resulted in the proliferation of global economies, which surmount the powers held by national economies to influence economic occurrences within their national borders. Fundamentally, national economies are interdependent as they depend on the cross-border movement of capital, technology, and goods and services to facilitate growth and intensification...

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Arguments for Globalisation

...ASSIGNMENT WEEK 2 Globalization in the twentieth and twenty first century is usually analyzed from an economic or technological perception, that is the internet, international markets and global institutions such as IMF, WTO cable news etc. The impact of globalization on the economies of countries across the world whether developed or developing cannot be over emphasized. An important ingredient in globalization is trade liberalization. . Economic liberalization is the process of achieving unobstructed economic activities, it seeks to remove all hindrances to trade, production and investment, whiles emphasizing on the freedom of economic activities (Onyekpe, 2001:52, Akinboye, 2008). In this light I will want to associate myself with the argument brought forward by Peter Mandelson in support of globalization. Globalization can be described as a “double edged sword”. Countries and companies which are prepared can take advantage of the opportunities that it brings on the other hand, globalization is not ready to “forgive” countries or companies who are not prepared to take the dynamics of globalization. Even the developed countries in Europe and the USA cannot afford to be complacent in the face of globalization. Peter Mandelson has done a good job in explaining both positive and negative effects of globalization in his defense of globalization. Peter Mandelson analyzed the impact of globalization under six headings namely, the openness boom, the interlinked world, the challenges...

Words: 1834 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Introduction Globalization has become a sort of fashionable buzz-word. It is quite often said but seldom with the same meaning. Globalisation has been an important factor in accelerating democracy’s growth in recent decades. In this globalized world, rapid development and global proliferation of new technologies and telecommunications, and integration of the world economy through trade and investment, have increased the role and power of regional and global institutions. This promoted and strengthened the spread of democracy while also providing the leverage for good governance. Globalisation impacts on the mode of governance that a country operates either as a symbol of universality or for uniformity. This unstoppable trend has homogenised governance on a global scale while depicting authoritarianism as unproductive political modernity. The concepts- globalisation and (good) governance have dominated international discourse for sometime now. The conceptual ambivalence and ambiguity that hover around them, however, are owing to their multidimensional and multifarious perspectives. Definitions Good Governance Before defining good governance, it is pertinent to define governance in order to use it as a point of departure to fully understand good governance. According to WB governance is the “manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development”. According to ESCAP governance simply means “the process...

Words: 5223 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Globalization and Bangladesh

...PART-1 1. Concept of globalization: Globalization means the coming together of different societies and economies via cross border flow of ideas, finances, capital, information, technologies, goods and services. The cross border assimilation can be social, economic, cultural, or political. But most of the people fear cultural and social assimilation as they believe this would have a negative impact on the existing culture of their society. Globalization therefore has mostly narrowed down to economic integration and this mainly happens through three channels; flow of finance, trade of goods and services and capital movement. Globalization is a term that includes a wide range of social and economic variations. It encompasses topics like the cultural changes, economics, finance trends, and global market expansion. There are positive and negative effects of globalization - it all comes as a package. Globalization helps in creating new markets and wealth, at the same time it is responsible for extensive suffering, disorder, and unrest. The great financial crisis that just happened is the biggest example of how negative globalization can turn. It clearly reveals the dangers of an unstable, deregulated, global economy. At the same time, this gave rise to important global initiatives, striving towards betterment. Globalization is a factor responsible for both repression and the social boom. What happens when there is a growing integration of economies across the globe? Majorly...

Words: 13616 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Technology Transfer in Context with Saudi Arabian Small-Medium

...Transmission Network Integration, Mobily, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Muhammad Asad Sadi College of Industrial Management King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia [Abstract] Technology transfer brings scientific advances to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). It enables them to be innovative and efficient. The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the key barriers that SMEs face when transferring technology in Saudi Arabia. Both descriptive and hypothesis testing have been used for data analysis. This study shows that SMEs in Saudi Arabia face lack of workforce skills, management capabilities, and effective legal and regulatory procedures. More than 56% predicted that the accession to WTO will have a positive impact on their businesses. Furthermore, 41% found licensing is the most preferred type of partnership agreement by SMEs to transfer technology. The study also found that most Saudi SMEs do not know fully the importance of franchising. [Keywords] technology transfer; small-medium enterprises; key barriers Introduction Technology transfer involves the acquisition and absorption of technology in order to introduce innovativeness and efficiency to gain competitive advantages. There are several channels through which technologies may be transferred, such as foreign direct investments (FDI), merger, acquisition, licensing, franchising and joint venture agreements. This includes hard and soft technologies associated with the transfer...

Words: 3810 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay


...globalization’s affect on the health of sub-saharan Africa specifically concerning the TRIPS agreement and it’s effect on access to pharmaceuticals for LDC’s Research Questions I. Which LDC’s have been most effected by TRIPS agreement? II. How has the Doha Round of WTO talks and Amendments to the agreement effected the impact of TRIPS on LDC’s? III. How has TRIPS affected welfare in LDC’s? IV. Have changes in welfare due to TRIPS effected development in the LDC’s? V. How has trade globalization impacted sub-saharan LDC’s access to health care? VI. What individual examples exist of TRIPS positively and negatively impacting sub-saharan welfare? VII. Which countries express the greatest need for generic pharmaceuticals? VIII. What are the real effects on pharmaceutical companies when generic medications are sold IX. How does TRIPS effect R&D in LDC’s? International Studies 100 Hill 1 Brendan Hill | 200245349 November, 14, 2014 Aspects of Globalization This essay will conduct an assessment on both economic globalization and globalization of knowledge. Economic globalization will be examined for the changes in welfare it has brought to LDC’s in sub-saharan African following the the Uruguay round of the WTO. Globalized pharmaceutical trading will also be analyzed regarding international access to important...

Words: 481 - Pages: 2