Premium Essay

Iraq War Invasion

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jstevenson12
Words 3928
Pages 16
In May 2003, the United States began the daunting task of nation building in Iraq by rebuilding the Iraqi infrastructure and reformulating its political institutions. The military's role in modern stability operations, though seemingly new, fits into a preexisting American foreign policy formula. However, the military sees stability operations through contemporary ethical lenses. Since each case depends upon current ethical understanding about what the military should or should not do, past examples of stability operations do not necessarily provide fitting frameworks for modern efforts. This article focuses on ethical abstractions as well as the ways national and social views of how "right" and "wrong" translate into political and military application, and it examines examples of stability operations and the ethical challenges and implications such efforts raise.1
Morality in Post-war Operations
Even though moral rhetoric often permeates stability operations, international stability and perceived strategic interests have overridden moral obligations as determinants for American military commitments. A study of the ethical implications of conducting stability operations today bridges a historiographic gap in the understanding of morality in warfare. Scholars have often alluded to the prevalence of the just war tradition in (Western) military thought.2 However, the Just War model is insufficient when discussing stability operations because it only describes jus ad bellum (rationale for going to war in the first place) and jus in bello (appropriate conduct during war).3 The moral reasons for going to war are not always the same as the reasons the victor uses to justify occupation of the defeated nation. Jus in bello does continue to have relevance during stability operations, particularly when armed hostilities exist between "insurgents" and the government, unarmed

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Persian Gulf Crisis

...Power Led to the Invasion of Kuwait, World Conflicts and the Degredation of Iraq      Joseph Stalin. Fidel Castro. Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein. These names are all those of leaders who have used a totalitarian approach to leading a nation. Stalin and Hitler ruled in the early to mid-nineteen hundreds. Like Fidel Castro, Saddam Hussein is now. Saddam Hussein belongs to the Baath Party of Iraq. This party adopts many techniques similar to those used by Stalin and Hitler. Saddam Hussein conceived a plan to invade Kuwait. It was, perhaps, one of the worst mistakes he could have made for his own reputation and for his country. The invasion of Kuwait as well as the world's response to it, the environmental disaster it caused, and the degradation of Iraq were completely the fault one man and his government: Saddam Hussein and his Baath Government.      One of Hussein's weaknesses is negotiating. Negotiating in his terms is to fight it out with as much carnage as possible until his side comes out "victoriously". Repeatedly, Saddam and his government break international convention laws. During his war fought with Iran, the Iraqi army used chemical weapons on the Iranian troops and even on their own Iraqi population. This was seemingly overlooked by the rest of the world because most nations didn't want to see the Ayatollah's Islamic revolution rise. Iraq often obtained foreign arms support from other nations because of this. It wasn't until the invasion of Kuwait that...

Words: 1801 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Discuss the Need for World Order and Evaluate the Effectiveness of Responses in the Maintenance of World Order

...are aimed at the maintenance of world order in the international community. There is an increasing need for World Order in contemporary society than ever before as a high level of interdependence between countries has resulted from the push for globalisation and free trade. This interaction between countries has instigated greater conflict in the world in the form of terrorism, civil unrest and conflict for access to the world’s shrinking resources. Access to resources has been a major source of conflict due to the world’s increasing consumption. An example of such as conflict is the chaos occurring in the Persian Gulf from 1980 over the access to oil reserves. Iraq has the world’s third largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia and Iran. Saddam Hussein in 1991 invaded Kuwait after the Iraq‐Iran war which was based on the access to oil, he gained control of the oil wells and when his forces...

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Saddam Hussein: The Baath Party

...premier of Iraq who was Abdul Karim Kassem in 1959. In the 1968, the Baath political party rose to its peak and named Saddam as head chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council. Hussein has been said to be most powerful person in Iraq because of his fearless acts of enemies, overly careful control of his political power, and his military attacks on countries. Saddam went up in his power through many ways but mostly gained power through the Baath political party. The purpose of the Baath party was mainly the combination of all Arabian states in the Middle East. On October 7, 1959, Saddam and more of his “teammates” of the party tried to kill the president of Iraq who was Abd al-Karim Qasim. The Baath party did not fully pull through to complete the task by killing Qasim and resulted to Hussein being shot and having to flee to Syria. He then fled to Egypt to attend law school. The following year Saddam was arrested for his conflict...

Words: 1050 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

U.S. Preemptive War

...foreign and defense policy undertook a major shift under the administration of President Bush. The Bush administration created and executed a policy of preemptive military action against any threat deemed imminent to the security of the U.S. (Commonly referred to as the "Bush Doctrine") This policy was used as justification for invading Iraq in 2003, which was believed to possess Weapons of Mass Destruction and accused of harboring international terrorists. Discuss whether you believe the U.S. should follow such a foreign policy. What are the costs of preemptive military action? What are the costs associated with not preempting threats to U.S. national security? Do you believe such a policy makes the U.S. and its citizens more or less secure?” There is arguably two ways one could approach this discussion. One way being from a political realist/power-politics perspective, and the other from a moralist idealist perspective; and while both can start in the same place; they end up in some very different conclusions. So for all intents and purposes I’m going to stay within a political realist perspective on this issue. Since the Second World War, the U.S. has increasingly achieved a sort of empire and has in fact become the new Rome, as Chalmers Johnson would put it. Much like its predecessors in order to maintain the empire it needs to enact the security of its interests in it. In the U.S.’s case, instead of traditional colonies, it is some seven hundred and thirty-seven DOD acknowledged...

Words: 1600 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Common Sence

...Address to the Nation on the Invasion of Iraq (January 16, 1991) George H. W. Bush Bush explains that the aerial invasion of Iraq comes after months of failed negotiations with Saddam Hussein. The United States enters Iraq with the support of twenty-eight nations and the United Nations. Transcript Just 2 hours ago, allied air forces began an attack on military targets in Iraq and Kuwait. These attacks continue as I speak. Ground forces are not engaged. This conflict started August 2d when the dictator of Iraq invaded a small and helpless neighbor. Kuwait�a member of the Arab League and a member of the United Nations�was crushed; its people, brutalized. Five months ago, Saddam Hussein started this cruel war against Kuwait. Tonight, the battle has been joined. This military action, taken in accord with United Nations resolutions and with the consent of the United States Congress, follows months of constant and virtually endless diplomatic activity on the part of the United Nations, the United States, and many, many other countries. Arab leaders sought what became known as an Arab solution, only to conclude that Saddam Hussein was unwilling to leave Kuwait. Others traveled to Baghdad in a variety of efforts to restore peace and justice. Our Secretary of State, James Baker, held an historic meeting in Geneva, only to be totally rebuffed. This past weekend, in a last-ditch effort, the Secretary-General of the United Nations went to the Middle East with peace in his...

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Iraq War Wasn’t Justified

...The Iraq war wasn’t justified The 2003 invasion of Iraq (March 20 – May 1, 2003), was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War or Operation Iraqi Freedom in which a combined force of troops from the United States, alongside the United Kingdom, and smaller contingents from Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations. This phase (March–April 2003) consisted of a conventionally fought war which concluded with the fall of Baghdad that marked the beginning of the second phase, the current Iraq War, and was a continuation of the Gulf War of 1991, prior to which Saddam Hussein had invaded Kuwait, and after defeat by Coalition Forces had agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons, including SCUD missiles and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). According to then President of the United States George W. Bush and then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair, the reasons for the invasion were "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein's alleged support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people. According to Blair, the trigger was Iraq's failure to take a "final opportunity" to disarm itself of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that U.S. and British officials called an immediate and intolerable threat to world peace. Although some remnants of pre-1991 production were found after the end of the war. US government spokespeople confirmed that these were...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

187th Infantry Regiment Research Paper

...The 187th Infantry Regiment is a regiment attached to the 101st Airborne Division stationed our of Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The 187th Infantry Regiment was initially inducted into the Army as the 187th Glider Infantry Regiment during World War II. The regiment was constituted on the 12 of November 1942 and then became active on the 25th of February 1943. Initially, the 187th was assigned at Fort Mackall, North Carolina for their initially infantry training and afterwards were moved to Fort Polk, Louisiana for their glider training. From Fort Polk, the 187th then moved to stage themselves at Camp Stoneman, California where they would depart to New Guinea. The 187th arrived in New Guinea on the 29th of May 1943 to become part of the New...

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Principles of Tourism 2

...Iraq, known in classical antiquity as Mesopotamia, was home to the oldest civilizations in the world,[1][2] with a cultural history of over 10,000 years,[3][4][5] hence its common epithet, the Cradle of Civilization. Mesopotamia, as part of the larger Fertile Crescent, was a significant part of theAncient Near East throughout the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Arabs have been the majority of Iraq's population since Sassanid times.[6] Iraq was ruled by the indigenous empires, Sumerian, Akkadian,Babylonian, Assyrian and also by foreign empires; Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian empires during the Iron Age and Classical Antiquity, before Iraq was conquered by the Muslim Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century, and became a center of the Islamic Golden Age during the medieval Abbasid Caliphate. After a series of invasions and conquest by the Mongols and Turks, Iraq fell under Ottoman rule in the 16th century, intermittently falling under Iranian Safavid and Mamluk control. Ottoman rule ended with World War I, and Iraq came to be administered by the British Empire until the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq in 1933. The Republic of Iraq was established in 1958 following a coup d'état. The Republic was controlled by Saddam Hussein from 1979 to 2003, into which period falls the Iran-Iraq war and the Persian Gulf War. Saddam Hussein was deposed following the 2003 US-led invasion of the country. Following the invasion, the situation deteriorated to the extent that in...

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pol372 Major Essay

...between both sets of people. Islamists have gained a bad reputation in the west because they are seen as the sworn enemies of Christians, and the same applies to how Muslims view people from the west. On the whole, the war between the West and East has something to do with the world's political order, and this will form the basis of discussion in this paper. The war that exists between West and East is a result of politics and not the religious differences. Political ambitions have always been at the forefront of the existing conflict because different countries have always had diverse ambitions of controlling the rest of the world. A key moment in the history of the East was the deal that was made by the British at the end of the Second World War concerning the people of Palestine. The establishment of Israel in 1948 further escalated tensions and conflicts with the west, and the problems that exist today, almost have nothing to do with religion (Tausch, 2009). The world events of the past decade and a half, clearly show the origins of the conflict that exists between the west and the east. The invasion of Iraq by the United States in 2003 is a perfect example, which shows that the conflict that exists is not a religious war. The decision to invade Iraq was made on the assumption that the then leader of the country, Saddam Hussein, was...

Words: 2766 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

The Concept of Ethical Obligation

...The Concept of Ethical Obligations Strayer University PAD 500 Modern Public Administration Dr. Leah Raby 11.25.13 George Tenet served as the Director if the Central Intelligence Agency from 1997 to 2004 under Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. His CIA tenure coincided with the 9/11 terrorists attacks the New York City World Trade Center, Pentagon in Washington, D.C and the American invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq all marked by challenges and controversies for the agency and his leadership(White, 2008). Tenet’s case discussed his decision making roles before and during the invasion of Iraq. It also took a close look at Tenet’s priorities in the agency, the public and of his conscious. In this paper, I will first identify four cross-coded ethical dilemmas facing former CIA Director George Tenet and assess their impact on his leadership abilities. Secondly, analyze four ways in which Tenet addressed the prioritization of ethical concerns. Then, I will identify and explain four strategies used in competing ethical obligation in relation to the many intergovernmental organizations that overlapped his office. I will also elaborate on four relevant notions for designing ethical maps for defining and prioritizing ethical obligations. Finally, I will research and cite at least four peer-reviewed academic sources. Ethics is defined as moral principles...

Words: 1756 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Persian Gulf War

...The Persian Gulf War Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to interfere. Hussein refused United Nations Security Council demands removed from Kuwait by January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S. led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of constant attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground. U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28. By that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Even though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, firing conflict in that region led to a second Gulf War known as the Iraq War, that began in 2003. Adding to Hussein’s speech, Iraq had begun amassing troops on Kuwait’s border. Surprised by these actions, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt initiated negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait in an effort to avoid intervention by the United States or other powers from outside the Gulf region. Hussein broke off the negotiations after only two hours. On August 2, 1990 he ordered the invasion of Kuwait. Hussein’s assumption that his fellow Arab states would stand by in the face of his invasion of Kuwait, and by not calling in outside help to stop it. Two-thirds of the 21 members of the Arab League...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Memorial Day

...from unreasonable searches and seizures • Right to due process of law and freedom from self-incrimination or double jeopardy • Right to a speedy and public trial • Right of trial by jury in civil cases • Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments • Other rights of the people • and powers reserved to the states As we gather here today to pause and reflect on one of the most significant and memorable days of the year, let us remember and celebrate their lives. As we remember them, let us not forget their families, friends, and fellow service members some of which are here with us today. Gathered here today are veterans from WWII, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Grenada, US invasion of Panama, the Persian Gulf War, the Intervention in Bosnia, and the Invasions of Afghanistan and...

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Iraq Kuwait War

...IRAQ-KUWAIT War Negotiation Style and Frameworks by Steven Roberts A case study that shows how important it is to consider whether or not to accept concessions by taking a reasonable perspective and framework. | Bottom of Form On a scorching summer day in August,1990, the citizens of Kuwait stared in puzzlement at the encroaching, dusty streams of what appeared to be a pending desert sandstorm, creeping ominously towards them from across the forbidding dessert. To their dismay and horror filled eyes, the quaking citizenry had become helpless witnesses to the advancing units of Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi army, relentlessly engaged in the illegal invasion of their homeland. There had been no warning of this pending disaster. Kuwaiti resistance was swept aside much like one casually brushes away a crumb from one’s lapel. After six days, Hussein declared that he had annexed Kuwait. The world was stunned by Hussein’s audacity, and the Middle East became very anxious about what the future may hold for this unsettled region. By August 30, the Arab League, called by President Mubarak of Egypt, attempted to defuse this potentially explosive crisis through deft negotiation. The Arab League proposed to Hussein that if he would withdraw his troops, they were prepared to offer him several concessions. Through several negotiations, the Arab League eventually framed a very generous negotiation proposal that they attempted to present to Hussein in a packaged offer. The three major negotiation...

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Reagan/Bush Era Reagan/Bush Era To take a look at the past and see how it has guided the present era; look back at the Reagan-Busch era and see what they were involved in, initiated or finished while in the Oval Office. These two were President and Vice President for two terms and George Bush succeeded Reagan as the 41st President of the United States and carried on where Reagan left off. His presidency was limited to one term as most Americans felt that he was not strong enough or not able to function without President Reagan. The Iran-Contra war was an embarrassing scandal that almost caused Reagan his presidency. The involvement of the United States in the business of supplying weapons to the enemy of the United States basically a black market operation that was not approved by the Congress and ran by a Military Officer. The whole matter was a negotiation tactic we sell you weapons and you release hostages. Monies profited from this illegal black market scandal was funneled to the contras of Nicaragua to support their internal democracy issue and eventually allowed them to overthrow Anastasio Somoza Debayle. This whole scandal reflected poorly on the United States and President Reagan as it was a defining point in his presidency and almost cost him his office. This scandal first began in 1985 and continued until 1986 and was actually effective until the Hezbollah terrorist group got greedy and started taking more hostages in demand for more weapons. The article was...

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Iraq & Vietnam

...Iraq & Vietnam: A comparison and contrast Kirkland Young HUMN 410 Professor Harris 11/17/09 Introduction Many pundits who opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq now compare it to the invasion of Vietnam by viewing the daily attacks on U.S. soldiers as indications of repeating mistakes that were made in Vietnam. In their view, “the United States has yet again stumbled into a foreign quagmire – a protracted and indecisive political and military struggle from which they are not likely to remove themselves without considerable loss of life and currency.” (Terrill, p. 1) However, profound differences separate the domestic and international objectives of the Vietnam and Iraq wars even though there are many similarities these similarities can be misleading. The Vietnam War was over the spread of communism in the Indochina region of the world. The French and the Japanese had been thoroughly conquered by the Vietnamese led by a Ho Chi Minh who had an overwhelming amount of support from his compatriots. In 1954 the president of the U.S.A. attempted to divide the country of Vietnam into two opposing governments. Selecting a former Vietnamese official named Ngo Dinh Diem and planting him in South Vietnam to oppose the elections that would unite the country. This was done because an intelligence estimate showed that the election would be won by Ho Chi Minh and thus would give “control of the associated states (Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam) in the region – the three parts...

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7