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Jesus Christus


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Jesus (/ˈdʒiːzəs/; Greek: Ἰησοῦς Iesous; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ,[e] is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Messiah (or Christ) of the Old Testament,[12] while Islam regards Jesus as a major prophet, second in importance only to Muhammad.[13]
Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically,[f] and historians consider the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) to be the best sources for investigating the historical Jesus.[20][21][22][23] Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Galilean, Jewish rabbi[24] who preached his message orally,[25] was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate.[26] In the current mainstream view, Jesus was an apocalyptic preacher and the founder of a restoration movement within Judaism, although some prominent scholars argue that he was not apocalyptic.[21][27] After Jesus' death, his followers believed he was resurrected, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian church.[28] The widely accepted calendar era, abbreviated as "AD" or sometimes as "CE", is based on the birth of Jesus.
Christians believe that Jesus has a "unique significance" in the world.[29] Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, foundedthe Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return.[30] Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God, and will judge the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection,[31][32][33][34] an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology;[35] though some believe Jesus's role as savior has more existential orsocietal concerns than the afterlife,[36] and a few notable theologians have suggested that Jesus will bring about a universal reconciliation.[37] The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity. A few Christian groups reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.
In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.[38] To Muslims, Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was neither the son of God nor the victim of crucifixion. According to the Quran, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God. Judaism rejects the Christian and Islamic belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh.
[hide] * 1Etymology * 2Gospel Accounts * 2.1Canonical gospel accounts * 2.2Genealogy and nativity * 2.3Early life, family, and profession * 2.4Baptism and temptation * 2.5Public ministry * 2.6Disciples and followers * 2.7Teachings, preachings, and miracles * 2.8Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration * 2.9Final week: betrayal, arrest, trial, and death * 2.9.1Activities in Jerusalem * 2.9.2Last Supper * 2.9.3Agony in the Garden, betrayal and arrest * 2.9.4Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod and Pilate * 2.9.5Crucifixion and entombment * 2.10Resurrection and ascension * 3Historical views * 3.1Judea and Galilee in the 1st century * 3.2Sources * 3.3Chronology * 3.4Historicity of events * 3.4.1Family * 3.4.2Baptism * 3.4.3Ministry * 3.4.4Crucifixion * 3.4.5Resurrection * 3.5Portraits of Jesus * 3.6Language, ethnicity, and appearance * 3.7Christ myth theory * 4Perspectives * 4.1Christian views * 4.2Jewish views * 4.3Islamic views * 4.4Bahá'í views * 4.5Other views * 5Depictions * 6Associated relics * 7See also * 8Bibliography * 9Notes * 9.1Explanatory * 9.2Citations * 10External links
Further information: Jesus (name), Holy Name of Jesus, Name of God in Christianity, Yeshua (name), Yasu and Isa (name)
A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.[21] Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth"[g] (e.g., Mark 10:47). Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3), "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55), or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22). In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).
The name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous).[39] The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע‎ (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע‎ (Yehoshua), in English "Joshua".[40][41][42] The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus.[43] The first-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament,[44] refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς).[45] The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation".[46]

Isho or Eesho, theSyriac name of Jesus.
Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".[47] The word Christ is derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[39][48] which is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Meshiakh), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah".[49][50] Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ"—but originally it was a title.[51][52] The term "Christian" (meaning "one who owes allegiance to the person Christ" or simply "follower of Christ") has been in use since the first century.[53][54]
Gospel Accounts
Main article: Life of Jesus in the New Testament
See also: New Testament places associated with Jesus and Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Events in the | Life of Jesus according to the Gospels | | Early life[show] | Ministry[show] | Passion[show] | Resurrection[show] | In rest of the NT[show] | Portals: Christianity Bible Book:Life of Jesus | * v * t * e |
The four canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are the main sources for the biography of Jesus.[55][56] Other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles, which were probably written decades before the gospels, also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23–26.[57][58][59] Acts of the Apostles (10:37–38 and 19:4) refers to the early ministry of Jesus and its anticipation by John the Baptist.[60][61] Acts 1:1–11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus (also mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16) than the canonical gospels do.[62]
Some early Christian and Gnostic groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Peter, and theApocryphon of James, among many other apocryphal writings. Most scholars consider these much later and less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels.[63][64]
Canonical gospel accounts
See also: Gospel, Gospel harmony, Historical reliability of the Gospels and Internal consistency of the New Testament

A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of theGospel of Luke
The canonical gospels are four accounts, each written by a different author. The first to be written was the Gospel of Mark (written AD 60–75), followed by the Gospel of Matthew (AD 65–85), the Gospel of Luke (AD 65–95), and the Gospel of John (AD 75–100).[65] They often differ in content and in the ordering of events.[66]
Traditionally, Christians believe that the four gospels were written by four evangelists who were close to Jesus:[20] Mark was written by John Mark, an associate of Peter;[67] Matthew was written by one of Jesus' disciples;[20] Luke was written by a companion of Paul, someone mentioned in a few epistles;[20] and John was written by another of Jesus' disciples,[20]in fact part of an inner group of disciples, along with Peter and Jesus' brother James.[68]
Three of them, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view").[69][70][71] They are similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure.[69][70] Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John.[72] While the flow of some events (such as Jesus' baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion and interactions with the apostles) are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, incidents such as the transfiguration do not appear in John, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple.[73] Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels | Jesus in the Gospel of John | Begins with Jesus' baptism or birth to a virgin.[20] | Begins with creation, with no birth story.[20] | Baptized by John the Baptist.[20] | Baptism presupposed but not mentioned.[20] | Teaches in parables and aphorisms.[20] | Teaches in long, involved discourses.[20] | Teaches primarily about the Kingdom of God, little about himself.[20] | Teaches primarily and extensively about himself.[20] | Speaks up for the poor and oppressed.[20] | Says little to nothing about the poor or oppressed.[20] | Public ministry lasts one year.[20] | Public ministry lasts three years.[20] | Cleansing the Temple occurs late.[20] | Cleansing the Temple is early.[20] | Jesus ushers in a new covenant with a last supper.[20] | Jesus washes the disciples' feet.[20] |
Most scholars agree, following what is known as the "Marcan hypothesis",[74] that the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source when writing their gospels. Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark. To explain this, many scholars believe that in addition to Mark, another source (commonly called the "Q source") was used by the two authors.[75]
According to a broad scholarly consensus, the Synoptic Gospels, and not John, are the primary sources of historical information about Jesus.[76][77][21] However, not everything contained in the New Testament gospels is considered to be historically reliable.[78] Elements whose historical authenticity is disputed include the Nativity, the Massacre of the Innocents, the Resurrection, the Ascension, some of Jesus' miracles, and the Sanhedrin trial, among others.[79][80][81] Views on the gospels range from their being inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus[82] to their providing little historical information about his life beyond the basics.[83][84]
The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. In Mark, Jesus is the Son of God whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom.[67] He is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man.[85] This short gospel records few of Jesus' words or teachings.[67] The Gospel of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and he is the Lord of the Church.[86] He is the kingly Messiah, referred to repeatedly as "king" and "Son of David."[85] A noteworthy feature of this gospel are the five discourses, collections of teachings on particular themes, including the Sermon on the Mount.[86] Luke presents Jesus as the divine-human savior who shows compassion to the needy.[87] He is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost.[85] This gospel includes Jesus' most beloved parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son.[87]
The Synoptics and John agree on the main outline of Jesus' life.[88] John the Baptist precedes Jesus, their ministries overlap, and John witnesses to Jesus' identity.[88] Jesus teaches and performs miracles, at least partly in Galilee.[88] He then visits Jerusalem, where the leaders have him crucified, and he is buried.[88] After his tomb is found empty on Sunday, the risen Jesus presents himself to his followers.[88]
The prologue to the Gospel of John identifies Jesus as an incarnation of the divine Word (Logos).[89] As the Word, Jesus was eternally present with God, active in all creation, and the source of humanity's moral and spiritual nature.[89] With this prologue, the evangelist establishes that Jesus is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be. He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word.[90] In the Gospel of John, Jesus reveals his divine role publicly. Here his is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more.[85]
In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age.[91] As stated in John 21:25, the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus.[92] The accounts were primarily written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity, with timelines as a secondary consideration.[93] One manifestation of the gospels as theological documents rather than historical chronicles is that they devote about one third of their text to just seven days, namely the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem, referred to as the Passion.[94] Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus.[78][91][93]
Genealogy and nativity
Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus and Nativity of Jesus

Adoration of the Shepherds byGerard van Honthorst, 1622.
Matthew and Luke each offer a genealogy of Jesus. Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David. Luke traces Jesus' ancestry through Adam to God.[95]
Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' nativity (or birth), especially that Jesus was born of a virgin in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy. Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph.[96][97][98] Both accounts state that Jesus was born to Joseph and Mary, his betrothed, in Bethlehem, and both support the doctrine of the virgin birth, according to which Jesus was miraculously conceived by the Holy Spirit in Mary's womb when she was still a virgin.[99][100][101]
In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant (Matthew 1:19–20), but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit.[102] In Matthew 2:1–12, wise men or Magi from the East bring gifts to the young Jesus as the King of the Jews. Herod hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murders of male infants in Bethlehem. But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt—later to return and settle in Nazareth.[102][103][104]
In Luke 1:31–38 Mary learns from the angel Gabriel that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus through the action of the Holy Spirit.[97][99] When Mary is due to give birth, she and Joseph travel from Nazareth to Joseph's ancestral home in Bethlehem to register in the census ordered by Caesar Augustus. While there Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger (Luke 2:1–7). An angel announces the birth to some shepherds, who go to Bethlehem to see Jesus, and subsequently spread the news abroad (Luke 2:8–20). After the presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Joseph, Mary and Jesus return to Nazareth.[97][99]
Early life, family, and profession
Main article: Child Jesus
See also: Return of the family of Jesus to Nazareth and Unknown years of Jesus
12-year-old Jesus found in the temple depicted by James Tissot
Jesus' childhood home is identified in the gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in Galilee where he lived with his family. Although Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, no mention is made of him thereafter.[105] His other family members—his mother, Mary, his brothers James, Joses (or Joseph), Judas and Simon and his unnamed sisters—are mentioned in the gospels and other sources.[106][107]
In Mark, Jesus comes into conflict with his neighbors and family.[108] Jesus' mother and brothers come to get him (3:31–35) because people are saying that he's crazy (3:21). Jesus responds that his followers are his true family. In John, Mary follows Jesus to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being (19:25–27).
Jesus is called a τέκτων (tekton) in Mark 6:3, traditionally understood as carpenter but could cover makers of objects in various materials, including builders.[109][110] The gospels indicate that Jesus could read, paraphrase, and debate scripture, but this does not imply that he received formal scribal training.[111]
Baptism and temptation
Main articles: Baptism of Jesus and Temptation of Christ

Trevisani's depiction of thebaptism of Jesus, with theHoly Spirit descending from Heaven as a dove
The Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.[112][113][114] They show John preaching penance and repentance for the remission of sins and encouraging the giving of alms to the poor (Luke 3:11) as he baptized people in the area of the River Jordan around Perea and foretells (Luke 3:16) the arrival of someone "more powerful" than he.[115][116] Later, Jesus identifies John as Elijah (Mark 9:13-14, Matthew 11:14), the prophet who was expected to arrive before the "great and terrible day of the Lord" (Malachi 4:5). Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:17).
In Matthew 3:14, upon meeting Jesus, the Baptist says "I need to be baptized by you", but Jesus persuades John to baptize him nonetheless.[117] After he does so and Jesus emerges from the water, the sky opens and a voice from Heaven states, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased" (Matthew 3:17). The Holy Spirit then descends upon Jesus as a dove.[115][116][117] This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration.[118][119] In Luke, the Holy Spirit descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus is praying (Luke 3:21-22).
After the baptism, the Synoptic Gospels describe the temptation of Christ, in which Jesus resisted temptations from the devil while fasting for forty days and nights in the Judaean Desert.[120][121] Jesus' baptism and temptation serve as preparation for his public ministry.[122]
The Gospel of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation.[123] Here, John the Baptist testifies that he saw the Spirit descend on Jesus (John 1:32).[116][124] John publicly proclaims Jesus as the sacrificial Lamb of God, and some of John's followers become disciples of Jesus.[77] In this Gospel, John denies that he is Elijah (John 1:21).
Public ministry
Main article: Ministry of Jesus

A 19th-century painting depicting the Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch
The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry. The first takes place north of Judea in Galilee, where Jesus conducts a successful ministry; and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem. Notably, Jesus forbids those who recognize his identity to speak of it, including people he heals and demons he exorcises (see Messianic Secret).[125]
John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem rather than in Galilee. In this Gospel, Jesus' divine identity is publicly proclaimed and immediately recognized.[90]
Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the Judaean Desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan. Jesus preaches around Galilee, and in Matthew 4:18–20, his first disciples, who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him.[114][126] This period includes the Sermon on the Mount, one of Jesus' major discourses,[126][127] as well as the calming of the storm, the feeding of the 5,000, walking on water and a number of other miracles and parables.[128] It ends with the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration.[129][130]
As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan (John 10:40–42).[131][132] The final ministry in Jerusalem begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into the city on Palm Sunday.[133] In the Synoptic Gospels, during that week Jesus drives the money changers from the Temple and Judas bargains to betray him. This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse.[112][133][134]
Disciples and followers
Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus appoints twelve apostles. In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so (Matthew 4:18–22, Mark 1:16–20). In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist. The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God; the two hear this and follow Jesus.[135][136] In addition to the Twelve Apostles, the opening of the passage of the Sermon on the Plain identifies a much larger group of people as disciples (Luke 6:17). Also, in Luke 10:1–16 Jesus sends seventy or seventy-two of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit. They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming.[137]
In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse. They fail to understand Jesus' miracles (Mark 4:35–41, 6:52), his parables (Mark 4:13), or what "rising from the dead" would mean (Mark 9:9–10). When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him (see below).[125]
Teachings, preachings, and miracles
Main articles: Sermon on the Mount, Parables of Jesus and Miracles of Jesus
See also: Sermon on the Plain, Five Discourses of Matthew, Farewell Discourse and Olivet Discourse

"Christ and the Rich Young Ruler" by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889
In the Synoptics, Jesus teaches extensively, often in parables, about the Kingdom of God (or, in Matthew, the Kingdom of Heaven).[138] The Kingdom is described as both imminent (e.g., Mark 1:15) [139] and already present in the ministry of Jesus: "You won't be able to say, 'Here it is!' or 'It's over there!' For the Kingdom of God is within you."(Luke 17:21) [140] Matthew’s summary of Jesus’ ministry includes healing sickness and disease, as well as performing exorcisms: “And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people” (Matt. 4:23) [138] Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message, provided they become as children and give up riches (Mark 10:13–27).[138]
Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God.[21] Jesus tells his followers to adhere strictly to Jewish law, although he is perceived by some to have broken the law himself, for example regarding the Sabbath.[21] When asked what the greatest commandment is, Jesus replies: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind ... And a second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (Matthew 22:37–39). Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving one's enemies, refraining from hatred and lust, and turning the other cheek (Matthew 5:21–44).[141]
John's Gospel presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. John the Baptist, for example, states in John 3:34: "He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure." In John 7:16 Jesus says, "My teaching is not mine but his who sent me." He asserts the same thing in John 14:10: "Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works."[142][143]

Jesus cleansing a leper – medieval mosaic from theMonreale Cathedral
In the gospels, the approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings.[142][144] The parables appear within longer sermons and at other places in the narrative.[145]They often contain symbolism, and usually relate the physical world to the spiritual.[146][147] Common themes in these tales include the kindness and generosity of God and the perils of transgression.[148] Some of his parables, such as the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11–32), are relatively simple, while others, such as the Growing Seed (Mark 4:26–29), are more abstruse.[149]
In the gospel accounts, Jesus devotes a large portion of his ministry performing miracles, especially healings.[150] The miracles can be classified into two main categories: healing miracles and nature miracles.[151] The healing miracles include cures for physical ailments, exorcisms, and resurrections of the dead.[152] The nature miracles show Jesus' power over nature, and include turning water into wine, walking on water, and calming a storm, among others. Jesus states that his miracles are from a divine source. When Jesus' opponents accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" (Matthew 12:28) or "finger of God" (Luke 11:20).[21][153]
In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity.[154][155] However, in the Synoptics, when asked to give miraculous signs to prove his authority, Jesus refuses.[154] Also, in the Synoptic Gospels, the crowds regularly respond to Jesus' miracles with awe and press on him to heal their sick. In John's Gospel, Jesus is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith.[156] One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the gospel accounts is that he performed them freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment.[157] The gospel episodes that include descriptions of the miracles of Jesus also often include teachings, and the miracles themselves involve an element of teaching.[158][159] Many of the miracles teach the importance of faith. In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter, for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith.[160][161]
Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration
Main articles: Confession of Peter and Transfiguration of Jesus

The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch
At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels, two related episodes mark a turning point in the narrative: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus.[130][162] These events mark the beginnings of the gradual disclosure of the identity of Jesus to his disciples and his prediction of his own suffering and death.[118][119][130]
In his Confession, Peter tells Jesus, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God."[163][164][165] Jesus affirms that Peter's confession is divinely revealed truth.[166][167]
In the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1–9, Mark 9:2–8, and Luke 9:28–36),[118][119][130] Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white."[168] A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud says, "This is my Son, the Beloved; with him I am well pleased; listen to him" (Matthew 17:1–9).[118] In 2 Peter1:16-18, Peter himself affirms that he witnessed Jesus' Transfiguration, stating that the apostolic tradition is based on eyewitness testimony.[169]
The Transfiguration is one of the important events that the Gospel of John omits.[170]
Final week: betrayal, arrest, trial, and death
Main article: Passion Week
The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often called Passion Week) occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels,[94] starting with Jesus' Triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with hisCrucifixion.[112][133]
Activities in Jerusalem
Main articles: Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Cleansing of the Temple and Bargain of Judas

A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897
In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee.[133] Jesus rides a young donkey into Jerusalem, reflecting an oracle from the Book of Zechariah in which the Jews' humble king enters Jerusalem this way (Zechariah 9:9).[67] People along the way lay cloaks and small branches of trees (known as palm fronds) in front of him and sing part of Psalm 118:25–26.[171][172][173]
Jesus next expels the money changers from the Temple, accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. Jesus then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation," and unendurable tribulations (Mark 13:1–23). The mysterious "Son of Man," he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth (Mark 13:24–27). Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers (Mark 13:28–32).[125] In John, the Cleansing of the Temple occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry instead of the end John 2:13–16.[90]
Also in the Synoptics, Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority, and he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites.[171][173] Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, secretly strikes a bargain with the Jewish elder, agreeing to betray Jesus to them for 30 silver coins.[174][175]
The Gospel of John recounts of two other feasts in which Jesus taught in Jerusalem before the Passion Week (John 7:1–10:42).[108] He returns near Jerusalem, in Bethany, when he raises Lazarus from the dead, which increases the tension between him and the authorities.[133] The authorities then conspire to kill him (John 11).[108] Raising Lazarus is Jesus' most potent sign yet.[90] In Bethany, Mary of Bethany anoints Jesus' feet, foreshadowing his entombment.[176] Jesus then makes his Messianic entry into Jerusalem.[108] The cheering crowds greeting Jesus as he enters Jerusalem add to the animosity between him and the establishment.[133] In John, Jesus has already cleansed the Temple during an earlier Passover visit to Jerusalem. John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples.[108]
Last Supper
Main article: Last Supper
See also: Jesus predicts his betrayal, Denial of Peter and Last Supper in Christian art

The Last Supper, depicted in this 16th-century painting by Juan de Juanes
The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his 12 apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians (11:23–26) also refers to it.[58][59][177] During the meal, Jesus predicts that one of his apostles will betray him.[178] Despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray him, Jesus reiterates that the betrayer would be one of those present.Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor.[58][59][178]
In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you". He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:19–20).[58][179] The Christian sacrament or ordinance of the Eucharist is based on these events.[180] Although the Gospel of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:22–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper.[181]
In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning.[182][183] In Luke and John, the prediction is made during the Supper (Luke 22:34, John 22:34). In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him (Matthew 26:31–34, Mark 14:27–30).[184] The Gospel of John provides the only account of Jesus washing his disciples' feet before the meal.[103] John also includes a long sermon by Jesus, preparing his disciples (now without Judas) for his departure. Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.[185][186]

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