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Karl Marx


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Carleton University
Department of Political Science

Winter 2016

PSCI 3600B
International Institutions
Thursdays - 11:35am to 2:25pm
Please confirm location on Carleton Central
Office hours:

James Milner
Loeb A629
Thursdays, 3-4pm and Fridays, 10-11am (or by appointment)
(613) 520-2600 x2211

Please use your Carleton e-mail address or the e-mail function of cuLearn to send an email to the instructor or TA and always include the course code in the subject line.
First class:
Last class:

7 January 2016
7 April 2016


No class meeting on 18 February 2016 due to Reading Week

cuLearn: On-line components of this course will be managed through cuLearn. Please visit the cuLearn site at least once a week to receive the most current information pertaining to the scheduling of the course and required readings.
Course objectives:
International institutions have come to play an increasingly important role in global politics in the last century. Arguably the most prominent of these institutions is the United Nations (UN).
Established in 1945 and in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, the UN’s Charter set out the rights and obligations of Member States, and pledged to: “save succeeding generations from the scourges of war”; “reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights”; promote
“respect for the obligations arising from treaties”; and “promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom”.
A brief review of the state of the international system 70 years later, however, has led many to conclude that the UN is incapable of realizing its Charter ideals, and that the organization itself, and the very promise of global governance, is irrelevant. Indeed, challenges in peace and security, development and human rights have repeatedly underlined the challenges of global governance and the furtherance of a global common good. Given these shortcomings, do we still need the UN?
The purpose of this course is to critically engage with the notion of global governance and the functioning of international institutions through an applied consideration of the origins, development and functioning of the UN system. While the UN system engages with a broad range of global and regional issues, this course will engage with a select number of areas linked to the core objectives of the UN Charter. The course will draw on the global governance literature to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the challenge of international cooperation and the tensions between the interests of states and the ideals of a common good.
Through a series of lectures, readings, discussions and presentations, this course will examine the constraints of the UN in today’s international system, while considering its future role.

Course outline:
The course is divided into two sections:
Section 1 will provide a historical, conceptual and structural foundation for our study of the UN system and international institutions more generally. We will begin with a consideration of the
UN’s ancestors and the historical circumstances within which the UN was established. We will then consider different conceptual approaches to the study of international organizations and how these perspectives can be used to focus our examination of the UN system. The section will then delve into the murky world of the UN system to outline the complex interaction between its various elements and the challenges of management and accountability of such a system, before outlining the challenges faced by the system today. This section will conclude by considering the challenges associated with implementing global decisions in local contexts.
Section 2 will build from this background to consider five of the most prominent issues on the
UN’s agenda today: security, development, trade, the environment, and human rights and humanitarian action. We will examine the background and history of each issue before considering how the UN is able and unable to engage with these issues today. Each theme will then be explored in more detail through case studies presented by students on examples of the
UN’s efforts to promote global standards in diverse local contexts.
Reflection papers:
Reflection paper 1 (5% - due on 21 or 28 January)
Reflection paper 2 (5% - due between weeks 8 and 12)
Mid-term (25 February):


Individual research:
Essay proposal (5% - due 11 February)
Group presentation (10% - according to theme between weeks 8 and 12)
Essay (30% - due 7 April)


As per early feedback guidelines, the first reflection paper must be submitted on or before 28
January 2016. Critiques will be returned to students the following week.
Late penalties: Reflection papers submitted after the start of class will receive a mark of 0%. All other assignments submitted after the due date will be penalized by 5% of the 100% assignment grade per 24 hours. Exceptions to this policy will only be made for academic accommodations, as outlined below, or for medical or personal emergencies substantiated by official documentation.
Late papers must be submitted via the drop box in the Department of Political Science, as outlined below. The departmental drop box cut off time is 4pm. Any assignments submitted after 4pm will be date stamped for the following weekday.
There is no final exam for this course. Instead, students are required to actively engage in reading, writing and participation throughout the term through four elements:

Reflection papers: Students are required to write two reflection papers over the course of the term. The first is due on or before 28 January. The second should be submitted between weeks
8 and 12 of the course but not on the week you are giving your presentation. Reflection papers should be 1-2 pages long, single-spaced and referenced. Reflection papers should summarise the key arguments of the readings, raise questions about the readings, and relate them to a current event in global politics. Critiques must be submitted at the start of class.
These requirements will be discussed in more detail in class on 14 January.
Mid-term: Students will be required to write a 2-hour mid-term during class on 25 February. The mid-term will cover material from the first half of the course, and will include some multiplechoice, short answer and essay answers. The structure and format of the mid-term will be discussed in class on 11 February.
Individual research: Within the first two weeks of the course, every student will identify within which of the five thematic areas of the course they would like to focus their individual research.
These areas are:
Trade and Global Finance
The Environment and Climate Change
Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues
Within these thematic areas of focus, students will be required to work on a case study of a UN agency or program working in a particular context, and the factors that contributed to the ability or inability of that agency to fulfil its mandate in that context. For example, if a student is interested in peacekeeping, she may want to consider the factors that explain the ability or inability of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations from fulfilling its mandate in the
Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). If a student is interested in the question of refugees, he may examine the factors that explain the ability or inability of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to fulfil its mandate for Syrian refugees in Lebanon.
The process of selecting a case study will be discussed in class on 28 January.
Students will then be required to submit a 2 to 4 page, single spaced, essay proposal, inclusive of a bibliography, on their selected issue at the start of class on 11 February. Starting on 3
March, each student will be required to contribute their case study to a group presentation in the second half of the class that examines one of the five core thematic areas of the course.
Requirements of the presentations will be discussed in more detail at the start of the course.
Class time will be devoted to the group aspects of the presentations.
Building from the proposal and the presentation, each student will be required to write a 12 to 15 page final essay. The paper should be double-spaced and fully referenced. The paper is due at the start of class on 7 April.
Students should begin their research by consulting the “Further Reading” section of Jussi
Hanhimäki (2008). The United Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University
Press. (Required text for the course, see below)


Students are also strongly encouraged to consult: Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws (eds.), The
Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. (On reserve in the Carleton Library)
Participation: 15% of the final grade is for participation. Students are expected not only to attend class meetings, but engage in class discussion, small group discussions, and in response to the presentations in the second half of the course. To support this, students are expected to follow international news.
To this end, students may wish to subscribe to the daily news updates from the BBC
(, Al-Jazeera English ( or a similar news service. The role of Teaching Assistant (TA):
The Teaching Assistant (TA) will play an important role throughout the course. The TA will be primarily responsible for receiving and grading essay proposals and final essays, in addition to a portion of the mid-terms. The instructor will be primarily responsible for running the course, delivering the course material and facilitating class discussions, grading reflection papers, and sharing responsibility with the TA for grading a portion of the mid-terms and some of the final essays. The instructor is also available to students to discuss their ideas for their essays.
Together, the TA and the instructor form the teaching team for this course.
Readings and required texts:
Several readings for this course are available electronically through the Carleton University
Library system at no cost to the student.
On-line journals and e-books may be accessed through the Carleton Library portal: Other readings will be available through the Ares function in cuLearn.
There are, however, two required texts for this class:
Kelly-Kate Pease (2012). International Organizations, 5th edition, Toronto: Pearson.
Note: There are many used copies of this text in circulation, but be sure to use the 5th edition.
Jussi Hanhimäki (2008). The United Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
These books will be available for purchase from the University Bookstore and for 2-hour loan from the Reserve Collection in the Library.
Provisional outline of course topics:
Below is a tentative weekly breakdown of the course and core readings. Please consult cuLearn regularly for updates to this list of weekly topics and readings, in addition to information about the course.


Week 1
7 January 2016: Introduction: The challenge of international institutions and global governance
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Introduction”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: Chapter
1 (p. 1-14)
Week 2
14 January 2016: The history and evolution of international institutions
Skills session: How to write a reflection paper
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “International Organizations: Nuts and Bolts”, International
Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: Chapter 2 (p. 15-42)
MacKenzie, David (2010). “The League of Nations”, A World Beyond Borders: An Introduction to the History of International Organizations, Toronto: University of Toronto Press: Chapter 2 (p.
9-32) (available on Ares via cuLearn)
Students will be arranged into thematic groups and have their first discussion topic based on short supplementary reading (to be posted on cuLearn)
Week 3
21 January 2016: The study of international institutions and global governance
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Mainstream theories”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson:
Chapter 3 (p. 43-75)
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Critical Theories and Approaches”, International Organizations,
Toronto: Pearson: Chapter 4 (p. 76-110)
Discussion topic based on short supplementary reading (to be posted on cuLearn)
Week 4
28 January 2016: The case of the United Nations: Functions, structures and reform
Skills workshop: How to pick a case study and write an essay proposal
Due: Deadline for reflection paper 1
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “The best hope of mankind? A brief history of the UN”, The United
Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 1 (p. 8-25)
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “An impossible hybrid: the structure of the United Nations”, The United
Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 2 (p. 26-49)
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “Reform and challenges: the future of the United Nations”, The United
Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 7 (p. 135-148)
Discussion topic based on short supplementary reading (to be posted on cuLearn)

Week 5
4 February 2016: From the global to the local: The challenge of implementation
Betts, Alexander and Phil Orchard (2014). “Introduction: The Normative InstitutionalizationImplementation Gap” in Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard (eds.) Implementation and World
Politics: How International Norms Change Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 1
(p. 1-28) (available on Ares via cuLearn)
Betts, Alexander (2014). “From Persecution to Deprivation: How Refugee Norms Adapt at
Implementation” in Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard (eds.) Implementation and World Politics:
How International Norms Change Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 2 (p. 2949) (available on Ares via cuLearn)
Discussion topic based on short supplementary reading (to be posted on cuLearn)
Week 6
11 February 2016: Case studies and the study of international institutions
Due: Essay proposal
Gerring, John (2004). “What is a Case Study and What is it Good For?” American Political
Science Review 98:2 (May): p. 341-54 (available through electronic journals via the Carleton
Library portal).
Milner, James (2014). “Can Global Refugee Policy Leverage Durable Solutions? Lessons from
Tanzania’s Naturalization of Burundian Refugees”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 27, no. 4: p.
553-573 (available through electronic journals via the Carleton Library portal).
Time for group work on presentations
Reading Week:

No class on 18 February 2016

Week 7
25 February 2016: In-class mid-term (2 hours: will start at 12h00)
Week 8
3 March 2016: Security
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Security”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: Chapter 5
(p. 111-156)
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “Facing wars, confronting threats: the UN Security Council in action”,
The United Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 3 (p.
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “Peacekeeping to peacebuilding”, The United Nations: A Very Short
Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 4 (p. 71-90)
Group presentations in second half of class

Week 9
10 March 2016: Development
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Development”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson:
Chapter 7 (p. 185-226)
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “Economic development to human development”, The United Nations:
A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 5 (p. 91-110)
Group presentations in second half of class
Week 10
17 March 2016: Trade and Global Finance
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Trade”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: Chapter 6 (p.
Ngaire Woods, “The United States and the International Financial Institutions: Power and influence within the World Bank and IMF”, in Rosemary Foote, Neil MacFarlane and Michael
Mastanduno (eds.), US Hegemony and International Organizations, Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2003 (available as an e-book in the Carleton Library).
Group presentations in second half of class
Week 11
24 March 2016: Environment and Climate Change
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “The Environment”, International Organizations, Toronto: Pearson:
Chapter 8 (p. 227-262)
Michele Betsill and Elisabeth Corell, “NGO Influence in International Environmental
Negotiations: A Framework for Analysis”, Global Environmental Politics, Vol. 1, no. 4, November
2001 (available through electronic journals).
Group presentations in second half of class
Week 12
31 March 2016: Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues”, International
Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: Chapter 9 (p. 263-301)
Hanhimäki, Jussi (2008). “Rights and Responsibilities: human rights to human security”, The
United Nations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press: Chapter 6 (p. 111134)
Group presentations in second half of class

Week 13
7 April 2016: The Future of Global Governance: A career path for you?
Due: Essay
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Global Governance in 2025”, International Organizations, Toronto:
Pearson: Chapter 10 (p. 302-315)
Pease, Kelly-Kate (2012). “Finding Employment in International Organizations”, International
Organizations, Toronto: Pearson: p. 316-318
Academic Accommodations
The Paul Menton Centre for Students with Disabilities (PMC) provides services to students with
Learning Disabilities (LD), psychiatric/mental health disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), chronic medical conditions, and impairments in mobility, hearing, and vision. If you have a disability requiring academic accommodations in this course, please contact PMC at 613-520-6608 or for a formal evaluation. If you are already registered with the PMC, contact your PMC coordinator to send me your Letter of Accommodation at the beginning of the term, and no later than two weeks before the first in-class scheduled test or exam requiring accommodation (if applicable).
After requesting accommodation from PMC, meet with me to ensure accommodation arrangements are made. Please consult the PMC website for the deadline to request accommodations for the formally-scheduled exam (if applicable).
For Religious Observance: Students requesting accommodation for religious observances should apply in writing to their instructor for alternate dates and/or means of satisfying academic requirements. Such requests should be made during the first two weeks of class, or as soon as possible after the need for accommodation is known to exist, but no later than two weeks before the compulsory academic event. Accommodation is to be worked out directly and on an individual basis between the student and the instructor(s) involved. Instructors will make accommodations in a way that avoids academic disadvantage to the student. Instructors and students may contact an Equity Services Advisor for assistance (
For Pregnancy: Pregnant students requiring academic accommodations are encouraged to contact an Equity Advisor in Equity Services to complete a letter of accommodation. Then, make an appointment to discuss your needs with the instructor at least two weeks prior to the first academic event in which it is anticipated the accommodation will be required.
Plagiarism: The University Senate defines plagiarism as “presenting, whether intentional or not, the ideas, expression of ideas or work of others as one’s own.” This can include: reproducing or paraphrasing portions of someone else’s published or unpublished material, regardless of the source, and presenting these as one’s own without proper citation or reference to the original source; submitting a take-home examination, essay, laboratory report or other assignment written, in whole or in part, by someone else; using ideas or direct, verbatim quotations, or paraphrased material, concepts, or ideas without appropriate acknowledgment in any academic assignment;

using another’s data or research findings; failing to acknowledge sources through the use of proper citations when using another’s works and/or failing to use quotation marks; handing in "substantially the same piece of work for academic credit more than once without prior written permission of the course instructor in which the submission occurs.
Plagiarism is a serious offence which cannot be resolved directly with the course’s instructor.
The Associate Deans of the Faculty conduct a rigorous investigation, including an interview with the student, when an instructor suspects a piece of work has been plagiarized. Penalties are not trivial. They may include a mark of zero for the plagiarized work or a final grade of "F" for the course. Student or professor materials created for this course (including presentations and posted notes, labs, case studies, assignments and exams) remain the intellectual property of the author(s). They are intended for personal use and may not be reproduced or redistributed without prior written consent of the author(s).
Submission and Return of Term Work: Papers must be submitted directly to the instructor according to the instructions in the course outline and will not be date-stamped in the departmental office. Late assignments may be submitted to the drop box in the corridor outside
B640 Loeb. Assignments will be retrieved every business day at 4 p.m., stamped with that day's date, and then distributed to the instructor. For essays not returned in class please attach a stamped, self-addressed envelope if you wish to have your assignment returned by mail.
Final exams are intended solely for the purpose of evaluation and will not be returned.
Grading: Standing in a course is determined by the course instructor, subject to the approval of the faculty Dean. Final standing in courses will be shown by alphabetical grades. The system of grades used, with corresponding grade points is:

Letter grade

12-point scale


Letter grade

12-point scale

Approval of final grades: Standing in a course is determined by the course instructor subject to the approval of the Faculty Dean. This means that grades submitted by an instructor may be subject to revision. No grades are final until they have been approved by the Dean.
Carleton E-mail Accounts: All email communication to students from the Department of
Political Science will be via official Carleton university e-mail accounts and/or cuLearn. As important course and University information is distributed this way, it is the student’s responsibility to monitor their Carleton and cuLearn accounts.
Carleton Political Science Society: The Carleton Political Science Society (CPSS) has made its mission to provide a social environment for politically inclined students and faculty. Holding social events, debates, and panel discussions, CPSS aims to involve all political science students at Carleton University. Our mandate is to arrange social and academic activities in

order to instill a sense of belonging within the Department and the larger University community.
Members can benefit through numerous opportunities which will complement both academic and social life at Carleton University. To find out more, visit or come to our office in Loeb D688.
Official Course Outline: The course outline posted to the Political Science website is the official course outline.


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Karl Marx Philosophy

...How does Karl Marx philosophy enrich our understanding of Theory of Knowledge? The philosopher we chose for our project is Karl Marx. Karl Marx was a revolutionary socialist who believed in equality amongst people and his views on politics, economy and society, also known as Marxism, were the base of communism in the 20th century. Karl Marx believed that “democracy” or “capitalism” was just a “dictatorship of the bourgeois” because the wealthier class would take advantage of their position to their own benefit. Well he was in the most part right because in modern day democracy the middle and high class are the ones who have the control in most positions inside the government, and some of the middle class people that enter politics and obtain a seat in the government usually take advantage and get wealthier through corruption and through many shameless actions. The curious thing is that Karl Marx was born into a wealthy middle class family but still he was the base of most communist beliefs, one of them being the resentment against the wealthy class who took advantage of them. Theory of Knowledge is basically looking at the different was of learning new things in a different perspective and also answering existential questions in not only one way but from different points of view which stretch much more than our knowledge and bias. Karl Marx being raised within a rich background never became interested in poor people’s problems but instead searched for equality amongst...

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Karl Marx and Marxism

...Karl Marx and Marxism Karl Marx set the wheels of modern Communism and Socialism in motion with his writings in the late nineteenth century. In collaboration with his friend, Heinrich Engels, he produced the The Communist Manifesto, written in 1848. Many failed countries' political and socio-economic structures have been based on Marx's theories, for example the USSR, East Germany etc. Many people believe that Marxism is not applicable to today's society, as Karl Marx put forward his ideas not anticipating the type of society we have today. The welfare state system has effectively nullified Marx's arguments, and made them irrelevant. Karl Marx, born on May 5, 1818, died on March 14, 1883, was a German economist, philosopher and revolutionist whose writings form the basis of the body of ideas known as Marxism. In his youth he was deeply affected by the philosophy of G.W.F. Hegel, and joined a rebel group called the Young Hegelians, which contributed ideas towards the movement against organized religion and the Prussian Autocracy. Later on in life, he was influenced by the writings of Ludwig Feuerbach, who wrote that God was invented by humans as a projection of their own ideals, and that in creating such a 'perfect' being, in contrast to themselves, mankind lowered themselves to lowly, evil creatures who needed guidance from the church and government. He said that, in creating God in their own image, humans had 'alienated themselves from themselves.' ...

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Karl Marx Essay

...a communist? No, a citizen of the United States of America can’t be a communist. But Karl Marx was a communist, or at least he founded some of the main principles of communism, and Karl Marx firmly believed in some of the things that make this country what it is, like equality. But, Karl Marx was still a great political philosopher of his time, and a humanitarian. To really understand the principles of Marx’s teachings one would have to study him, or at least read an essay that describes Marx’s life. There are three key elements to understanding Marx they are his childhood and education, the people that had the greatest influence on him, and his writings. At 2:00 A.M. of May 5, 1818, the life of the greatest political philosopher began. He was born in the Rhine province of Prussia, and was born to Henriette and Hirschel Marx (Payne 17). Hirschel Marx was a rich lawyer, and he was also a Jew (World Book Encyclopedia 236M). On August 26, 1824 Karl and his whole family were baptized, so his family turned away from its traditional Jewish teachings to Protestant Christianity (Payne 21). At the age of twelve Karl entered the Friedrich Wilhiem Gymnasium. He stayed there for five years excelling in foreign languages, but not really caring about mathematics and history (Payne 23). Karl’s father decided that Karl would attend the University of Bonn to study law (World Book Encyclopedia 236M). Karl became an active member of “poetry clubs,” while studying at the University. The poetry...

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...KARL MARX (Reflection Paper) For me he was not that concerned about the feelings of those individuals with whom he came in contact.  Karl Marx believed that a perfect society is one governed by communism and where religion was just a thing of the past. His theory stems from the negative qualities of capitalism where it sometimes seems as though the rich feeds off the hardship of the poor and his belief that religion’s chief purpose is to provide reasons for keeping things in society just the way the oppressors like them . No thinker in the 19th-century has perhaps had so direct, deliberate and powerful influence upon mankind as Karl Marx. The strength of his influence was unique. He completed the bulk of his work between 1844 and 1883, a period of democratic nationalism, trade unionism and revolution. Great popular leaders and political martyrs appeared upon the historical stage, their words stirring the enthusiasm of their audiences. Indeed, within Marx's lifetime, a new revolutionary tradition was born, and Marx's name would be forever associated with that tradition. Yet Marx was not a popular writer or orator. Like most Victorians, Marx wrote extensively. The Grundrisse, a work not published in Russian until 1941, or in English until 1973, is really little more than a series of preliminary notes Marx made in preparation for his three volume masterpiece, Das Kapital. The Grundrisse is a 900 page notebook. The three volumes of Das Kapital weigh in at 2500 pages, and the...

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Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto

... in the modern representative State, exclusive political  sway…” – Karl Marx.      Karl Marx in the communist manifesto,  praises the Bourgeois for establishing a world­market,  which gave birth to immense development in commerce, navigation, communication and  expanding the industry.​  However, he also argues, that as the bourgeois continue to broaden the  22​ capital market, it pushes back every other class to a lesser decreed. ​ As the bourgeois developed,  so did their political power. The bourgeois exploits the proletariat as laborers, a mere commodity  to the means of production to further their own interests in establishing themselves as the  dominant power.    The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of production,  and thereby the relations of production, with them the whole relations of society​ 24.    Therefore, as the bourgeois try to maximize their profits through the mechanics of competition  and free trade, nations become interdependent on each other, and the proletariat is not only from  one country or region, but an international set of people. The labourers, are seen as a means of  production, and therefore to maximize profit (which is the key goal of capitalists), labours are are  exploited to a degree of unfair working conditions, low wages and ill­treatment as their  availability or supply is more than its demand. Karl Marx, further writes that the bourgeois  creating a world after its own image​Therefore, Marx delves into what we now know was ...

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Historical Materialism- Karl Marx

...The theory of Historic materialism by Karl Marx understands the history economically; the institutional changes like changes in social, political and legal institutions are being explained by changes in economic system over the period of time. There are three basic needs of human beings - Food, clothing and shelter. Humans satisfy these three basic needs by their own means. These needs are never changing but the means to produce, procure these needs change over the period of time. Human nature depends on their material needs and the way they produce these means. ‘It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness.’ For example: nature of beings of 21st century is very much different from the nature of humans existed in tribal and ancient times because the means which ancient people used to procure basic necessities were different from the processes used now a days. According to Marx, there exist two classes in the society: the owners and the non-owners of the means of production. Owners own all the means such as land, labour, etc. and form the strong minority which tends to dominate the majority, which consists labour and people from other lower sections of society. The majority by its political and monetary power supress majority forming the ruling class and they make all the religious, cultural and political rules in society. This conflicting situation gives rise to the ‘class struggle’...

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