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Osmosis
Introduction:
Tissues are made up of cells that have the same structure and function. In this experiment osmosis will be measured in a piece of tissue. Water potential can be determined by the changes in dimensions of the tissues when it is placed in solutions of different concentrations.

Research Question:
What is the effect of sucrose solution on potato cells

Hypothesis:
Osmosis will increase when the solutions are less concentrated with sucrose

Variables:
Dependant: Osmosis
Independent: Length

Materials:
12 large test tubes or specimen tubes with bungs, marker pen, potato chip cutter, scalpel, fine forceps, 3 watch glasses or petri dishes, ruler, 6 labeled beakers one containing 50cm^3 of distilled water and other four containing 50cm^3 of 0.2 mol dm^-3, 0.4 mol dm^-3, 0.6 mol dm^-3 and 0.8 mol dm^-3.

Method: 1- Using the potato chip cutter, cut 24 chips from the potato. Cut the chips into 5cm lengths using the scalpel. Be as accurate as possible. Place 4 chips into each of six, labeled test tubes, one test tube for each of the different sucrose solutions. Pour in enough of each respective solution to cover the potato tissue. Put a bung in each one of the test tubes and label this series “potato”. 2- Repeat the method using the apple fruit or turnip root, putting four chips of tissue 5cm long into each of the second series of test tubes. Label these tubes “apple” or “turnip”. 3- Leave the tubes for at least an hour 4- After at least one hour, drain off the liquid from each of the tubes in turn and measure the length of each chip of tissue. Once again, be as accurate as possible. 5- Record your results in a table and process your data to analyze any changes observed 6- What did you observe in the tissues placed in these solutions? 7- Discuss and criticize this investigation.

Results:

Solution | Original length(cm) | Length after test(cm) | Difference(cm) | 0.8 sucrose | 5 | 4 | -1 | 0.6 sucrose | 5 | 4.2 | -0.8 | 0.4 sucrose | 5 | 4.4 | -0.6 | 0.2 sucrose | 5 | 4.6 | -0.4 | Distilled Water | 4 | 4.2 | 0.2 |

Discussion:
Potato chips were inserted in beakers with different sucrose solutions, ranging from 0 to 0.8, this experiment showed that when the potato was in Distilled Water, water diffused into it via osmosis and the sucrose left the potato and diffused into the distilled water, since the sucrose concentration is higher in the potato and the water concentration is higher in the distilled water, but the opposite happened when a potato chip was inserted in a 0.8 sucrose solution, where the water diffused into the solution and the sucrose diffused into the potato, indicating that the water concentration is higher in the potato and the sucrose concentration is higher in the solution. The 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 solutions had the same results as the 0.8 solution but they were slight compared to it.

Evaluation:
Weakness: The length of the potato chip was hard to control and measure. There was not enough time to keep the potato in the solutions for 1 hour, and so the results were tougher to understand and make the experiment’s point understandable.

Ways of improvement: Be more accurate when cutting and measuring the potato chip.

Prepare an area in which the student is able to keep his beakers, and arrive after 1 hr to record the results.

References:
Lab Sheet given by the teacher
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tissue_%28biology%29

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