Free Essay

# Management

Submitted By Charan2794
Words 836
Pages 4
COSC 5313-01 Analysis of Algorithms
Instructor: Jing Zhang
Assignment #3 Due: 23:59:00, 04/06/2016

Name

:

sai kishen thentu

LUID

:

L20398443

Date

:

04/06/2016

1. Write pseudocode for RIGHT-ROTATE.
RIGHT-ROTATE (T, x)
Y = x.left
x.left = y.right

//set y
// turn y’s right subtree into x’s left

subtree if y.right != T.nil
y.right.p = x
y.p = x.p if x.p == T.nil
T.root = y elseif x == x.p.right
x.p.right = y else x.p.left = y
y.right = x
x.p = y

// link x’s parent to y

//put x on y’s right

2. Please show the red-black tree that results after TREE-INSERT is called on the tree shown below with:
1) Key 40. If the inserted node is colored red, is the resulting tree a red-black tree? What if it is colored black? (16 points)
2) Key 22. If the inserted node is colored red, is the resulting tree a red-black tree? What if it is colored black? (16 points)

(1)

If the node with key 40 is inserted and colored red, the red-black tree becomes: We can see that it violates following red-black tree property:
A red node in the red-black tree cannot have a red node as its child.
So the resulting tree is not a red-black tree.
If the node with key 40 is inserted and colored black, the red-black tree becomes: We can see that it violates following red-black tree property:
For each node, all paths from the node to descendent leaves contain the same number of black nodes (e.g. consider node with key 30).
So the resulting tree is not a red-black tree either.

(2)

If the node with key 22 is inserted and colored red, the red-black tree becomes: We can see that it satisfies all the properties of the red-black tree.

If the node with key 22 is inserted and colored black, the red-black tree becomes:

3. What is the largest possible number of internal nodes in a redblack tree with black-height k? What is the smallest possible number? (25 points)
The black height bh(x) is defined as number of black nodes on any path from node x to a leaf, not including x. The smallest possible number of internal nodes is 2^K -1, which occurs when every node is black. This is produced by a complete binary tree with k levels with all nodes black. This tree has 1 root at level 0, 2 internal nodes at level 1 so on. Adding up we get, total internal nodes =2^k - 1. The largest possible number of internal nodes is 2^2k - 1 which occurs when every other node in each path is a black node. This is produced by a complete binary tree which has alternating levels of black and red nodes. Since the black height is k, the height of the tree is 2k. Using similar calculations as before, we find that total number of internals nodes is
2^2k - 1

(1)
Please insert keys 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6, 9, 11 into an initially empty BST.
(2)
Please insert keys 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6, 9, 11 into an initially empty red-black tree.
(3)
Please compare the heights of BST and red-black tree and discuss the advantage(s) of red-black tree.
(1)

Inserting keys 1,2,3,4,7,6,9,11 into an initially empty BST.

1

1
1
2

2

3
1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

4

3

4

4

7

7
6

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

7

7
6

6

9

9

11
(2)
Inserting keys 1,2,3,4,7,6,9,11 into an initially empty red-black tree. 1
1
2
3

1

2

2

2

2

3

1

3

1

3

1

4

4

4

2

2

2
7

4

1
3

4

1
7

7

3
6

4

1

7

3
6

6

9

6

7

3
9

6

11

4

7

2

1

4

1

7

3

7

3

4

1

4

1

2

2

2

3

6

9

11

The final Red-Black Tree.
(3)

The height of BST is 6, whereas the height of red-black tree is 3.

 Red-black trees are self-balancing so these operations are guaranteed to be O(log(n)); a simple binary search tree, on the other hand, could potentially become unbalanced, degrading to
O(n) performance for Insert, Delete, and Get.
 Particularly useful when inserts and/or deletes are relatively frequent.  Relatively low constants in a wide variety of scenarios.
 In each operation we do at most 3 rotations (and O(log n) color changes, which are quick); this allows creation of efficient persistent data structures

9

11

### Similar Documents

#### Management

...What is Management? Definitions According to Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups." Harold Koontz gave this definition of management in his book "The Management Theory Jungle". According to Henri Fayol, "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." Henri Fayol gave this definition of management in his book "Industrial and General Administration". Image Credits © Michael Heiss. According to Peter Drucker, "Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work." This definition of management was given by Peter Drucker in his book "The Principles of Management". According to Mary Parker Follet, "Management is the art of getting things done through people." Meaning of Management According to Theo Heimann, management has three different meanings, viz., 1. Management as a Noun : refers to a Group of Managers. 2. Management as a Process : refers to the Functions of Management i.e. Planning, Organising, Directing, Controlling, etc. 3. Management as a Discipline : refers to the Subject of Management. Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organisation. They Plan, Organise, Direct and Control all the essential activities of the organisation. Management does not do the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

#### Management

...Past Influence of Management Today Abstract The past influence of management was done with bureaucracy and Administrative ways that gives management today to achieve their goals for the organization. Bureaucratic management may be described as "a formal system of organization based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and roles in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness." Administrative has to foresee and make preparation s to meet the financial commercial and technical condition s under which the concerns must be started. How Bureaucratic and Administrative Management Affects Overall Management Bureaucracy Bureaucratic management focuses on the ideal form of organization. Max Weber was the major contributor to bureaucratic management. Based on observation, Weber concluded that many early organizations were inefficiently managed, with decisions based on personal relationships and loyalty. Also, bureaucracy formed the need for organizations to operate rationally rather than relying on owners’ and managers. (Williams’s pg. 31) this brings Jobs are divided into simple, routine and fixed category based on competence and functional specialization. Officers are organized in a n hierarchy in which higher officer controls lower position holders i.e. superior controls subordinates and their performance of subordinates and lower staff could be controlled. All......

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

#### Management

...conceptual skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills. These three managerial skills are used by different managers in different degrees. Successful managers usually display more conceptual than technical skills. They have to continuously think about the company's goals and objectives and how they can be effectively communicated to employees. Middle Level Management Middle management is the intermediate management level accountable to top management and responsible for leading lower level managers. Image of Middle managers fig. 1 Middle managers Middle management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization, being subordinate to the senior management but above the lowest levels of operational staff. Key Points Middle management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization, subordinate to the senior management but above the lowest levels of operational staff. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They provide guidance to lower level managers and inspire them towards better performance. Middle management may be reduced in organizations as a result of reorganization. Such changes include downsizing,...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

#### Management

...Assignment On- “The Evolution of Management Thought and The Patterns of Management Analysis” Submitted To: Professor Dr. Abu Hossain Siddique Department of International Business University of Dhak 9th Batch, EMBA Date of Submission: 4th July,2012 INTRODUCTION Although modern management theory dates primarily from the early twentieth century, there was serious thinking and theorizing about managing many years before. Two events are especially significant to management history. First, in 1776, Adams Smith published The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued the economic advantages that organizations and society would gain from the division of labor (or job specialization). The second important event is the industrial revolution. Starting in the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, it became more economical to manufacture goods in factories than at home. These large, efficient factories needed someone to forecast demand, ensure that enough material was on hand to make products, assign task to people, direct daily activities, and so fort. That “someone” was managers, and these managers would need formal theories to guide them in running these large organizations. It wasn’t until the early 1900s, however, that the first steps were taken toward developing such theories. The evolution of modern management thinking begins in the nineteenth......

Words: 6134 - Pages: 25

#### Management

...Classical Management Theory (1900 – 1930) It was the rise of the Industrial Revolution and factories were becoming more common. Inside these factories, managers were constantly look for ways to improve productivity and efficiency. As time moved on, it became apparent that searching for the single best way to do things was the most important thing for managers to do. Thus, classical management theory was born. The Evolution of Classical Management Theory The Industrial Revolution was a time where innovation really began to change the way that products were produced and sold. The invention of machines to produce goods in the 19th century drastically improved productivity, which in turn lowered the cost to the consumer. The lower price resulted in a greater demand for products and thus a greater need for more factories and workers. As factories increased in number, managers continued to search for ways to improve productivity, lower cost, increase quality of their products, improve employee/manager relationships and increase efficiency. The focus shifted from using machines to increase productivity to how they could increase employee productivity and efficiency. When they did this, they began to notice some new problems inside their factory systems. Employees were dissatisfied with their current working conditions, and many lacked the necessary training for how to do their work efficiently. Managers then began to formulate and test possible solutions, one of which was to find...

Words: 952 - Pages: 4

#### Management

...The formation of organization implies that a leader should take the role to control the activities of the group; the work done by the leader is what we call management. Organization is formed by a group of people who work together. No matter the organization is a profit making ones or non-profit making ones, its formations are to achieve a common purpose or variety of goals, which are the desired future outcomes. The outcomes might be producing a series of product or serving a group of target customers or satisfying others¡¦ needs. In these organizations, managers mainly are responsible to supervising the work performance of the group members and deciding the use of resources to achieve the organization’s goal. Management can be simply defined as getting things accomplished through other people. Management is then the term describe the work done by the manager, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the use of human and other resources, in order to help the organization to achieve a higher organization performance. Planning is to define to goals or targets of the organization and devising action plans to meet organization goals. Organizing is to determine what tasks should be done, arrange jobs to subordinates, controlling the budgeting and divided tasks to individuals or teams. Leading is to motivate staffs to work, maintaining the progress of activities and good relationship and to ensure to work done effective and efficient. Controlling is to......

Words: 3855 - Pages: 16

#### Management

...Modelling for Change: An Information Systems Perspective on Change Management Models Robert D. Macredie, Carl Sandom and Ray J. Paul Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH Tel: +44 1895 203374; Fax: +44 1895 203391 E-mail: Ray.Paul@brunel.ac.uk; Robert.Macredie@brunel.ac.uk Abstract This paper will focus on the topic of organisational change and its management from an information systems perspective. The paper will examine the issues raised during a review of the change management literature – looking at the major approaches to change management, namely, the planned, emergent and contingency approaches – as background to the issues raised in other papers in this theme of the book. As in the Management In The 90s (MIT90s) study, a very broad definition of the term IT is used to include: computers of all types, hardware, software, communications networks and the integration of computing and communications technologies. The paper will then examine change management within the context of Information Systems (IS) theory and practice. This will lead to a discussion of an emerging model by Orlikowski and Hofman which will be briefly reviewed to provide insight into the types of models which are likely to provide a focus for research in the area in the near future. The model also provides a strong and interesting framework against which to view some of the papers that follow in this theme of the book. 1. Introduction......

Words: 6387 - Pages: 26

#### Management

...MGT115 – Management and Organization Tutorial 1 – Answers 1.1. Who are Managers? a) Explain how managers differ from non-managerial employees? A – Managers differ from non-managerial employees in the sense that they are responsible for coordinating and overseeing the work of their subordinates (who maybe non-managerial or managerial) so as to ensure the organizational goals are met. Non-managerial employees however are only responsible for the task(s) assigned to them. b) Describe how to classify managers in organizations. A – Managers can be classified in to * First-line managers: - Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees * Middle managers: - Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers * Top Managers: - Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization. 1.2. What is Management? a) Define management. A – Coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. b) Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are important to management. A – Because both efficiency (getting the most output for the least inputs) and effectiveness (attaining organizational goals) are important to ensure that there is low resource waste and high goal attainment. 1.3. What do managers do? a) Describe the four functions of management. A – The four......

Words: 2602 - Pages: 11

#### Management

...The Four Functions of Management Management is the art of effectively organizing people and things using the resources available to achieve an overall goal. Management is necessary because it enables the overall organization, group or business to operate efficiently by properly allocating the resources utilized. Great management within a system that works leads to great success no matter what the venture may be. Management has evolved in that business has become a global enterprise. In today’s global economy, management demands a much more structured, generic and appealing approach because it must communicate to a variety of people (Batemen & Snell, 2008). It is because of this vast increase in the sheer amount of people, that management has gone from a much more “do as I say or your fired” role and transitioned into a “this is the way we do it here at Burger King” kind of way. This generic and appealing yet simpler model of management consists of four basic key concepts. The four key concepts of management include leading, controlling, organizing and planning. I placed them in this particular order because I believe that what they have in common is their ability to be placed in that order. Once a person has shown their ability to lead effectively, it enables that manager to have control over the employee because the manager has shown through their leading that they are fully able to essentially “practice what they preach”. Once a manager has control he can then......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

#### Management

...Introduction to Management Technology BMRT 11009 - Section 300 Kent State University MANAGEMENT AMY HISSOM 10/26/2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 3 Managers and Managing ........................................................................................................................ 4 What is Management?..................................................................................................................... 4 Essential Managerial Tasks............................................................................................................... 4 Levels and Skills of Managers ........................................................................................................... 4 Recent Changes in Management Practices ....................................................................................... 5 Challenges for Management in a Global Environment ...................................................................... 5 The Evolution of Management Thought ................................................................................................. 6 F. W. Taylor (1890-1940): Scientific Management ............................................................................ 6 The Gilbreths: Time-and-Motion Study ....................................................................................

Words: 3462 - Pages: 14

#### Management

...The Management Planning Process An effective management planning process includes evaluating long-term corporate objectives. Management planning is the process of accessing an organization’s goals and creating a realistic, detailed plan of action for meeting those goals. It is kind of like writing a business plan, a management plan takes into consideration short and long term corporate strategies. Some basic steps in the management planning process involves creating a road map that outlines each task the company must accomplish to meet its overall objectives. There are seven very important management planning process steps I am going to talk a little bit in depth about. The first step in the management planning process is establishing goals. In planning you have to identify specific company goals. The part of the planning process should include a detail overview of each goal, including the reason for its selection and the anticipated outcomes of goal related projects. Anywhere there are possible objectives should be described in quantitative or qualitative terms. For example, a goal is to raise profits by ten percent over a four month period. Establishing goals is a good way to help any organization see their hard pay off. The second step is to identify organizational resources that will be beneficial to them for help and advice. Each goal should have financial and human resources projection associated with its completion. For example, a management plan may identify how......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

#### Management

...Management by objective (MBO) Management by Objective is a tool that allows managers and employees to come together for the purpose of agreeing upon a set of objectives to achieve the company’s short, medium, or long term future (www.word.com/defination/mangement). The theory intrigued me because management by objective theories can help promote a great team. The overall well-being of the company works better with healthy communication between management and employee’s. I currently manage people clarifying their goals and stimulating theory can be a challenge. Management by objective is an essential part of the mangers daily activities. The Theory for management by objective is to improve planning, better understanding between management and employee, participation in the goal setting process, better informed employees, improved appraisal system and better organization of functional task grouping (Ford, McLaughlin, Nixdorf o 1980). The concept of job planning is a key theory of management by objective because it sets a range of performance systems to assist the employees to stay on track (www.1000ventures.com). When you plan you give your employees an expected result from beginning to end. Better understanding between you and your employees is important because if your employee does not understand what is needed from them they cannot possible meet the company’s needs. If the communication is unclear there is room for error Communication is an essential......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

#### Management

...One of the first schools of management, the classical management theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees. A large amount of the non-English speaking immigrants or dealing with increased labor dissatisfaction caused managers to test solutions. According to Plunkett, Attner & Allen (2008) “The classical management focused on finding the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks” (p.38). This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative. The scientific branch arose because of the need to increase efficiency and productivity. The emphasis was on trying to find the best way to get the most work done by examining how the work process was actually accomplished and by paying close attention to the skills of the workforce. The classical scientific school got its roots to several contributors, including Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Whereas scientific management focused on the productivity of the certain individuals, the classical administrative approach emphasizes on the total organization. The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles rather than work methods. Contributors to this school of thought include: Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester I. Barnard. During World War II, mathematicians, physicists, and others joined together to......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

#### Management

...2.4 The Environmental Management System (EMS) application in the related industries. How it can improve the environmental performance of business? Example. 2.4.1 THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) Definition: the environmental management system (EMS) refer to one part of the comprehensive management system that relate to organizational structure, planning activities and documented manner, it includes planning, implementation, checking, management review and environmental policy. An environmental management system (EMS) 1. It is environmental performance improving tool. 2. It is effective way to manage organizational companies. 3. Manage organizations to solve environmental problems, like allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. 4. Manage the long-term or short-term environmental impact of products service and processes for organizations. 5. Continual improvement is emphasis. EMS Model Plan Act Do Check Step 1: plan (planning) Definition: planning is a way of establish objectives and processes requirement. In order to implement ISO 14001, the first step is suggestion, to help to classify all the current or future operation elements. It includes environmental aspects, compliance, objectives and targets, environmental management programs (EMP). Business firms should plan for environmental protection. They need to plan their current operation or even future operation.......

Words: 3017 - Pages: 13