Free Essay

Marketing American Western Art in China

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bukjuan
Words 3576
Pages 15
Marketing American Western Art in China

Lewis Clark State College
Business 482-7501


Specializing in American Western and wildlife art, the idea of penetrating the Chinese art market is very intriguing, and it has been on the mind of art dealers of all genres for years. The first section of this paper will analyze China and the business experience including GDP, etiquette, negotiating, business attire, and banquet dinners. The next section will discuss China's market structure and direct foreign investors. Third, discusses China's demographics followed by advertising regulations. Finally, the Chinese art market will be introduced and in section two, a marketing strategy will be proposed to enter China's art market, create demand for American Western and wildlife art, and discuss strategic partnerships and co-branding opportunities.
China And The Business Experience

For centuries, China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. As of October of 2014, according to the International Monetary Fund, China has overtaken the United States as the world's largest economy according to IMF's method in determining purchase power parity. The IMF measures both GDP in market-exchange terms and in terms of purchasing power. However, the United States is well ahead of China in terms of raw market value of China's currency. (Bird, 2014, p. 1) For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations. The nation now outstrips Japan as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, and the value of its industrial and agricultural output now exceeds that of its chief competitor. However, in the process, China has become highly dependent on exports, making the nation vulnerable to fluctuating demand. China continues to grow, so understanding the business experience is vital to entering the market. The Chinese generally value relationships that demonstrate mutual respect, an aversion to conflict, and the maintenance of proper demeanor, and these beliefs extend into the business world as well. Business relationships are generally very formal, and the Chinese place great importance on the collective good of the company, as well as saving face, or defending and building a positive professional reputation. Business relationships and business deals mover much slower in China than the United States. Respect and honor are extremely important in Chinese business relationships. (A to Z World Trade, Business Experience) The Chinese are very well known to be tough negotiators with the primary goal of convincing the other side to make concessions; however, Chinese businesspeople also make decisions based on Confucianism, which strives to preserve, respect, harmony and honor. The Chinese usually see negotiations as a fun challenge, and simply figuring out what each side really wants will take up most of the time. In the end, the Chinese make decisions based on both general principles and specific relationships. Chinese businesses are formed in strict hierarchies, and almost all decisions are made by senior leaders. Patience is very important, because proposals will need to work their way up the hierarchal ranks of the company. Whether it's a dinner banquet or a business meeting, all attire and behavior is more formal. Conservative business suits in dark colors and light shirts with ties are required, and visitors should avoid bright and loud colors. Women should also dress modestly that include shirts that are not sleeveless or short sleeve, and the necklines should not be too low. Women's skirts should fall below the knees, and women should not wear high heels. While business lunches are becoming more prevalent, it's very common to attend a dinner banquet after a long day of business and negotiating. Dinners are usually held between 7 and 10pm. It's important to be punctual and arrive at the stated time, and tipping is not commonplace in China. All visitors should learn how to use chopsticks before going to China. The guest of honor will usually tell you where to sit, and you should wait for the host to eat first. Try everything you are offered, but never eat the last item on the serving tray. Return the chopsticks to the chopstick rest between bites, while you drink, and while you speak. Do not stand your chopsticks upright in a bowl of rice, as this is a gesture reserved for funerals. Hold the rice bowl close to your mouth while eating, and place all bones on the table or in a special bone bowl. It is common for Chinese diners to belch or slurp, as these are not considered rude table manners, but rather signs of enjoying the meal. Be prepared to be around people clearing their throats loudly, spitting in public, and smoking cigarettes. It's an honor to be invited to a Chinese counterpart's home for dinner. (A to Z Business World)

China's Market Structure

China’s transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one has encouraged private enterprise, resulting in one of the globe’s fastest-growing economies and highest reductions in poverty over the last two decades. The government’s pragmatic shift toward a market economy has led to China’s current ranking as the world’s second-largest economy in terms of GDP and the world's largest in purchasing power according to IMF. However, per capita income remains low, and the nation faces significant challenges, including environmental degradation, corruption, low domestic demand and the need to sustain adequate job growth for an urban-migrating populace. (A to Z Business World) Manufacturing is the country's most important industry. China manufactures machines; textiles and apparel; armaments; consumer products such as footwear, toys, and electronics; cars, locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunication devices such as telephones; and satellites, plus the commercial space vehicles that launch them. China's top trade partner is Hong Kong who purchases 17 percent of China's exports. The United States, Japan, and South Korea are also significant consumers of China's exports. China's leading import partner is South Korea, followed by the Japan, Taiwan, United States, Germany and Australia. China purchases fuels, metal ores, medical and optical equipment, soybeans, and automobiles. Since China opened its doors to foreign investors, China's national economy has been significantly impacted by foreign capital. Since the early 2000s, China has been the premier destination for foreign direct investments. Major foreign investors include South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, United States, Britain, France and Luxemburg. Foreign Direct Investments are normally directed to the manufacturing, forestry, fishery, and agricultural sectors. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index, China scored 40 out of 100 with an overall ranking of 80th out of 177 countries. Problematic industries include finance, government procurement, construction, and banking. Transparency is lacking in government and the private sector, and foreigners find little aid from the court system. China ranks 96th out of 189 nations in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index. There are many barriers to trade in China. Import and export licensing, import and export restrictions and bans, complex regulations and standards, and service market restrictions add to the cost of trade with China. Protection of intellectual property rights remains limited. Land is state-owned but may be leased, subject to numerous restrictions. Since joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the country has made important strides in lowering tariffs, although taxes on imports remain high. While the nation has removed barriers to foreign banks, capital requirements still exist and access to financial services continues to be a major challenge.
China's Demographics

The population of China is 1.35 billion people. Approximately 31% of China's population is between the ages of 0-24. 47% of China's population is between the ages of 25-54, and 11% is 55-64 years of age. Ideal art collectors are typically between the age of 40-70 because they're usually more affluent and appreciate the arts more. Beijing is the capital with a population of 15.244 million people. Shanghai with a population of 18,150,000 is the most populous city in China. Other major cities include Chongqing, Wuhan, and Xian with populations over 4 million each. Chengdu, Tianjin, Shenyang, Harbin, Nanjing and Guangzhou each have between 3-4 million people. The ratio of men to women is 1.06:1.
Advertising Regulations

In China, advertising laws are regulated by the Advertising Law enacted by the National People's Congress, the Regulations of Administration on Advertising and the Detailed Implementation Rules of Regulations of Administration on Advertising. The primary regulatory agency is the State Administration of Industry and Commerce or SAIC. Advertising of medical services, medicine, legal services, cosmetics, food, tobacco, and alcohol are subject to specific administrative rules. Tobacco is banned from advertising in public places like radio, film, newspapers and periodicals to protect the public's health. Anesthetics, narcotics, medicines containing poisons and radioactive medicines are also banned. Gambling is also banned from advertising as it's illegal in China. There are no advertising restrictions on nonprofit fundraising, toys, religion, or even products related to sexuality. There are also no restrictions regarding celebrity endorsements or sponsorships. When it comes to regulations regarding media channels, there are no regulations on online advertising, although regulators are in the process of identifying how to regulate the rapidly growing media channel. Direct mail advertising is lightly regulated but are subject to registration at the provincial level. Email advertisements must include the words "ad" in the subject line and the recipient has to have given consent. To advertise in newspapers and periodicals, the advertising business must obtain a permit from the SAIC at the provincial level and the law dictates a 15% fee per advertisement of the cost for running the ad In marketing for the art world, the most commonly used mediums are direct mailers, periodicals, email campaigns, and digital media advertising, so other than the 15% fee and permits, it appears that there are not too many restrictions in advertising for the art business. One restriction that doesn't have anything to do with advertising, but affects the art world, is the law banning exports of paintings and artifacts created before 1949. (Peterson, 2004)
Chinese Art Market

In 2013, the Chinese art market topped out at $8.5 billion. In 2013, 95% of all works sold at auction were less than $77,500, and works sold for over $1.5 million made up less than 1% of transactions. (McAndrew, 2014) Many Chinese citizens don't trust the Chinese stock market as an investment vehicle, so a large percentage of wealthy Chinese have turned to the Chinese art market as an alternative for investing their money. China has identified culture as a core area for economic growth, and a vibrant art market as a useful tool of soft power, promoting a view of Chinese society as a center of aesthetics and beauty and deflecting the international focus from political and human rights issues. (Barboza/Bowley, 2013)
“A majority of Chinese people do not trust the Chinese stock market,” said Melanie Ouyang Lum, a consultant on Chinese art. “The housing boom has slowed tremendously. A lot of people are looking to art for investment.” (Barboza/Bowley,2013)

There are over 3,500 auction houses in China and countless more galleries and dealers. The two biggest auction houses in China are Poly International Auction Company and China Guardian. China currently has 4,000 museums, and since 2012, nearly 1,000 museums have opened across China. That's more than one a day. (Errera, 2014) The two major auction houses in the United States are Sotheby's and Christies. The Coeur d'Alene Art Auction is the largest and most successful auction house specializing in American Western art, and they net over $30 million per year. There are 358 billionaires in China compared to 481 in the United States. (Errera, 2014) However, just about everyone is getting in on the art market in China in hopes of making a profit by flipping works of Chinese art. Many people will take out high interest loans or even use their homes as collateral. Like any investment, there are risks, and China is loaded with risks involving inflated art values, a huge market of forgeries and fakes, and a growing number of bidders who don't pay for their purchases at auction. It's also very common for people to use art as a way to bribe government officials. People will give public officials art and tell them to sell it at auction where the person who gave the gift will buy that piece of art at a premium so the official makes a huge profit. (Barboza/Bowley, 2013) However, there is still an enormous market for art because of the sheer size of the population and rapidly growing wealth in China.
My Product and Plan

Because of my extensive knowledge and expertise in the American Western art genre, I aim to introduce the American Western art genre to the Chinese people and their art market. Although the American Western art genre is still growing in the United States, it would be very new to Chinese art collectors. The Chinese have a deep appreciation for aesthetic beauty and historical significance to works of art. The American Western genre introduces a significant part of the United States' history and the "cowboy" has been romanticized all over the world, especially in movies. I would introduce American Western bronze sculptures and historical paintings that range in value from $3,000 - $5,000,000. The first step in raising awareness and creating a demand for a specific genre of art would be to get as many Chinese collectors to view the works, and view them on a repetitive basis at reputable museums, galleries, and in auctions.
"People don't know what they like, but they like what they know." -Len Spanierman, well-known NY art dealer.

I met Len Spanierman in New York when I first got started in the art business and his quote above has always stuck with me. Tastes in art is so subjective, that I often hear people say, "I don't know anything about art." Or "I don't know if it's a good painting or not." There isn't a right or wrong answer when it comes to good or bad art. You either like the work of art or you don't, and your feelings about the painting or sculpture is all that matters. As people see art on a regular basis, their eyes become trained on what is good and what isn't because they develop benchmarks in which they can compare different works. Also, as people learn about the artists, the artists' process, and gain more confidence in their knowledge base of art, they are able to identify what they like or don't like. By introducing American Western art to the Chinese through museums like the Beijing Capitcal Museum, Shanghai Museum, Nanjing Museum, and the Shaanxi History Museum, and through reputable galleries like the James Cohan Gallery in Shanghai, Shanghai Gallery of Art, The Red Gate Gallery in Beijing, and 798 Space Gallery, then those institutions lend credibility to the American Western art. An exhibition curated by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Denver Art Museum titled The American West in Bronze, 1850-1925, opened on September 28, 2014 at the Nanjing Museum and is on display until January 15, 2015. Exhibitions like The American West in Bronze, 1850-1925, is an incredible opportunity to introduce the Chinese to American Western art. As more and more Chinese are exposed to American Western art, and as they learn the importance of specific artists, the more comfortable they will feel in purchasing works to add to their collections. Also, because the Chinese market is rife with fakes and forgeries, and the Chinese auction world is rumored to have extremely inflated values because auction houses and artists and their dealers are bidding up works to make it appear like the works are more valuable, Chinese collectors may feel more secure in investing their money in American Western art and even participate in sales not only in China, but in the United States. Education of collectors is a vital component in selling high valued works of art. I've developed a strong reputation in the American Western art world here in the United States, so if I can develop the same reputation in China and help educate Chinese collectors on blue chip Western artists and how and where to acquire rare works, then through referrals and repeat business, sales will grow. In my opinion, the key to success in entering the Chinese art market is similar to being successful in the United States. I will need to earn collectors' trust through education and developing relationships with key people from Chinese museums, major galleries, and most importantly, major collectors.
S.W.O.T. Analysis

The established resale market and history of American Western art are strengths, because it makes it easy to show collectors resale records and patterns and to substantiate the values of rare works by blue chip artists like Frederic Remington, Charles Russell, Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt. The widely held belief that investing in the art market is a terrific alternative to the Chinese stock market, and the number of museums, galleries and auction houses, make China a very intriguing and strong destination to sell American Western art. The major weakness for American Western art is the lack of notoriety and appreciation for the subject matter. Chinese art collectors have a deep appreciation for historical Chinese art more than American Western art, so it may prove difficult to change their tastes in art. However, American Western art revolves around authenticity of subject matter and pure aesthetic beauty of the vast landscapes of America. The Chinese share that love for aesthetic beauty. The incredible size of the Chinese art market, the rapid growth of their economy and growth in affluent citizens of China make for wonderful opportunities to sell art in China. Christies recently became the first independently run American auction house in China, and Sotheby's has developed strategic partnerships with Chinese auction houses, so the doors have been opened for American companies to operate in China. The biggest threat to operating in China would be navigating government regulations, and dealing with the enormous amounts of fakes and forgeries that are produced in China. If Chinese forgers started mass producing fakes of American Western art, it could really deal a blow to establishing it as a legitimate genre in China and maintaining its value.

With over 1 billion people, one of the fastest and largest economies in the world, and a deep appreciation for the arts and the desire to invest in high quality works, China is a prime country to target for promoting American Western art. While there are numerous risks in entering the Chinese art market like inflated values, numerous forgeries, and a government that could shut you down at any time, the opportunities and blue sky may be too good to pass up. With 358 billionaires and thousands of millionaires, the target market for selling art is ideal in China. The biggest obstacle in entering the Chinese art market would be overcoming the Chinese's taste of art and preference for historical Chinese relics and works of art. Only a sliver of the $8 billion pie that is the Chinese art market is necessary to be successful and I think the rewards outweigh the risks.

Works Cited

AtoZ World Trade. China: Trade Overview. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from
AtoZ World Trade. China: Advertising Law. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from
AtoZ World Trade. China: The Business Experience. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from
AtoZ World Trade. China: Death Rate. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from
Barboza, David; Bowley, Graham; Cox, Amanda. October 28, 2013. Forging An Art Market In China. NY Times. Retrieved from
Barboza, David; Bowley, Graham. December 16, 2013. An Art Power Rises in China, Posing Issue For Reform. NY Times. Retrieved from
Bird, Mike, (October 8, 2014). China Just Overtook the U.S. As The World's Largest Economy. Business Insider. Retrieved from
Errera, Alexandre, (February 27, 2014). How China Is Changing The Balance Of Power In The Art World. Forbes. Retrieved from
McAndrew, Clare, September 17, 2014. Chinese Art Market Rebounds to $8.5 Billion in 2013. Artnet News. Retrieved from
Peterson, T. (2004). Why Collectors Are Crazy For Chinese Art. Businessweek, (3914), 114-115.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Chinas Problems

...Under “Western Eyes”: The Personal Odyssey of Huang Fei-Hong in Once upon a Time in China by Tony Williams Rather than being read in exclusively postmodernist terms, Tsui Hark’s series Once upon a Time in China may be understood as a new version of a Hong Kong cinematic discourse involving historical “interflow.” It deals with dispersion, China’s relationship to the outside world, and strategic forms of reintegration designed to strengthen national identity. In Sammo Hung’s Wong Fei Hung Ji Saam (West Territory Mighty Lion/Once upon a Time in China and America, 1997), Master Huang Fei-hong (Jet Li Linjie) travels to the Wild West to visit an American branch of the Po Chi Lam Clinic set up by his student Sol. During the journey, he bangs his head against a rock in a turbulent stream and loses his memory. He is rescued by a friendly tribe of Indians. Moments before we see Huang again, an Indian emerges from a tepee proudly announcing the birth of a child. When Huang recovers, he stumbles around in the Indian camp wearing an Indian costume, and his loose unbraided hair is flowing like an Indian’s. After using his martial arts prowess to defeat a hostile Indian, who ironically mouths racist American platitudes against the outsider—”His clothing is different, his skin color is different, his speech is different”—Huang is adopted into the tribe and given the name “Yellow.” Before this, he attempts to remember events of the recent past. But his vague recollections...

Words: 11220 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Nterntonl Bus

...Course: International Business: BUS-201-1404  Assignment: Assignment 4 Chinese Flavors for American Snacks The brands in the busy supermarket in Beijing may be recognizable to most Americans, but the flavors certainly are not. Lays potato chips sold in Beijing are blueberry flavored rather than sour cream and onion. Cheetos come in strawberry and milk, and Minute Maid sells aloe juice instead of orange juice. American companies hoping to capitalize on China’s $186 billion fast food and processed food market have entered the country en masse. However, while they are selling the same brands they sell in the United States, they have developed much different flavors in the hopes of better attracting Chinese buyers. Frito Lay recognized early on that Chinese taste buds were quite different from American taste buds. Popular flavors in the United States did not appeal to Chinese consumers prompting Frito Lay and other U.S. companies to research Chinese preferences and develop products specifically for the local market. Accordingly, Tropicana sells cantaloupe juice, Chips Ahoy cookies are orange flavored, and Wrigley’s sells Chinese herbal medicine gum. Even toothpaste companies are selling products designed to tempt Chinese consumers. Crest sells a lotus flower flavored product, while Colgate offers salt flavored toothpaste. U.S. companies focused on the Chinese culture as a starting point for developing new product flavors. Product researchers inspired by traditional......

Words: 2700 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Pioneer or Dreamer “Shanghai Tang: The First Global Chinese Luxury Brand?”, Shanghai Tang was struggling for more than 18 years to be the first global Chinese luxury brand, but unfortunately, until today, Mr. David Tang, the founder of this brand, still has to face a lot of problems: international brand awareness, costumer approval, operation & marketing strategies, relentless competitions, intercultural communication and multicultural integration, etc. It may be on the right track, maybe not. Is Mr. David Tang a pioneer? Or is he just a dreamer? In this analysis report, I will separate all these arguments into four parts: the company’s activities and current development; comparison of competitors’ strategies and tactics; intercultural issues and costumer behaviour in the luxury industry, especially Chinese market; recommendations and alternative solutions for Shanghai Tang’s future strategies. In this report, I will focus on the two most important factors: “inter Culture” and “luxury”, which will impact on the future strategies of Shanghai Tang, and I will defend my standpoints by analyzing the environment of luxury industry and cultural context in China. 2. Shanghai Tang’s current development and business situation Since 1995, the Swiss luxury company Financiere Richem SA (Richemont) became the main shareholder of Shanghai Tang, Tang’s company had a deep European Luxury background, which could support its development in both financial and strategic aspects. It is a big......

Words: 2971 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

How Nike Figured Out China

...Marketing in Asia: How Nike Figured out China The China market is finally for real. To the country’s new consumers, Western products mean one thing, status. They can’t get enough of those Air Jordans. Nike swung into action even before most Chinese knew they had a new hero. The moment hurdler Lui Xiang became the country’s first Olympic medalist in a short-distance speed event – he claimed the gold with a new Olympic record in the 110 m hurdles last August. Nike launched a television advertisement in China showing Liu destroying the field and superimposed a series of questions designed to set nationalistic teeth on edge. “Asians lack muscle?’ asked one. ‘Asians lack the will to win?’ Then came the kicker, as Liu raised his arms above the trademark Nike Swoosh on his shoulder. ‘Stereotypes are made to be broken’. It was an instant success. ‘Nike understands why Chinese are proud’ says Li Yao, a weekend player at Swoosh-bedecked basketball courts near Beijings Tiananmen Square. Such clever marketing tactics have helped make Nike the icon for the new China. According to a Hill and Knowlton survey, Chinese consider the Middle Kingdom’s ‘coolest brand’. Just as a new Flying Pigeon bicycle defined success when reforms began in the 1980’s and a washing machine that could scrub potatoes became the status symbol a decade later, so the Air Jordan – or any number of Nike products turned out in factories in Asia – has become the symbol of success for China’s new......

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Loreal's Segmenting and Targeting Markets

...from being a small family business to become the world’s leader in the cosmetics industry. Today, the L'Oréal group has regions in more than 150 countries in the world that are home to 283 branches, more than 100 agents, 50,491 employees, 42 factories, and more than 500 high-quality and popular brands of cosmetics. Their "global or nothing" strategy allows L'Oréal to take market segmenting even further by custom developing and marketing products to meet the specific demands of any given country or region. In order to clarify different product positioning in Asia, L'Oréal decided to move from “the open-shelf brand” in Europe up to “the top international brand” in Asia. In Asian countries, L'Oréal set up their counters in upscale department stores according to the Asia specific marketing channel strategy. However, this “accessible luxury brand” strategy did not meet the levels of success they anticipated. The reason for this is that the image of the texture or packaging of their products failed to reflect the luxury image that are so important to marketing in Asia. They failed to understand the significance of the fact that texture and packaging in Asia is more delicate than the required standard in Europe. L'Oréal must prove that the quality of their product shows "significant improvement" if they are to obtain market recognition while moving up their prices in the Asian markets. In 2003, L'Oréal created a new line of teeth whitening products in order to open up......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Global Account

...Department of Business Studies, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Introduction There are three major marketing problems facing most international firms today: the difficulty, arising from product range diversity, of segmenting its customers and maintaining long-term relationships with key customers; second, the obstacles of obtaining long-term business contracts from big multinationals; and third, how do the firms evaluate the relationship quality of their key customers? McDonnell Douglas, Peugeot and Japanese retailer Yaohan are all fighting for higher market shares in China because they are shaken down by the Government’s policy swings and railroaded into bad partnerships with key customers who mainly squeeze for advanced technology (Clifford et al., 1997). Many companies receive a big percentage of their sales from relatively few customers. Key account management has been increasingly important in international markets. Key account programs differ considerably across countries and firms, but all organizations have to decide how to identify their own major accounts and how to organize for effective relationship building with them. The purpose of this article is to assist organizations to determine the positioning of their major customer relationships so as to formulate key account relationship marketing strategies and implement them effectively in China and other Asian countries. This article describes a key account relationship model with an empirical......

Words: 6365 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay


...the nature of Chinese business negotiating style in Sino-Western business negotiations in business-to-business markets involving large industrial projects from a social cultural point of view. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual approach developed from personal interviews. Findings – This study reveals that the Chinese negotiator does not possess an absolute negotiating style but rather embraces a mixture of different roles together: “Maoist bureaucrat in learning”, “Confucian gentleman”, and “Sun Tzu-like strategist”. The Chinese negotiating strategy is essentially a combination of cooperation and competition (termed as the “coop-comp” negotiation strategy in this study). Trust is the ultimate indicator of Chinese negotiating propensities and role choices. Research limitations/implications – The focus of this study is on Chinese negotiating style shown in large B2B negotiations with Chinese SOEs. Originality/value – Differing from most other studies on Chinese negotiating style which tend to depict the Chinese negotiator as either sincere or deceptive, this study points out that there exists an intrinsic paradox in Chinese negotiating style which reflects the Yin Yang thinking. The Chinese negotiator has a cultural capacity to negotiate both sincerely and deceptively and he/she changes coping strategies according to situation and context, all depending on the level of trust between negotiating partners. Keywords China, National cultures, Negotiating, Management skills,......

Words: 11190 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Company Introduction, Market

...Company Introduction, Market Segmentation, and Product Positioning Company Extravagant Chocolate Incorporated will offer a variety of homemade luxurious, gourmet chocolates. Chocolate is a treat that most everyone loves some depending on the type, brand, and decadents. Extravagant Chocolate will have a variety of choices to answer any chocolate lover’s desires they range from dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and even white chocolate. The company will span the globe for the best ingredients to use to make the tastiest treats. They will include nuts, fruits, truffle, creams, and even spaces. The company will also offer chocolates with various flavors such as alcohols and champagnes. Due to the importance of setting the company apart from other competitors the company will do custom designs and colors for special occasions and events. These chocolates will be available for personal consumption, as well as perfect gift to friends, co-workers, and family members. Special orders will be handled with the upmost care when allergies are of concerns to include things like gluten free, nut allergies, and dairy allergies without forgoing the desired taste. The name in itself will capture the consumers attention and have them yarning to buy Extravagant Chocolates for personal taste treats or those special occasions. Mission Statement The mission of Extravagant Chocolate Incorporated is to be the leading producer and marketer of personalized chocolate while providing the......

Words: 1713 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Travel and Tourism

...Fairbairn Section 1 Chengdu, is the provincial capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China, as well as a major city in Western China. It has 14,047,625 inhabitants: 7,123,697 within the municipality's nine urban districts and 6,730,749 in the surrounding suburbs and rural area. According to the 2010 census, Chengdu is the fourth most populous city in mainland China, and most populous among prefecture-level cities as well. Chengdu is one of the most important economic, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. According to the 2007 Public Appraisal for Best Chinese Cities for Investment, Chengdu was chosen as one of the top ten cities to invest in out of a total of 280 urban centers in China. Tourism of Chengdu mainly promotes four travel brands-the hometown of the giant panda, the capital of delicious food, the capital of leisure culture and the exhibition city. First, the Qingcheng Mountain and Dujiangyan, The Wuhou Temple, DuFu Thatched Cottage, Jinsha Ruins and the habitat of giant panda, represent the world heritage brand. Second, the Sichuan cuisine, six famous brands of alcohol, Sichuan tea culture represent the capital of delicious food. Third, the Huan Alley and Zhai Alley, Jinli roads and historical remains of city in Qing dynasty represent the capital of leisure culture. Fourth, the Chengdu International Intangible cultural heritage Festival, the China International Gourmet and tourism Festival, the Taoist Cultural...

Words: 3068 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Creative Problem-Solving Styles in the Usa and Japan

...Creative problem-solving styles in the USA and Japan [pic] The Authors Paul Herbig, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, USA, and Laurence Jacobs, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii Abstract Explores the cultural differences between Japan and the USA as they influence in the practice of creativity. Western logic reflects its Cartesian heritage of a clear, linear path of reasoning or the “scientific method”. The western approach to creativity is innovation through sponteneous originality. The Japanese approach, by contrast, is through the adaptive process. Implementing the innovation for effective production and marketing is their greatest strength. Japanese value the consensual more than differences. Proposes that US-Japanese partnerships would be the merging of opposites, the perfect complement of two diameterically opposite ways of creative thinking. If these partnerships are properly conceived and implemented, a highly efficient combine would result. Article Type:   Conceptual Paper Keyword(s):   Creativity; Japan; Methods; USA. Journal:   International Marketing Review Volume:   13 Number:   2 Year:   1996 pp:   63-71 Copyright ©   MCB UP Ltd ISSN:   0265-1335 Creativity may be the most important tool in a marketer’s arsenal. Without creativity, the firm becomes predictable. The predictable firm may be at a competitive disadvantage. Creativity goes further than......

Words: 3583 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Shop Till Drop

...of developing countries. I. Introduction II. Definition of consumerism III. Consumerism in the First World A. Consumerism in the USA B. Consumerism in European countries IV. The spreading of consumerism in the developing countries A. Consumerism in China B. Consumerism in India C. Consumerism in South America V. Cause and effect of the expending consumerism in the world A. Cause B. Effect VI. Conclusion A hundred years ago, Napoleon said that China is a lion which fell asleep. This may, or may not, be true. If Napoleon was right, is this lion still asleep or is it waking up? If you walk in Akihabara, the most famous place for digital product shopping in Japan, you can see many Chinese signs and hear Chinese announcements all day. Chinese are buying expensive products all over the world today. In only a few years, China has mastered the art of production and the purchasing of that production. It has taken the wisdom in regards to markets and consumption, which has taken advanced countries several decades to build up. Similar phenomenona happens in not only China but also many other developing countries. In contrast to the gradual development of Western societies, some developing countries have gone from poverty to gluttony in a few decades. Within several generations, people's concerns have gone from basic survival to a love of more material and luxuries. Consumerism has been the main value in the USA from the 19th......

Words: 2837 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Globalization and the Fashion Media

...Fashion media is a term used by the fashion industry to communicate about a brand to prospective consumers. The medium of communication comprises of public relations, advertising, sales promotion and several others. The traditional methods of communicating the availability of a new product through lifestyle magazine is now taken over by the new ‘two way' method of communication that includes advertisements as well as feedback from the customers1. RELATED ARTICLES Adidas-Reebok Merger Fashion journalists are keen on publishing what is happening in Londonand Paristo be the first to report fashion revolution that not only consists of innovation but is also of importance for cultural production. Fashion writers are conscious about associating the culture of each nation to a season's fashion to ensure there is a national identity for the products2. Advertisement is a mass media because it reaches a mass market. The notion that advertising is non-targeted and non personal is a wrong implication.  Advertising luxury brands in mass media like television and magazine targets a narrow group comprising of the specific luxury consumer market. Advertisement is a method of communicating the brand history, personality, products, image and services that increase the visibility of the bands. Traditionally advertisements of superior brands usually appear in business publications, fashion magazines, high end publications and airline in-flight magazines focusing target audience1. 1.Uche,......

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


... 梁景衡08319296 赵必进08319290 邓天添08319321 张玉梨08319446 陈一楠08319328 陈阳 06320032 徐昱 08319287 张韵 08319398 Instructor: 向蔓 School of International Studies Sun Yat-sen University December 2009 Contents Executive Summary 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Mission 1.3 Keys to Success Company Summary 2.1 Company Ownership 2.2 Company History 2.3 Company Locations and Facilities Products 3.1Product Description 3.2 Competitive Comparison 3.3 Sourcing Market Analysis Summary 4.1 Market research 4.2 Clientele 4.3 Competitors Strategy and Implementation Summary 5.1 Marketing Strategy 5.1.1 Promotion Strategy 5.1.2 Pricing Strategy 5.2 Sales Strategy 5.2.1 Strategy forecast 5.2.2 Sales program 5.3 Milestones Management Summary 6.1 Organizational Structure 6.2 Management Team 6.3 Management Team Gaps 6.4 Personnel Plan Domestic Policies of Export of Service Executive Summary J-Kungfu fast food brand seeks triumphs in marching into New York by excellent services and delicate nutritious steamed food. We predict an expansion of the brand’s scale in the first year with profits exceeding expectations. And in the next two years, we will try to increase the number of our branch studios in America according to market demand. 1.1 Objectives...

Words: 5778 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Business Etiquette in China

...Business Etiquette in China IMS 3310.006 Professor Zydorek Mahir Modgil Christian Kelly Saabiq Hossain Marlee Kargou Jose Moreno Jeremy Liu Matthew Liu Ever since China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, the United States’ exports to China have increased more than 500 percent. In addition, according to Business NH Magazine, New Hampshire’s first statewide monthly business publication, the United States Government estimates that by 2020, China’s middle class will grow to about 700 million people (Fierman 14). As a result, China presents unique opportunities for American businesses of all sizes. However, even though China’s business environment might offer great prospects, the challenge for American entrepreneurs is adapting to China’s business culture. In order for one to successfully acclimate to China’s business culture, China’s social values, specific business etiquettes, and common mistakes made by Americans need to be examined. The first step in adapting to China’s business culture is understanding the social values that underlie Chinese social behavior. Chinese social behavior is reflected in 6 concepts: renqing, li, mianzi and lian, and guanxi and bao. According to Allan Chan, the associate dean of the School of Business at Hong Kong Baptist University, renqing can be interpreted as meaning emotions or the way of interpersonal interactions (Chan 48). No matter how renqing is interpreted, the essence of renqing is showing appropriate......

Words: 3142 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Cross-Cultural Management

...Bruce Gahir Introduction: In the paper that you are about to read I will describe in depth the differences between the eastern and the western style of management and processes that take place when adopting and using different management styles. In order to narrow it down and to make it a bit easier and more understanding for the reader I specifically chose two different countries to compare. The countries are different in almost every way regardless how you look at it. Different cultures, different values, different politics, people etc. The countries that I have chosen are China and USA. In this paper I will use a case study where a Chinese manager is sent to USA to manage a cross cultural team or professionals in order to meet the project requirements and deliver the work on time and 100% completed. Country profile: China Many of us were witnessing the economic growth and development of China and few other countries in Asia in the last few decades and this is one of the most important events in the history. This growth continues today and there is no actual reason why it shouldn’t continue indefinitely unless the highly unlikely event of international conflicts and war. China at present is the world’s leading economy. It has attracted about $450 billion of direct foreign investments from which 90% percent came after 1990. China has emerged as a powerhouse in the Asian and world economies. At the core of the Chinese economic growth are the managers who maintain......

Words: 4171 - Pages: 17