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Marketing Research and Strategic Plan

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Marketing Research and
Strategic Marketing Plan

Produced by
Business Administration 126
Advanced Marketing (“West Coast Marketing”)
Saint Mary’s College of California
Professor Eric Kolhede
December 14.2011

Students of Business Administration 126 Advanced Marketing (“West Coast Marketing”)
Saint Mary’s College of California Abdul Malik Khan | Maria Ahlqvist | Alexandra Smith | Maria Orozco | Alisa Mosman | Matt Cardoza | Ally Short | Matt King | Amanda Minguillon | Melissa Queen | Anthony Costa | Nick Fong | Ben Rigel | Nick Tuttle | Betsy Serrano | Nicole Arce | Britany Linton | Nirbhik Trehan | Dawn Shipley | Priscilla Esparza | Dayna Best | Steven Dawson – Roberts | Elanor Pitts | Steven Vargas | Evan Schlinkert | Thomas Vo | James Palmer | Tommy Mohoric | John Howe | Tracy Vasquez* | Maddy Aliotti | | Professor Eric Kolhede*Coordinator | |

Table of Contents
I. Executive Summary 1
II. Research Problem 3
III. Situation (SWOT) Analysis 7
A. External Macro-environmental Forces 7 1) Demographic and Social/Cultural Trends Purpose 7 2) Economic Environment 16 3) Technological Dimension 21 4) Political Environment 27 5) Legal Environment 31 6) Cooperative Environment 33 7) Product Market Analysis 36 8) Competitive Analysis 50
B. Internal Environment 71 1) Introduction 71 2) Resources 75 3) Marketing Mix Program 77 4) Conclusion 77
IV. Primary Research 79
A. Focus Groups 79
B. Sampling Plan 93 1) Population 93 2) Sample Size 94 3) Sampling Method 94
V. Primary Research Findings - Uni variate Data Analysis 99
VI. Strategic Marketing Plan 123
A. Segmentation Analysis 123 1) Identifying Segments 123 2) Segment Profiles 124
B. Targeting Strategy 128
C. Positioning Strategy 128 1) Followers 128 2) Casuals 129 3) Aficionados 129
D. Product Strategy 130 1) Current Product Mix 130 2) Product Objectives 130 3) Product Mix Strategies 130 4) Product Quality 144
E. Promotion Strategy 148 1) Importance of Promotion as a Motivator to Attend Performing Arts Events 148 2) Promotional Objectives 153 3) Message Creation 160 4) Promotional Mix 164
F. Pricing Strategy 177 1) Pricing Objectives 177 2) Pricing Situation 178 3) Pricing Strategy 183
G. Distribution Strategy 185
H. Conclusion 190 1) Segmentation Analysis and Positioning Strategy 190 2) Product Strategy 191 3) Promotion Strategy 192 4) Pricing Strategy 193 5) Distribution Strategy 194
VII. Appendix 195
A. Appendix 1 – Promotional Flyer - Followers 195
B. Appendix 2 - Promotional Flyer - Casuals 196
C. Appendix 3 - Promotional Flyers- Aficionados 197
D. Appendix 4 - Formal Survey 198
VIII. References 203

Executive Summary The Advanced Marketing class of Saint Mary’s College of California, formally named West Coast Marketing (WCM) was charged with conducting a full scale marketing research investigation leading to a comprehensive strategic marketing plan for the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO). WCM has executed a thorough report of the research conducted, research findings and the recommended strategic marketing plan. Marketing Research can be defined as the systematic gathering, recording, processing, and analyzing of marketing data, when used effectively, will help to uncover opportunities and reduce risks in decision making. The following is a comprehensive overview defining the marketing research process conducted by West Coast Marketing.
WCM defined the underlying research problem the CCCO faces in the current market. Once defined, WCM determined the information (research objectives) needed to address the underlying research problem. Thus, it was determined that secondary and primary research would be conducted. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis was conducted using secondary research to analyze external, macro-environmental forces impacting the CCCO. The external environmental dimensions included demographic, economic, technological, social/cultural, political and legal areas. WCM also conducted secondary research regarding potential organizations that the CCCO could work with. Direct and in-direct competitors were also analyzed in an attempt to identify successful marketing practices that the CCCO might employ. The initial research was concluded with a thorough analysis of the current state of the CCCO, its internal environment, strategic plan, including its current marketing mix. Research gathered in the secondary data process was utilized in order to plan and conduct primary research. Focus groups as well as a formal survey were chosen as the primary data sources. Results from the formal survey were analyzed using in order to identify and profile possible market segments for the CCCO to target. Additionally, WCM formulated a comprehensive strategic marketing plan driven by the secondary and primary research. This included targeting and positioning strategies and the formulation of marketing mixes, developed to satisfy the expectations of each target group. The marketing mix covered the areas of: Product, Promotion, Pricing and Distribution Strategies. Through this marketing research process, WCM has attempted to provide insightful and useful information for its client the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra.
Research Problem In the face of increased entertainment competition, weak economy, reduced funding for arts education and performing arts organizations, the underlying problem for the CCCO is to identify current and potential audience segments (i.e., target markets), position itself in a distinctive and compelling way, and develop a marketing mix that will appeal to the desires of each targeted group.
Research Objectives (information needed to address the underlying research problem)
External Environment – Identify Opportunities and Threats along the following dimensions
Demographics
Economic Environment
Technological
Social/Cultural
Political and Legal
Competitive
Cooperative Environment – Who they are, How they interact (relationship), Rules and regulations involved, and How to develop a mutually beneficial relationship
City Government
Local Businesses (e.g., restaurants)
Lesher Center
Los Medanos College
Saint Mary’s College
High Schools
Segmentation Information Needed - to identify segmenting variables leading to uncovering distinguishable and viable market segments for CCCO to target.
Examine possible segmenting variables;
Demographic factors that affect audience demand:
Income
Age
Education (formal)
Gender
Ethnicity
Location
Household size
Occupation
Population size of cities/towns
Psychographics – Social and Psychological determinants of attitudes and buying behavior (performing arts event attendance)
1. Identify and compare between segments the impact of psychological and social factors (including reference group influences) impacting consumer attitudes toward attending performing arts events.
2. Develop a comprehensive PROFILE of each CCCO target market segment based on demographic and psychographic factors.
E. Competitors and Differentiation
1. Identify the key direct and indirect competitors of the CCCO
2. Identify the marketing programs of CCCO’s direct and indirect competitors
3. Determine how CCCO can position itself in a differentiated and compelling manner from its direct and indirect competitors.
F. Marketing Mix – develop a marketing program along each area noted below that will differentially appeal to each targeted segment.
1. Product
a. Preferred programming by genre/composers
b. Merchandise
c. Branding
d. Seasonal / themed programming
2. Promotion
a. Preferred method of promotion held by CCCO’s current and potential target market segments.
3. Pricing
a. Average individual and seasonal ticket prices current and potential consumers would be willing to pay (average) to attend a CCCO event.
b. Measure Elasticity of demand for local community performing arts events.
c. Price/Quality relationship (value)
4. Distribution
a. Venue location
b. Ticket Distribution
c. Scheduling – days and time of performances
d. Atmospherics of Venue
e. Transportation
g. Parking
Situation (SWOT) Analysis A. External Macro-environmental Forces
Demographic and Social/Cultural Trends Purpose The purpose of this section is to describe, interpret, and evaluate some positive and negative factors affecting patron attendance at Performing Arts events. This study includes demographic and social/cultural trends in performing arts at national, state, and local levels in the United States over the past twenty years. According to several studies (e.g. Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, The Performing Arts in a New Era,) symphonies and orchestras are cutting costs or closing down due to lack of attendance and financial hardships. What are the true trends affecting the performing arts in these recent years? Demographic characteristics such as gender, race and ethnicity, age, education and income as well as Social/Cultural factors, including aesthetics, education, escape, recreation, self-esteem enhancement, social interaction and childhood exposure, prove to be the most effective determinants in influencing performing arts patrons to attend an arts event.
Demographic Trends and Characteristics This section will explore the demographic trends of Performing Arts patronage. In order to identify significant trends in the make-up of an arts attendant, five demographic characteristics were analyzed. These variables include gender, race and ethnicity, age, education and income.
Gender
A series of surveys produced by the National Endowment for the Arts found that women generally have higher performing arts attendance rates than men. Performing Arts patrons are more likely to be women (55.7%) compared to men (44.3%). Adult women living in California are also the primary arts attendees (56.0%).

Figure 1 Demographic distribution of U.S. adults attending performing arts at least once in the past 12 months: 2008 | U.S. Population | Rate of attendance | Gender | Millions | Percent | | Male | 108.6 | 44.3% | 44.3% | Female | 116.3 | 55.7% | 55.7% | Total | 224.8 | 100.0% | |
Source: 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts 2 | California Population | Rate of attendance | Gender | Millions | Percent | | Male | 108.6 | 44.3% | 51.0% | Female | 116.3 | 55.7% | 56.0% | Total | 224.8 | 100.0% | |
Source: National Endowment for the Arts, Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Combined File, 1982-2008
Race and Ethnicity According to the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts by the National Endowment for the Arts, race in and of itself is not a good predictor of arts attendance. Members of certain minority groups are under-represented at arts events, while others are sometimes over-represented based on region and population size. Figures 3-5 illustrate how demographic variables such as age, income and education are significantly better predictors of attendance. Figure 2 shows that Caucasians continue to attend performing arts events more than any other race with a 39.7% national attendance rate and 68% in California.

Figure 2 Demographic distribution of U.S. adults attending performing arts at least once in the past 12 months: 2008 | U.S. Population | Rate of attendance | Race/Ethnicity | Millions | Percent | U.S. | California | Hispanic | 30.4 | 13.5% | 21% | 38% | African American, non-Hispanic | 25.6 | 11.4% | 21.5% | 48% | Caucasian | 154.5 | 68.7% | 39.7% | 68% | Other | 14.3 | 6.4% | 31.9% | 63% | Total | 224.8 | 100.0% | | |
Source: 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts National Endowment for the Arts, Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Combined File, 1982-2008
Age
Age is a strong determinant of performing arts participation rates. According to Figure 3, 37.2% of those of age 35-44 ranked highest in the United States in attending at least one performing arts event in the past 12 months. Those in the 55-64 year age range ranked second nationally at 36.9%, while those of ages 45-54 years ranked third at 36.1%. In California residents of ages 55-64 years had the highest rate of attendance at 66%. The 45-54 year age range had the second highest rate at 58%. At both the national and state levels, the average arts attendee is generally between the ages of forty and sixty years old.

Figure 3 Demographic distribution of U.S. adults attending performing arts at least once in the past 12 months: 2008 | U.S. Population | Rate of attendance | Age | Millions | Percent | U.S. | California | 18-24 | 28.9 | 12.80% | 32.70% | 55% | 25-34 | 39.9 | 17.7% | 36% | 55% | 35-44 | 41.8 | 18.6% | 37.2% | 49% | 45-54 | 43.9 | 19.5% | 36.1% | 58% | 55-64 | 33.3 | 14.8% | 36.9% | 66% | 65-74 | 19.9 | 8.8% | 33.4% | 39% | 75 and over | 17.1 | 7.6% | 8.8% | -- |
Source: 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts National Endowment for the Arts, Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Combined File, 1982-2008
Education
Performing arts attendance rates rise significantly with higher formal education levels. In Figure 4, 67% of people who have achieved a Graduate School degree attended at least one arts event compared to 38% of those with some college education, and 19% with only a high school diploma. California residents interested in attending the performing arts also had more formal education levels with 79% having attained a Graduate School degree, and 69% of these residents having an Undergraduate degree. Conversely, the average audience declined as education levels. It was found that those with a High School diploma or below were much less likely to attend a performing arts event compared to those whom had at least some college.

Figure 4 Demographic distribution of U.S. adults attending performing arts at least once in the past 12 months: 2008 | U.S. Population | Rate of attendance | Education | Millions | Percent | U.S. | California | Grade School | 11.2 | 5.00% | 6.50% | 20% | Some High School | 22.1 | 9.8% | 14.5% | 39% | High School Graduate | 68.3 | 30.4% | 19.0% | 38% | Some College | 61.4 | 27.3% | 38.1% | 57% | College Graduate | 41.3 | 18.3% | 57.2 | 69% | Graduate School | 20.5 | 9.1% | 67.3 | 79% | Total | 224.8 | 100.00% | | |
Source: 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts National Endowment for the Arts, Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Combined File, 1982-2008

Income There is a strong correlation between income level and performing arts attendance rates. According to Figure 5, on a national basis, households with an income of $100,000 and over had the highest rate of attendance at 55% of U.S. adults. In California households with an annual income of $50,000 to $75,000 had the highest rate of attendance at 73% of the state’s adult population. Households that made $75,000 to $100,000 had the second highest rate at 67%. At both the national and state levels, rate of performing arts attendance generally increased as income increased. Additionally, California adults, when compared to the rest of the nation’s adult population, had a significantly higher rate of attendance across all income levels.
Figure 5 Demographic distribution of U.S. adults attending performing arts at least once in the past 12 months: 2008 | U.S. Population | Rate of attendance | Income | Millions | Percent | U.S. | California | Less than $10,000 | 11.6 | 5.80% | 16.10% | 36% | $10,000-20,000 | 19.3 | 9.6% | 16.8% | 42% | $20,000-30,000 | 13.4 | 11.7% | 19.3% | 42% | $30,000-40,000 | 22.6 | 11.3% | 27% | 40% | $40,000-50,000 | 18.8 | 9.3% | 31.8% | 54% | $50,000-75,000 | 40.7 | 20.3% | 36.2% | 73% | $75,000-$100,000 | 27.2 | 13.5% | 46.2% | 67% | $100,000 and over | 21.4 | 10.7% | 55% | -- |
Source: 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts National Endowment for the Arts, Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Combined File, 1982-2008
Demographic Trends and Characteristics Conclusion These demographic factors can be used to identify, performing arts audience attendance rates. McCarthy (2009) suggested that the performing arts have sustained the same limited demographic base for their audiences over the past century. Primary research conducted in this project confirms that the performing arts attendee continues to fit a similar demographic profile. That is, the typical performing arts patron is likely to be a Caucasian female in her forties with some college education, and an annual income between $50,000-75,000.
Social and Cultural Trends Understanding the social and cultural motivations underlying the target market’s buying behavior is essential to developing an effective marketing strategy. There are various factors that may influence consumers’ decision whether to attend a performing arts event. A study by the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (NPVSQ) identified potential motivations paired with attendee demographics in addition to purchase and attendance behaviors (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007). These motivations were aesthetics, education, escape, recreation, self-esteem enhancement, social interaction and childhood exposure. Additionally, research found that certain demographic factors such as age, gender, and income level can be used to predict psychographic motivations for performing arts attendance. Aesthetics
Consumers motivated by aesthetics receive direct enjoyment from the performing arts. The NPVSQ study found that some audience subjects view live performances as a form of art and entertainment which brings them enjoyment and gratification. Aesthetic motivation is the enjoyment of the art form itself. Therefore, the quality and specific programming of the event would factor into their enjoyment. (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007)

Education
Education motivates consumers in two ways. The first is through education about the arts and the second is through higher education in other fields of study. Education in the arts, is a precursor to aesthetic appreciation. Although a consumer may not fully understand or comprehend the art form, by attending more events they begin to gain a greater knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, increases their aesthetic enjoyment. (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007)
The second form of educational motivation is higher education in unrelated fields. Although these consumers may not have prior experience with the arts, their background in higher education gives them the mindset to enjoy the performing arts. Through higher education consumers are taught to think abstractly and analyze complex systems. Because of the complexity and difficulty associated with the various performing arts forms, those with a higher set of abstract thinking and analytical ability, such as those with higher education, are more likely to attend. (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007)
Escape and Recreation
Performing arts are also used as an escape or form of recreation. Research shows that many consumers view performing arts as a way to escape the monotony of daily life, a stress reliever (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007). Others regard performing arts events as a favorite pastime, thus providing a definite element of entertainment.
Self-Esteem and Social Interaction
Consumers attend performing arts events for a variety of social reasons. Two of these reasons include self-esteem enhancement and social interaction. Self-esteem enhancement suggests that people seek to achieve a higher social standing by attending performing arts events. The arts are pursued to improve a person’s self-image and perceived image from society. By attending performing arts events, consumers hope to gain some of the prestige associated with the arts. (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007)
Along with self-esteem, social interaction is also a motivating factor of performing arts audiences. According to the NPVSQ study, some art patrons are believed to attend various performing arts events for social interaction, believing that these events are opportunities to socialize with others who share a common interest (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2007). This motivation interprets the performing arts itself as not the main reason for attendance but rather the communal aspect of the arts.
Prior Experience and Childhood Exposure Those with prior experience in the arts are already primed to be performing arts consumers. People who are already exposed to performing arts through education are more likely to enjoy the overall performance since they can understand and evaluate it. Education provides consumers with a reference point and perspective which allows for a deeper understanding of the performance. (Park 2011) However, not all prior experience is equal. Those who had received an arts education during childhood are more likely to be performing arts attendees. (Park 2011) By having prior experience in the performing arts consumers have built a basic working knowledge that increases their motivations for attending. How Demographic Factors Can Predict Psychographic Motivations in Consumer Behavior As mentioned in the demographic section of this report, gender, age, and income level also affect the psychological motivations of performing arts attendees. The dissertation, An analysis of a performing arts consumer by Sung Hee Park in 2010 and the NPVSQ study in 2008 arrives at a demographic profile of the performing arts consumer as a middle-aged, college educated female with a mid-to-high level income (Park 2010). This consumer is motivated by the aesthetics of the venue and performance, the desire for recreation, and the aspiration to gain more education about the arts (Swanson, Davis, Zhao 2008). Moreover, women tend to receive more arts education as children, which contribute to their motivation to attend the arts (Park 2010).
Social/Cultural Conclusion These psychographic factors can be used to segment and select a target market. The profile of this consumer has been shown to be motivated and influenced by the aesthetics, the desire for arts education, the need for escape, recreation, self-esteem, social interaction, and a personal childhood experience with the arts. In order to effectively develop a strategic marketing plan, understanding these factors must be taken into account.
Economic Environment
The current recession has impacted businesses and organizations throughout the United States. The economy has directly affected organizations that thrive on donations and grant funding. To be specific, Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) has been negatively affected by this current recession. In order to grow as an organization, it is essential that the CCCO are aware of the opportunities and threats there are available in the future.
Performing Arts and the National Economy
Due to the current recession, according to "Vital Signs: Arts Funding in the Current Economy" (2009), most art donors have reduced their contributions to arts organizations by at least ten percent and some by as much as eighty percent, with further reductions predicted for the next two years. Contributors are also coping with the recession by limiting their grants to arts organizations. According to the Arts Funding in the Current Economy found in the GIAreader performing arts organizations heavily rely on grants and donations for revenue (Arts Funding in the Current Economy, 2009) also predicts that the economic picture will not improve before 2012 or 2013. State Arts Council funding has dropped 25% from 2008 to 2011 (Art Funders and the Recession, 2010). States are making fewer and smaller grants, and, in some cases, eliminating support completely due to growing social pressures to address hunger, homelessness, and other community problems caused by the bad economy.
Trends in the consumer price index (CPI) are important to observe when focusing on the national economy. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the national CPI increased from 218 in July of 2010 to 226 in July of 2011 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). With inflation rising, consumers will be confronted with diminishing disposable incomes and increasing prices nationwide. However, the national CPI for the recreational section did not change at all, remaining at 113 from July, 2010 to July, 2011 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). Some inflation in the market is natural, and considering, that inflation has not had a major effect on recreation proves optimistic for recreational activities. Although CPI is increasing nationwide, arts organizations should not be drastically affected. The economic downturn could also be seen as an opportunity for the performing arts industry because it will force the industry to restructure its current business models and adapt to new ways of surviving (much like Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra is choosing to do now). The CCCO can take this opportunity to reach out and show that they are committed to build a strong sense of community because tough economic times bring about a greater need for a sense of community and cultural enrichment.
National Economic Forecast
Although the national economy’s forecast has been optimistic in the last couple of weeks, reports of a growing economy seem to be misleading. According to Bloomberg Business week the unemployment is now projected to stay above 8.5% this year while the consumer-spending forecast had decreased from 2.8% to 2.1% in the fourth quarter (Willis, B., & Chandra, S., 2011). This figure is disheartening for performing arts organizations. Trends show that the consumers are being forced to make decisions about what they are purchasing. Instead of buying a new TV, they may decide to go on a family vacation. But they are not going to be able to afford both. Forecasts also show that even though there may be an increase in spending around this upcoming holiday season, it will be brought to an end towards the beginning of next year by the surge in inflation.
National Grants Available for Non-Profit Arts Organizations
An opportunity that the CCCO has is the ability to apply for grants at the national level. For example, the National Endowment for the Arts is an organization that has over four million dollars to allocate in grants for performing arts organizations. The goal of the CCCO is to benefit local communities and individuals. The National Endowment for the Arts is open for anyone to apply and is not the only form of grant that is available for organizations such as the CCCO (National Endowment for the Arts Home Page, 2011).
The Cantor Foundation is another entity that offers grants specifically to help performing arts around the nation and keep art and music alive. There are many more opportunities such as these that the CCCO could be taking full advantage of. Not only would it benefit the organization it would lessen the financial burden on its members and provide the CCCO with a more appropriate budget for the CCCO’s needs and what the CCCO wants to accomplish as a chamber orchestra.
Due to the current recession, three-quarters of community foundations reduced funding grants in 2009. This reduction in grants affected performing arts funding. This is a threat to the CCCO because the donations and grants given to the CCCO are essential contributions towards their funding. In comparison, the Foundation Center estimates that foundation assets declined below 21.9% and assets fell 24.7 percent. Nonetheless, while foundations still held more than $530 billion at the end of 2008, nearly $150 billion in charitable resources have been lost in a single year (Funding for the Arts, 2009).
The recession is diminishing grants and the donation sizes that people can afford to give. Companies who usually have no problem donating and supporting local and national performing arts are now thinking twice and have to re-evaluate where they are spending their money. The Foundation Center for Performing Arts shows charts of decreasing donations, possibly as much as 10%. Although this drop may not seem threatening, it could severely damage many performing arts organizations financially. The downside for the CCCO applying for these grants is that the CCCO is a small player among other performing art organizations, such as the San Francisco Chamber Orchestra or the San Francisco Symphony. Applying for these grants would be a stretch for the CCCO because the CCCO is a small player trying to compete on a big stage. A recommendation for the CCCO would be to apply for a smaller grant such as a local community grant or a state grant.

Performing Arts in California’s Economy
According to the Census Bureau (2011), since 2008 there has been a steady rise in disposable income per household in California. Unemployment has reached 12.1%, with inflation at 3.1%, yet consumer spending has increased to $6,000 per household (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). The rise in disposable income is forecasted to continue for the next several years. This means each household has a portion of its disposable income that could be spent on luxury goods, such as the performing arts. Educational institutions have a large role in performing arts. Not only do they educate students on the subject of performing arts, they also offer support for different performing arts organizations. Years of continued budget cuts have drastically reduced arts education in California public schools. Due to these budget cuts, the Performing Arts Program and the Foundation's Education Program have made a series of grants available. This is a part of an initiative encouraging the state to follow its Visual and Performing Arts content standards. More grants are being given out on a local level to advocacy organizations. This will help to reinstate and keep performing arts programs in California schools which will in turn help support the industry as a whole (Arts Education, 2011). The Hewlett Foundation's Performing Arts Program has also awarded grants to several organizations that offer Performing Arts education. Current recipients include the California Alliance for Arts Education, which coordinates with multiple stakeholders to push for arts education reform at the state and local levels. This is an immense opportunity for the performing arts industry.
Performing Arts in the Bay Area Economy In Northern California, unique opportunities can be found throughout the Bay Area. In August of this year, the consumer price index for the San Francisco Bay Area indicated that prices were up 0.4% from the past two months, and up 2.9% from a year ago (West Information, 2011). In relation to the consumer price index, the average amount of money a consumer spends in the Bay Area is below the national average. In 2010, consumers in the Bay Area spent 4.9% of their annual income on different forms of entertainment. In comparison, the U.S. averages 5.5% of annual spending on entertainment (West Information, 2011). Put into perspective, entertainment expenditures are higher than healthcare, apparel and services, and cash contributions at a national and local level.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics the average overhead of a given consumer in the Bay Area is $68,966 annually and based on the above data, the amount of money spent on entertainment a year is between $3,379-$3,793. This is evidence that people are willing to spend money on different forms of entertainment. Furthermore, the unemployment rate in the Bay Area is at 9.7%. Since unemployment is so high and people have become even more cautious in regards to spending money on leisure activities, the CCCO is in need of another source of income from local foundations. Two opportunities that are available for funding for the CCCO are from organizations such as the Foundation’s Education Program and the Arts Learning Leadership in the Alameda County Office of Education (Hewlette Foundation, 2011). These organizations are promoting art education to public schools in Contra Costa County and are offering partnerships to industries involving any form of arts.
The current recession has negatively impacted numerous companies and institutions on national, state and local levels. Many of the organizations that are grasping for survival depend on donations and grants. Although the recession has negatively affected organizations and companies like the CCCO, there are still many opportunities and choices that can aid the company in growing to a profitable level again.
Technological Dimension
Introduction
As technological innovation constantly evolves, the performing arts field has struggled, adapted, and sometimes excelled in its utilization of technology. To better understand these trends, this section intends to address the opportunities and threats of technology usage in both performing arts fields and other forms of entertainment. Findings in the environmental analysis are supported by references to secondary sources that provides a heightened understanding of the performing arts industry’s leading technological trends. Given the various elements of performing arts productions, this report will analyze the industry’s technological trends and future directions related to staging, acoustics, lighting and sound engineering. Beyond these essential aspects of the performing arts product, special emphasis is placed on the leading technological trends in marketing and promotion through various forms of social media.
Organization
Staffing & Human Resources Given the small organizational structure common to many performing arts groups, the industry faces an inherent threat by its propensity to not always be technologically current. A survey conducted by both NPower, Inc. and Callahan Consulting for the Arts reported the majority of respondents (58%) had 10 or fewer employees in their performing arts organization. A larger majority (71%) had no designated IT staff (NPower, Callahan, 2010). Most surveys were completed by executive directors (58%), and most respondents had spent four or fewer years in their role. Most of these respondents noted their lack of funds for technology investment in general, and for specific tech projects. Furthermore, a lack of resources diminished their ability to successfully implement the technology. Most of these subjects reported the lack of human resources human resources necessary to understand and use technology. The absence of available staff due to competing priorities, is common across the performing arts industry. Technical Knowledge & Usage The NPower study also examined the industries' current attitudes towards technical knowledge and usage. A full eighty percent of performing arts organizations considered their technology to be either only “serviceable” or “antiquated” (NPower, Callahan, 2010). Respondents were also asked if they had experienced a series of barriers to effective adoption and use of new technologies in the past five years. Three barriers emerged: lack of money (83% of respondents), lack of time (69%), and insufficient knowledge to make technological decisions (33%). Respondents desired more expertise and knowledge, so they could use technology to its fullest potential. This included the process of researching and choosing technology. They strongly desired to keep current on technology trends to understand how advancements in certain systems were changing the nature of their business. They desired training to enable staff with the knowledge to use the technology they purchased. While many companies in the performing arts industry have expressed their desire to achieve a greater understanding of the technology critical to their business, the feasibility of doing so is threatened by inherent obstacles of small organization size and lack of funding.
Production & Performance
Staging
Although staging lacks complexity, it is important to evaluate the performing arts auditoriums that demand high quality equipment to understand how staging is implemented through a performing arts performance. When a performance venue requires more space or additional seating areas for the participants conducting the performance, most, if not all auditoriums use a pit-filler or a stage lift. These are used so the instrumentalists who need extra room will have plenty of space to achieve their full potential while performing. Orchestra pit fillers are a feasible solution for theaters with space limitations. Pit fillers can also be designed for fixing stage height concerns, for example, a stage that needs to be elevated or lowered; a pit-filler can resolve these. Allowing for both multiple heights and quick changes of levels (an orchestra “must have”), a stage lift can be a valuable tool to add for your performance space.
Acoustics & Sound Engineering
Sound and Acoustics are a major part of any Performing Arts event. There are many types of Sound and Acoustic techniques used in Performing arts. One component of acoustics that is crucial to the hearing experience is the “direct” sound, which is the line from the source of the sound to the listener. Making this as pleasurable as possible by placing instruments at a precise distance from the audience will allow the sound to be at a comparable volume that will still enable the audience to hear the different tunes produced. Early and late reflected sound plays a major role in the overall sound quality of a performance. This deals with the sound being reflected form the walls and ceilings. This is largely dependent on the size and age of the facility. The performance sound system in this case is included in the specifications and design of the auditorium (Hardiman, 2006). Important features venues offer include control of reverberation, raised performance area, raised seating and surface to diffuse sound and provide useful sound reflections (Brooks, 2003). All these factors contribute to what is “Natural” room acoustics, which for the performing arts industry can be a threat or opportunity based upon action taken to address these factors (Bonner, 2009).

Lighting
Lighting plays a significant role in the performing arts industry and the use or misuse can determine the quality of the overall performance. Positioning of lights is important to both the audience and the performers. Having lights directed in such a way that is aimed at the audience will distract and distort the viewing experience. Height is a key component that is fundamental to the viewing experience. Lights should be placed high and positioned away from the audience. Lighting should be directed onto the performance at an angle that will eliminate shadows. The spotlight effect is essential to taking advantage of lighting techniques. Another major concern of lighting is the elimination of glare to both the audience and the performers, which can cause distraction. Highlighting performers or areas of a performance at necessary times also adds towards a positive viewing experience. Poor lighting of a facility or use of lighting in a venue will pose a threat to the overall quality of the performance and reflect upon the company/group. (Sayer, 2011)
Stage lighting is used to enhance the scene or the display of art. The lighting should have the power of pulling the aspects of the stage together. It is not just enough to illuminate the stage as a whole and not just the main performers. The objects appearing on the stage need to be balanced and the light should focus on the stage in a way that the audience can get dragged in and have a sense and feeling of what they are viewing.
Marketing & Promotion
Ticketing
The performing arts industry currently offers consumers two primary ticketing methods. Since 2005, 70 percent of tickets sold have been physical copies through both certified box office ticketing services (i.e. Ticketmaster) and the venue’s box office. The other 30 percent of tickets sold are electronic tickets, sold through box office’s online ticketing services (Dalton 2003). The electronic method offers the potential audience the ability to purchase tickets at their convenience without the need to physically visit a box office. the internet and the purchaser is responsible for printing the ticket at home). Given the heightened desire for convenience, electronic ticketing presents an opportunity to performing arts organizations. However, adopting an electronic ticket marketing strategy threatens the older generations of audiences accustomed to the traditional means of purchasing tickets through venue box offices. Advancements in the technology of ticketing services for added consumer convenience has led many ticketing sites (i.e. Fandango, Live Nation, Ticketmaster) to take the electronic ticket to the next level with “mobi-tickets” (Mobile Tickets). Mobi-tickets are purchased online and sent to the customer’s mobile phone via text message or e-mail. The message includes a barcode that allows entrance to the event when scanned. With over 200 million wireless subscribers in the United States and more than 50 million Internet-connected mobile devices in use (Dalton 2003), the market for this type of ticket is very large. The use of mobi-tickets introduces the opportunity to solve several inherent problems for live performances. For example, the average performance yields only 60% of total sales from advanced ticket purchases (Music Week 2011). With mobi-tickets, tickets can be sold right up until the start of the event. This method also lessens the likelihood of lost or forgotten tickets since they are readily available on the user’s cell phone and can be accessed from a friend’s cell phone as well.
Website & Social Media Social Media Networking is a major opportunity as a medium for the performing arts industry to expand and connect with both current and potential audiences. The use of social media in the performing arts industry is key to promote awareness, attract new customers, and remain up to date with current promotional/advertising trends. As the fastest growing form of customer interaction, Social Media Networking presents an extremely cost-effective method of reaching the desired audience and is essential to the industry’s ability to expand and enter into to multiple segments (marketingprofs 2011).
The most frequently mentioned social media application in case studies conducted by NPower, Inc. and Callahan Consulting was Facebook. Facebook allows for the performing arts industry to reach a larger potential audience. It is the most visited site social media site in the world that is free to subscribers (Smith 2011). Facebook is an effective way to reach new and current customers by posting new information related to performances, events and other related content. Furthermore, Facebook offers interactivity through the audience’s ability to provide feedback to both help promote performing arts organizations and address the audiences’ demands. Facebook also provides a great opportunity to network within the local community and help promote themselves through other local businesses.
Other major social media opportunities include Youtube, Groupon, Living Social, and Yelp, which provide mass scale customer reviews, discounts on events, and other promotional offers. These forms of Social media are the most popular due to their unique functions respectively. Youtube, for example, allows companies to upload video and showcase their product/service for free. Similar social media services can be used in combination to create an effective advertising campaign without the costs of local TV advertisement and/or radio. Social media is the fastest growing form of advertising and a recent study shows a dramatic 50% increase in shifting marketing budgets and attention to social media from print advertisement to keep up with current growing demands (Roubin 2011). Social media among users from the boomer generation has increased over the past years from 20%-60% further creating an opportunity for an industry with an age sensitive demographic.
Political Environment
In difficult economic periods, donations become essential to performing arts organizations. However due to diminishing grant funding, the organizations have to rely on donations from individuals in its surrounding communities. There are several political benefits available to nonprofit performing arts programs such as The 501 tax break through the League of American Orchestras and funding from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Advocacy for the performing arts even reaches the highest political level as well. President Obama’s platform for change was intended to increase funding for performing arts organizations and create jobs. However, its campaigns fell short due to lack of support from Congress and fellow politicians. Nonprofit Organizations, such as Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra, (CCCO), aim to serve the public’s interest. A legal structure for nonprofit organizations provides a framework of rules and therefore gives clarity on the responsibilities, rights and obligations of its individual members. This structure also enhances the credibility of ones organization to potential donors. Along with many nonprofit performing arts organizations, orchestras have been suffering from the impact of the economic downfall. Combining the decreasing budget of leisure activities in a household with declining audience interest has resulted with orchestra organizations being forced to work on lower budgets. As nonprofit charitable entities, orchestras depend on grants and civic donation support. Due to our economy’s current recession and more grants being cut, performing arts programs such as the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra are receiving a particularly negative effect. With a loss of grants, the CCCO has turned to donations as a major source of revenue. Members of the orchestra reportedly donated approximately $8,000 last year to contribute to the orchestra's overall budget of less than $35,000 per season according to Maestro Timothy Smith. As the U.S. economy struggles, not only are grant programs being removed, but donations are also decreasing due to smaller personal budgets from community members and orchestra supporters.
The League of American Orchestras is an organization that advocates for the vitality of music worldwide. The League advocates the importance of arts funding, educations, and nonprofit tax issues before Congress in Washington D.C. Currently orchestras are tax-exempt organizations under the Tax 501 policy, as a part of a nonprofit charitable sector that is aimed toward the betterment of communities across the nation (“Tax and 501”, 2011). The 501 tax break is available to any charitable organization that is operating for the benefit of public interest. The CCCO falls under this tax exemption by being part of the nation’s nonprofit sector that works to improve the quality of communities nationwide. The orchestra qualifies by promoting the importance of public volunteering, philanthropy, and civic support (Americans for the Arts, 2011). The U.S. Department of Education strongly acknowledges the need for arts of all forms as being a crucial component in child development. So it is crucial that the CCCO and other non-profits are being aided by the government. While orchestras are suffering during the U.S. economic downturn and grants are in dire need, some policies and acts are serving to help the performing arts. In the case of a natural disaster, orchestra facilities are protected under the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). In 2006, Congress approved that all performing arts facilities be added to the coverage of non-profit organizations eligible to receive funding in the case of damages or hazards to the facility such as fires or earthquakes (Americans for the Arts, 2011). Although-efforts need to be made in advance in the case of a disaster such as paper work and proof of leases, orchestras remain protected under this policy.
During his presidential campaign, President Barack Obama proposed an extensive platform to not only save but increase funding for the arts. He supported artists and arts organizations through many outlets he hoped to reform when in office. A number of plans he set forth included creating “Artists Corps” for young artists to promote the arts in schools and low income communities, increasing funding for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and establishing social and tax programs for the arts. President Obama noted that the arts provide jobs, foster communities and help the economy grow. Various reports provide evidence that tax revenue for the arts amounted to more than 18 times the annual federal funding in 2010 according to the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) (Lynch, 2005). According to the Recovery and Reinvestment Act Platform in 2009, performing arts organization audiences generated $166.2 billion in the United States economy and $30 million in government activity (Lynch, 2005). However, in 2009, there was a backlash by different political parties who believed the opposite, that the arts did not provide for a substantive or viable economy within itself. Despite his proposal during his campaign, President Obama gave in to other politicians and as a result his budget for the 2012 fiscal year intends to cut 13 percent funding for the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities, the deepest funding decline in 16 years. As a result, the House passed a continued resolution to keep government running that would cut $40 million for the arts. These political events pose a threat for the arts by cutting more and more funding from the budget set for the NEA and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Further evidence of this threat is that the NEA was allotted $155 million in 2011, a massive cut from the $176 million allocated in 1992. The trend shows that consistent cuts in government funding could pose higher threats for any type of performing arts organizations.
A majority of the revenue involving contributions to nonprofit performing groups by nonprofit organizations has been in decline. As a result, many performing art groups such as symphony orchestras and theater groups have been cutting their budget because they are unable to attract larger audiences and cover their expenses. Although people are attending more live performances of all kinds, most of the increase in attendance is the result of population growth and increasing education levels, not an increase in the percentage of the population that attends live performances (McCarthy, 2002).
McCarthy predicts that in the future, performing art groups will split in two different directions. The cause of this is reductions in demands, rising costs, and static or even declining funding streams. This will force many of these institutions either to become larger or more prestigious or become smaller and more community-orientated, using local talent to keep costs down and adapting programming to local audiences. If performing arts group do not fall into either category, they will simply close their doors. This is implying that in the near future, there will no longer be a middle between the two, but more of a separation between who the group is trying to attract as a target audience.
Legal Environment
There are various legal factors that can affect a performing arts organization. Therefore, it is crucial the organization is aware of the opportunities and threats these factors present. Adherence to safety regulations, tax laws, copyright laws, and operational laws is required for an organization to operate both successfully and legally. Safety regulations and OSHA laws force an organization to take into account the different variables that may present a threat to the employees and audience members. How an organization is classified affects which tax laws they must follow. Copyright laws also must be taken into consideration when constructing a program. Recognition and compliance with these laws and regulations will result in eliminating these legal threats.
A performing arts organization must conform to laws and regulations put forth by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). When choosing a venue or location to perform, these regulations must be followed for the safety of both the performers and the audience members. Performing art organizations that rent venues must look at the safety of that venue first. If the organization owns the location, many staging laws must be obeyed. It is imperative that the organization takes the necessary steps to ensure that the work environment for both employees and audience members is free from potential health and safety hazards. A proactive approach towards safety is required which eliminates the possibility of danger, maintain production, and avoid legal fees and fines that can terminate the organization.
Under state and federal tax laws, as long as a nonprofit corporation is organized, operates for a recognized nonprofit purpose and has secured the proper tax exemptions, it can take in more money than its spends to conduct its activities. Whether a nonprofit’s income is taxable depends on whether the activities are related to the nonprofit purpose. By assuming a legal structure, a nonprofit organization obtains the Nonprofit Corporation status. Voluntary Associations are governed by common law which requires that the association’s objectives are lawful and not primarily for the gain of profits by its members. A voluntary association will have a constitution as its founding document and the Constitution will regulate the governance of the association.
Orchestras and symphonies enjoy recreating several historic musical pieces of many genres and time periods. When a maestro is forming his set he or she must take into account copyright laws. Copyrights for any musical composition and choreography give the author or owner of the work the right of control, reproduction, distribution, adaptation, public performance, broadcasting and translation. The copyright term for a work created by a natural person is the lifetime of the author plus 50 years. The copyright for a work created by a corporation is 100 years from the date of creation or 75 years from the date of publication. When a copyright expires, the work falls into the public domain for anyone to use.
Under US law, the Fair Use of a copyrighted material is also applicable. A limitation and exemption to the exclusive right allows limited use without acquiring permission for the right’s holders. However, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, several factors are considered including: the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and sustainability of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The legal environment that surrounds any nonprofit organization can give the impression that it poses a threat more than an opportunity to the organization, because of the abundance of laws and regulations that must be adhered to. However these laws protect the venue, the performing arts and the organization’s image. Furthermore, as a result of government oversight and tax exemptions, performing arts organizations are also provided with funding which can be used towards their improvement and sustainability.
Cooperative Environment The Contra Costa Chambers Orchestra (CCCO) has potential for continuing to develop mutually beneficial relationships with members of its cooperative environment. The cooperative environment consists of the needs of individuals and organizations (other than customers) that interact and interrelate with of the CCCO. West Coast Marketing (WCM) conducted an interview with Martin Rokeach of Saint Mary’s College of California Performing Arts Department. This interview was conducted due to the affiliation the CCCO has with the Saint Mary’s College Performing Arts Department. WCM also interviewed Bosphorus Restaurant, Walnut Creek Yacht Club, and Prima Restaurant. These organizations were interviewed because the organizations are in close proximity with the Lesher Center. The building of relationships with these organizations will not only enhance the CCCO’s brand recognition but also create further opportunities for growth in the future. During the interview with Martin Rokeach, he was asked 2 questions: What is your organization’s interaction with the CCCO?, What do you think would make your relationship with the CCCO more beneficial to you and the CCCO? He responded by stating:
“The Saint Mary's instrumental music students need the experience in playing in large ensembles such as bands and orchestras. Saint Mary's is too small to start the instrumental music students from scratch. Saint Mary's pays the music director of the CCCO a modest salary to serve as a faculty member for the college. Saint Mary's students may audition to play in the orchestra, and if they're accepted they earn academic credit. The orchestra gains musicians and Saint Mary's students gain much needed experience. They receive a grade at the end of each semester as they would for any class. Another interaction with the music director of the CCCO takes place each January when the Performing Arts Department hold scholarship auditions. If a string player is strong enough, the performing arts department could potentially offer the person a scholarship and require they play in both the Saint Mary's chamber musicians and the CCCO. But the full-time music faculty doesn't want to impose this on the CCCO without their input, so the music director comes to campus to attend auditions and offer his opinion. Having an orchestra affiliated with Saint Mary's is serving to recruit very talented student musicians who otherwise would not want to attend. Furthermore, what would benefit both the Performing Arts Department and the CCCO is that more talented musicians attend the school and play in the orchestra. Last year, the first year of CCCO's and Saint Mary's performing arts department relationship, there was only one student in the orchestra. This year there are two. Next year the performing arts department hopes that the number will increase to five. If the number decreases, the college will feel its not worth paying the salary to the CCCO music director, thus severing the relationship and wounding the Saint Mary's performing arts department.” In addition, WCM interviewed a number of restaurants in the Walnut Creek area, asking its managers the same questions posed to Martin Rokeach. Bosphorus was extremely interested in the idea of a partnership. The owner stated that if a patron of the CCCO were to bring in a ticket stub from a CCCO performance, he would be willing to offer a discount towards their bill at Bosphorus. The Walnut Creek Yacht Club was also very interested in the idea of a potential partnership. The Walnut Creek Yacht Club (WCYC) already has an affiliation with the Lesher Center. The WCYC manager, David Keane, said, "since we already do multiple charity events and donation opportunities with the Lesher Center, a partnership with the CCCO would make sense." Prima was another restaurant that had some interest in a potential partnership with the CCCO. However, Prima was only willing to offer catering services if the CCCO were to need food and beverage services. The manager, Richard Van Der Linde, suggested the CCCO have some sort of event at the Lesher Center and Prima would provide a delicious cuisine. All other downtown Walnut Creek restaurants that WCM attempted to interview were not inclined to work with the CCCO. Interviews with members of the cooperative environment show there is potential for mutual benefits between the CCCO and the willing participants. According to Martin Rokeach, it will be most beneficial for the CCCO to collaborate with performing arts professors from Saint Mary's College and form an incentive program for talented student musicians to join the CCCO. With the addition of more Saint Mary's students, the CCCO could potentially gain a larger audience while building some sort of recruitment system between the school and the orchestra. Finally, the CCCO has multiple opportunities to engage in mutual relationships among independent, privately owned restaurants in downtown Walnut Creek.

Product Market Analysis A Performing Arts organization seeking to increase its audience base must closely examine the product, pricing, promotional and distribution elements of its direct and indirect competitors. This product market analysis for Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) will examine the marketing mix of various competitors in the entertainment and leisure industry in the Bay Area. These include direct competitors such as the Contra Costa Civic Theatre and The Diablo Theatre Company, and more indirect competitors like the San Francisco Giants, Tommy T’s Comedy Steakhouse in Pleasanton and Century Theatres in Walnut Creek. Observing the product, pricing, promotional and distribution strategies of these organizations could suggest marketing measures that CCCO might employ.
Contra Costa Civic Theatre
Contra Costa Civic Theatre (CCCT) is a volunteer-based non-profit community theatre located in El Cerrito, CA. Established in 1959 by Louis and Bettianne Flynn, and a number of dedicated volunteers, CCCT is one of only three live performing arts organizations with a permanent home in West Contra Costa County. According to the company website, the CCCT’s mission is to provide affordable, high quality entertainment to residents throughout the East Bay and provide training in live performing arts for children and adults. (ccct.org, 2011)
Product
Programs at CCCT include classical, comical, musical and dramatic works. The 2011-2012 season shows include Chicago, Steel Magnolias, Barefoot in the Park, Rabbit Hole, West Side Story, and a holiday performance called Sounds of the Season. In addition to theatre productions, CCCT is committed to offering educational opportunities for all ages. All of the classes and camps are part of the “Live at CCCT” program. Courses are held on general theatre, musical theatre, improvisation, in addition to several Summer Camp sessions and an after-school program. (ccct.org, 2011) Pricing
Season ticket prices range from $11 to $27 per performance. Discounts are awarded for children ages 16 and under who pay between $11-$15. Adult attendees pay $20-$27. The theatre also offers a Subscriber Rewards Program. A subscription to the Contra Costa Civic Theatre rewards supporters with single ticket price mark-offs, priority & reserved seating, flexible dates, family and friends benefits, and exclusive discounts at participating businesses in the area. (ccct.org, 2011)
Promotion
The theatre promotes performances through a mailing list, newsletters, flyers, Facebook, Yelp, volunteers, and local business sponsorship. The CCCT also puts together a press kit for upcoming shows, featuring press photos of the principle cast along with a press release.
Distribution
The CCCT now resides in the recently renovated Boys Club building in El Cerrito. All performances and class offerings are held at CCCT with the exception of the advanced youth summer camp program which is located at Prospect High School, a block from the theatre. Five to six performances are produced per year, each running a month long. Three to four shows are performed per week, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights, in addition to a matinee performance on Sundays. (ccct.org, 2011). According to Yelp.com, some reviews for the organization state the theatre as being an intimate and conformable space with approximately 100 seats (2011).
The Diablo Theatre Company The Diablo Theatre Company (DTC) is a non-profit professional regional theatre company based in Walnut Creek. It was founded in the late 1950s by a group of local theatre lovers, whom developed an idea to create their own amateur company in hopes of reproducing favorite Gilbert and Sullivan small operas, or operettas. In 1959, Diablo Light Opera Company was born. In the mid-nineties, the company stopped producing light operas and moved toward producing Broadway Musical pieces. In 2009, the company celebrated its 50th Anniversary and solidified itself as one of Bay Area premier producers of musical theater. The company changed its name from the Diablo Light Opera Company to the Diablo Theatre Company after having decided an adjustment was needed in order to better reflect types of entertainment the company now yields. DTC now seeks to inspire audiences and cultivate the next generation of theatre artisans through musical productions and educational programming. (“About DTC,” 2011)
Product
Today, Diablo Theatre Company entertains East Bay audiences by showcasing modern musical works and collaborating in the development of new works. The 2011-2012 company musical season includes The Wizard of Oz, Irving Berlin’s White Christmas, Legally Blonde, and RENT. The company also offers theatre education programs for adults and youth. Classes are taught through the DTC Performing Arts Academy, which is a positive environment where the next generations of new theatre artists are encouraged to take risks and be themselves. In order to reach potential artisans and sustain funding support, DTC reaches out to Alumni, local churches, schools, non-profit groups, and charities. (“About DTC,” 2011)
Pricing
In order to attract viewers of all ages, DTC offers a variety of ticketing price options to fit every budget. This season, single tickets range from $17-$48, including a $5.00 Lesher Center for the Arts facility fee. For performances in the Hoffman Theatre, a tiered ticket pricing is applied. More expensive seating, known as Elite, is the center, closest to the front stage, whereas the cheaper seats, known as either premium or standard, are at the back and on the sides. Another consideration for ticket pricing is age. The DTC offers three age brackets. The first age group includes children and young adults under 30 years old, the second age group includes any adults between 31 and 61 years old, and the third group is seniors, persons aged 62 and higher.
The company frequently offers discounts for various performances. Special discount tickets are offered for groups of 20 or more. In some instances, DTC will turn to the Walnut Creek Barnes and Noble as a ticket outlet for undersold shows. DTC often also has a limited number of half-price tickets available through Goldstar, a recognized online discount ticket retailer. (“Prices and Seating Chart DTC,” 2011)
Promotion
In terms of advertising and promotional services, The Diablo Theatre Company uses Facebook, Flickr, YouTube channel, and a RSS news feed. Furthermore, current and potential customers have the option of joining the mailing list for emails, newsletters, and postcards informing them of upcoming shows, information and special events. DTC website allows easy access to its contact page with its address, phone number, email and a form that can be filled out in order to contact the company. The company phone number is also listed in large font on every page as a means of encouragement for users to purchase tickets for upcoming events. (“About DTC,” 2011)
Distribution
The Diablo Theatre Company performs in the Margaret Lesher Theatre and Hoffman Theatre. The Hoffman Theatre is the largest of the three theatres in the Lesher Center for the Arts. Located in downtown Walnut Creek, there are many surrounding shops and restaurants Diablo Theatre customers can take advantage of either before or after a production. The Lesher Center is also within walking distance of local transportation, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit train system (BART) and the County Connection (Contra Costa County bus system).
San Francisco Giants
The Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran baseball player Jim Mutrie. The New York Gotham’s, as the Giants were originally known, entered into the National League in 1883. The Giants played in Manhattan, New York, until the close of the 1957 season, after which they moved west to California to become the San Francisco Giants. The Giants have won four pennants and the 2010 World Series since arriving in San Francisco. Today, the San Francisco Giants represent innovation, professionalism and excellence on and off the field. The mission is to provide a high-quality entertainment experience to customers, and enhance their value as a community asset. (“Giants History,” 2011)

Product The San Francisco Giants are dedicated to serving both fans and the community. The Giants impress fans by developing a skillful team, resulting in high-ranking season scores. In addition to on field entertainment, the Giants are highly involved in community programs which address needs of northern California children and families, healthcare, violence prevention, youth fitness and recreation, education and literacy. Examples of community programs include donations to charities, auctions, a Giants Community Fund, and a Junior Giants Baseball club. The San Francisco Giants’ involvement in their community is critical to their success and notability as an organization (“Giants In The Community,” 2011).
Pricing
The San Francisco Giants offer many pricing options for their games. Some options include season tickets, general admission tickets, packages, group tickets, and luxury suites. Prices vary depending on the rank of the opponent for each game as well as location of the seat, ranging anywhere from $10 to several hundreds of dollars. Currently, people interested in 2012-2013 Giants Season Tickets are looking at a $1,000 non-refundable deposit per seat. Throughout the season, the Giants offer several deals and discounts for college students, war veterans, senior citizens, and many more. In addition to offering discounted tickets, they also provide free gifts to the first “x” number of fans to arrive at the park on certain game days. These gifts range from bobble-head dolls of the Giants players to t-shirts and hats to flags, etc. The Giants effectively use pricing as a strategy to draw in a larger audience. (“San Francisco Giants Tickets,” 2011)

Promotion
Over the last decade the San Francisco Giants have been one of the top sponsorship revenue generating teams in all of Major League Baseball. During the World Series run in 2010, more than three million fans walked through the gates of the Giant’s home field at AT&T Park. It was the eighth time the park had surpassed the three million mark, becoming only the fourth team in Major League history to accomplish the feat.
In addition to the team’s recent success on the field, the ever-increasing fan base can be attributed to the successful promotional methods the Giants utilize. Employing the pull method, the Giants have partnerships with radio and television. Partners include KNBR radio, Comcast SportsNet Bay Area, NBC Bay Area and KIQI Radio. Most noted, however, is that the Giants have an official in house production company, the SFG Productions. SFG creates unique programming, content and specialized products for extension of the Giants brand.
The Giants are dedicated to serving fans and the community alike. One example is the “Take Me Out to the Ballgame” Program, which gives nonprofit organizations and community groups a chance to acquire complimentary tickets. Additionally, the Giants help promote community organizations and raise awareness about their cause through matrix-board messages at the park. The Giants have promotions running throughout the season and often have giveaways at home games to the fans that arrive to the game earliest. An example would be the first ever bobble head back in 1999, an idea that has since been used by different franchises throughout sports. Social media is also a significant means of promotion and public relations. Along with selling merchandise at the ballgame on shelves and at concession carts, the team maintains a Facebook and a Twitter account; two online sources so fans can view the latest news updates and ongoing promotions. The online website is a highly effective tool to attract new consumers, learn the history of baseball, and how to play one of America’s favorite pastimes on site, or download a mobile application. (“Giants In The Community,” 2011)
Distribution
Located in the South Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, AT&T Park has served as the home of the Giants since 2000. AT&T is regarded as one of the best venues to attend a baseball game. Seating a total of 41,530 fans, this ballpark features an inspiring nine-foot statue of America's greatest living ballplayer, Willie Mays, at the public entrance. In addition, an 80-foot Coca-Cola bottle with playground slides and a miniature AT&T Park lies behind left field. Also noteworthy is the 103-foot wide high definition scoreboard that stands in center field, and the King Street clock towers that stand 122 feet tall.
Regular season games begin in April and run through October. Each game can be held on any day of the week, either in the afternoon or evening. The unique dimensions of AT&T Park make it a desirable destination for anyone to attend a game regardless of the time of day. (“Ballpark,” 2011)
Tommy T’s Comedy Steakhouse
Tommy T’s Comedy Steakhouse (TTCS) is a comedy club located in Pleasanton, CA. TTCS features famous comedians as well as local up and coming talent. There are typically three performances booked for each bill, beginning with local comedians and ending with a headliner. (“Tommy T's Comedy,” 2011)
Product
TTCS focuses on providing a one-stop venue for consumers looking for an evening of fun, laughter, and good eating. It is a great place to sink your teeth into a steak, catch a big name and a nice slew of local comedians. Along with a comedy stage, TTCS includes a full bar and complete range of appetizer, entree and dessert options for audience attendants. (“Tommy T's Comedy,” 2011)
Pricing
Prices range from free to $50 depending on the type of performance. Tickets can be purchased in advance either online on the company website, onsite at the box office; or occasionally, the night of event. Additional costs include a two-item minimum. Audience members must purchase at least two menu items per performance. (“Tommy T's Comedy,” 2011)
Promotion
In terms of promotion, TTCS uses social media outlets foursquare.com, yelp.com, facebook.com, and twitter.com. Its website also has an extensive homepage showcasing upcoming events, as well as tabs bios about performers, and video clips of their acts. Current discounts and promotional events include a prime rib special, birthday discounts, Girls Night Out, Taco Tuesday, and a free open mic night. (“Tommy T's Comedy,” 2011)

Distribution
TTCS is conveniently located down the street from BART, providing patrons all over the Bay Area easy access to the steakhouse. The venue has a 17-year old and up policy. The club itself is smaller than big city clubs but incorporates two levels, providing balcony seating to watch the performance. (East Bay Loop, n.d.)
Walnut Creek Century Theatres
Raymond Syufy, as part of Syufy Enterprises, founded the Walnut Creek Century Theatre in 1940. Syufy Enterprises was one of the leading independent movie theaters on the West Coast, famous for having “dome-shaped” multiplexes with stadium seating and Drive-in theatres. In 2006, Cinemark bought Syufy Enterprises. Headquartered in Plano, Texas, Cinemark is a one of today’s leaders in the motion picture industry with more than 436 theaters in the United States and Latin America. According to the Cinemark mission statement, the company believes in taking care of its affiliates stating safety, respect, care, and concern for employees and customers is unsurpassed. Cinemark Theatres is recognized as the preferred international motion picture exhibitor (Facebook.com, 2011).
Product
The theatre offers many services including stadium seating, RealD 3D movies, online ticket ordering, and hosting private events. Stadium seating is a great perk because every seat in the auditorium is placed higher than the seats immediately in front of them providing for better view to audience members. This theatre is equipped with new programming systems that show 3D and IMAX films. Additionally, Century theatres allows consumers to purchase tickets through a partner website, Fandango. With Fandango, viewers can avoid long lines and sold out shows by pre-purchase tickets, which are either printed at home or at the theatre by entering your confirmation number at the Kiosk or Box Office. Private events are also significant, as WCCT caters to birthday parties, schools, and business meetings with options for private showings and concession options. Century has the ability to play multiple showings seven days a week throughout each day (cinemark.com, 2011).
Pricing
Cinemark makes it easy for all types of moviegoers to enjoy movies at fair cost, offering price discounts that cater to each age range. The Table below displays movie rates according to day, time and age bracket. Price discounts are offered to children, seniors and early birds all week.

Additional discounts offered at the theatre are pre-paid Platinum Supersaver and Concession Supersaver passes. The Platinum Supersaver allows viewers of any age to purchase a single ticket for only $7.50 and grants them admission into any movie at any time with the exception of the specially prices films/ events (3D, IMAX). The Concession Supersaver is good for one medium popcorn and one small soft drink; both of which can be upgraded for an extra fee at the time of purchase (cinemark.com, 2011).
Promotion
For promotional purposes, Century Theatres maintains a Facebook page, Twitter account, and Cinemark iPhone App, all of which provide information on the locations of all theaters, movies, times, and even the option to purchase tickets over the phone. Consumers can also choose to sign up for weekly emails to receive updates on movies coming out along with coupons redeemable at any of the onsite concession stands (www.cinemark.com, 2011).
Distribution
The theatre has an ideal location in the center of Walnut Creek, surrounded by restaurants and shops, as well as plenty of public transportation. Shows can be seen around the clock, with mornings, matte, and evening show times.
Conclusion
The information obtained about these organizations suggests several marketing program measures that the CCCO could successfully employ. By taking strategic ideas from their competitors CCCO can extend its audience base into various demographics.
Product
CCCO might consider broadening its product breath by introducing a concession stand at shows. Providing consumers with food and drinks would appease audience members and bring back clientele whose stomach and sensory needs were both satisfied. The Lesher Center for the Arts already offers a concession stand, but not all of CCCO’s venues do so. Additionally, the CCCO could further incorporate the concessions stand strategy into advertising, by promoting not only the music but food and drinks too. Educational programs are also a very influential means of obtaining consumers. Through arts classes and seminars, consumers can become more informed about the arts.
Pricing
CCCO must continue to offer ticketing price discounts. CCCO might consider incorporating tiered pricing strategy for performances at the Lesher Center for the Arts. With this strategy the CCCO could use premium or discounted pricing which would allow the organization to be differentiated from other companies. A price differentiation such as this might draw in audience members who are new and unwilling to pay full price. It would also give the CCCO an opportunity to test different pricing models to see which model would be most effective moving forward. The CCCO could also start up a subscriber program. The subscriber program would offer price discounts on tickets and other advantages to members. For example, members of the subscriber program would receive benefits that include preferred seating or discounted beverages at a performance.
Promotion
In order to enhance brand awareness, the CCCO could consider promoting through more mediums than the organization is currently utilizing. AT&T offers a free message matrix-board submission, which helps non-profit companies create awareness. CCCO should strongly consider taking advantage of this opportunity. Another medium CCCO might try to utilize is radio advertising. Radio advertising is less expensive when compared to alternatives such as print and television. Other opportunities can be found through establishing a solid social media presence. CCCO now maintains a moderate Facebook profile; 70 likes, and dated pictures. Maintenance needs to be performed more frequently. CCCO could update the organizations Facebook page with statuses pertaining to upcoming performances, recent events photos, and ticket price information. Social media sites are also a way in which CCCO can engage its fan base, which can result in an increased interest in events and the CCCO in and of itself. It is also important to sustain a very user friendly website, providing features such as an event calendar, and easy online ticket purchasing. The CCCO does not maintain an accurate up-to-date mailing list of the current and past audience. A critical component for small organizations trying to generate brand awareness, the CCCO should feature a subscription form on its website to further expand client base.
Distribution
Easy public transportation to its venue location is a must for the CCCO. Accessibility to either BART or County Connection is key in attracting a wider, more diverse group of patrons. Strong relationships with businesses in each location area are also important. This allows potential consumers to patronize both the theatre and the local businesses (e.g., restaurants, shops) in the same evening. A cross-promotional effort could also be done between CCCO and local businesses, allowing both parties to benefit. The CCCO’s performance at the Lesher Center could utilize this strategy considering the local area includes a vast array of restaurants and shopping.
Competitive Analysis
After examining each competitor Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) faces, the orchestra may consider some of the marketing measures suggested. It may also consider employing and implementing some of the ideas that other competitors are actively using, which are mentioned in the following pages.
San Francisco Symphony
Introduction
As one of the most highly recognized musical ensembles in the Bay Area, the San Francisco Symphony’s (SFS) mission is to enrich, serve, and shape cultural life throughout the Bay Area. It does so while maintaining financial stability and gaining public recognition to ensure that it can fulfill its mission. The SFS resulted from a high demand from the public for a permanent orchestra. In December of 1911, the SFS gave its first concerts which boosted the cultural life of San Francisco and the greater Bay Area.
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The SFS offers many different themes in its programming. One factor that adds to its diverse products offerings is the artistic direction of many famous music directors such as Henry Hadley, Pierre Monteux, and Edo de Waart. The SFS also takes part in creating events in the community involving a series of spring festivals like the American Festival. Year round, the SFS has different specialty programming such as Dias de Los Muertos, The Phantom of the Opera, Peter and the Wolf, and various other seasonal themes. The programming also showcases many different artists, including Emanuel Ax, Jessye Norman, Meredith Monk, and Joan La Barbara. These special performances travel to different parts of the country, including a partnership with New York and the Carnegie Hall. One of the distinct programs that SFS offers is the contribution in The American Orchestra Series, where audiences of the SFS are able to watch performances by other orchestras from cities like Los Angeles, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York and Philadelphia. As a result of it recordings, the SFS have received various prestigious awards including 11 Grammys, Japan’s Record Academy Award, and Britain’s Gramophone Award. This has also lead to regular radio broadcasts in over 300 stations nationwide. Being highly active in its communities, the SFS invests in various educational programs. Part of the contribution to the community that it is one of the only American orchestras to operate its own youth orchestra and chorus, the San Francisco Symphony Youth Orchestra, established in 1985. Its other education program is the San Francisco Symphony Chorus, established in 1973.
The SFS is committed to investing in music programs for the youth. The Concert for Kids program started in 1919, and has since brought 30,000 students per year to attend performances. In 1988, the SFS launched the Adventure in Music education program (AIM), which aims to compensate for budget cuts in the arts programs in public schools. The SFS also launched an online music education resource for schools, families and children called SFSKids.org in 2002. In addition, the SFS, in cooperation with Tilson Thomas launched Keeping Score, in Fall of 2006, a resource to make classical music available to people of all musical backgrounds and ages. Keeping Score is broadcasted on PBS television and is watched by over 4.5 million people. Associated with Keeping Score is a website, radio series, DVDs and an education program for K-12 to incorporate the arts into their curriculum.
Pricing
As part of SFS’ mission, the symphony tries to make its performances affordable to as many people as possible. Prices range from $15 to $145 per ticket. For concerts such as the Verdi Requin and Don Juan, which showcase well-known conductors and performers, ticket prices range between $60 to $140. Nonseasonal concert prices are more affordable to the public and are on the lower end of the pricing scale. Each year the SFS gives many free and community concerts as well.
The SFS provides customers with two different options in choosing subscriptions. One option is a pre-determined series subscription. The packages provide special pricing throughout the season and payment plans as well as added parking benefits. The benefits of this package would be a $10 reduction off each ticket and special pricing on certain performances throughout the season. The other subscription offering is a customized package in which the customer chooses any three performances from any series, $10 discount on each ticket and a coupon for a single seating upgrade in the season. Students receive up to 50% off on any subscription of their choice. Another type of discount the SFS offers is group package in which groups of 10 or more receive 25% discount on most performances and get a free ticket for the group leader.
Promotion
For much of its promotional strategy, the SFS stimulates word of mouth advertising in the community to promote its concerts. Through direct community involvement, such as free concerts and youth education programs, the SFS attempts to involve its audiences in order to promote brand awareness. Through free concerts, community events, and educational programs, the SFS is able to reach a wide range of segments and builds brand awareness within each. Through its constant community involvement, community members, educational institutions, and those interested in the arts are constantly informed about the SFS events. Another form of promotion is SFS’s ties and collaborations with different venues, conductors, performers and metropolitan cities. As part of the American Orchestras Series, the SFS performs in different metropolitan cities. Audiences are exposed spotlighted talent which expands its brand awareness.
Media such as radio have become a main source of promotion for the SFS. Broadcasting in over 300 stations worldwide, the SFS has expanded its audience beyond consumers that regularly attend performing arts events to also include regular radio listeners. However, social media is used most intensively, including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, iPhone Apps, and even its own SFS Social Network. These websites have over 13,000 SFS followers. The SFS uses these websites to advertise upcoming concerts, showcase its spotlight performers and build a diverse following. It is the prominent form of promotion that the SFS uses in the media category.
Distribution
The SFS performs mainly at the Davies Symphony Hall in San Francisco. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall was completed in 1980 with the help of thousands of contributors. The venue underwent a significant renovation in 1992. This renovation improved its acoustics. The aesthetics of the Hall were improved and special care was taken to improve facilities for the physically disabled. Some performances are showcased on a weekly basis, while others are year-round. Podcasts are usually broadcasted on Monday and Tuesday and performances are held Wednesday through Sunday. Performances from Wednesday to Saturday start at 8 PM and on Sunday at 2 PM.
San Francisco Chamber Orchestra
Introduction
The San Francisco Chamber Orchestra (SFCO) is a non-profit organization committed in making classical music available to audiences of all ages and backgrounds in the Bay Area. It is dedicated in providing professional music, admission-free concerts and educational programming. SFCO is also an orchestra that attracts standing-room-only audiences. In addition to the variety of performances it provides, SFCO also holds over thirty concerts annually. (San Francisco Chamber Orchestra).
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SFCO offers a variety of concerts. SFCO offers “Main Stage Concerts”, which are free of charge and are performed in SFCO’s home venues in San Francisco, Berkeley, and Palo Alto. These concerts usually consist of Classical masterpieces and unusual sets. Thirty minutes before each performance, the Maestro gives an engaging and informative onstage talk. Another concert offered is “Family Concerts”, which are educational concerts for all ages and are performed in San Francisco, Oakland, and San Mateo. This concert offers visuals and audience participation for all ages. The orchestra also features musicians from the Bay Area’s best music schools and ensembles, performing side-by-side with professionals. This concert is also free of charge.
The third concert offered is “Very First Concerts”, performed in partnership with Crowden School in Berkeley. These concerts are directed and aimed towards younger listeners of ages one through six. SFCO also offers “tunes for tots” on tumbling mats. These concerts aim to teach musical concepts, offer hands-on activities, and encourage movement and dancing. These concerts are performed in Berkeley and are also free of charge. The fourth concert offered is “Classical at Freight”, which is part of the monthly chamber music series and is performed at the Freight and Salvage Coffeehouse. These concerts are directed towards audience members that hold a background in the performing arts. These performances are based on the latest creations of the genre. This concert is casual, up-close, and has a very personal setting. Performers that play in the “Classical at Freight” concerts include SFCO star performers and renowned Bay Area musicians.
Pricing
All of SFCO concerts are free of admission except for the “Classical at the Freight” concert. The admission for the “Classical at the Freight” concert is $8.50 in advance and $10.50 at the door. SFCO’s supporting members get “two for one” discounts. SFCO also offers membership levels that range from Individual level to Maestro level, declared below
Individual ($50) * Priority seating at all Main Stage Concerts. * Priority seating for your guests at only $20 donation each. * 2-for-1 ticket discount at all Classical at the Freight concerts. * Invitation to open workshops and other members-only events. * Annual Season Highlights CD. * Recognition in every Main Stage Concert program.
Family ($100) * Same as above with benefits extending to two adults and any children under the age of 18.
Musician Circle ($250) * All benefits included above, plus: * Free priority seating for up to two of your guests at each Main Stage Concert. * Invitation to dress rehearsals, onstage chats with feature artists, and private receptions.
Soloist Circle ($500) * All benefits included above, plus: * Free priority seating for up to four guests at each Main Stage Concert.
Maestro Circle—Set the Tempo: Andante ($1,000), Allegretto ($2,500), or Allegro ($5,000) * All benefits included above, plus: * Free priority seating for up to eight guests at each Main Stage Concert. * Invitation to our exclusive Maestro Events. * Invitation to private house concerts
Promotion
SFCO’s promotional strategy is targeted to all age groups. A source of promotion that SFCO employs is social media, such as Facebook and Yelp reviews. The orchestra provides these two links directly on its website.
Distribution
SFCO performs in various locations throughout the Bay Area. SFCO performs in six Bay Area cities that include San Francisco, Berkeley, Palo Alto, San Mateo, Oakland, and Atherton. It performs at locations that include First Congregation Church, St. Mark’s Episcopal Church, Herbst Theatre, Lakeside Theater, College of San Mateo, Bayview Opera House and The Crowden School. Performances are usually held Friday and Saturday evenings at 8:00 and Sundays afternoons at 3:00 pm.
Diablo Symphony Orchestra
Introduction
The Diablo Symphony Orchestra (DSO) is a volunteer based community orchestra that provides excellent performances in the Diablo/Walnut Creek area. It was established in 1963 and is the oldest symphony orchestra in Contra Costa County.
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The Diablo Symphony Orchestra offers entertaining performances which are performed by accomplished local musicians. During the year, five performances are offered on various dates. These performances take place on Sunday’s at 2:00pm. Every year, DSO also offers a young artist competition and awards the winner with $1,000 plus a contract to perform with the orchestra.
Pricing
The DSO offers three different ticket prices. Individual tickets are priced at $12 for youths, $18 for seniors, and $20 for a regular ticket. Season tickets are available resulting in a 14% discount off the single ticket price for subscribers. Tickets can be purchased online and by phone through the Dean Lesher Center and also at the venue ticket office on the day of the performance.

Promotion
The DSO utilizes various types of advertising and promotional techniques. Different social media outlets are used in order to reach consumers. This includes a Facebook and a Twitter page specifically for the DSO that is constantly updated with information about upcoming performances. The yearly young artist competition also draws in local community members. The DSO also holds a crab feed fundraising event each year which provides an evening of fun, local celebrities, and live musical entertainment. This event has become DSO’s largest fundraiser.
Distribution
The DSO performs in two different venues. Its season of programs offered during the year are performed at the Lesher Center. It also performs once a year during the crab feed fundraiser at the Rossmoor Del Valle Clubhouse. The Lesher Center is centrally located in Walnut Creek and provides a comfortable and attractive atmosphere.
California Symphony
Introduction
The California Symphony was founded in 1986 and is now celebrating its 25th season in 2011. The Symphony is committed to providing the full range of music from the orchestral repertoire, particularly through works by American composers. The Symphony also provides musical education programs to both children and adults in the East Bay area, while also educating young, new composers.
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The California Symphony provides many unique product offerings, earning them the title, “Best of America” by editors of Reader’s Digest Magazine. The Symphony is noted for being the only American orchestra that performs at least one piece by an American composer in each of its performances. The Symphony provides a musical education program called Music-in-the-Schools (MIS), providing student study guides, teacher outlines, and student performances serving more than 3,500 Contra Costa County students. The Symphony also exclusively offers the very unique opportunity of the Young American Composer-in-Residence (YARC) Program. This program allows for emerging young composers to sharpen their skills in a three year residency with the Symphony. In addition to seasonal performances, the Symphony hosts several special events throughout the year in order to introduce new talent to the Symphony as well as generate revenue. It is currently preparing for the 21st Annual California Symphony Ball titled, Moonlight Swing, which provides an evening of dining, dancing and live auction.
Pricing
The California Symphony offers Children, Youth and Senior ticket pricing options. Single tickets can be purchased online, over the phone or in person at the Lesher Center Ticket Office and Special Event tickets can be purchased at the California Symphony Office located in Walnut Creek. Annual free concerts are held in the month of September. There are also group sale ticket discounts available. A “Day-of-Show” discount is also available, offering half priced tickets at the Barnes and Noble Outlet and Walnut Creek Library for same-day performances. Special event ticket prices vary based on the event. The Moonlight Ball tickets are currently priced at $250 per person and a reservation is required.
Promotion
The California Symphony promotes itself through its Music-in-the-Schools Program. This program has introduced the orchestra to nearly 55,000 students in 75 schools since its establishment in 1992. The Symphony has also received national recognition for its Young American Composer-in-Residence (YARC) Program. In addition, the Symphony reaches its target market with social media sites including its own Facebook and Twitter sites. Promotional flyers and posters are also used to effectively market the Symphony.
Distribution
The Symphony performs at the Lesher Center of the Arts in Walnut Creek in the Hoffman Theater, the largest of three theaters available. This theater features main floor seating as well as box seating areas in the balcony. Performances are held at 4:00 pm on Sundays and occasionally on Saturdays at 7:30 pm. Performances in September are also offered at the San Ramon and Concord communities.
New Century Chamber Orchestra
Introduction
The New Century Chamber Orchestra, (NCCO), was founded in 1992. The mission of its co-founders (Miriam Perkoff and Wieslaw Pogorzelski) is to provide the San Francisco Bay Area with fresh and innovative classical performances by incorporating various genres into its programming. Both Perkoff and Pogorzelski are a part of the seventeen musicians that make up the orchestra, also comprised of musicians from throughout the U.S. and Europe. The orchestra has recorded six albums that are distributed internationally, i.e., Live, Together, Oculus, Written with the Heart’s Blood, Echoes of Argentina, and Frank Martin. The orchestra also tour around the U.S. and overseas.

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All members of the New Century Orchestra have an equal role in contributing to the season’s program schedule. Members are encouraged to recommend musical pieces from genres ranging from jazz and rock to contemporary. A unique twist to NCCO’s performance is that the orchestra performs without a conductor. This level of equality is what the members believe is the reason for the orchestra’s high level of precision, passion, and power. This year the orchestra is celebrating its 20th anniversary and is incorporating four featured musicians into its programming. NCCO is committed to educational outreach in communities where performances are held. The orchestra makes classroom visits in Marin City and San Rafael’s Canal District and also offers free instrument lessons to selected students that do not have the means to participate in music classes.
Pricing
New Century Chamber Orchestra offers three ways to purchase tickets. Tickets can be ordered over the phone, online through Cityboxoffice.com, or purchased at the venue up to 45 minutes before performances. New Century Chamber Orchestra also sells tickets at $8 each for rehearsals. Tickets price varies by section. At any of NCCO’s five venues, tickets are either priced at $49 for the beats seats in the venue and $29 for regular seating. There is no discount offered to senior citizens. However, any person under the age of 35 pays $15 instead of the regular price of $29.
Promotion
New Century Chamber Orchestra’s promotional strategy consists of reaching out to as many individuals in the Bay Area as possible. By choosing to perform in five different venues in different cities, NCCO has made it possible to reach a large audience in Marin County as well as in San Rafael Canal districts. Not only does NCCO perform in Bay Area venues throughout its season, it also travels nationwide and overseas to perform. The orchestra has included many featured composers in its tours. The Orchestra has shared the stage with Grammy winners and Chinese composers as part of its multimedia and multi-ethnic productions. By incoroporating dancers and stage lights, the Orchestra is able to provide an additional “wow factor” in its offerings.
Aside from offering its music to different cities within the Bay Area, the New Century Chamber Orchestra has created six albums that are sold in the U.S. and abroad. The goal has always been to reach local communities by engaging them with an innovative rendition of classical music. It continues to do so by providing products such as albums to reach households and by sharing music education to children with the community.
Distribution
The New Century Chamber Orchestra currently performs at five different venues: First Congregational Church in Berkeley, First United Methodist Church in Palo Alto, Herbst Theatre in San Francisco, Hoytt Theatre in San Rafael, and Menlo-Atherton Center for Performing Arts in Atherton. The orchestra has chosen these venues, in terms of acoustics.
Bay Area Chamber Symphony
Introduction
The newly formed Bay Area Chamber Symphony (BACS) is comprised of some of the most talented musicians in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes musicians who play with (or previously played with) the Oakland East Bay Symphony, Berkeley Symphony, San Jose Symphony, San Francisco Ballet Orchestra, Los Angeles Philharmonic and many other fine orchestras. The Bay Area Chamber Symphony has very high regard for Bach, Mozart and other classical geniuses, but its primary focus is on new era music and presenting the works of living composers. According to BACS’s website, its main genres fall under the categories of “classical and experimental.” BACS’s current Composer-In-Residence is Demetrius Spaneas whose prelude, Romance and Tango premiered on April 1, 2007 and was very enthusiastically received.
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Past performances by the Bay Area Chamber Symphony have earned major headlines. The BACS principal flutist, Carol Alban recently founded the San Francisco Flute Quartet which had its first performance, “World Flute Fest,” on November 3rd in Oakland, CA. The concert was free with optional donations and it featured world class flutists performing music from various countries on various types of flutes. The BACS also hosted a Benefit Concert in August, that is, the IDA's Benefit Concert (and raffle) for the Animals, with all proceeds going to support In Defense of
Animals (IDA's) campaigns. This special performance featured flutist and composer Carol Alban and other members of the Bay Area Chamber Symphony, as well as a rare appearance by internationally-acclaimed concert pianist Sandro Russo. The concert was held at the Chapel of the Chimes in Oakland's Piedmont neighborhood. The program included music by Chopin, Liszt, and Rachmaninoff, as well as new works by Demetrius Spaneas and Carol Alban. This concert is one of a series that Carol Alban has organized for IDA's benefit.

Pricing
Admission to the Benefit Concert is by donation ($10 - $20 suggested). Ticket sales go to benefit IDA's (In Defense of Animals) work to help and protect animals. Tickets in general, can be purchased for $18.50 in advance or $19.50 at the door.
Promotion
Promotion for the Bay Area Chamber Symphony relies heavily on the support of its community in terms of spreading favorable reviews about performances. Alongside positive word of mouth promotion, the Bay Area Chamber Symphony anticipates that showcasing extraordinary musicians from all over the world will increase awareness and the number of attendees at each performance. Many of BACS’s players have won several awards and their talents, along with familiar names, draw in larger crowds from the community. The BACS continues to build brand awareness by hosting benefit concerts in partnership with charitable organizations.
Distribution
The Bay Area Chamber Symphony performs throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, partnering with venues such as Yoshi’s Restaurant in Oakland. Most of its Benefit Concerts take place in Piedmont. However it has also played its regular season concerts at the Lesher Center in the past.
Berkeley Symphony Orchestra
Introduction
Berkeley Symphony was founded in 1969 originally as the Berkeley Promenade Orchestra, founded by Thomas Rarick, a protégé of the English Maestro, Sir Adrian Boult. The Orchestra, reflecting the spirit of the times, performed in casual dress and at odd locations such as the University Art Museum, showcasing its diversity and adaptability as an orchestra. Kent Nagano became the music director in 1978 and brought forth innovative programs such as 20th century scores that were rarely heard of during the time. At that time, the organization became the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra. With this new image, Nagano then opted to move from the First Congregational Church, with only 750 seats, to a 2,015 seat theater in UC Berkeley’s Zellerbach Hall.
What makes BSO so unique is the fact that it is constantly premiering new works and continually creating new music. Naomi Sekiya is one composer who demonstrated this with her Sinfonia delle Ombre and Concerto for two guitars. Other orchestra-commissioned works included Manzanar: An American History in 2005 by Naomi Sekiya, Jean-Pascal Beintus and David Benoit; Bitter Harvest, 2005 by Kurt Rohde and librettist Amanda Moody. Lastly, a fanfare by Rohde, commemorating Nagano’s 30 years as music director, was performed.
In 2009, Joana Carneiro took over as the third music director in the orchestra’s 40-year history. Despite her young age, she is well respected by her peers. She has developed works as part of a new era of music, as well as brought more classical pieces back to the orchestra’s performances.
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BSO has been recognized not only for its musical repertoire, but also for its community involvement. The Orchestra has worked to engage community schools with music programs, as well as provide the public with musical resources via social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. In addition, live performances are broadcasted on the local radio station, KALW 91.7 FM.
BSO’s nationally recognized, award-winning “Music in the Schools” (MITS) program offers a unique and exciting opportunity for students to experience the joy of making music. Some of the most remembered concerts presented by BSO took place in school auditoriums! For eighteen years, BSO, in partnership with the Berkeley Unified School District (BUSD), has provided comprehensive, age-appropriate music curriculum to over 4,000 elementary students in the Berkeley area. It has been honored by the League of American Orchestras as one of the top education programs in the country. MIT has over ten community partners such as Wells Fargo Bank, Union Bank Foundation, California Arts Council and many more.
Pricing
The Berkeley Symphony offers a season subscription pricing option. There are many incentives to purchasing this option including, priority seating, discount prices (10% off single tickets and 50% off priority admission), “subscriber-only” events, and complimentary ticket exchanges. Zellerbach Hall tickets are offered in three different price ranges, depending on seating type. Regular Season Subscriber prices are $72, $144, and $216. Introductory Season Subscription prices are available for first time subscribers and full-time students for $40, $80, and $120. Single tickets are available for $20, $40, or $60. The New Music Reading Series tickets cost $20 for priority admission and $10 for regular admission. Family concerts are priced by single ticket or subscription, $5 or $10 for children and $10 or $20 for adults.
Promotion
The Berkeley Symphony promotes itself through its community engagement work, including the “Music in the Schools” (MITS) program and radio broadcasts. BSO also promotes itself through social media sites, including its own Facebook, Twitter and YouTube pages. There is also a “Stay in Touch” feature on the website, allowing fans to sign up for monthly updates and special offers.
Distribution
BSO performs at the Zellerbach Hall at the UC Berkeley campus and St. John’s Presbyterian Church on College Avenue, as well as at Malcolm X Elementary School for family concerts. The Zellerbach Hall Concert Series performances are held at 8 pm on Thursday nights. The New Music Reading Series performances are at 7 pm on Sunday nights and the Family Concert Series shows are held at 10 am and 11:30 am on Saturdays.
Gold Coast Chamber Players
Introduction
Since its inception in 1987, the Gold Coast Chamber Players has made a name for itself as one of the most supreme chamber music ensembles. Gold Coast’s players are among the finest professional musicians throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond. Its repertoire ranges from the classics to contemporary pieces. Gold Coast’s mission is: “to provide a connection with people through a better understanding of chamber music and to promote chamber music as a relevant art from in today’s world.”
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The GCCP brings a portion of each concert into the classrooms of Lafayette Schools through a program called Sneak Previews. Students have the opportunity to speak with the musicians about their music, instruments and their lives as professional musicians. For over 10 years, Sneak Previews have been sponsored by the Moraga Education Foundation (MEF). Though MEF is continuing its support of the program in Moraga, Sneak Previews is seeking new funding sources to ensure its continuation. Another energizing school program in place by the GCCP is called Topics In Tempo (TIT). Topics in Tempo is an instructional model that brings students, teachers and professional musicians together in the classroom. Using a single movement from a classical composition, TIT’s integrated curriculum engages students in language arts, science, math and social studies. Integrating elements from each of these areas, TIT gives students a context in which to understand the composition and its relationship to the world around them.
An annual fundraiser for GCCP is called Bach and Beaujolais. It is in an innovative showcase of the 2011-2012 musicians, accompanied by an evening of food and wine.
Pricing
In order to purchase tickets to attend Gold Coast Chamber Players concerts, one can call the Lafayette Chamber of Commerce or go online to GCCP’s website. General tickets are priced at $30, Seniors are charged $25 and $10 for students. If seating tickets sell out, GCCP offers standing room tickets, available for purchase at a smaller price.
Promotion
There are many reasons to attend a performance by the Gold Coast Chamber Players. Gold Coast promotes itself by featuring a rising classical star. Currently the up and coming star is soprano Leah Crocetto. Gold Coast promotes to younger audiences through GCCP’s mentoring program where young musicians join the professionals onstage for a performance that will honor the 35th birthday of Bach.
An example of Gold Coast Chamber Players promotion of rising stars was GCCP’s season finale, Summer Romance that featured pianist Daniel Shapiro who has performed critically acclaimed recitals and concertos across the United States as well as in Brazil, Britain, Ireland, Spain, France and Amsterdam.
Distribution
All Gold Coast Chamber Players events are held in the Lafayette Library Community Hall. It is a new venue for GCCP and is part of the new library facility in Lafayette. The venue only holds about 160 people but GCCP believes the relatively small seating number helps keep the concerts inviting and friendly. This venue is also in close to proximity to many restaurants and bars.
Conclusion
Marketing Recommendations
Analysis of the direct competitors that Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra suggests several marketing measures that can be implemented by CCCO in terms of its product, place (distribution), promotion, and price areas. A product measure that might be considered by CCCO would be to have partnerships with schools throughout Contra Costa County in order to provide musical educational programs. These programs allow students the ability to create their own music through free instrument lessons. This would expand CCCO’s brand awareness particularly among the younger demographic. This measure could also increase brand awareness among other members of the community like parents and teachers of the students.
A distribution strategy that CCCO may want to consider is having a variety of venues located outside Contra Costa County. Performing in different venues would allow the organization to diversify itself, thereby increasing its brand awareness outside of Contra Costa County. As a result of diversifying its location, CCCO may also be able to partner with other performing arts organizations in those venues. Through these partnerships, CCCO and the prospective organizations could share promotional efforts such as print ad space. The partnership could also diversify the type of music both organizations play and attract different audiences.
CCCO may want to consider expanding its product mix to include CDs or DVDs of its concerts for widespread distribution. Both the Berkeley Symphony and San Francisco Symphony have been successful in this regard. The organizations have publicized their records and DVDs by appearing on radio stations and television programs that have attracted over 4.5 million people. An example of a successful attempt to diversify its product is shown by the California Symphony. Through its unique offering featuring at least one piece by an American composer, the California Symphony has created a unique product feature that differentiates itself from other organizations. Similarly, CCCO could diversify its product offering by finding a genre, theme, etc. that is not offered anywhere else and attracts patrons. This could include modern or movie scores.
Hosting a special event may be a promotional tactic that CCCO might adopt to strengthen its promotion outreach. Other organizations host events such as California Symphony’s “Moonlight Ball,” San Francisco Symphony’s “American Festival, “or Bay Area Chamber Symphony’s “I.D.A. Benefit Concert”. Hosting a special event in which CCCO could partner with a charitable organization might differentiate CCCO as a performing arts organization that is involved with the community.
Lastly, CCCO might consider implementing a ticket price changes based on the season of the performance. For example, during the holiday season, ticket prices could be charged at a premium price when the demand is higher. During summer, discounted prices could be offered, as it is during this season that students are able to attend more performances.
Internal Environment 1) Introduction
Mission Statement and Goals
Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra’s mission is to provide cultural enrichment, education, and entertainment to the community through their goals of: presenting professional-quality orchestral, chamber and solo performances at an affordable price, providing opportunities for amateur musicians of all ages to perform in a high caliber community-based
 orchestra, encouraging students to participate in or attend performances, supporting contemporary composers by providing a forum in which new works are presented to the
 community, showcasing local, established soloists throughout each concert season and performing a wealth of works from all periods in history and various cultures, ranging from well-known
 to rarely-heard masterpieces to regional and world premieres.
Current State of CCCO
The Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) currently holds five concert sets a year, totaling twelve performances. CCCO performs at both the Lesher Center in Walnut Creek as well as at Los Medanos College in Pittsburg. Formed in the 1970s and celebrating over 20 years of performances in the Lesher Center, the CCCO has worked hard to establish a presence throughout the county. CCCO wishes to continue on its tradition of delivering high quality classical music to the people of Contra Costa County.
Strengths and possible areas of needed improvement of CCCO
Based on analyzing the CCCO website and interviews with both the CCCCO Marketing Director and Musical Director, it is evident that the organization has many strengths including the following:
CCCO is able to perform at a well-known and respected venue, the Lesher Center in Walnut Creek.
CCCO’s affiliation with Saint Mary’s College adds to the former’s credibility.
CCCO’s two venues for performances provide accessibility to Contra Costa County residents.
CCCO’s musicians are a diverse group of people that add character to the orchestra. The CCCO receives financial support from generous individuals, businesses and foundations.
Everyone involved in the orchestra is a volunteer, who is passionate enough about the orchestra to give much time and energy.
The orchestra has a family atmosphere.
Constraints
CCCO is not well known by the performing arts community.
CCCO does not have a large advertising budget.
CCCO does not have the financial means to add performances and venues.
CCCO does not have the financial means to expand its product mix, for instance, into areas as producing and marketing CDs and videos of its performances.
Everyone involved in the orchestra is a volunteer, which means their involvement with the orchestra is not their main focus or priority.
CCCO only holds five concert sets a year. This limits its exposure in the performing arts community.
Direct Competitors Through primary research, it has been found that most people in the community have only heard of the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra but are not familiar with the orchestra as an organization. It’s direct competitors consist of the Diablo Symphony Orchestra, California Symphony, San Francisco Chamber Orchestra and others. Through surveys distributed to the public, it was found that many of CCCO’s competitors were better known than CCCO.
Diablo Symphony Orchestra (DSO) Vs Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra In comparing the promotional methods of the Diablo Symphony Orchestra and the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra, it is evident there are a few noticeable differences between the two orchestra’s WebPages. As important as it is to have an accessible link to purchase tickets for the upcoming performances, the CCCO website does not provide one. In contrast, on the top of the DSO website there is a direct link to purchase tickets for events and performances. An important motivating factor for ticket sales, based on survey results, is the notability of the performers and the genre of music being performed. Although the DSO clearly conveys this on its website, CCCO provides only basic information regarding the performers and the type of music preferred.
California Symphony (CS) Vs Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra After examining the California Symphony’s website, it is apparent that its website is busier and more cluttered than that of the CCCO. The CS’s is more muddled with pictures and “hotlinks” throughout the entire page. Having a webpage that is “busy” might be considered attractive to some people who like to look at a lot of information. On the other hand, this element can also be a distraction, leaving the consumer a bit confused. However, the CS website has a more modern and updated feel. It lists some of the social media sponsors of CS (located on the bottom right of the homepage). For the Followers, a social interaction is one of the most important factors for attending a performing arts event. The CCCO does not to present social media links on its homepage. Having social media links on a webpage can present a more modern social element to the younger crowd. Since younger people can relate to Facebook, Twitter, & Youtube, it would be beneficial to have the social media links visibly posted on the CCCO. This social media element carries a significant amount of importance to the younger demographic and can contribute to stimulating ticket purchases.
San Francisco Chamber Orchestra (SFCO) Vs Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra
After reviewing the San Francisco Chamber Orchestra website, it is clear that it did not present any major superior characteristics over that of the CCCO. Both of the websites looked vey similar. However, the SFCO website had much more unnecessary and tedious information, including information that does not pertain to the orchestra. Irrelevant information tends to put consumers off, and perhaps even makes them leave the webpage dissatisfied. CCCO’s webpage is set up in a much more user friendly way and is easier to navigate.
Resources
Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra’s resources in the areas of staffing, finances, and facilities are somewhat limited. As previously mentioned, all people involved with the orchestra are volunteers. These volunteers hold full time jobs outside of the orchestra, which takes up most of their time. Presented below is a description of volunteers who have taken on greater roles within the orchestra, i.e., in such positions as secretary, treasurer etc. Musical Director / Conductor | Tim Smith | Tim is responsible for the overall artistic direction of the CCCO and proposes the content for the season's concerts. The board has additional input in terms of choosing between alternative pieces on a particular set, but the overall responsibility is Tim's. | President | Kevin Eng | Kevin drives the overall execution of the board's business including fundraising and grants, marketing and communication and finance. Kevin also creates content for advertising (creative/ artwork) and is solely responsible for the content of the printed concert programs. | Treasurer | Louis Olds | The treasurer is responsible for the accounting/bookkeeping role as well as for providing analysis of operating position during the season and creating the annual operating budget. | Advertising | Nina Pereira and Sam Ciaramitaro | Nina and Sam have the primary responsibility for creating and placing content although the board provides editorial input and additional creative input comes from Kevin Eng. | Fundraising | Kevin Eng and Nancy Loomba | Submission of grant proposals is managed by Kevin and Nancy | Player’s Representative | Nancy Mitchell | In addition to general board responsibility, Nancy surfaces pending issues from orchestra members. |

Financially, Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra is a non-profit organization and is funded by donations and ticket sales. Most of the money generated by ticket sales goes directly to covering the costs of putting on performances. Many of the orchestra members make generous donations each year because of their passion for the organization, but donations also come from a few businesses and foundations as well.
The facilities and venues CCCO utilizes include the Lesher Center in Walnut Creek and the intimate Recital Hall at Los Medanos College in Pittsburg. The Lesher Center can house up to 700 people, yet CCCO is only able to attract an average of 125 patrons to each performance. CCCO usually gets a full house of approximately 150 to 200 patrons at Los Medanos College performances. Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra has many opportunities for attendance growth, but has a limited promotion budget to do so. Marketing Mix Program
A Marketing program is broken down into four areas. First, is the product mix of a company, which is generally defined as the total composite of products offered by a particular organization. A second component is a promotion mix including advertising. Pricing and distribution are also elements of a marketing program.
An interview was conducted with Nina Periera it was found that the total advertising budget was broken down on a per-set basis, meaning per concert set. There is a per-set assumption of $500 for advertising in local print media. In addition there are seasonal (once per year) expenses including web site hosting ($500 in set 1) and season brochure printing and postage ($1000 in set 1). In addition to print media ad placement, CCCO emails advertising content to its email list multiple times prior to each set. Typically there is an email with an embedded flyer/artwork announcing the upcoming concert. This is followed up by additional emails with more creative copy focusing on the composers or the soloist featured in the upcoming concert. Other than the time spent creating the content, the delivery of the email blast is essentially free.
Since CCCO’s only product line is its performances, it does not typically think about marketing mix or allocating more advertising money to one soloist or venue. The available print media for the local markets is limited (Martinez Gazette, Rossmoor News, Contra Costa Times, etc.) so CCCO mostly just considers the size of the ad we place and the number of issues in which it appears in order to stay within budget.
Conclusion
After close examination of both the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra and its major competitors, it is clear that CCCO acts united as a family. This gives it strength as an organization. However, its lack of financial stability weakens CCCO when it comes to advertising investment, expanding its product line etc. Everyone involved in the orchestra is a volunteer and is passionate about contributing to not only the orchestra but to the community as well, expanding cultural enrichment. Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra will strive to continue to entertain the community through high quality orchestral performance for the performing arts community.
Primary Research A. Focus Groups
As a part of conducting primary research for CCCO’s new marketing plan, West Coast Marketing (WCM) conducted two Focus Group sessions. These sessions took place on October 5, 2011 at the campus of Saint Mary’s College. WCM performed this research to identify consumer preference regarding entertainment, and performing arts in particular. 1) Focus Group One (Ages 36 and up)
The first focus group consisted of five individuals in various occupations, places of residence, marital status, household size, and age range. Participant one, Judy, is an academic advisor from Lafayette, Ca. She is married in a household size of four and falls in the 50 to 59 year age range. Our second participant was Jeanne. Jeanne is a controller from Moraga, Ca. She is also married in a current household size of three and falls into the 50 to 54 age range. Charise was the third participant from Walnut Creek. Divorced, in a household size of two, she falls into the age range of 40 to 44 years. Participant four was Eric from Concord, Ca. Eric is a real estate broker ranging in age between 55 and 59 years. He is married and in a household size of two. Our last participant was Jessie. Also from Concord, Jessie is self-employed, married, lives in a household size of two, and falls in the 55 to 59 age range. All five individuals fall into the income range of $50,000 to $230,000.
1: What do you do for entertainment when you go out?
- Charise takes pleasure in going out to dinner, listening to jazz music, drinking wine and wine tasting, going to baseball games and other sporting events.
- Judy relaxes while going out to watch new movies.
- Eric is fond of seeing live plays, wine tasting, going out to dinner and the park with good friends and family, and traveling around the Bay Area.
- Jessie likes attending occasional sporting events and tailgating, seeing movies, going out to eat, and wine tasting with friends.
- Jeanne socializes at dinner parties, goes to the movies, pursues hiking and biking, and attends baseball games and Saint Mary’s basketball games.
2. How do you get information about entertainment events?
- Judy uses the internet.
- Eric surfs the internet, on occasion goes to events spur of the moment, relies on word of mouth from friends about Lesher Center plays, and reads the AAA quarterly magazine.
- Jessie reads the Sunday paper and magazines like Sunset and Family Circle. She relies on the internet, particularly social media websites like Living Social and Groupon.
- Jeanne reads the AAA quarterly magazine.
3. What type of performing arts events (theatre, dance, music, opera) do you like to attend?
- Jeanne attends the theater.
- Jessie is entertained by watching dance, music, and live theater, as well as Broadway type productions, her grandchildrens’ plays, and seeing theater while travelling.
- Eric chooses going to the theater while travelling.
- Charise enjoys seeing plays at the community theater.
- Judy supports community theater plays.
Follow up: How often do you attend performing arts events?
- Charise does not attend many performing arts events. She will only attend if she is invited by a friend or knows someone in the performance.
- Judy attends performing arts events three to five times a year.
- Eric and Jessie attend events about every other month (three to four times per year). Their attendance depends on seasonal performances both at the Lesher Center and at Saint Mary’s College. They particularly enjoy holiday performances.
- Jeanne enjoys going to community plays at Campolindo High School and Saint Mary’s College and local events in Lafayette. She is more inclined to go to an event if she knows people in the performance.
4. How much are you willing to spend PER TICKET to attend a performing arts event?
For a big city event (in SF/Oakland)?
- Jessie’s maximum price is $75 for a ticket, but she prefers waiting for discounts on Groupon.
- Eric will attend a city performance depending on the nature of the event, especially if he is familiar with the event and knows it has a good reputation. He is willing to pay around $100 per ticket for special events in San Francisco. He is willing to pay $75 per ticket for ongoing events.
- Judy chooses not to pay any amount above $100.
- Charise will pay up to $100 and perhaps more if she has heard the event is “supposed to be good” and has premium seating.
For a local community event (this side of the Caldecott tunnel)?
- Jessie is willing to pay $35-$40 for an event at the Lesher Center and $25 for a performance at Willows.
- Judy will pay a maximum of $50 and around $22 for a performance at Campolindo High School. She thinks a good ticket price average for other performances is $35.
- Eric and Charise feel $35-$40 is an acceptable average for a ticket.
5. What encourages you to attend local/community performing arts events?
- Jessie enjoys a convenient venue where she can have a drink and does not have to worry about driving. She also likes to support the community, celebrate special occasions, and feels that Willows Theatre Company in Concord is more community oriented while the Lesher Center is not really meant for younger children.
- Charise believes that the ticket price depends on the type of show and the level of interest she has for the particular event. She supports the community and those who she may know in the performance.
- Judy is encouraged to go to an event when she is given a recommendation by a friend. She is also likely to go if she personally knows someone in the performance.
- Eric feels convenience plays a big factor in attending local events. He believes Willows Theatre and the Lesher Center are both well known for having good performances. He is also more likely to attend an event when he knows the performer(s). If he does know someone in the performance he would be willing to pay more. He noted that these events are also good for socializing with other couples. Getting together with a group of friends is more convenient, especially if there are good restaurants and shops to walk to in the surrounding area.
- Jeanne regards word of mouth as valuable information. She attends performances at Campolindo High School and Saint Mary’s College. She feels that going into the city to attend a performing arts event consists of a lot of planning, therefore she is not as interested or motivated to go to a performing arts event.
Does personal status play a factor in motivating you to attend a performing arts event?
- Charise does not pay particular attention to the status that might be attained by attending such an event. She feels good when she can be a part of the arts community and supports it.
- Eric does not think about status when contemplating attending a performing arts event.
- Jessie does not think attending a performing arts event is about status but notes that older generations have a better sense of the arts.
- All individuals believe in receiving cultural enrichment as opposed to attending an event just to make a social statement.
Would seeing the next up and coming star play a factor in your attendance?
- Jessie’s interests lie with seeing her friends’ children and people she knows in the event.
- Jeanne is not interested in seeing “a random person” who has become a star. She is interested in seeing a local student or person who has become popular and returned to perform as the “local kid done well”.
6. What discourages you from attending local/community performing arts events compared to other types of entertainment events?
- Eric enjoys seeing higher caliber performers in the city but the increased price is a discouragement. He notes that local performers have really improved so there is not as much of a need to go into the City for a good performance or pay as much. On occasion he looks to Facebook for word of mouth recommendations.
- Jeanne lacks motivation when it comes to planning to attend an event in the city. She believes performances at the Lesher might not be as well known, but the quality is comparable to shows in the city. She feels there is a lack of communication in terms of making people aware of the good quality of local performances like at the Lesher Center.
7. What local performing arts organizations are you familiar with?
- Judy attends most plays at Town Hall Theater in Lafayette.
- Jessie goes to plays at Pleasant Hill Play House, Lesher Center, and Willows Theatre.
- Eric frequents any places affiliated with the Lesher Center.
Follow up:
What are your preferred local performing arts organizations and why?
- Eric and Jessie both prefer the Lesher Center Theatre offerings. Willows Theatre is also a favorite because there are no bad seats, is small and intimate, and has a good location in the shopping center with surrounding restaurants and shops.
- Judy prefers to attend plays at Town Hall Theater.
8. REVEAL CLIENT
At this point, the moderators from West Coast Marketing revealed the client to the focus group members with a brief introduction of CCCO and its history. With this information in mind, the focus group participants were asked to give their personal opinions on ways they think CCCO could better market itself in the future.
9. Marketing Mix Suggestions – 4 P’s – How can CCCO market itself better?
a. Product/ Programming Suggestions?
- Judy enjoys a variety of music (for example, a little contemporary and a little classical). She also enjoys events in which more current and more familiar music is combined with classical music. She noted that having more familiar music would make it easier for her to describe the performance and more easily persuade others to go.
- Jessie also prefers a variety of music in order to make the performance more interesting and draw in more people.
- Eric suggests playing music people are generally more familiar with, as opposed to playing all classical music. He enjoys music from the 40s, 50s, and 60s era tunes like the Boston Pops. He says the 20s and 30s also draws more of an emotional response. He would be ok with listening to classical music but it would not draw him to attend the performance more than once.
- Charise listens to a lot of holiday tunes as well as music that is fun and upbeat. She thinks that people tend to perceive classical music as being “boring” and they therefore do not want to attend.
b. Price suggestions?
- Charise chose $35-$40 as an acceptable adult priced ticket.
-Jessie believes the CCCO ticket price should be similar to ticket prices of competing companies. She does not see the younger crowd wanting to put out a substantial amount of money for a ticket.
- Judy takes into consideration that she has children, so having group pricing or children and senior discounts would be a plus in encouraging her to attend.
- Jeanne would also like to bring out her family but there would need to be different types of music played for everyone in her family to enjoy.
c. Promotion suggestions?
-Jessie recommends having a concert in the park for fun. She thinks evening and matinee specials are also attractive.
-Eric pays attention to banners posted around Walnut Creek, particularly banners that are very persuasive.
-Jeanne likes the idea of CCCO partnering with local restaurants like Postinos to promote for discount deals.
d. Distribution suggestions?
i. Do you have Any Location/Venue suggestions?
- Judy recommends performing at Saint Mary’s College. ii. Do you have any DAY & Time of Performance suggestions?
- Jessie would like weekend matinees.
- Charise suggests Friday and Saturday nights or Sunday matinees.
- Judy proposed weekends, with more options available during the holidays. She also emphasized her preference of going out on a Friday night to dinner, followed by a show.
- All subjects prefer weekend showings.
Focus Group Two (Ages 18-35)
The second focus group consisted of seven individuals in various occupations, places of residence, marital status, household size, and age range. Participant one, Ryan, is a student from Hercules, Ca. He is single with a household size of four and falls in the age range of 20-24 years. The second participant was Ben who is a recent college graduate. He lives in Pittsburg, and is single with a household size of four. Ben is in the age range of 20-24 years. The third participant is Patrick who is an account coordinator in San Francisco. Patrick is single with a household size of one. He also falls in the age range of 20-24 years. The fourth participant is Lee. Lee is a student from Walnut Creek. He is single in a household size of five and falls within the age range of 20-24 years. The fifth participant is Scott. His occupation is in sales and he is from Danville. He is single with a household size of three and also is within the age range of 20-24 years. The sixth focus group participant is Natalie, who is a student in Orinda. She is single in a household size of two, and is within the age range of 15-19 years. The seventh participant is Jake, a student from Clayton. Jake is single, in a household size of three and falls within the age range of 20-24 years. All of the participants are within the income level of $10,000 and below except for Patrick and Scott, which are in the income level of $30,000-50,000.
1. What do you do for entertainment when you go out?
-Ryan prefers to drink beer and hard liquor.
-Jake likes to go to the movies.
-Ben and Scott enjoy going to the movies or going out for drinks.
-Patrick chooses to go museums, cultural events, arts events, and shows.
-Natalie enjoys going to friend’s houses and going out to dinner.
2. How to you get information about entertainment events?
-Patrick gets his information from Facebook, and by receiving links from friends such as e-invites.
-Jake views Yahoo and acquires information about what looks appealing to him.
-Ryan receives information by word of mouth, advertisements, and by viewing the schedule of events at concerts he attended in the past.
-A majority of the focus group members noted that they received information from Facebook.
3. What type of performing arts events (theatre, dance, music, opera) do you like to attend?
-Scott, Ryan, and Lee don't attend performing arts events.
-Ben doesn't attend performing arts events, but enjoys listening to opera and classical music.
What about local community performing arts events?
-Lee has been to the Shakespeare Center in Orinda.
-Ben has visited the Lesher Center and seen classical pieces performed, but did not remember the performance group.
-Ryan attended the play Cinderella in Richmond.
-Jake and Natalie do not attend local community performing arts events.
-Ben has attended the Lesher Center to see a number of classical music performances.
-Ryan has been to a class dance performance at Contra Costa College.
4. How much are you willing to spend PER TICKET to attend a performing arts event?
A big city event (in SF/Oakland)
-Scott would be willing to pay $100 if he knew someone in the performance. Otherwise, he would pay $10-$20.
-Lee would pay $100 maximum.
-Jake would pay $100 dollars if he knew he was going to enjoy the event.
-Ryan is willing to spend $100 dollars.
-Ben would pay $45-$50 dollars.
-Natalie would not be willing to pay anything unless someone bought her a ticket.
-Patrick is willing to spend $100.
A local community event (this side of the Caldecott tunnel)?
-Patrick is willing to spend $20-$30.
-Scott would pay $20-$30.
-Lee is willing to pay $10.
-Natalie would pay $15.
-Ben would pay $25.
5. What encourages you to attend local/community performing arts events?
-Ryan is motivated by the proximity of events to his home and star performers featured in the event.
-Lee is encouraged to attend when he is familiar with the performer.
-Ben would attend if the program is familiar to him.
-Patrick is motivated by events that are paired with other functions such as an Art and Wine Festival, a lot of promotion, an outdoor venue, and a variety of art froms like dance and music.
-Scott is encouraged to attend a performing arts event if a guest performer is present.
6. What discourages you from attending local/community performing arts events compared to other types of entertainment events?
-Ryan is discouraged by the ambiance and the poor etiquette of the people that attend.
-Ben is discouraged because he feels that a performing arts event is not a place you go with a group of people.
-Natalie does not really hear about performing arts events and if she did, she would like there to be good food or restaurants nearby.
-Scott is discouraged by performance scheduling. He prefers mid-week performances.
-Patrick is de-motivated by the type of crowd he associates with the performing arts (older people and families).
7. What local performing arts organizations are you familiar with?
-Patrick is familiar with Town Hall, Shakespeare Theatre, and the Lesher Center.
-Natalie is not familiar with any performing arts organizations.
-Ben knows of the Lesher Center.
-Patrick had heard of Lafayette Town Hall, Shakespeare Theatre, and the Lesher Center.
-Lee mentioned that he is familiar with the Lesher Center.
8. REVEAL CLIENT
At this point, the moderators from West Coast Marketing revealed the client to the focus group with a brief introduction of CCCO’s history. With this information in mind, the focus group members were asked to give their suggestions on ways CCCO could better market itself in the future.
9. Marketing Mix Suggestions – 4 P’s – How can CCCO market itself better?
a. Product/ Programming Suggestions? – What would you like to have them play?
-Scott would like to have CCCO play more upbeat music “so you’re not falling asleep”.
-Ryan suggested modern day music.
-Ben advised that CCCO play modern day music and put it into classical pieces, or, to play movie soundtracks like Pirates of the Caribbean.
-Lee proposed to have a well-known artist come to CCCO’s performances or tour with the organization.
-Ryan suggested having popular YouTube hit videos like the “piano guys” attend CCCO’s performances or to add modern day music with a classical twist to their performances. b. Price suggestions?
-Scott suggested a range of $15-$20 and would pay more for music he enjoyed.
-Patrick proposed that CCCO charge $20 or have a discount incentive.
-Natalie suggested that CCCO charge $20.
-Jake suggested $20.
c. Promotion suggestions?
-Scott recommended that CCCO use Living Social and Groupon.
-Ryan also suggested Groupon and proposed having performing arts teachers provide their students an incentive to attend such as extra credit.
-Ben proposed offering a discount for college students and also suggested that CCCO have a partnership with local restaurants.
-Natalie suggested giving students extra credit.
-Patrick advised that CCCO sell CD’s or merchandise of the organization before the performance, or to have restaurants provide discounts to individuals attending a CCCO event as an incentive to come to the performance.
d. Distribution suggestions?
-Both Scott and Lee suggested that CCCO offer a midweek matinee performance.
-Natalie proposed holding performances during midweek evenings and Sundays.
-Patrick recommended making outdoor events in summer/fall.
-Ben suggested that CCCO have a similar concept to what Concord Park offers ("Under the Stars"), an outdoor event held in the evening.
Sampling Plan 1) Population A sample of the population in Contra Costa County was drawn, placing emphasis on, but not limited to, areas in the closest proximity of Contra Costa County Chamber Orchestra’s performance venues (i.e. Walnut Creek, Lafayette, Orinda, Moraga, Pittsburg and Antioch). In order to facilitate the survey process, the Contra Costa County was segmented into four zones for formal survey distribution by assigned groups of students. Considering CCCO’s goal to expand its target market to cover a younger audience, the demographics of the population surveyed was segmented into two age segments: 18 years to 35 years and 36 years and over. Based on the feedback received in the younger demographic focus group, it was diagnosed that they, generally, have negative attitudes towards the performing arts industry. With this in mind, it was deemed necessary to separate the population into these segments. This was done in order to ensure the integrity of the data and to avoid excessive skewing/bias. Furthermore, the population demographics did not exclude any resident based on household income or level of education.
Sample Size In order to achieve at least a .05 level of precision and a 95% confidence level, it was determined that a sample size of 350 to 400 subjects were needed to complete the formal survey.
Sampling Method A combination of judgment and quota sampling was used. The quota sampling method was used to ensure that the number of surveys administered in each of the four geographic zones (see Figure 6) were proportionate to the population of Contra Costa County. These quota numbers were adjusted by judgment, in which the percentages were increased from 2.4% to 5.4% based on the proximity of each zone to CCCO’s performance venues (i.e. The Lesher Center for the Arts in Walnut Creek, Los Medanos College in Pittsburg) (see Figure 8). Also, in order to ensure balance in the age range of respondents, effort was made to have an equal number of surveys distributed between the age groups of 18 years to 35 years and 40 years and older. In order to achieve the desired sample size, each associate was required to administer fourteen to fifteen surveys. Eight groups of students were assigned for survey distribution (see Figure 9).
Figure 6. Geographic Zones Zone 1 | Zone 2 | Zone 3 | Zone 4 | Group A: Walnut Creek, Alamo | Group C: Lafayette, Orinda, Moraga | Group E: Pittsburg, Antioch, Oakley, Brentwood | Group G: Martinez, Pleasant Hill | Group B: Danville, San Ramon | Group D: El Cerrito, Richmond, San Pablo | Group F: Concord, Clayton | Group H: Pinole, Hercules |

Figure 7. Zone Map

Figure 8. Zone Quotas (See Figure 6 for Zone details)
Note: proportions are based on Contra Costa County’s population: 1,049,025 (Census 2010) Zone | Population | Proportion to CCC Pop. | Adjustments | Survey Quota | Total Surveys | Zone 1 | 193,110 | 18.4% | 5.6% | 24% | 105 | Zone 2 | 213,941 | 20.4% | 2.6% | 23% | 97 | Zone 3 | 385,573 | 36.8% | 3.2% | 40% | 168 | Zone 4 | 111,426 | 10.6% | 2.4% | 13% | 55 |

Figure 9. Survey Groups Zone 1 | Areas Surveyed | | Zone 1 | Areas Surveyed | Group A | Walnut Creek | | Group B | Danville | Anthony Costa | Alamo | | Tracy Vasquez | San Ramon | Melissa Queen | | | John Howe | | Allie Short | 15 per Associate | | Maria Ahlqvist | 15 per Associate | Davene Godinho | 60 Total | | | 45 Total | | | | | | Zone 2 | Areas Surveyed | | Zone 2 | Areas Surveyed | Group C | Lafayette | | Group D | El Cerrito | Eleanor Pitts | Orinda | | Matthew King | Richmond | Steven Vargas | Moraga | | Matthew Cardoza | San Pablo | Priscilla Esparza | | | James Palmer | | Brittany Linton | | | Nick Tuttle | 14 Per Associate | Evan Schlinkert | ~15 Per Associate | | | 56 Total | Allie Smith | 67 Total | | | | | | | | | Zone 3 | Areas Surveyed | | Zone 3 | Areas Surveyed | Group E | Pittsburg | | Group F | Concord | Maria Orozco | Antioch | | Thomas Vo | Clayton | Nick Fong | | | Amanda Minguillon | | Nicole Arce | | | Tommy Mohoric | | Abdul Malik Khan | 14 Per Associate | | Nirbhick Trehan | 14 Per Associate | Steven Roberts | 70 Total | | Maddy Allioti | 42 Total | | | | | | Zone 4 | Areas Surveyed | | Zone 4 | Areas Surveyed | Group G | Martinez | | Group H | El Sobrante | Dawn Shipley | Pleasant Hill | | Alisa Mosman | Pinole | Dayna Best | | | Ben Rigel | | Allie Smith | 14 Per Associate | | Betsy Serrano | 14 Per Associate | | 42 Total | | | 42 Total |

Primary Research Findings - Univariate Data Analysis
Formal surveys were distributed in accordance with the sampling plan throughout Contra Costa County. A total of 385 usable surveys were completed. The formal survey posed questions pertaining to the respondents’ entertainment preferences, sources of information referred to on entertainment events, motivations for attending performing events, their actual performing arts attendance and intention to attend in the future, demographic information and several other areas. The complete formal survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix 4.
Summaries of responses to each question are presented in Figures 10 through 29 in the pages that follow.
Figure 10.1 Most Popular Entertainment Options Figure 10.1 shows that the top three choices for entertainment options among respondents were movies, restaurants, and sporting events.
Figure 10.2 Most Popular Entertainment Options

Figure 10.2 shows that the top three choices for entertainment options among respondents were movies, restaurants, and sporting events.

Figure 11.1 Information Collection

Figure 11.1 shows that the top 3 sources that respondents refer to most often for information about upcoming performing arts events were word of mouth, social media, and TV advertisements.

Figure 11.2 Information Collection

Figure 11.2 shows that the top 3 sources that respondents refer to most often for information about upcoming performing arts events were word of mouth, social media, and TV advertisements.

Figure 12 Respondent’s Use of Social Media

Figure 12 shows that respondents use the Social Media websites Facebook, Google, and Yelp most often.

Figure 13 Motivation Factors

Figure 13 shows that respondents are most motivated to attend performing arts events by the type of music being performed, the quality of the events, and an affordable ticket price.

Figure 14 Familiarity with Performing Arts Organizations

Figure 14 shows that respondents were most familiar with San Francisco Symphony, San Francisco Chamber Orchestra, and California Symphony.

Figure 15.1 Preferred Genres of Classical Music
Figure 15.1 shows that the top two choices of classical music genres among the respondents were Classical and Movie Scores.

Figure 15.2 Preferred Genre of Classical Music

Figure 15.2 shows that the top two choices of classical music genres among the respondents were Classical and Movie Scores.

Figure 16 Preferred Maximum Ticket Price for Performing Arts Event in Contra Costa County

Figure 16 shows the highest maximum ticket price that most respondents were willing to pay was $35-$40.

Figure 17 Respondents’ Day and Time of Event Preferences

Figure 17 shows that the most preferred date and time of performance among the respondents was weekend evenings.

Figure 18.1 Respondents’ Annual Local Performing Arts Event Attendance
Figure 18.1 shows that the most common response regarding annual attendance of local performing art events was 1-2 times.

Figure 18.2 Respondents’ Annual Local Performing Arts Event Attendance Figure 18.2 shows that most of the respondents that attended an annual local performing art events was 1-2 times.

Figure 19 Likelihood of Future Attendance Figure 19 shows that the pre-dominant number of respondents, the probability of future attendance at a performing arts event in Contra Costa County was “somewhat likely”.

Figure 20 Gender of Survey Participants

Figure 20 shows that roughly fifty percent of survey respondents were male and fifty percent female.

Figure 21 Marital Status of Survey Participants

Figure 21 shows that “singles” and “married with children” made up the majority of survey respondents, 47% being single and 36% married with children.

Figure 22 Household Size of Survey Participants

Figure 22 shows that the largest category of survey respondents came from households of one or two persons, making up 48% of the sample, followed by households of three to four persons at 40%.

Figure 23 Highest Level of Formal Education of Survey Participants

Figure 23 indicates that the largest category of survey participants, making up 45% of the sample, had completed a bachelor’s degree. The next largest category, at 25%, had completed High School/GED.

Figure 24 Ethnicity of Survey Participants

Figure 24 indicates that the majority of survey respondents were White/Caucasian, making up 64% of all respondents. Asian was the next largest category at 13%, closely followed by Black/African American at 11%.

Figure 25 Occupation of Respondents
Figure 25 shows the top two occupations indicated by the respondents were Management and Business and Financial Operations.

Figure 26 City/Town of Residence

Figure 26 shows the city/town of residence of the survey respondents. The “Other” category represents the city/towns that had less than 3% response rate. Concord and Walnut Creek had the highest number of respondents.

Figure 27 Zip Codes of Respondents
Figure 27 shows the two zip codes that had the highest number of respondents were Moraga and Pittsburg.

Figure 28 Age Ranges of Respondents
Figure 28 is a pie chart that shows the age ranges of the survey respondents. The top two age ranges indicated by the survey results were 20-25 and 26-30.

Figure 29 Annual Household Income Level of Respondents
Figure 29 shows the two most common annual household income levels among the respondents were 50,001-70,000 and 10,000 and under.

Strategic Marketing Plan A. Segmentation Analysis
In order to segment the market for Contra Costa County Orchestra (CCCO), West Coast Marketing (WCM) developed and conducted a marketing survey throughout the Contra Costa County area. Segments were determined by responses to question 9 of the formal survey in which respondents indicated their rate of performing arts event attendance per year. The following is an analysis of the data and how segments were identified and profiled. These profiles suggest the most effective targeting and positioning strategies that the CCCO should use when creating the organization’s marketing mix. 1) Identifying Segments
The initial focus for the segmentation analysis was the rate of performing art’s attendance per year by the responses from formal survey data. A frequency table of the data was compiled in order to segment respondents by rate of attendance (See Table 1). Based on these results, respondents were grouped into three segments based on their response to question 9, i.e., “How often do you attend a local performing event each year?” The following is the breakdown of responses: None to 1-2 times per year were grouped together into Segment One, 3-4 times were grouped to form Segment Two, 5 or more times per year were grouped into Segment Three. It was determined that respondents attending 1-2 times per year most likely did not attend on a consistent basis and had a similar demographic profile and similar motivating factors for attending performing arts events. It was also determined that respondents attending 3-4 times a year were a somewhat neutral segment in terms of their interest in attending performing arts events, and would have similar motivations. The third segment (patrons that attend 5 or more events per year), attended performing arts events on a more consistent basis and were assumed to share a similar profile.
Table 1 Attendance Rates Attendance | Frequency | Percent | | 1 | 92 | 23.9 | | 2 | 141 | 36.6 | | 3 | 89 | 23.1 | | 4 | 37 | 9.6 | | 5 | 13 | 3.4 | | 6 | 9 | 2.3 | | 7 | 4 | 1.0 | | Total | 385 | 100.0 |

Segment Profiles
Demographic and psychographic (motivator) variables were compiled and compared between the three groups. Selected motivators from question 4 of the formal survey, i.e., “On a scale of 1-5, how important are each of the following factors in motivating you to attend a performing arts event?” were used to find the top motivators of attendance for each segment. The motivating factors chosen were social gathering/interaction, cultural enrichment, stress reliever, encouragement from others, personal enjoyment of the performing arts, well-known performers, personal background/education in performing arts, supporting performing arts in my community, and academic incentive. Demographic variables were used in the analysis as well, i.e., gender, household size, education, age and income. T-score analysis was used to reveal significant differences that occurred between segments for each of the selected demographic and psychographic variables. (See Table 2) These significant differences along with the mean ranking of motivators for each group of respondents established the segment’s profile, describing each group’s typical demographic and psychographic characteristics. The three segments (One, Two, and Three) were named: Followers, Casuals, and Aficionados.

Followers
This segment tended to be approximately 33 years of age and had the lowest rate of attendance among the three segments. They had a significantly lower level of formal education than the Casuals or Aficionados. Followers generally achieved either an Associates or Bachelor’s degree. Their household income level, at an average of $57,200, was significantly lower than the other two segments. Followers typically attended performing arts events for social reasons, e.g., when encouraged by friends and family. Members of this segment were only somewhat motivated by their own personal enjoyment of the arts.
Casuals
These individuals tended to be approximately 40 years of age and on average attended a performing arts event 3-4 times per year. While their attendance rate exceeded the Followers, attendance by the Casuals was significantly less frequent than that of Aficionados. Casuals generally had a Bachelor’s degree and had the highest level of household income across the three segments (at $87,200). According to t-scores results shown in Table 2, there was a significant difference between Followers and Casuals regarding their top motivating factors for attending performing arts events. Casuals were mainly motivated by their personal enjoyment of the arts and significantly more so when compared to the Followers. Like the Followers, social gathering and interaction was a major motivating factor for the Casuals. As Table 2 shows, the Casuals showed another significant difference from the Followers in that they were more inclined to attend a performing arts event if there is a well-known performer involved.
Aficionados
These individuals were the oldest of the three segments with a mean of 44 years of age. As previously stated, this segment typically attended performing arts events five or more times each year. As shown in Table 2, the Aficionados had a significantly higher level of formal education than the Followers but not significantly more than the Casuals. The average household income for the Aficionados at $83,400 a year, while being significantly higher than that of the Followers was slightly lower than the average household income of the Casuals. As shown in Table 2, Aficionados were motivated significantly more than the other segments by their personal enjoyment of the performing arts. Aficionados were highly motivated by cultural enrichment and significantly more so when compared to the other segments. Another motivating factor for this segment, shared by Casuals was that attending performing arts was viewed as a form of stress relief. This was significantly more important motivator to Aficionados and Casuals than was the case for Followers. In comparison to the Followers and Casuals a very distinctive characteristic was their community minded nature. That is, Aficionados were significantly more motivated to attend by a desire to support the performing arts life in their community.
Targeting Strategy The strategy of Multiple Segmentation is recommended. Three segments (Followers, Casuals, and Aficionados) should be targeted with a distinct marketing program involving, pricing, promotion, product and distribution strategies for each.
Positioning Strategy 1) Followers In order to appeal to the Followers, the CCCO must position itself as a social event that is different from a typical night out. The CCCO can position itself as an opportunity to attend an event with friends or family, thereby appealing to the Followers’ motivation for social interaction. Another critical aspect of appealing to this segment is for the CCCO to incorporate well-known performers. It is critical to ensure that each performance brings complete satisfaction to the Followers segment. Since these individuals had the lowest rate of attendance of performing art events, it will be immensely important for the CCCO to position itself in a way that conforms to this segment’s top motivating factors or expectations.
Casuals
In order to appeal to the Casuals segment, the CCCO should position itself as a high quality orchestra thereby appealing to this segment’s motivation for quality entertainment and their personal enjoyment of the performing arts. Like the Followers, CCCO also needs to be positioned to the Casuals as an opportunity to attend an event with friends or family. Additionally, attending a CCCO concert must be seen by this segment as a way to escape the stress and routine of daily life.
Aficionados
In order for the CCCO to appeal to this segment, it must be positioned as a provider of cultural enrichment. Therefore, performances must include some sort of cultural enrichment element such as a historical presentation or background of each performance. Again, these individuals are motivated to attend performing arts events as a way to support the arts in their community. Consequently, CCCO must market itself as a member of the arts community that is worthy of their support. Furthermore, since this segment is strongly motivated by their personal enjoyment of the arts, the CCCO also needs to position itself as a high quality performing arts organization.

Product Strategy 1) Current Product Mix
The current mix of the Contra Costa County Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) product breadth includes: a five-concert series performed at multiple venues in Contra Costa County (Lesher Center, Los Medanos College and Alhambra High School), a commitment to arts educational programs through its partnership with Saint Mary’s College of California, and giving back to the community through affordable events. The depth of CCCO’s current product mix includes orchestral performances of the following genres: Modern (Copland), Classical (Mozart, Beethoven), Baroque (Bach, Vivaladi), & Romantic (Chopin, Rachmaninoff). CCCO’s current product mix depth is also reflected through its concert series organized by theme. Each theme offers an eclectic variety of musical pieces within specific genres. Product Objectives
Given the discrepancy in attendance between CCCO’s two primary performance venues (Lesher Center and Los Medanos College), different product objectives have been established. For example, the objective at the Lesher Center is to double current attendance, increasing the current average of 60 attendees to 120. By comparison, both Los Medanos College and Alhambra High School are typically sold out.
Product Mix Strategies This section will offer product mix strategy recommendations based on the three categories of analysis. First, the preferred types of Entertainment for each segment will be evaluated based on an examination of findings from: primary research gathered from focus group findings, an overview of the competition’s current product mix strategies, and an analysis of the entertainment preferences, derived from data pertaining to Question 1 of the formal survey, which asked respondents to select their top three entertainment choices based on the provided options. Secondly, data analysis of CCCO’s product line priorities will examine the types of programming and other product line areas currently offered by CCCO. In effort to improve the product line priorities to more accurately reflect the preferences of each segment, results of the data analysis will suggest the appropriate relative emphasis on the genres performed by CCCO. Finally, the product quality of CCCO’s current offerings will be analyzed through the application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD). Explained further in this section, this concept is designed to incorporate the wants and needs of the consumer and integrate them into the design characteristics of the product offering. This will be achieved by providing recommendations based on significant relationships derived from cross-tabulation (chi-squared) data analysis of the consumer feedback from Question 4 of the formal survey that polled the factors that motivated each respondent to attend a performing arts event.
Preferred types of Entertainment (by Segment)
Focus Group Findings When both focus groups were asked to comment on their entertainment preferences during a night out, the most frequent responses to this question were: dining out, attending a movie(s), and attending sporting events. Notably, these findings were consistent with the entertainment preferences revealed from the formal survey respondents. These results are broken down by segment (Figures 30, 31, 32). However, the 40 years and older focus group subjects showed more interest in the performing arts area regarding their entertainment preferences. Specifically, many of the participants from this focus group cited attending plays when asked their preferred types of entertainment. None of these participants noted a preference for symphony performances as a form of entertainment when they go out. Conversely, while the 40 years and older focus group listed theater, plays and other forms of live music among their entertainment preferences, the 18 years to 35 years focus group expressed little or no interest in attending performing arts events.
Formal Survey Findings
Figure 30. Followers Entertainment Preferences
Figure 30. Followers Entertainment Preferences In an effort to gain an understanding of the entertainment preferences of CCCO’s target markets, the following bar charts (Figures 1, 2, 3) represent the entertainment preferences of the survey respondents, based on question 1 from the formal survey, broken down by each segment.

Followers
When asked to indicate their entertainment preferences, the Followers top choices included: dining out, going to the movies, and attending a sporting event. As Figure 1 shows, this segment indicated a significantly lower preference for the performing arts with plays, dance recitals, ballet, opera, and symphony ranking the lowest among the forms of entertainment examined. Specifically, symphony was tied with opera for the least preferred type of entertainment.

Figure 31. Casuals Entertainment Preferences
Figure 31. Casuals Entertainment Preferences

Casuals
Consistent with the Followers’ entertainment preferences indicated in Figure 30, the Casuals reported the same top three entertainment preferences: movies, dining out and sporting events, with movies ranking the top choice over dining out. However, the most notable change between the Followers and the Casuals was the Casual’s heighted preference for two of the listed forms of performing arts: i.e., plays and symphony.
Figure 32. Aficionados Entertainment Preferences
Figure 32. Aficionados Entertainment Preferences

Aficionados
The Aficionados, like the other segments, indicated movies and dining out as top choices for entertainment. While symphony ranked in the middle of the entertainment choices, both the Casuals and Aficionados had a higher preference for symphony than the Followers.
Cross Tabulation Analysis The Chi square test was performed to reveal whether there were significant differences between the segments in their preferences for each type of entertainment (Table 3). Table 3. Entertainment Preferences Compared Between SegmentsFOLLOWERS (SEGMENT 1) vs. CASUALS (SEGMENT 2) | | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Sports | 7.589 | 0.006 | SEGMENT 1 | | Movies | 1.388 | 0.239 | | | Pop Music | 0.396 | 0.529 | | | Symphony | 21.397 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 2 | | Opera | 0.828 | 0.363 | | | Ballet | 0.399 | 0.528 | | | Plays | 14.409 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 2 | | Dance | 0.029 | 0.866 | | | Comedy | 0.124 | 0.725 | | | Club/Bars | 6.984 | 0.008 | SEGMENT 1 | | Dining out | 0.313 | 0.576 | | | Museums | 0.217 | 0.641 | | | | | | | | | FOLLOWERS (SEGMENT 1) vs. AFICIONADOS (SEGMENT 3) | | | | | | | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Sports | 4.886 | 0.027 | SEGMENT 1 | | Movies | 3.898 | 0.048 | SEGMENT 1 | | Pop Music | 0.241 | 0.623 | | | Symphony | 29.131 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 3 | | Opera | 15.375 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 3 | | Ballet | 1.291 | 0.256 | | | Plays | 33.952 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 3 | | Dance | 0.804 | 0.370 | | | Comedy | 1.835 | 0.176 | | | Club/Bars | 14.98 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 1 | | Dining out | 7.707 | 0.006 | SEGMENT 1 | | Museums | 1.528 | 0.216 | | | | | | | CASUALS (SEGMENT 2) vs. AFICIONADOS (SEGMENT 3) | | | | | | | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Sports | 0.034 | 0.854 | | | Movies | 6.68 | 0.010 | SEGMENT 2 | | Pop Music | 0.819 | 0.365 | | | Symphony | 0.529 | 0.467 | | | Opera | 4.781 | 0.029 | SEGMENT 3 | | Ballet | 0.188 | 0.664 | | | Plays | 3.27 | 0.071 | SEGMENT 3 * | | Dance | 0.733 | 0.392 | | | Comedy | 0.982 | 0.322 | | | Club/Bars | 2.306 | 0.129 | | | Dining out | 3.688 | 0.055 | SEGMENT 2 * | | Museums | 0.454 | 0.500 | | | | | * at only .10 level | | | | | | | | | | | |
Followers
The cross tabulation analysis shown in Table 1, comparing entertainment preferences between each segment shows that Followers had a significantly higher preference for sports and bars/clubs when compared with both the Casuals and Aficionados segments. In addition, when compared to the Aficionados, the Followers also demonstrated a significantly higher preference for movies and dining out.
Casuals
When comparing the entertainment preferences between the Followers and Casuals, the Casuals had a significantly higher preference for both symphony and plays. Compared with Aficionados, the Casuals segment demonstrated a significantly higher preference for movies and a nearly significant preference for dining out (significant at the 0.10 level).
Aficionados
Comparing the Followers with the Aficionados segments, the Aficionados had a significantly higher preference for the performing arts, specifically symphony, opera and plays. Furthermore, when compared to the Casuals segment, the Aficionados again demonstrated a significantly higher preference for opera. Additionally, plays were more preferred by the Aficionados, but this difference in preference was less significant than the other forms of performing arts previously mentioned (only significant at the 0.10 level).

Recommendations Since Casuals and Aficionados demonstrated a greater preference for the performing arts, emphasis should be placed on introducing product offerings that will also attract the Followers to performing arts events, including orchestral performances. Beyond the need for attracting more Followers, this section provides specific recommendations for attracting each segment to orchestra performances and events.
Followers
Considering the Followers’ preference for clubs/bars, efforts to combine their nightlife preference with CCCO’s performance offerings would help attract this segment. For example, identifying a popular nightclub within the proximity of CCCO’s target market that could accommodate a smaller ensemble would help entice this segment to attend, while still achieving the social atmosphere they prefer. Similarly, a joint arrangement between CCCO with a popular nightclub/bar could attract the Followers.
Casuals
Given the Casuals’ heightened entertainment preference for the performing arts compared to that of the Followers, the product mix strategy to attract the Casuals should involve ways to complement their apparent desire for an inclusive evening of entertainment. For example, given the Casual’s prefer dining out more than the Aficionados, CCCO could take a similar approach to that of the Followers by introducing a joint arrangement with nearby restaurants.

Aficionados Like the Casuals segment, the Aficionados have an even stronger preference for the performing arts than both the Followers and Casuals. This is motivated by their desire to experience cultural enrichment when pursuing their entertainment choices. Beyond cultural enrichment, the Aficionados have a strong regard for community support, including supporting the arts life in their communities. As this characteristic separates the Aficionados from the other two segments, emphasis should be placed on including an element of community support in CCCO’s product offering in order to entice this segment. For example, an organized charity event located at a suitable venue able to accommodate a fine dining experience with a CCCO concert could attract this segment.
Product Line Priorities Based on CCCO’s current series of performances, its product line offers eclectic and well-balanced genres in its programming, including: Classical, Romantic, Baroque and modern periods of music, in fairly equal proportion. Survey respondents were asked to indicate their top three classical music genre preferences among the following options: Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Modern, Movie Soundtracks/Scores and Boston Pops (Question 6 in the formal survey). The following findings present the symphony genre preferences among the respondents.

Figure 33. Followers Symphony Preferences
Figure 33. Followers Symphony Preferences

Followers
Figure 33 above shows that this segment’s top choices regarding music genres, were: Classical, Movie Scores, and Modern. Both classical and modern were the most preferred for this segment.
Figure 34. Casuals Symphony Preferences
Figure 34. Casuals Symphony Preferences

Casuals
This segment’s top choices were similar to the Followers, in which both Classical and Movie Score genres ranked among the top three for each of these segments. The Romantic genre ranked second for the Casuals.

Figure 35. Aficionados Symphony Preferences
Figure 35. Aficionados Symphony Preferences

Aficionados
Like both the Followers and Casuals, the Aficionados also chose Classical as their top genre preference. The Aficionados shared Romantic period music with the Casuals as the second highest ranked preferred genre.
Cross Tabulation Analysis Based on the data analysis presented in Table 2 below, the following cross tabulation analysis identifies the relationships, if any, between the classical music genre preferences with segment type. The relationships between the segments with genre preference revealed some significant differences. This analysis can be used to refine CCCO’s product line by suggesting possible programming adjustments throughout the concert season that can target the desires of each segment. Table 4. Symphony Genre Preferences Compared Between SegmentsFOLLOWERS (SEGMENT 1) vs. CASUALS (SEGMENT 2) | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Baroque | 0.275 | 0.600 | | | Classical | 2.979 | 0.084 | SEGMENT 2 * | | Romantic | 9.824 | 0.002 | SEGMENT 2 | | Modern | 0.004 | 0.951 | | | Movie Scores | 8.692 | 0.003 | SEGMENT 1 | | Boston Pops | 0.288 | 0.591 | | | | at only .10 levelFOLLOWERS (SEGMENT 1) vs. AFICIONADOS (SEGMENT 3) | | | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Baroque | 4.637 | 0.031 | SEGMENT 3 | | Classical | 1.625 | 0.202 | | | Romantic | 7.622 | 0.006 | SEGMENT 3 | | Modern | 4.031 | 0.045 | SEGMENT 1 | | Movie Scores | 13.951 | 0.000 | SEGMENT 1 | | Boston Pops | 0.102 | 0.749 | | | | | | | | | CASUALS (SEGMENT 2) vs. AFICIONADOS (SEGMENT 3) | | | | | | | | | Significantly more | | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Preferred by | | Baroque | 1.919 | 0.166 | | | Classical | 0.041 | 0.839 | | | Romantic | 0.001 | 0.978 | | | Modern | 3.066 | 0.080 | SEGMENT 2 * | | Movie Scores | 1.156 | 0.282 | | | Boston Pops | 0.018 | 0.893 | | | | * at only .10 level | | | | | | | |
Followers
Based on the cross tabulation analysis comparing symphony genre preferences between each segment, the Followers had a significantly higher preference for movie soundtracks/scores than the Casuals segment, which preferred the Romantic genre. When comparing the Followers with Aficionados, the Followers again demonstrated a significant preference for movie soundtracks/scores. Given their significantly lower preference for the performing arts, the Followers’ preference for the movie soundtrack/score genre was consistent with their greater preference for movies as a preferred form of entertainment (see Table 4).
Casuals
Besides their significantly higher preference for the Romantic genre, the Causals, compared to Followers, also had a less significant, but notably greater preference for the Classical genre (significant at the 0.10 level). Additionally, when compared to the Aficionados, the Casuals had almost a significantly greater preference for the Modern genre (significant at the 0.10 level).
Aficionados
It is important to note that this segment, compared to the others, demonstrated a significantly higher preference for the performing arts in general. Likewise, the Aficionados demonstrated more preference for all examined music genres (See Table 4).

Recommendations
Followers
Taking the Followers’ significant preference for movie soundtracks/scores into consideration, CCCO can generate appeal to attract this segment by introducing a performance of popular movie score (e.g. Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings, etc.) in addition to some pieces from the Modern genre. This type of programming should be heavily promoted to gain awareness/interest among this segment.
Casuals & Aficionados Given that both the Casuals and Aficionados had an existing preference for the various genres that CCCO currently offers, it is recommended that minimal change to its current programming would be required to appeal to these segments. As noted in the Product Mix recommendations, it is more important to focus on the overall aspect of both an evening of entertainment and community support to attract these segments.
Product Quality
Quality Function Deployment Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is designed to discover the required wants and needs of the consumer and translate those needs into the design characteristics of the product offering. QFD was applied through the assessment of all product-related motivators from question 4 of the formal survey. Additionally, t-test data analyses were performed to reveal significant mean differences (if any) between the segments regarding the product-related motivators (see Table 5). Table 5. General Product-related Motivators Compared Between Segments | | | | | | | | | | | | | FOLLOWERS (SEGMENT 1) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 1v2 | 1v3 | | | | Charity | 230 | 2.93 | 1 | 4 | ** | *** | | | | Quality | 232 | 3.62 | 2 | 2 | *** | *** | | | | Type of music | 230 | 3.85 | 3 | 1 | | | | | | Known star perf. | 227 | 3.18 | 4 | 3 | | | | | | Potential star perf. | 231 | 2.56 | 5 | 7 | | | | | | Collaboration | 231 | 2.74 | 6 | 6 | *** | * | | | | Theme | 232 | 2.87 | 7 | 5 | *** | ** | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CASUALS (SEGMENT 2) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 2v1 | 2v3 | | | | Charity | 89 | 3.27 | 1 | 5 | ** | 0.1 | | | | Quality | 89 | 4.10 | 2 | 1 | *** | | | | | Type of music | 87 | 3.93 | 3 | 2 | | | | | | Known star perf. | 89 | 3.24 | 4 | 6 | | | | | | Potential star perf. | 89 | 2.62 | 5 | 3 | | | | | | Collaboration | 88 | 3.19 | 6 | 7 | *** | | | | | Theme | 87 | 3.38 | 7 | 4 | *** | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | AFICIONADOS (SEGMENT 3) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 3v1 | 3v2 | | | | Charity | 62 | 3.61 | 1 | 3 | *** | 0.1 | | | | Quality | 62 | 4.05 | 2 | 2 | *** | | | | | Type of music | 63 | 4.13 | 3 | 1 | | | | | | Known star perf. | 62 | 3.23 | 4 | 4 | | | | | | Potential star perf. | 62 | 2.84 | 5 | 7 | | | | | | Collaboration | 62 | 3.08 | 6 | 6 | * | | | | | Theme | 61 | 3.21 | 7 | 5 | ** | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | * = significant means response difference at .05 level | | | | | | | | | | | | | ** = significant means response difference at .01 level | | | | | | | | | | | | | *** = significant means response difference at more than .01 level | | |

Followers
As indicated in Table 3, t-score data analyses of the Followers segment were used to identify significant relationships between both the Followers and Casuals, and the Followers and Aficionados with respect to their general product-related motivating factors. Analysis of the Followers and Casuals revealed that the Followers placed significantly less for: product quality (significant at more than the 0.01 level), collaboration of performance with other events (significant at more than the 0.01 level), themed-related event (significant at more than the 0.01 level), and charity related events (significant at the 0.01 level). Comparison of the Followers with Aficionados also revealed that the latter placed more importance on: product quality (significant at more than the 0.01 level), collaboration with another event (significant at the 0.05 level), themed-related event (significant at more than the 0.01 level), and charity related events (significant at more than the 0.01 level). Based on the rankings of the top product-related motivators, the analysis concludes that the Followers were most motivated to attend performing arts events by three product-related factors: (1) type of music played, (2) quality of the performance, and (3) well-known stars.
Casuals
T-score data analysis was used to compare the Casuals segment with the other segments regarding the importance of product-related factors that motivate performing arts events attendance. Analysis of the Casuals and Followers revealed that Casuals placed more importance on: product quality (significant at more than the 0.01 level), collaboration with another event (significant at more than the 0.01 level), themed-related event (significant at more than the 0.01 level), and charity (significant at the 0.05 level). As far as the rankings of the product-related motivating factors, Casuals were most influenced by: quality of the performance, type of music being performed, theme related events, and events tied to charitable causes.
Aficionados
Analysis of the Aficionados compared to Followers, were significantly more motivated by: product quality (significant at more than the 0.01 level), collaboration with another event (significant at the 0.05 level), themed-related event (significant at the 0.01 level), and charity related events (significant at more than the 0.01 level). Notably, no significant difference was found between Aficionados and Casuals along any product motivators. Table 5 indicates three product-related motivators that had the heaviest influence on the Aficionados, i.e., type of music being performed, quality of the performance, and charity related events.
Recommendations
Followers Given that the variables of type of music, quality of performance and well-known performer were the top product-related motivating factors among the Followers, emphasis on these factors should be designed into CCCO offerings in order to attract this segment. This reinforces the previous recommendation to introduce a movie soundtrack/score performance into CCCO’s programming. The Followers’ motivation to see a well-known performer suggests CCCO should collaborate with a local star that carries the necessary name recognition to attract this segment.

Casuals Again, the product-related motivators including: types of music, quality and theme events were the most important factors for attracting the Casuals. CCCO’s product offering should contain these elements. Theme-related events and collaboration with other events are also product related offerings that would particularly attract this segment.
Aficionados
Given that charity related events are significantly more important to the other segments, such a product offering would attract this group. This would also appeal to their community minded nature.
Promotion Strategy 1) Importance of Promotion as a Motivator to Attend Performing Arts Events
In order to clearly explain what factors each segment is motivated by and compare each segment to one another, several promotional related motivators were drawn from question 4 of the formal survey and analyzed to see if there were a significant difference between segments and their promotional motivators. Respondents were asked to assess the importance of each in motivating them to attend a performing arts event. Responses were made on a 5-point scale from (1) “Not at All Important” to (5) “Extremely Important”.
According to Table 6.1, the Followers were highly motivated to attend a performing arts event by the type of music being performed, affordable ticket prices and the quality of the event. The three promotional factors assessed (memorable advertising, word of mouth, and favorable reviews) were favored but not as important compared to the other motivational factors. Word of mouth with a mean of 3.27 ranked 8th out of 28 motivational factors which shows that this type of promotion was a highly influential factor in influencing the Followers to attend performing arts events. Favorable reviews were ranked second as a promotional factor, with a mean score of 3.1. Memorable advertising was the least influential promotional factor.
Regarding the Casuals, the promotional factors of memorable advertising and word of mouth, were still an influence on this segment, but were not as important in influencing consumers to attend performances compared to the other motivational factors. Favorable reviews was the least important promotion related motivator.
As presented in Table 6.3, the Aficionados were influenced to attend a performing arts event by personal enjoyment of performing arts, the type of music being performed, and the quality of the event. The promotion related motivators of word of mouth and favorable reviews, were deemed important to the Aficionados, but memorable advertising did not rate as important as the other motivational factors.

Table 6.1 Importance of Promotion-Related Motivators -Followers

* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

Table 6.2 Importance of Promotion-related Motivators – Casuals

* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

Table 6.3 Importance of Promotion-related Motivators – Aficionados

* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

T-score analysis was used to detect whether significant differences in the mean responses occurred between the segments. When comparing the Followers to Casuals, there was a highly significant difference in the importance of favorable reviews. Similarly there was a slight difference between these segments in terms of memorable advertising and the influence it had on performing arts attendance between the groups. However, there was no significant difference between the Followers and Casuals when comparing the motivation factor of word of mouth. There was also a significant difference in favorable reviews as a motivational factor between the Followers, Casuals and Aficionados and no significant difference regarding memorable advertising and word of mouth. When comparing the Casuals to Aficionados, there was no significant difference regarding the promotion related motivators.
Overall, the Followers were the least influenced by promotion related motivators. In contrast, the Casuals were more influenced by the three promotional related motivators. Promotional Objectives
Among advertising theories, the Hierarchy of Effects model is a leading indicator of how to measure the series of five steps a consumer passes through from initial exposure to a product to the final purchase decision. The model can be explained through a categorization of stages and is used to set up a structure of promotion objectives for a particular product or service, with the ultimate goal of building upon each successive objective until a sale is finally made. Three stages make up the model; Cognitive, Affective and Behavior which shows the direct relation of how advertising influences a consumer’s decision to purchase or not purchase a product or service over time. Within these steps, the objectives of promotion are (in order): awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and ultimately purchase.
The Awareness stage is the most critical level to strive for when setting promotional objectives. The target audience must be aware of the service or product offered. This can be achieved by stimulating name recognition, translating simple messages, repeating the product name, and forcing consumers to become aware of the brand.
After reaching the Awareness level, the intended target market may only have name recognition but no knowledge of the service offered. At the Knowledge level, brand name and its position becomes extremely important. The target audience must know the brand’s benefits as well as its differentiation from competitors. After attaining the Knowledge level, succeeding objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid such as the preference or conviction stage in order to produce desired behavioral responses. This includes emotions associated with the brand, company or product. It is easier to accomplish advertising objectives located at the base of the pyramid first and build up to the objectives at the top.
Before an organization begins to tackle the task of building brand awareness, it must specify what constitutes a desirable objective. The DAGMAR model proposes that the ultimate objective of advertising requires a consumer to pass through all five steps of understanding (explained above) before a purchase is made. The term DAGMAR stands for Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results and was proposed by Russel H. Colley (1961).
Key contributions to DAGMAR were Colley’s four characteristics determining what makes a desirable objective. First, an objective must be concrete and measurable. The organization needs to have a clear statement of what message it wants to communicate to the target audience. The next and most crucial requirement is that the target audience is well defined. For example, if the goal was to increase awareness by a certain percentage, it is essential to clearly identify the target audience. A concluding characteristic of a desirable objective is to identify a time period during which the objective is to be accomplished. (Example, if the objective is to increase awareness- the organization will specify a time period such as increase awareness in 6 months or 1 year, etc). The final characteristic of Colley’s DAGMAR approach is to commit the goal to paper.
Current Level of Hierarchy of Effects Model
The following determines what stage of the model each segment was at in reference to the Hierarchy of Effects Model. It also gives us an idea of what stages CCCO can potentially be in the near future in reference to each segments preference. Here, respondents were asked to rate their awareness of several local performing arts organizations on a 5-point scale from (1) “Never Heard of It to (5) “Very Knowledgeable” (of it). Segments’ mean responses were compared using t-score analysis to reveal significant inter group differences.
Followers
Table 7.1, shows, that the Followers ranked their awareness of Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) low among the list of its competitors. As presented on Table 7.1, this segment had a mean familiarity level of 1.42 i.e., between “Never Heard of It” and “Only Heard of It”. As a result CCCO should focus on more effective forms of promotion to gain greater awareness from this segment.
Table 7.1 Followers Awareness of CCCO vs. Competitors Followers | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 1/2 | 1v3 | SAN FRANCISCO SYMPHONY | 230 | 2.45 | 1 | 1 | *** | *** | SAN FRANCISCO CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 230 | 1.82 | 2 | 2 | *** | *** | DIABLO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA | 232 | 1.62 | 3 | 4 | *** | *** | CALIFORNIA SYMPHONY | 230 | 1.61 | 4 | 5 | *** | *** | NEW CENTURY CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 232 | 1.28 | 5 | 10 | *** | *** | BAY AREA CHAMBER SYMPHONY | 233 | 1.38 | 6 | 9 | *** | *** | BERKELEY SYMPHONY | 233 | 1.64 | 7 | 3 | *** | *** | GOLD COAST CHAMBER PLAYERS | 233 | 1.2 | 8 | 11 | *** | *** | CONTRA CIVIC THEATRE | 233 | 1.48 | 9 | 7 | *** | *** | DIABLO THEATRE COMPANY | 233 | 1.56 | 10 | 6 | *** | *** | CONTRA COSTA CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 233 | 1.42 | 11 | 8 | *** | *** |
* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

Casuals
As indicated in Table 7.2 the Casuals, similar to the Followers, lacked awareness of CCCO. This segment is motivated by social gatherings, attending a performance as a stress reliever, and cultural enrichment. However, the Casuals were significantly more aware of each organization, including CCCO, than were the Followers.
Table 7.2 Casuals Awareness of CCCO vs. Competitors Casuals | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 2v1 | 2v3 | SAN FRANCISCO SYMPHONY | 89 | 3.33 | 1 | 1 | *** | | SAN FRANCISCO CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 89 | 2.9 | 2 | 2 | *** | | DIABLO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA | 89 | 2.11 | 3 | 4 | *** | *** | CALIFORNIA SYMPHONY | 88 | 2.22 | 4 | 3 | *** | * | NEW CENTURY CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 87 | 1.6 | 5 | 9 | *** | * | BAY AREA CHAMBER SYMPHONY | 88 | 1.7 | 6 | 8 | *** | * | BERKELEY SYMPHONY | 88 | 2.11 | 7 | 4 | *** | | GOLD COAST CHAMBER PLAYERS | 88 | 1.57 | 8 | 10 | *** | | CONTRA CIVIC THEATRE | 87 | 1.95 | 9 | 6 | *** | | DIABLO THEATRE COMPANY | 86 | 2.1 | 10 | 5 | *** | * | CONTRA COSTA CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 88 | 1.83 | 11 | 7 | *** | |

* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

Aficionados
When compared to the Followers and Casuals, the Aficionados ranked their awareness of CCCO third among the competitors. Table 7.3 shows that by the Aficionados ranked CCCO ninth. This group was the most aware of CCCO but were still below a desired level of awareness. This segment produced a mean of 2.11, indicating that they had “Only Heard” of CCCO. CCCO should promote heavily to this group since they are currently attending performing arts events several times a year. In general, however, this segment was significantly more aware than Casuals of several competitors, namely, San Francisco Symphony, Diablo Symphony Orchestra, San Francisco Chamber Orchestra, and California Symphony. This is not surprising since this segment showed the highest affinity for performing arts.
Table 7.3 Aficionados Awareness of CCCO vs. Competitors Aficionados | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 3v1 | 3v2 | SAN FRANCISCO SYMPHONY | 63 | 3.35 | 1 | 1 | *** | | SAN FRANCISCO CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 63 | 2.81 | 2 | 3 | *** | | DIABLO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA | 63 | 2.63 | 3 | 5 | *** | *** | CALIFORNIA SYMPHONY | 63 | 2.65 | 4 | 4 | *** | * | NEW CENTURY CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 63 | 1.95 | 5 | 10 | *** | * | BAY AREA CHAMBER SYMPHONY | 63 | 2.93 | 6 | 2 | *** | * | BERKELEY SYMPHONY | 61 | 2.33 | 7 | 7 | *** | | GOLD COAST CHAMBER PLAYERS | 63 | 1.78 | 8 | 11 | *** | | CONTRA CIVIC THEATRE | 63 | 2.24 | 9 | 8 | *** | | DIABLO THEATRE COMPANY | 63 | 2.56 | 10 | 6 | *** | * | CONTRA COSTA CHAMBER ORCHESTRA | 63 | 2.11 | 11 | 9 | *** | |
* = Significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means difference at more than .01 level

Promotional Objective in 1 Year
The following section will explain how to calculate an increase in awareness for Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra, in order to compare itself among its competitors. In order to bring CCCO up to the overall average of awareness of all competitors, CCCO needs a 13.5% increase in awareness to match competitors. (See Table 8). In order to bring CCCO up to level 2 awareness, “Only Heard of It,” CCCO needs a 22.7% desired increase. (See Table 8).

Followers
Since the Followers attend performing arts events when encouraged by friends, family or online reviews, the CCCO should promote itself via social media in order for members of this segment to pass the awareness level and reach the knowledge level within the hierarchy effects model. At the knowledge level, consumers will only have minimal company and product awareness. It is reasonable to try to bring this segment’s awareness of CCCO to a level equal to the mean awareness all survey respondents displayed across all the competitors (1.85). Therefore, the goal is to increase Follower’s awareness and familiarity with the CCCO by 13.5% in one year.
Casuals
The Casuals attend performing arts events as a leisurely reward to their busy schedules. CCCO should take advantage of promoting motivational factors such as social gatherings and or stress relievers. Using the same method of formulations a promotional goal for Follower’s as described above should be 13.5%.
Aficionados
This segment is made up of performing arts goers who have a greater interest of performing arts companies. The Aficionados attend performing arts events for cultural enrichment and to support their local community. Applying the same approach to calculating a promotional goal described above, the objective is to increase this segments familiarity with CCCO by 22.7% in order to reach level two of the model.

Table 8 Awareness of Direct Competitors COMPANYCalifornia Symphony | N382 | MEAN1.92 | | Diablo Symphony Orchestra | 384 | 1.9 | | Berkeley Symphony | 382 | 1.86 | | Diablo Theatre Company | 382 | 1.85 | | Contra Civic Theatre | 383 | 1.72 | | Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra | 384 | 1.63 | | Bay Area Chamber Symphony | 384 | 1.58 | | New Century Chamber Orchestra | 382 | 1.46 | | Gold Coast Chamber Players | 384 | 1.38 | | | | | | AVERAGE = 1.85 | | | | | | | | (1.85-1.63)/1.63= 13.5% to bring CCCO up to overall average | (2-1.63)/1.63= 22.7% to bring CCCO up to level 2 ("only heard of it") |

Message Creation
Message Generation
Followers
The Segmentation Analysis showed that the Followers are motivated by the encouragement of others to partake in social activities. Due to these factors, it would be beneficial for CCCO to market to this segment as a refreshing alternative to their usual entertainment outings (should we explain what those outings were?). Therefore, a promotional message for this segment should convey key points of attraction in attending performing arts events such as its social gathering aspect, being refreshingly different, and trendy, as shown in Appendix 1.
Casuals
The Casuals value high quality forms of performing arts entertainment. As referred to in Appendix 2, like the Followers, the Casuals should ultimately perceive CCCO as a method to relieve stress by enjoying a night of quality music with family and friends.
Aficionados
What mainly sets Aficionados apart from the others is their deep interest in performing arts. Attending a performing arts event for the Aficionados is not only an enjoyable experience, but a way of supporting their local community. An effective way for CCCO to promote to the Aficionados, as shown in Appendix 3, would be to develop a message that encompasses CCCO community oriented mission and goals. CCCO can also promote itself more effectively to this group by presenting itself as a high quality organization that offers cultural enrichment.
Message Execution
Currently the CCCO uses media web site hosting, season brochures sent via direct mail, email advertising, and occasionally print media for its promotional activities. CCCO does not promote differently to each of its segments, but instead conveys a common message to all.
The format for CCCO’s website portrays a straightforward and direct message to its audience. It does not portray an emotion to its audience or evoke an emotional attachment to the orchestra. It gives basic information, while making it easy to navigate through the website. As a result, this basic information does not convey a particular aspect or emotion that the audience can associate to their personal lives. The copy of the website portrays the message to the audience of providing high quality performances of varied and dynamic musical works. Icons of musical notes and scores are prominent in the artwork of the website, portraying the goal of quality for CCCO. The website also includes candid pictures of performers and performances highlighting the members of the CCCO.
The style and tone for the season brochures are similar to the website message. The brochure does not portray any type of emotion or have a distinct style. It consists of pictures of featured artists for the season. It only gives information on the set being played and has a section for purchasing tickets. The copy is not clear and does not convey a message to the audience as well as fail to include accurate information portraying the mission or any distinguishing element of CCCO. But most of all, there is virtually no color or artwork besides the CCCO logo which is severely hindering their goal of effective messaging.
Email advertising is the most prominent form of advertising used by CCCO. It is the most cost-effective, and therefore, used more frequently to reach a larger audience. The artwork includes the logo of the program that is being showcased for that date. The style of the email is more inviting than hard copies such as flyers and posters, portraying a more friendly emotion to the audience. Since the email is distributed to a compiled list of previous attendees, it treats the attendees as old friends and uses more casual language. The copy invites the attendee to continue to support CCCO performances.
Recommendations
Followers
The format of promotional activities for the Followers should include language that emphasizes social events. Key words that should be included are “events”, “social gathering”, “overall experience”, etc. The language and style portrayed to the Followers should be one that expresses the grandeur and an emotional connection to attending a CCCO performance. When they view the website or an email sent by the CCCO, it should evoke memorable moments with their friends. The format elements should show images of groups of people who attend a performance and the copy should portray the whole experience of going out with a group of friends and breaking away from the normal routine.
Casuals
For the members of the Casual segment, the style and tone should reflect a high quality experience that appeals to personal enjoyment of the arts. It should also invite the Casuals to attend the event with friends and family where stress can be forgotten. Key words to include should be- “family”, “escape”, “routine”, “treating yourself”, “quality”, etc. The language and style, along with promotion activities, should suggest the Casuals as an escape from their hectic life and enjoy time to relax with their family and friends.
Aficionados
The Aficionados already understand the enjoyment that comes from attending a CCCO performance. Aficionados see the importance of enriching the community to continued support of local community events. Therefore, the promotional activities should convey benefits to the community while showing the quality of the performance and talent. The key words that should be included are “quality”, “cultural enrichment”, “vibrant art life”, “support”, etc. This language and style conveyed encourages the Aficionados to support CCCO for their community involvement and enjoyment of showcased talent.

Promotional Mix
Current Blend Components in Effect by CCCO
The current promotional mix of the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) includes components of advertising and direct marketing. A total advertising budget of $4,900 is allocated per each of the five annual sets.
Advertising components include a personal website, social media, print media, and newspaper advertisements. The CCCO spends $500 annually on website hosting expenses. Social media sites utilized include a Facebook page, a Meetup Group, and an InstantEncore page, which is a classical music and artists social media site. Print media ads are placed in the Martinez Gazette, Rossmoor News, and Contra Costa Times newspapers when the budget allows.
Direct marketing opportunities are utilized through season brochures sent directly through mail services at the beginning of each season. Email advertisements are also sent to those on the email list that the CCCO has on file, displaying artwork to announce upcoming concerts. Follow up emails are sent, in addition, with more creative copy focusing on the composers or soloists scheduled to perform in the upcoming concert.
The majority of emphasis is placed on email blasts and Facebook updates due to budgeting limits. Newspaper ads are placed based on factors such as ad space prices and frequency of appearance in order to stay within the budget.
Potential Blend Components Based on the information collected from the formal surveys and focus groups, CCCO should consider using several promotional strategies for each segment. It should focus on using different promotional tactics according to each segments positioning concept combined with survey data and analysis.
Followers
According to the data analyzed from the formal surveys, word of mouth ranked number one by the Followers in reference to Question Two. This type of promotion was preferred among the Followers and as a result, CCCO may want to consider growing its audience by giving discounts or promotional offers on ticket prices. This can create brand awareness and name recognition for the organization. It can also encourage these viewers to recommend CCCO to others. After collecting data from the focus groups, the Followers received most their information from social media sites such as Yelp and Facebook which was rated second in reference to Question Two. Since this type of promotion was ranked second, CCCO may consider focusing more on its Facebook page. CCCO might want to have someone within the organization be actively involved on its page by updating it frequently and hosting promotional deals. This can be a cost-effective idea considering CCCO’s small budget. TV ads were ranked third by the Followers. Since CCCO has a small budget allocated as previously mentioned, having TV ads and commercials may be unrealistic to pursue, however it would be a potential idea CCCO may want to implement in the future. This would help increase publicity and allow the Orchestra to expand its audience base.
Casuals
After analyzing the data from the formal surveys, word of mouth was ranked number one in regards to sources of information preferred by respondents. Since the Casuals preferred to attend events that were stress relieving, CCCO may consider promoting its music in a way that will emphasize a stress-free atmosphere. CCCO may also want to consider promoting its performances as a family-friendly event that is different from the comfort of daily routines and can contribute to a stress reliever activity. Email was favored second in reference to question two. Some focus group members mentioned that a way they received information about performing art events was through email. CCCO may want to consider increasing its email blast list, but only directing its emails to potential consumers of performing art events. TV ads also came in third similar to the Followers. Again, considering that CCCO’s budget towards promotion is very small, this is something that can be achieved in the future.
Aficionados
After analyzing the data from the formal surveys, word of mouth was also ranked the highest of preferred information sources for the Aficionados. Considering this segment of the market is culturally enriched and are likely to support their community performing arts events, CCCO might consider utilizing these people by having them mention CCCO’s name to their social group. Price incentives could be offered to the Aficionado’s for every person who attends a CCCO event based on a referral. CCCO might also want to consider valuing them as an important audience and treating them like a VIP guest. Critics reviews were ranked the second highest, which was not ranked top three among the Followers or the Casuals. Based on this finding, the CCCO may want to consider sending out review surveys to previous concert attendees and asking them to rate the concert based on certain criteria. After the reviews are completed, CCCO could then use these reviews and post results appealing to the Aficionados on its Facebook page. It would be important to mention and emphasize reviews with specific mention of the cultural enrichment aspect. CCCO might also consider having community members and local performers showcased at its concerts. This could increase the Aficionados interest in attending. Newspaper ads were ranked the third highest. Considering CCCO’s budget is minimal, it may want to consider having a list of its future events in local newspaper ads. This can keep them informed about performance dates.
Sources of Information
The data, used to analyze the differences in the preferred sources of information about performing arts events among the segments, were taken from question three of the formal survey. The cross tabulation analysis, between each combination of segments with their own use of each source of information, was conducted to reveal whether significant differences between the segments occurred.
Based on interpretation of the preferred source for information about upcoming performing arts events, each segment had significantly different preferences. The Followers top three choices were word of mouth, social media, and television advertisements. The Casuals top three choices were word of mouth, email, and television advertisements. The Aficionados top choices were word of mouth, critic’s reviews, newspaper, and email. As shown in Table 9.1, Followers preferred social media significantly more than did the Casuals but the Casuals preferred email more than the Followers did. When compared, Followers preferred social media and television advertising more than did the Aficionados as shown in Table 9.1. Aficionados, in comparison to the Followers, preferred email, flyers/posters, newspaper advertisements, and critic’s review. As shown in Table 9.3, Casuals preferred television advertisements and social media more than the Aficionados but Aficionados preferred critic’s significantly more than the Casuals did.

Table 9.1 Media Preferences – Followers vs. Casuals Followers vs. Casuals | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Significantly more Preferred by | Word of Mouth | 0.12 | 0.729 | | Email | 11.939 | 0.001 | Casuals | Flyers/Posters | 2.742 | 0.98 | | Billboards | 0.422 | 0.516 | | TV Advertisements | 1.401 | 0.236 | | Radio Advertisements | 0.87 | 0.768 | | Newspaper Advertisements | 3.589 | 0.58 | | Magazine Advertisements | 2.529 | 0.112 | | Critic's Reviews | 2.59 | 0.112 | | Social Media | 7.328 | 0.007 | Followers | Internet Advertisements | 3.366 | 0.67 | | Mobile Phone Alerts | 1.017 | 0.313 | | Direct Regular Mail | 0.818 | 0.366 | | | | | | * at only .10 level |
Table 9.2 Media Preferences – Followers vs. Aficionados Followers vs. Aficionados | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Significantly more Preferred by | Word of Mouth | 0.030 | 0.863 | | Email | 4.201 | 0.040 | Aficionados | Flyers/Posters | 3.423 | 0.064 | Aficionados * | Billboards | 0.423 | 0.546 | | TV Advertisements | 18.599 | 0.000 | Followers | Radio Advertisements | 0.321 | 0.571 | | Newspaper Advertisements | 10.924 | 0.001 | Aficionados | Magazine Advertisements | 0.509 | 0.476 | | Critic's Reviews | 41.379 | 0.000 | Aficionados | Social Media | 18.596 | 0.000 | Followers | Internet Advertisements | 0.021 | 0.886 | | Mobile Phone Alerts | 1.252 | 0.263 | | Direct Regular Mail | 1.369 | 0.242 | | | | | | * at only .10 level |
Table 9.3 Media Preferences – Casuals vs. Aficionados Casuals vs. Aficionados | FORM | Chi Square | Sign. Level | Significantly more Preferred by | Word of Mouth | 0.170 | 0.680 | | Email | 0.687 | 0.407 | | Flyers/Posters | 0.089 | 0.766 | | Billboards | 0.004 | 0.950 | | TV Advertisements | 9.474 | 0.002 | Casuals | Radio Advertisements | 0.073 | 0.787 | | Newspaper Advertisements | 1.690 | 0.194 | | Magazine Advertisements | 0.299 | 0.585 | | Critic's Reviews | 13.785 | 0.000 | Aficionados | Social Media | 3.432 | 0.064 | Casuals* | Internet Advertisements | 1.760 | 0.185 | | Mobile Phone Alerts | 0.083 | 0.773 | | Direct Regular Mail | 0.078 | 0.779 | | | | | | * at only .10 level |

Tables and Figures 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3, present a ranking by each segment of subjects’ use of several information sources about performing arts events (drawn from responses to question two of the formal survey.
Followers
As shown in Figure 10.1, the Followers preferred information source was word of mouth. The percentage of Followers that preferred this method was 21.55%.
The second most preferred source of information was social media with 16.68% percent of Followers choosing this source.
The third preferred source of information was television advertisements with 14.37% of Followers preferring it.
Table 10.1 Social Media Preference – Followers Followers | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 1v2 | 1v3 | Facebook | 232 | 3.37 | 1 | 1 | | * | Google | 232 | 2.31 | 2 | 2 | | | Twitter | 231 | 1.85 | 3 | 4 | | | Myspace | 232 | 1.19 | 4 | 7 | *** | | Groupon | 232 | 1.72 | 5 | 5 | * | | Living Social | 231 | 1.58 | 6 | 6 | | | Yelp | 232 | 2.02 | 7 | 3 | | | Meetup Group | 232 | 1.13 | 8 | 8 | *** | |

* = significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means response difference at more than .01 level

Figure 36.1 Segment 1 Followers Preferred Information Sources

Casuals
The Casuals most preferred information source was word of mouth. The percentage of Casuals that preferred this method was 21.09%.
The second most preferred source of information was email with 13.45% percent of Casuals favoring this.
Third preferred were television advertisements with 11.27% of Casuals referring to this source of information in Figure 36.2.

Table 10.2 Social Media Preference- Casuals Casuals | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 2v1 | 2v3 | Facebook | 88 | 3.22 | 1 | 1 | | | Google | 89 | 2.45 | 2 | 2 | | | Twitter | 87 | 1.6 | 3 | 6 | | | Myspace | 87 | 1.06 | 4 | 8 | *** | 0.100 | Groupon | 86 | 2.01 | 5 | 4 | * | | Living Social | 88 | 1.65 | 6 | 5 | | | Yelp | 87 | 2.26 | 7 | 3 | | | Meetup Group | 88 | 1.39 | 8 | 7 | *** | |

* = significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means response difference at more than .01 level

Figure 36.2 Segment 2 (Casuals) Preferred Information Sources

Aficionados
The Aficionados most preferred information source was word of mouth. Figure 36.3 shows the percentage of Aficionados that preferred this method was 20.21%.
Ranking second was critic’s reviews.
The third preferred source of information was email with a 11.40% of Aficionados preferring it.
Table 10.3 Social Media Preference – Aficionados Aficionados | | | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | MEAN | VAR #. | RK | 3v1 | 3v2 | Facebook | 61 | 2.82 | 1 | 1 | * | | Google | 61 | 2.61 | 2 | 2 | | | Twitter | 61 | 1.61 | 3 | 6 | | | Myspace | 61 | 1.23 | 4 | 8 | | 0.100 | Groupon | 61 | 1.87 | 5 | 4 | | | Living Social | 61 | 1.74 | 6 | 5 | | | Yelp | 61 | 2.13 | 7 | 3 | | | Meetup Group | 60 | 1.27 | 8 | 7 | | |

* = significant means response difference at .05 level
** = significant means response difference at .01 level
*** = significant means response difference at more than .01 level
Figure 36.3 Segment 3 Aficionados Preferred Information Sources
Based on these findings and the significant difference in reference to these promotion sources by the segments, it was found that each segment preferred different types of media. Followers should be target with social media and television advertisements. Casuals should be communicated with by email and television advertisements. Aficionados should be targeted through critic’s reviews, email, and newspaper advertisements.

Categories of Social Media
In question three of the survey, subjects were asked to rate their use of various social media websites on a 5-point scale, from (1) “Never” to (5) “Extremely Often”. The Means responses between the segments for each social media site were compared using the t-sore analysis.
Within the category of social media, each segment ranked Facebook as their most frequently social media website. In addition, all groups ranked Google as their second most frequently used site, and Yelp as their third. Based on this information, the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra would be best suited to utilize these three websites in order to reach its target markets.
According to data in Table 10, the Followers, Casuals, and Aficionados all frequently access Facebook the most often, followed by Google, and then Yelp.
The Followers utilized Facebook significantly more that Aficionados did.
There was no significant difference seen between the three segments in the use of Google and Yelp. As a result of these findings, CCCO’s current promotion through Meetup may have limited benefit because it ranked last in usage among the social media websites among all of the respondents. One option is for CCCO to abandon all promotional efforts through Meetup Groups and focus on more widely used forms of social media. The second option is to utilize Facebook to promote the use of Meetup, since this form of social media is most frequently used by the Followers and Casuals.

Promotional Budget for CCCO
The current annual promotional budget for Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra is $4,900. This amount is allocated differently per set. Set one maintains a budget of $2000, set two $850, set three $500, set four $500, and set five $1050. The Orchestra uses a $500 per-set budget for local print media. In set one, $500 is used for website hosting and $1000 is used for a season brochure, including printing and postage. The most cost-effective media mix for this budget amount would be to focus on low-cost advertising, capable of reaching all target markets. More energy should be focused on maintaining the CCCO Facebook page and company website as these sources are perceived as the face of CCCO. Increasing the recipient list for email blasts would allow the CCCO to reach more potential customers. Price discount websites should be utilized such as offers available through Groupon and Living Social. Adding the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra to Yelp.com would also be a helpful way to increase the word of mouth promotion that all segments prefer. All of these options are relatively free of charge to the CCCO and would be excellent ways to utilize its advertising. The budget can then be allocated more to purchase ad space on Google and or Yahoo searches. Professional low-cost television ads and newspaper advertisements would also be beneficial for the CCCO to utilize.
Pricing Strategy 1) Pricing Objectives
The Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra (CCCO) currently performs at three locations, the Lesher Center, Alhambra High School and Los Medanos College. At the Lesher Center, the CCCO charges $10 per ticket for youth, $20 for seniors, and $30 for general admission. Tickets can be bought at the door, online, or by phone. At Los Medanos College and Alhambra High School, the CCCO charges $5-10 per ticket.
The current pricing objective of the CCCO is to maximize the margin of ticket revenues over expenses. The CCCO charges a higher price for tickets at the Lesher Center compared to Los Medanos College and Alhambra High School because it is more expensive to perform at the Lesher Center.
Pricing Situation
Demand
Price elasticity (or elasticity of demand), is the effect of a unit change in price on the quantity demanded. The elasticity facing CCCO was estimated from responses to question 7 from the formal survey. Question 7 asked respondents, “What is the maximum ticket price range you are willing to pay to attend a performing arts event in Contra Costa County?” Respondents were asked to answer by checking their maximum ticket price range. In order to estimate elasticity of demand, a demand schedule had to be estimated. A demand schedule shows the quantity demanded at each price level. Specific price levels were estimated by taking the midpoint for price ranges presented in Question 7. Estimates of quantity demanded were derived by cumulating the number of respondents who were willing to purchase a ticket at or below a particular price level. For example, the quantity demanded at a price level of $78.5 would be the number of respondents who were willing to pay this maximum ticket price or higher. The resulting demand schedule is presented in Tables 11, 12, and 13. The corresponding demand curve is presented in Figure 37. Elasticity of demand for each price change (Tables 11 and 12) was then determined by dividing the percent change in quantity demanded by the percent change in price. As shown in Tables 11 and 12, elasticity of demand varies along the demand schedule, and based on this data, the appropriate price to charge correspondents to the level at which total revenue is maximized. This occurs at a price level of $31.50 per ticket.
Table 11. Elasticity of Price Increases PRICE INCREASES | Price Midpoint (P) | Frequency | Cuml Freq (Q) | TR = P X Q | % Ch Price | % Ch Q | Elasticity | $80+ | 23 | 23 | $1,840.00 | -1.91% | 12% | 6.04 | $78.50 | 3 | 26 | $2,041.00 | -6.80% | 26% | 3.78 | $73.50 | 9 | 35 | $2,572.50 | -8.89% | 34% | 3.82 | $67.50 | 18 | 53 | $3,577.50 | -9.76% | 16% | 1.63 | $61.50 | 10 | 63 | $3,874.50 | -10.81% | 18% | 1.68 | $55.50 | 14 | 77 | $4,273.50 | -12.12% | 26% | 2.14 | $49.50 | 27 | 104 | $5,148.00 | -13.79% | 13% | 0.91 | $43.50 | 15 | 119 | $5,176.50 | -16.00% | 34% | 2.09 | $37.50 | 60 | 179 | $6,712.50 | -19.05% | 24% | 1.23 | $31.50 | 55 | 234 | $7,371.00 | -23.53% | 17% | 0.71 | $25.50 | 47 | 281 | $7,165.50 | -30.77% | 16% | 0.52 | $19.50 | 53 | 334 | $6,513.00 | -44.44% | 8% | 0.18 | $13.50 | 29 | 363 | $4,900.50 | -68.75% | 5% | 0.08 | $8.00 | 20 | 383 | $3,064.00 | | | |

Table 12. Elasticity of Price Decreases PRICE DECREASES | Price Midpoint (P) | Frequency | Cuml Freq (Q) | TR = P x Q | % Ch Price | % Ch Q | Elasticity | $80+ | 23 | 23 | $1,840.00 | | | | $79.50 | 3 | 26 | $2,067.00 | 0.63% | -13.04% | 20.87 | $73.50 | 9 | 35 | $2,572.50 | 7.55% | -34.62% | 4.59 | $67.50 | 18 | 53 | $3,577.50 | 8.16% | -51.43% | 6.30 | $61.50 | 10 | 63 | $3,874.50 | 8.89% | -18.87% | 2.12 | $55.50 | 14 | 77 | $4,273.50 | 9.76% | -22.22% | 2.28 | $49.50 | 27 | 104 | $5,148.00 | 10.81% | -35.06% | 3.24 | $43.50 | 15 | 119 | $5,176.50 | 12.12% | -14.42% | 1.19 | $37.50 | 60 | 179 | $6,712.50 | 13.79% | -50.42% | 3.66 | $31.50 | 55 | 234 | $7,371.00 | 16.00% | -30.73% | 1.92 | $25.50 | 47 | 281 | $7,165.50 | 19.05% | -20.09% | 1.05 | $19.50 | 53 | 334 | $6,513.00 | 23.53% | -18.86% | 0.80 | $13.50 | 29 | 363 | $4,900.50 | 30.77% | -8.68% | 0.28 | $8 | 20 | 383 | $3,064.00 | 40.74% | -5.51% | 0.14 |

Table 13. Demand Schedule Price | Quantity | $80 | 23 | $79.50 | 26 | $73.50 | 35 | $67.50 | 53 | $61.50 | 63 | $55.50 | 77 | $49.50 | 104 | $43.50 | 119 | $37.50 | 179 | $31.50 | 234 | $25.50 | 281 | $19.50 | 334 | $13.50 | 363 | $8 | 383 |

Figure 37. Demand Curve

Competitive Analysis
CCCO’s appropriate ticket price should also be determined by taking competitor’s prices into account. As shown in Table 14, CCCO’s competitors’ ticket pricing ranges from $5 to $145. The San Francisco Symphony prices range from $15 to $145 per ticket. San Francisco Symphony’s non-seasonal concert prices are more affordable to the public and are on the lower end of the pricing scale at $15 per ticket. The San Francisco Symphony offers quantity discounts and price discounts for students and series subscriptions. The San Francisco Chamber Orchestra (SFCO) charges between $8.50-10.50 per ticket for its “Classical at the Freight” performance. The SFCO’s supporting members receive a “two for one” quantity discount. SFCO also offers membership levels that range from Individual level to Maestro level. Each membership level has fixed benefits for members and membership fees range from $50 for Individual to $5,000 for Maestro.
The Diablo Symphony Orchestra’s ticket prices range from $12 to $20. The Diablo Symphony offers season tickets, resulting in a 14% discount off the single ticket price for subscribers. The California Symphony charges between $20 and $64 per ticket, and offers group sale ticket discounts (20% discount for a purchase of 10 or more tickets), as well as a “Day-of-Show” discount which is half priced tickets for same-day performances. The New Century Chamber Orchestra’s ticket prices range from $8 to $49, with no discounts offered. The Bay Area Chamber Symphony charges between $18.50 and $19.50 for tickets and no discounts are offered. The Berkeley Symphony Orchestra ticket prices range from $5 to $216 per ticket. The Berkeley Symphony Orchestra offers a season subscription, resulting in a savings of up to 10% off single ticket prices and 50% off priority admission tickets. First-time subscribers and students are entitled to additional savings. The Gold Coast Chamber Players tickets range from $10 to $30 and offers no discounts. Based on this information, the suggested $31.50 per ticket for a CCCO performance would appear to be competitive in comparison to the above mentioned performing arts organizations.
Table 14. Competitor Pricing Competitiors of CCCO | Price | San Francisco Symphony | $15-$145 | San Francisco Chamber Orchestra | $8.50-$10.50 | Diablo Symphony Orchestra | $12-$20 | California Symphony | $20-$64 | New Century Chamber Orchestra | $8-$49 | Bay Area Chamber Symphony | $18.50-$19.50 | Berkeley Symphony | $5-$216 | Gold Coast Chamber Players | $10-$30 | Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra | $5-$30 |

Pricing Strategy
After studying the CCCO’s competitors’ prices, the CCCO prices its tickets within the same range as local competing orchestras, with the exception of the San Francisco Symphony and the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra. After taking into account CCCO’s competitors’ ticket prices as well the demand schedule and elasticity computations, it is recommend that the CCCO use a Low-Active Strategy. A Low-Active strategy is one in which an organization charges a relatively low price and actively promotes it. At the same time the CCCO should price to meet the competition, particularly the Diablo Symphony Orchestra (DSO), which like the CCCO performs at the Lesher Center. Taking this into consideration and CCCO’s high quality level, a $30 for a general admission ticket seems competitive and would maximize CCCO’s total revenue.
It is also recommended that CCCO raise its youth ticket price to $15 from its current level of $10 and its senior tickets to $25 (from $20) for performances at the Lesher Center. An increase in the senior ticket price is recommended because a large part of the CCCO’s current target market are seniors. For performances at Los Medanos College or Alhambra High School, CCCO might raise the ticket prices to $10-15 (from $5-$10). It is also suggested that the CCCO offer quantity discounts and the option of buying season tickets, as well as performance theme related discounts. The data used for our recommended low price-actively promoted pricing strategy is drawn from question 4 of the formal survey which asks, “On a scale of 1-5, how important are each of the following factors in motivating you to attend a performing arts event?” The respondent was asked to answer using a 5-point scale with (1) being not at all important to (5) extremely important. As shown in Table 15, all three segments had a mean of over three for both motivating factors. Consequently, affordable ticket price and price discounts were important motivating factors for all 3 segments, particularly to Casuals and Followers. T-score analysis was also used to assess the difference in mean response between segments regarding these price-related motivating factors. This revealed significant differences between the segments. It was found that Casuals deem an affordable ticket price and price discounts to be significantly more important in motivating them to attend a performing arts event than Aficionados. It was also found that Followers consider a price discount to be significantly more important in motivating them to attend a performing arts event than Aficionados.
Based on this information, it is recommend that CCCO more actively promote ticket price and price discounts, such as quantity, season, and student discounts to Casuals and Followers, and take a more passive strategy when promoting price and price discounts to Aficionados.
Table 15 Importance of Price Related Motivators – Segments Compared | | FOLLOWERS | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 1/2 | 1v3 | Affordable ticket price | 231 | 3.68 | 20 | 2 | | | Price discount | 232 | 3.41 | 21 | 4 | | ** |

| | CASUALS | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 2v1 | 2v3 | Affordable ticket price | 89 | 3.91 | 20 | 3 | | ** | Price discount | 89 | 3.66 | 21 | 5 | | *** |

| | AFICIONADOS | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 3v1 | 3v2 | Affordable ticket price | 63 | 3.56 | 20 | 8 | | ** | Price discount | 60 | 3.05 | 21 | 24 | ** | *** |

Distribution Strategy
The data used for a recommended distribution strategy is drawn from questions 4 and 8 of the formal survey. Question 4 from the formal survey asked respondents, “On a scale of 1-5, how important are each of the following factors in motivating you to attend a performing arts event?” The respondent was asked to answer using a 5-point scale with (1) being not at all important to (5) extremely important. Question 8 from the formal survey asked respondents, “When would you most prefer to attend a local performing arts event?” Respondents were asked to check one of the three provided options, which included, Weekday evening, Weekend matinee, and Weekend evening. As shown in Table 16, based on the means scores factor from question 4 responses, the three most important distribution related motivating factors to both Followers and Casuals were proximity of the event (close to home), the day and time of the event, and adequate parking. Other motivating distribution related factors that were important to note (that have a mean above three) were attractive venue and convenient ticket purchasing. This shows that the Followers and Casuals both are motivated by distribution factors.
The three most important distribution related motivating factors for Aficionados were convenient ticket purchasing, the day and time of event, and adequate parking. Other motivating factors that are important to note (that have a mean above three) were proximity of the event (close to home), attractive venue, and proximity to nearby restaurants, shops and concessions. This shows that all three segments were motivated to attend a performing arts event by similar factors. T-score analysis was also used to assess the significance of mean response differences between segments. A significant difference was revealed between Aficionados and Casuals regarding the motivating factor of convenient ticket purchasing. Aficionados were significantly more motivated to attend a performing arts event by convenient ticket purchasing.
Based on these findings the CCCO should continue performing at The Lesher Center because of its proximity to nearby restaurants, shops and concessions and adequate parking. The Lesher Center provides convenient ticket purchasing options already. Tickets can be purchased over the phone, online or at the door. Therefore, this motivating factor is being addressed for all three segments. However, tickets can only be purchased at the door for Los Medanos College performances. All three segments are motivated by easier ticket purchasing options, so this could be improved upon. For example, online purchasing is not currently available for Alhambra High School or Los Medanos College performances. One inexpensive way for the CCCO to do this is through Brown Paper Tickets (brownpapertickets.com). This site is currently being effectively utilized by Saint Mary’s College Performing Arts Department.

Table 16 Importance of Distribution Related Motivators – Segments Compared | | FOLLOWERS (1) | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 1v2 | 1v3 | Proximity of the event | 232 | 3.38 | 22 | 5 | | | Accessible by public transportation | 232 | 2.50 | 23 | 24 | | | Attractive venue | 231 | 3.07 | 24 | 15 | | | Day/Time of event | 231 | 3.34 | 25 | 6 | | | Convenient ticket purchasing | 230 | 3.13 | 26 | 12 | | * | Proximity to nearby restaurants | 231 | 2.98 | 27 | 17 | | | Adequate parking | 231 | 3.22 | 28 | 9 | | |

| | CASUALS (2) | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 2v1 | 2v3 | Proximity of the event | 89 | 3.53 | 22 | 8 | | | Accessible by public transportation | 88 | 2.63 | 23 | 25 | | | Attractive venue | 88 | 3.23 | 24 | 19 | | | Day/Time of event | 89 | 3.58 | 25 | 7 | | | Convenient ticket purchasing | 88 | 3.28 | 26 | 16 | | | Proximity to nearby restaurants | 89 | 3.13 | 27 | 22 | | | Adequate parking | 89 | 3.33 | 28 | 15 | | |

| | AFICIONADOS (3) | | | | | | | | | | | | VARIABLE | N | Mean | Var #. | Rk | 3v1 | 3v2 | Proximity of the event | 62 | 3.32 | 22 | 16 | | | Accessible by public transportation | 63 | 2.73 | 23 | 26 | | | Attractive venue | 63 | 3.32 | 24 | 17 | | | Day/Time of event | 63 | 3.38 | 25 | 12 | | | Convenient ticket purchasing | 61 | 3.44 | 26 | 11 | * | | Proximity to nearby restaurants | 61 | 3.23 | 27 | 20 | | | Adequate Parking | 61 | 3.38 | 28 | 13 | | |

Data from Question 8 of the formal survey was used to assess respondents’ preferred day and time of local performing arts event. This variable was cross tabulated by segment type and the Chi-Square test was used to determine whether a significant relationship existed between the segment type (Followers, Casuals and Aficionados) and the day/time of performance (weekend evenings, weekend matinees, or weekday evenings). This analysis is presented in Table 17. Rankings of these time/day event options are also presented by bay charts in Figure 38. Table 17 shows that there was no significant relationship between day and time of performance with segment type. The Chi-square score significance level was 0.532. For the score to significant, it would have to be below .05. As shown in Figure 38 (bar chart) all three segments most preferred weekend evening performances. Therefore, the CCCO should not alter the day and time of its performances.

Table 17 Preferred Performance Time by Segment Cross Tabulation Preferred Performance Time By Segment Cross Tabulation | | | SEGMENTS | | Total | | FOLLOWERS | CASUALS | AFICIONADOS | | Time of Performance | Weekday Evenings | Count | 42 | 9 | 11 | 62 | | | Expected Count | 37.7 | 14.4 | 9.9 | 62 | | | % within TIMEPERF | 67.70% | 14.50% | 17.70% | 100.00% | | | % within SEGATTEND | 18.00% | 10.10% | 18.00% | 16.20% | | | % of Total | 11.00% | 2.30% | 2.90% | 16.20% | | Weekend Matinee | Count | 50 | 21 | 13 | 84 | | | Expected Count | 51.1 | 19.5 | 13.4 | 84 | | | % within TIMEPERF | 59.50% | 25.00% | 15.50% | 100.00% | | | % within SEGATTEND | 21.50% | 23.60% | 21.30% | 21.90% | | | % of Total | 13.10% | 5.50% | 3.40% | 21.90% | | Weekend Evenings | Count | 141 | 59 | 37 | 237 | | | Expected Count | 144.2 | 55.1 | 37.7 | 237 | | | % within TIMEPERF | 59.50% | 24.90% | 15.60% | 100.00% | | | % within SEGATTEND | 60.50% | 66.30% | 60.70% | 61.90% | | | % of Total | 36.80% | 15.40% | 9.70% | 61.90% | Total | Count | 233 | 89 | 61 | 383 | | Expected Count | 233 | 89 | 61 | 383 | | % within TIMEPERF | 60.80% | 23.20% | 15.90% | 100.00% | | % within SEGATTEND | 100.00% | 100.00% | 100.00% | 100.00% | | % of Total | 60.80% | 23.20% | 15.90% | 100.00% | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Chi-Square | Significance Level | | | | | | 3.155a | 0.532 | | | | |

Figure 38 Comparing Segments Preferred Performance Times

Final Conclusions 1) Segmentation Analysis and Positioning Strategy
In order to best determine the target market for Contra Costa County Orchestra (CCCO), a multi-segmentation approach was applied. Upon compiling and comparing demographic and psychographic variables, three segments (One, Two and Three) emerged and were named: Followers, Casuals, and Aficionados. The Followers tended to be approximately 33 years of age and had the lowest rate of attendance among the three segments The Casuals tended to be 40 years of age and, on average, attended a performing arts event 3-4 times per year. Lastly, the Aficionados were the oldest of the three segments with a mean age of 44 years and were most likely to attend five or more performing arts events each year. In accordance with WCM’s Multiple Segmentation recommendation, all three segments should be targeted, each with a distinct marketing program involving, pricing, promotion, and distribution strategies. In order to appeal to the Followers, the CCCO must position itself as a social event that is different from a typical night out. In terms of attracting the Casuals, the CCCO should position itself as a high quality orchestra. Lastly, the CCCO must be positioned to the community minded Aficionados as a provider of cultural enrichment, and a provider of performing arts entertainment that is worthy of community support. In an effort to appeal to common expectations of all three Segments, the CCCO should instill the perception of itself as an opportunity to attend an event with friends or family, as a means of escape from the routine and stress of daily life, and as an organization that provides superior entertainment.
Product Strategy
Considering Follower’s preference for clubs/bars, efforts to combine their nightlife preference with CCCO’s performance offerings would help attract this segment, for example, a joint arrangement between CCCO and a popular nightclub/bar or restaurant. The selection of the restaurant is crucial as the CCCO must be careful not to alienate the Casuals or Aficionados. The Followers also significantly preferred soundtracks/movie scores. Thus, a performance with a movie theme would likely attract the Followers and may transition them to various classical music genres. Given the Casuals’ greater preference for the performing arts, compared to Followers and their attraction to dining out, the product mix strategy to attract the Casuals should involve ways to compliment their apparent desire for an inclusive evening of entertainment. The involvement of a restaurant would help attract both Followers and Casuals who may not have a familiarity with performing arts or need an additional motivation to go to a symphony performance. The Aficionados have an even stronger general preference for the performing arts than that of the Followers and Casuals. This is motivated by their desire to experience cultural enrichment when pursuing their entertainment choices. The Aficionados also have a strong regard for community support, including supporting the arts life in their communities. Emphasis should therefore be placed on including an element of community support in CCCO’s product offering in order to entice this segment. As for programming recommendations, the Casuals and Aficionados had an existing preference for the genres that CCCO currently offers, particularly music of the classical and romantic periods. It is therefore recommended that minimal change be made to CCCO’s current programming as far as appealing to these segments. As noted in the Product Mix recommendations, it is more important to focus on the overall aspect of both an evening of entertainment and community support to attract these segments.
Promotion Strategy The promotional message going out to CCCO’s target markets should coincide with the profile and expectations of each group. For example, the message conveyed to Followers should emphasize that the CCCO offers a different and interesting form of entertainment compared to that which these people are accustomed. The promotional media employed by the CCCO should be chosen to meet the particular expectations of the targeted segments. For example, social media (especially Facebook and Google) is referred to often in making entertainment choices by the Followers segment. Followers and Casuals also rely on television. Aficionados place more emphasis on reviews in arriving at the entertainment decision. Favorable reviews of the CCCO in Yelp would appear to have considerable impact in attracting this segment. Of course, CCCO should make every attempt to make maximum use of its promotional budget by focusing on low-cost forms of advertising, capable of reaching all target markets. More energy should be focused on maintaining the CCCO Facebook page and company website, as these sources are perceived as the face of CCCO. Increasing the recipient list for email blasts would allow the CCCO to reach more potential customers. Price discount websites should be utilized, such as offers available through Groupon and Living Social. Adding the Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra to Yelp.com would also be a helpful way to increase the word of mouth promotion that all segments prefer. All of these options are relatively free of charge to the CCCO and would be excellent ways to utilize the limited budget it has available. A budget can then be set to purchase ad space on Google searches. Professional, low-cost television ads and newspaper advertisements would also be beneficial to the CCCO with the remaining budget.
Pricing Strategy Demand analyses indicates that an individual ticket price of ~$30 would maximize CCCO’s total revenue for ticket sales, and, this price level appears to offer reasonable value in comparison with CCCO’s direct competitors, such as the Diablo Symphony Orchestra. Group and student discounts off this price should be offered, as this pricing policy would be of particular importance to Followers and Casuals. Furthermore, since Followers and Casuals are particularly motivated by reasonable ticket prices, CCCO should actively promote its price in order to attract these groups. Since Aficionados are naturally more drawn to performing arts events, a more passive approach to promoting CCCO’s price can be applied to this segment.
Distribution Strategy
WCM recommends that the CCCO should continue performing at The Lesher Center because of its proximity to nearby restaurants, shops and concessions and adequate parking. The Lesher Center provides convenient ticket purchasing options already (tickets can be purchased over the phone, online or at the door), motivating factor shared by all three segments. However, when the CCCO is performing at Los Medanos College tickets can only be purchased at the door. All three segments would prefer easier ticket purchasing options, so this should be improved upon. One inexpensive way for the CCCO to sell tickets online is through Brown Paper Tickets (brownpapertickets.com). This site is also used by Saint Mary’s College Performing Arts Department. Based on our primary research of the preferred day/time of the performance, the current performance scheduling meets the desires of all targeted segments.

Appendix A. Appendix 1 – Promotional Flyer - Followers

Appendix 2 - Promotional Flyer - Casuals *

Appendix 3 - Promotional Flyers- Aficionados

Appendix 4 - Formal Survey
Consumer Survey
Conducted by the Marketing Students of Saint Mary’s College

1) What do you most like to do for entertainment when you go out? (Check your top 3 choices)

* Sporting Events * Movies * Popular Music Concerts * Symphony/ Orchestra * Opera * Ballet * Plays/ Musicals * Dance Recitals * Comedy Club * Clubs/ Bars * Restaurants * Museums

2) Which of the following sources do you refer to most often for information about upcoming performing arts events? (Check top 3 choices) * Word of Mouth * Email * Flyers/Posters * Billboards

* TV Advertisements * Radio Advertisements * Newspaper Advertisements * Magazine Advertisements * Critic’s Reviews

* Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, Groupon) * Internet Advertisements * Mobile Phone Alerts * Direct Regular Mail

3) On a scale of 1-5, how often do you use each of the following Social Media websites?
(Please rate each separately on the following 5-point scale and circle your answer for each item)

| Never | Seldom | Somewhat Often | Very Often | Extremely Often | Facebook | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Google+ | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Twitter | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | MySpace | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Groupon | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Living Social | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Yelp | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Meetup group | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Other : (Please List) |

4) On a scale of 1-5, how important are each of the following factors in motivating you to attend a performing arts event? (Please rate each separately on the following 5-point scale and circle your answer for each item)

| Not at All Important | Not Very Important | Somewhat Important | Very Important | Extremely Important | Social Gathering/Interaction | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Cultural Enrichment | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Stress Reliever | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Encouragement from others | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Personal enjoyment of performing arts | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Familiarity with performer(s) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Personal background/ education in performing arts | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Support performing arts in my community | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Academic Incentive (extra credit, etc.) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Charity or cause related event | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Quality of event | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Type of music being performed | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Well-Known performers | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Up and coming performer(s) with “star” potential | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Collaboration of performance with other event (e.g., wine & cheese festival) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Theme related events (e.g., Holiday) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Memorable advertising | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Word of mouth | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | | Favorable reviews | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Affordable ticket price | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Price discount | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Proximity of the event (close to home) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Accessible by public transportation | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Attractive Venue: (outdoor, small and intimate etc.) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Day/Time of Event | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Convenient ticket purchasing | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Proximity to nearby restaurants, shops, concessions. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Adequate parking | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

5) On a scale of 1 to 5, how familiar are you with each of the following performing arts organizations? (Please rate each separately on the following 5-point scale and circle your answer for each item)

| 1Never Heard of it | 2Only Heard of it | 3MinimalKnowledge | 4Quite Knowledgeable | 5Very Knowledgeable | San Francisco Symphony | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | San Francisco Chamber Orchestra | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Diablo Symphony Orchestra | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | California Symphony | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | New Century Chamber Orchestra | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Bay Area Chamber Symphony | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Berkeley Symphony | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Gold Coast Chamber Players | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Contra Civic Theatre | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Diablo Theatre Company | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Contra Costa Chamber Orchestra | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6) What is your preferred genre of classical music? (Check your top 2 choices)

* Baroque (Bach, Vivaldi) * Classical (Mozart, Beethoven) * Romantic (Chopin, Rachmaninoff) * Modern (Copland, Bernstein) * Movie Scores (Inception, Pirates) * Boston Pops type music

7) What is the maximum ticket price range you are willing to pay to attend a performing arts event in Contra Costa County? (Check one)

* $6-$10 * $11-$16 * $17-$22 * $23-$28 * $29-$34 * $35-$40 * $41-$46 * $47-$52 * $53-$58 * $59-$64 * $65-$70 * $71-$76 * $77-$80 * $80 +

8) When would you most prefer to attend a local performing arts event? (Check one) * Weekday evening (Mon-Thurs) * Weekend matinee (Fri-Sun) * Weekend evening (Fri-Sun) 9) How often do you attend a local performing arts event each year? (Check one)

* None * 1-2 times * 3-4 times * 5-6 times * 7-8 times * 9-10 times * 11 times and above

10) How likely in the near future are you to attend a performing arts event in Contra Costa County? (Check one)

* Not at All Likely * Not Very Likely * Somewhat Likely * Very Likely * Extremely Likely

11) What is your gender?

* Male * Female

12) What is your current marital status? (Check one)

* Single * Single, with children * Married, with children * Married, no children * Divorced, with children * Divorced, no children

13) What is your household size? (Check one)

* 1 to 2 persons * 3 to 4 persons * 5 to 6 persons * 7 or more persons

14) What is your highest level of formal education completed? (Check one)

* * High School/GED * Associate Degree * Bachelor Degree * Master Degree * Doctorate Degree

15) Please specify your Ethnicity. (Check one)

* White/ Caucasian * Black/ African American * Asian * Native American * Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander * Hispanic

16) Please specify your current Occupation. (Check one)

* Management * Business and Financial Operations * Computer and Mathematical Science * Architecture and Engineering * Life, Physical, and Social Science * Community and Social Services * Legal * Education, Training, and Library * Healthcare Practitioner and Technical * Healthcare Support * Protective Service * Food Preparation and Serving Related * Personal Care and Service * Sales and Related * Office and Administrative Support * Farming, Fishing, and Forestry * Construction and Extraction * Installation, Maintenance, and Repair * Production * Transportation and Material Moving * Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media * Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance * Unemployed * Other, (please specify) _____________

17) Please specify your city/town of residence ________________

18) Please specify your Zip Code ________________

19) What is your age range? (Check one)

* 15-19 yrs * 20-25 yrs * 26-30 yrs * 31-35 yrs * 36-40 yrs * 41-45 yrs * 46-50 yrs * 51-55 yrs * 56-60 yrs * 61-64 yrs * 65 yrs and above

20) What is the approximate range of your annual household income? (Check one)

* $10,000 and under * $10,001 - $30,000 * $30,001 - $50,000 * $50,001 - $70,000 * $70,001 - $90,000 * $90,001 - $110,000 * $110,001 - $130,000 * $130,001 - $150,000 * $150,001 - $170,000 * $170,001 - $190,000 * $190,001 - $210,000 * $210,001 - $230,000 * $230,001- $250,000 * $250,001 and above
References
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