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Memory Management: Early Systems

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By wolfdot
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OS_HW_Ch. 2_2015.02.07

1. Explain the fundamental differences between internal fragmentation and external fragmentation. For each of the four memory management systems explained in this chapter (single user, fixed, dynamic, and relocatable dynamic), identify which one causes each type of fragmentation.

1A. Internal fragmentation is the area occupied by a process but cannot be used by the process. This space is unusable by the system until the process release the space. External fragmentation exists when total free memory is enough for the new process but it's not contiguous and can't satisfy the request. Storage is fragmented into small holes.

1B. Single-User Contiguous Scheme: Program is loaded in its entirety into memory and allocated as much contiguous space in memory as it needs. Jobs processed sequentially in single-user systems Requires minimal work by the Memory Manager Register to store the base address Accumulator to keep track of the program size Disadvantages of Single-User Contiguous Scheme: Doesn’t support multiprogramming not cost effective Fixed Partitions: Main memory is partitioned; one partition/job. Allows multiprogramming Partition sizes remain static unless and until computer system id shutdown, reconfigured, and restarted requires protection of the job’s memory space requires matching job size with partition size Disadvantages: Requires entire program to be stored contiguously Jobs are allocated space on the basis of first available partition of required size Works well only if all of the jobs are of the same size or if the sizes are known ahead of time Arbitrary partition sizes lead to undesired results Too small a partition size results in large jobs having longer turnaround time Too large a partition size results in memory waste or internal fragmentation Dynamic Partitions: Jobs are given only as much memory as they

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