Free Essay

Middle Child Syndrome

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By SmnthGtrrz
Words 3823
Pages 16
Escarez, Mary Joy B.
Gutierrez, Samantha A.

Abstract Middle child syndrome, numerous, but not all, middle child experiences this. This status is mainly about a child whose birth is between his or her eldest sibling and junior sibling. Sitting in the middle isn’t going to be all joy and games. It takes an allotment for a person in a family of three to overcome. This is because the wave of decrease for it feels as if no one cares and no location in this world for you because the parents would only pay attention to the oldest or youngest. Alfred Adler was one of the first theorists to use- birth order position in his conceptualization of clients. Birth order continues to inform professionals practicing from an Individual Psychology framework; however, the wealth of research on the topic can seem overwhelming. Birth order theory holds that children develop their behavioral patterns largely as a result of their position within their family, and transfer these patterns to the classroom.

The research topic is regarding Middle Child Syndrome (MCS). Being psychology student, we have and we earned some background knowledge about this proposed topic. According to Montgomery (2010), Middle Child Syndrome (MCS) is an occurrence that explains how the “birth order theory” of Alfred Adler affects every aspect of child’s life. Alfred Adler was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology. Birth order theory proposes that birth order influences personality and often can leave an ineffaceable impression on the individual’s style of life, which is a habitual way of dealing with the tasks of friendship, love and work. The spacing in years between siblings, the total number of children and the changing circumstances of the parents over time is the other birth order factors that should be concerned about. The purpose of the paper is to acquaint various factors of having Middle Child Syndrome, the factors that affect the occurrence or condition, the impact on the research and the possible solutions to intervention or how to preclude it.
In support of the study, researchers will use various methods to get the expected results of the study. Some of the methods are finding a variety of supporting details using different journals of people dependent on the profession associated with our topic, using survey questionnaires and interview the people presented in our methodology.
We hope to obtain various solutions in order to intervention and avoid the occurrence or condition of it. We are also expecting to be successful on our research paper.
Some of the problems we would like to resolve are how to develop this kind of problem; how it affects the learning of students ages fifteen to nineteen attending De La Salle Lipa. In addition we want to confer with parents with children three and over. Furthermore we want to share the solutions we gather, to the parents, as well as the person experiencing it in order to intervention and avoid instance that can cause bigger problems in the family.
Researchers would like to answer the following questions: 1. What are some of the character traits that middle child has? 2. What are the effects of Middle Child Syndrome? 3. How birth order affects middle child?
Some of the importance of our study is to help clarify the circumstances or conditions of Middle Child Syndrome. It may help the readers whom are parents and children experiencing the said condition. Our studies have been construed support some theory that we have read and read on. In this research papers we may be able to find solutions to problems encountered since the Middle Child Syndrome begin.
Cooperative learning provides opportunities for face-to-face interaction among students while enhancing their native and secondary language development, raising self-esteem, and improving academic achievement. However, teachers should be cognizant of their students' birth order in assigning roles within cooperative learning groups. Birth order theory holds that children develop their behavioral patterns largely as a result of their position within their family, and transfer these patterns to the classroom. Social behaviors that are necessary to student success in cooperative learning and include sharing, encouraging others, and accepting responsibilities for others' learning, are greatly influenced by birth order. The teacher must balance students' designated group roles with their characteristics according to birth order.
The scope of our study is to determine the factors and conditions, impact on learning for students aged fifteen to nineteen attending De La Salle Lipa. The information that will be gathering will help us in order to find a possible cure or solution to the condition.
Review of Related Literature This part of the paper contains the literatures that were related to the study. The researchers conducted information about Middle Child Syndrome. According to Montgomery (2010), "When planning your family, it is important to consider how the birth order will impact your children’s emotions and personality, as well as your family’s dynamics. There is a phenomenon often talked about, called the “Middle Child Syndrome,” which helps explain how birth order affects every aspect of a child’s life." Although middles are neglected, both by parents and researchers, they actually benefit from this in the long run. They become more independent, think outside the box, feel less pressure to conform, and are more empathetic. This gives them great skills as employees and also makes them excellent team players and partners. Middles are more driven than we think. Most people see firsts as having drive and ambition but middles do, too, it’s just directed elsewhere. Middles are more oriented to principles and concepts, like justice, over earning power or prestige (Griffin, 2012). According to Montgomery (2010), "Middle children often feel left out and invisible, a contrast from their older and younger siblings. While older children get the benefits of all of the “firsts” a child accomplishes, younger children benefit from the emotional impact of being the baby of the family, often being spoiled and coddled. Middle children, however, often feel as though they have nothing special that is just “theirs.”
Oldest children naturally receive a lot of attention from their parents because there are no other children to divide their time with. First-born children often have a strong desire to please their parents, and they usually express it through their success in school and their responsible behavior, says Michalopoulou. The youngest child is often coddled. Compared with the first- and last-born children, middle children sometimes experience less interaction and receive less attention. As a result, they can be introverted and end up with underdeveloped social skills (LoBello, 2010). According to Johnston (2014), middle children are normally in the middle of photographs and the fireplace mantle. Overlooked and neglected? More like front, center and distinguished. 52% of presidents are middle-born. The thought of having any type of authority position terrifies me, but it's comforting to know that at least I'm in powerful company. Middle children have a role model for how to be a role model. I can be an older sister after seeing how being an older sister was done the right way. They are creative because they are forced to come up with imaginative (or downright bizarre) ideas in order to get their parents' attention.

Methodology This paper examines the phenomenon of birth order as it particularly relates to middle children. This is not usually discussed about among families. Middle children do often feel a sense of no belonging and do feel some sort of isolation. Various theories of prominent psychologists such as Adler, Freud, Skinner, and Eysenck will be examined in their application to the importance of birth order in personality development. A theory concerning middle children will then be presented, dealing chiefly with their difficulty with the labels of introversion and extraversion. Adler's theory stressed the social aspect of personality development and therefore proposed the possibility of birth order and its significance in the interpersonal relationships of family life. He felt that each position in the order, whether first or last, had distinct characteristics. For example, he hypothesized that firstborns are problem children and that only children are likely to be spoiled due to parental overindulgence (Weiten, 1998). A total of (20) male and (20) female college student will be asked to answer all the questions for the topic Middle Child Syndrome. Each student will be given a questionnaire if they experience the syndrome or encountering such dilemma. There are different types of questions. It could be a narrative type where the respondent will answer by narrating his/her experiences based on the question given. It could be a checklist where the respondent will check all his/her traits that are given and will check whether he/she experiences the situation often, sometimes, no or yes. The lists were then examined to find common responses. These responses, along with additional items derived from a review of the literature and adapted items from the middle child syndrome references (The Middle Child Syndrome, 2010 & Consequences of Being a Middle Child, 2010). Eligibility criteria for participation in the survey included ages 15-19 years of age, since college students developed their personality. After doing the survey, the researchers will tally if the student’s experiences middle child syndrome rather than not experiencing it or vice versa. The questions were summed to obtain an item total score. Measures were given in a fixed order and were self-administered. For the few instances where data were missing, mean substitution was used (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). An item questionnaire obtained information regarding name (optional), age, program/department and traits for the students. First born, middle child, and last born can all answer the questionnaires. The questions assess the frequency of the child's behavior at home and at school. The design of this study was survey type because the research sought information on the attitude of the respondents. According to Osuala (1987), survey research studies both large and small population to discover the relative incidence, distribution and inter-relations of psychological variables. The study was about Middle Child Syndrome in Batangas. The participants will all be the college students of De La Salle Lipa and the parents in De La Salle Lipa. The general purpose of the study was identifying the differences of attitudes of first born, middle child, and third born and how they socialize at school. How parents deal with their children at home. For the researchers to be able to get appropriated information, the students and parents in De La Salle Lipa was used as the target population of the study.

Results and Discussion This part of the paper about Middle Child Syndrome contains the results from the survey that the researchers conducted to the students of College of Education, Arts and Sciences (CEAS), College of Business, Economics, Accountancy and Management (CBEAM), College of International Hospitality and Management (CITHM) and College of Information, Technology and Engineering (CITE). Here are the following bar graphs and tables to understand more the results.

Table 1: First Born Character Traits that best describes them CHARACTER TRAITS | Frequency (f) | Percentage (%) | Religious | 7 | 8.86% | Loyal | 10 | 12.66% | Ambitious | 8 | 10.13% | Determined | 12 | 15.19% | Cooperative | 7 | 8.86% | Cheerful | 11 | 13.92% | Educated | 10 | 12.66% | Pessimistic | 1 | 1.27% | Optimistic | 5 | 6.40% | Introvert | 1 | 1.27% | Extrovert | 6 | 7.59% | Grumpy | 0 | 0% | Self-Centered | 1 | 1.27% | Stubborn | 0 | 0% |

According to Table 1, the survey shows the first born character traits that best describe them. Being determined was the character trait that had the most number with 12 who chose it and has a percentage of 15.19%. Next to this was having a cheerful personality with 11 who chose with 13.12%. Next is being loyal and educated with 10 who chose it with an average of 12.66%. 8 of the students said they are ambitious with a percentage of 10.13%. 7 of the first born said that they are religious and cooperative with an 8.86%. 6 with an average of 7.59% were the students who said that they are extrovert. While 5 of the first born that has an average of 6.40% were the students who said that they are optimistic. Being pessimistic, introvert and self-centered had the lowest number with 1 student who answered it with a total percentage of 1.27%.

Table 2: Second Born Character Traits that best describes them CHARACTER TRAITS | Frequency (f) | Percentage (%) | Religious | 8 | 12.12% | Loyal | 8 | 12.12% | Ambitious | 7 | 10.61% | Determined | 6 | 9.10% | Cooperative | 6 | 9.10% | Cheerful | 7 | 10.61% | Educated | 6 | 9.10% | Pessimistic | 3 | 4.55% | Optimistic | 5 | 7.58% | Introvert | 1 | 1.52% | Extrovert | 6 | 9.10% | Grumpy | 1 | 1.52% | Self-Centered | 1 | 1.52% | Stubborn | 1 | 1.52% | In accordance with table no. 2, it simply rationalizes the character traits of second born that best describe them. Being religious and loyal are the two character traits that has most answered by the second born students with a total frequency of 8 and has an average of 12.12%. After that, being ambitious and cheerful with a frequency of 7 got the second place with a percentage of 10.61%. Next to this are the four character traits specifically determined, cooperative, and educated and extrovert that has a total of 6 as frequency and has an average of 9.10%. Subsequent to this 5 of them said that they are optimistic and has a percentage of 7.58%. While 3 students said that they are pessimistic with an average of 4.55%. Being introvert, grumpy, self-centered and stubborn gets the lowest number of rate with only 1 student who chose it and has a total of 1.52%.

Table 3: Third Born Character Traits that best describes them CHARACTER TRAITS | Frequency (f) | Percentage (%) | Religious | 3 | 10.34% | Loyal | 3 | 10.34% | Ambitious | 2 | 6.90% | Determined | 2 | 6.90% | Cooperative | 1 | 3.45% | Cheerful | 3 | 10.34% | Educated | 2 | 6.90% | Pessimistic | 2 | 6.90% | Optimistic | 3 | 10.34% | Introvert | 1 | 3.45% | Extrovert | 2 | 6.90% | Grumpy | 1 | 3.45% | Self-Centered | 1 | 3.45% | Stubborn | 3 | 10.34% |
For this table, being religious, loyal, cheerful, optimistic and stubborn had the most number with 3 students who chose with 10.34%. Next to this being ambitious, determined, educated, and pessimistic and extrovert gets the following rate with an average of 6.90%. Being cooperative, introvert, grumpy and self-centered had the lowest number with only 1 student who chose it and has a total percentage of 3.45%. The researchers conclude that the students have more positive characteristics than negative characteristics.
Graph 1.1 Questions for Participants

According to Figure 1, for question 1, middle children answered (8) that sometimes they feel alienated from their family. For question 2, middle children answered (7) that sometimes they feel alienated from their friends. For question 3, middle children answered (5) that they are sometimes depressed from criticisms or not depressed at all. For question 4, middle children answered (7) that they didn't done things just to be accepted or noticed by others. For question 5, middle children answered (7) that sometimes they feel envy towards their siblings. It showed that various number of students answered that they sometimes experienced the negative one. It was a negative result.
Graph 1.2 Questions for Participants

According to Figure 2, for question 1, middle children answered (11) that being a middle child doesn't affect their interaction to other people. For question 2, middle children answered (11) that being a middle child doesn't affect their studies. For question 3, middle children answered (9) that being a middle child don’t make them feel that they are not part of the family. For question 4, middle children answered (12) that they haven't tried to open the topic Middle Child Syndrome. For question 5, middle children answered (9) that their parents give them enough attention. For question 6, middle children answered (9) that their parents give them the same attention like they give their other siblings. For question 7, middle children answered (10) that Middle Child Syndrome isn't a hindrance to their studies. For question 8, middle children answered (10) that a middle child like to take the lime light and that they are achievers. It was proven from the survey that its effects to the students of De La Salle Lipa were positive. The main reason behind this was the educational institution was private; therefore, it has good effects on perceptions and personalities of the students.
Most of the number of results that has been tallied has positive effects on the personality of the student, not only to middle children, but also to first born and third born. It has a few numbers of results on negative effects. Based on the data intended for the difference between first born, middle children and third born, four characteristics of the first born were the highest; these were determined, cheerful, loyal and educated. Four characteristics of the middle children were the highest; these were religious, loyal, ambitious and cheerful. Five characteristics of the third born were the highest, these were religious, loyal, cheerful, optimistic and stubborn.
Birth order has a huge effect to a student especially to middle children. Most of the effects were positive. A few was negative characteristics. This was an implication from the data that has been gathered by the researchers. According to the observations of the researchers, one factor that has a huge effect to students is the community that is dictating on what to be done and also the students' personalities that has been developed. The middle child of three is usually different from the middle child of a large family. The middle children of large families are often less competitive as parents don’t have as much time to give each child and so the children learn to cooperate to get what they want. Only children usually want to be adults, and so don’t relate to peers very well. When they become adults, they often believe they’ve finally “made it” and can now relate better to adults as peers.
The researchers recommended the students to become more open on sharing their problems to their family and learn how to communicate to their parents and siblings so that they will understand each other's feelings. They also recommended the parents to avoid giving too much to their children. Giving them what they need is more than enough. The parents should know how to treat their children fairly because it can affect to the personalities and perceptions of their children and it can be a cause of jealousy among siblings and other people. They must teach their children on how to be independent. The researchers recommended to have more knowledge on what a Middle Child Syndrome is and how it can be solved. Being a family as one is the most helpful and effective way to prevent the Middle Child Syndrome. Use some other limits that will prove the effects of being a middle child like the effects of culture, effects on their status in life, effects of the community they are in and how it can affect their way of living. Parenting experts and Circle of Moms members agree that the best way to prevent middle child syndrome is to pay equal attention to all of their children. One approach to help middle children reframe things is to point out that in a sense they have the best of both worlds.
Appendix A
To our Fellow Students:
A pleasant and blessed day!
We are the students of BS Psychology (P1A) enrolled in the program Comski2. We are now in the process of making research paper which will be our final requirement this semester. In line with this, we would ask you little time to answer our prepared survey to gather information about our topic: Middle Child Syndrome. Your cooperation will greatly contribute to us.
Thank you and God Bless. * The Researchers __________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name: ___________________________
Age: _______
Department: ____________________

____ First Born ____ Second Born ____ Third Born ____ More than 3 __ Kindly put a check (/) on those character traits that you have

____ Religious ____ Pessimistic

____ Loyal ____ Optimistic

____ Ambitious ____ Introvert

____ Determined ____ Extrovert

____ Cooperative ____ Grumpy ____ Cheerful ____ Self-Centered ____ Educated ____ Stubborn

Directions: | YES | NO | 1. Does being a middle child in the family affect your interaction to other people? | | | 2. Does being a middle child affect your studies? | | | 3. Does being a middle child make you feel like you are not part of the family? | | | 4. As a middle child, have you tried opening the topic Middle Child Syndrome? | | | 5. Do your parents give you enough attention? | | | 6. Do your parents give you the same attention like they give to your other siblings? | | | 7. Does “Middle Child Syndrome” can be a hindrance to your study? | | | 8. Studies say that middle children do not like to take the lime light and that they are not over achievers.” Do you think this is true as a middle child? | | | 1. Read and analyze each questions 2. Fill out all the questions 3. Put check (/) on the table questionnaires

4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Yes 1 – No | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 1. Do you feel alienated from your family? | | | | | 2. Do you feel alienated from your friends? | | | | | 3. Do you get easily depressed from criticism? | | | | | 4. Have you ever done things just to be accepted or noticed by others? | | | | | 5. Do you feel envy or even hatred towards your parents or siblings? | | | | |

Reference List
Coulson, J. (2013). Don't Sweat About Middle Child Syndrome. Catholic Education Resource Center.
Montgomery, H. (2000). The Middle Child Syndrome. Everyday Family. Retrieved from
LoBello, K. (2004). Consequences of Being a Middle Child. Retrieved from Cole, M. & Cole, S.R. (2000). The Development of Children. California: Scientific American Books.
Berk, L.E. (2008). Child Development. Illinois: Allyn and Bacon.
Magher, M. (2014). The Sibling Birth Order Theory. Demand Media.
Bukatko, D. & Daehler, M. (2007). Child Development. Masachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Margolis, R.E. (2013). About Middle Child Syndrome. Demand Media.
Danish, E. (2013). Middle Child Syndrome. Retrieved from
McGuirk, E.M. & Pettijohn, T.F. (2008). Birth Order and Romantic Relationships Styles and Attitudes in College Students. North American journal of Psychology.
Griffin, L. (2012). The Secret Powers of Middle Children. Field Guide to Families. Retrieved from
Miner, J. (2013). 10 Ways You Know You're a Middle Child. Retrieved from
Richardson, D.W. & Richardson, L.A. (2000). Birth Order and You. Canada: Self-Counsel Press.
Leman, K. (2004). The Birth Order Book. USA: Baker Publishing Group.
* Sentrock, J.W. (2009). Child Development. Texas: Mc Graw Hill.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

William Down Syndrome

...William has Down syndrome as well as a severe developmental delay. Down syndrome is an extra chromosome that develops when the baby is in their mother’s womb (Evans-Martin, 2009). As Evans-Martin (2009) states children with down syndrome have different physical characteristics compared to a child without down syndrome. For Instance, William joints are looser and he is able to put his feet into his mouth with ease and he tends to lay on the floor with his feet behind his head throughout the day. According to Evan-Martin (2009) William displays the classic features of a child with down syndrome, for instance the middle of his face is flatter than normal and he has a smaller nose which is also flat on the bridge. William has an epicanthal fold...

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Character Development In 16 Candles

...development during adolescence, the most significant aspects of it is the acceptance to her social status, most likely due to her role as a middle child. Although she does not experience an ideal nor typical sixteenth birthday, her continuous treatment as a middle child enables her to remain rational and have reasonable expectations of the unpromising outcome of her birthday. According to Dr. Kevin Lermon’s research, Sam displays typical qualities of a middle child, highlighted most during the interaction with her parents and siblings. Moreover, Sam’s development was shaped from middle child syndrome as her experiences ultimately resulted in her self-esteem issues, and the feeling of inferiority in comparison to her siblings (Danish, 2014). Nonetheless, she carries qualities of being unspoiled, compromising, and most importantly have the deep need to belong. Ultimately, Sam’s role of a middle child enables her to cope easier with her unideal birthday and resolve her inner conflict regarding her social status. Despite the difficulties accompanied by middle child syndrome, Sam does not have other specific factors that affected her development. Sam and her family did not undergo any tragedies that hindered Sam’s development. The most significant aspect of Sam’s adolescence was mostly in part of her experiences as a middle child, specifically middle child syndrome. Throughout 16 Candles, the extent of the character’s development follows a typical pattern in tune to most teenagers during adolescence...

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

...delivering a premature child. While pregnant the fetus is very vulnerable to many toxins, such as alcohol, and drugs, so when the mother drinks alcohol, so does the fetus, since blood carries alcohol in the fetus bloodstream. At five weeks the fetus begins to form the brain, which then starts to grow rapidly, this is a crucial time for mothers to nourish their bodies with many proteins and keep away from dangerous toxins. One of the most probable results of drinking while pregnant is the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome has been linked to low I.Q. in children. Over the years there has been many studies to determine if a child’s I.Q. if affected by Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Jones and Smith first introduced Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the United States in 1973, Jones and Smith described FAS as a “distinctive set of facial anomalies in children whose mothers drank heavily during pregnancy, accompanied by prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation and cognitive/behavioral problems” (Burden). Children who suffer from FAS commonly have face abnormalities, which may or may not include: flat mid-face, short nose, low nasal bridge, thin lips, short palpable fissures, indistinct philtrum, epicanthal folds, minor ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. These kids also tend to have a much more smaller head than the average child. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome has also been linked to I.Q deficiency. Doctors cannot diagnose a child with AFS without being...

Words: 1628 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...infant dies unexpectedly of an unknown reason. The unexpected death of a child for an unknown reason, known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), has impacted many families. SIDS does not affect one race, nationality, or sex it can affect any infant between the ages of 1 month to one year. (Levy Raydo& Reu-Donlon, 2005) Medical professionals should inform expectant parents of all risk factors involved with SIDS, as well as prevention tips as this may drop the percentage rate/heart break of many families. SIDS has impacted families since the middle ages. The first SIDS case was documented in the Bible, when a woman accidently lay on her child while co-sleeping. (Berkowitz, 2005) Infants sleeping with their parents, grandparents, and siblings were a common practice. Due to co-sleeping many infants ended up being suffocated. In The Middle Ages, 19th century and well into the first part of the 20th century, infants passing away due to co-sleeping were not a major factor. (Mahler, 2004) There were many other diseases that impacted the life of infants. For example: small pox, diphtheria, whooping cough, just to name a few. (Mahler, 2004) In 1969 the other diseases that impacted infant’s lives started becoming under control, by medication.(Mahler, 2004) With control over the other diseases of infants the disease, crib death, came into light. At this time the name was changed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome or SIDS. Today if an infant does have a disease at death, which is found...

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Trisomy 21 Case Study

...Down syndrome. It is the most common birth defect in the United States, and it’s named after the physician who first diagnosed it as a syndrome, John Langdon Down. (1) Down syndrome, in most cases, affects every cell of the body, and can cause multiple difficulties mentally and physically. Despite the hardships people born with Down syndrome have, 50% will live longer than 50 years old, and with the right support, live meaningful lives. (1) Trisomy 21 occurs when a person has 47 chromosomes rather than the normal 46. The physician can usually diagnose the condition of Down syndrome when the baby is born, and confirms the diagnosis with an extra blood...

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How To Write An Argumentative Essay On Pro Life

...No mother wants to hear the tragic news that she is pregnant, and to find out that there is a problem that occurred. It’s at this time the mother and her spouse need to figure out their options and what they feel is right for them. One of the issues that can lead to a woman ending her pregnancy is a birth defect being found in the child. The most common birth defect that leads to abortion of the pregnancy is Trisomy 13 and Potter’s Syndrome. What Trisomy 13 is, is a birth defect on the 13th chromosome, causing intellectual defects and physical abnormalities. In most cases when a mother finds out that her fetus has this sort of condition, the doctor will discuss the options and how the end result would be if they decided to carry out the pregnancy. Most of the time once the mother gives birth the child will die immediately after birth or a few days after. Potter’s Syndrome is another one of the main birth abnormalities that cause some women to terminate pregnancies. The different defects that come along with Potter’s Syndrome are limited lung development, kidney failure, flattened nose, recessed chin, abnormal low-set ears, and so many more on the list. Even if...

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

What I Learned About Prenatal Development Summary the wall of the uterine, it starts to become an embryo. That is the process of developing a human organism. After 9 weeks the embryo starts to look like a fetus or offspring. When the offspring is about 6 months of womb service, it can live outside the womb because all the main organs are developed enough (Myers, 2014). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS is caused when a pregnant mother drinks heavily. It can be a physical or cognitive disease. In some cases a child can have things wrong with their face. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is an example of a teratogen or in other words “monster maker.” A teratogen is like a light switch for our genic codes. It’s a toxin, virus and drug that can harm your child while it’s still in the womb (Myers, 2014)....

Words: 555 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...important. Immunizations helps prevent a lot of childhood diseases and viruses. Two of the most common health problems seen in school-age children are asthma and obesity. If the three levels of prevention is applied this can help in the health of a child. Primary Prevention- Happens before the sickness occur. Like making the environment better for a child. Secondary Prevention- Avoid on-set conditions. Staying consistent with routine check-ups. Tertiary Prevention- Treating the problem after it occurs. Teaching and learning Children begin to make sense of their situations. Children become more systematic and objective Thinking Children are able to organize their knowledge and utilize it when needed and in the correct way. Brain development As the brain continues to develop in middle childhood, several behaviors that were common in early childhood can be controlled, like emotional outburst. Ongoing maturation allows children to analyze the consequences of their behaviors before engaging in them which naturally improves with age. This video shows a good understanding of what selective and automation attention is in middle childhood Special needs children There are many different disorders that a child can develop during middle childhood. Children with special needs may have mild learning disabilities or profound cognitive impairment, terminal illness or developmental delays that catch up quickly or remain entrenched, some are biological and some are unknown. When dealing...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Birth Defects

...Birth defects can be defined as structural or functional abnormalities, including metabolic disorders, which are present from birth. The term congenital disorder is considered to have the same definition; the two terms are used interchangeably.2 The eleventh revision of the classification provides an opportunity for a review of the current entry. 3. Irrespective of definition, birth defects can cause spontaneous abortions and stillbirths and are a significant but underrecognized cause of mortality and disability among infants and children under five years of age. They can be life-threatening, result in long-term disability, and negatively affect individuals, families, health-care systems and societies. BIRTH DEFECTS AND GLOBAL NEWBORN AND CHILD MORTALITY 4. Congenital disorders are a common condition. WHO estimates that some 260 000 deaths worldwide (about 7% of all neonatal deaths) were caused by congenital anomalies in 2004.3 They are most prominent as a cause of death in settings where overall...

Words: 2582 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Down Syndrome Essay

...What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is genetic disorder that causes lifelong mental retardation, developmental delays and other problems. Down syndrome varies in severity, so development problems range from moderate to serious. Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of severe learning disabilities in children, occurring in one in every 700 to 800 infants. Increased understanding of Down syndrome and early interventions make a big difference in the lives of both children and adults with Down syndrome. Down syndrome is also known as Trisomy 21 syndrome. Trisomy 21 is due to an extra copy of chromosomes number 21. Instead of having the normal two copies chromosomes number 21, the person with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosomes 21. Meaning normally a fertilized egg has 23 pairs of chromosomes. In most people with Down syndrome, there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. (Rogers, 2007, pg.6) The formal story began in 1866, when a physician named John Langdon Down published an essay in England in which he described a set of children with common features who were distinct from other children with mental retardation. Down was superintendent of an asylum for children with mental retardation in Surrey, England when he made the first distinction between children who were cretins (later to be found to have hypothyroidism) and what he referred to as "Mongoloids." Down based this unfortunate name on his notion that these children looked like people from Mongolia,...

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Deafness and Hearing Loss

...hearing sufficient to enable successful processing of linguistic information. TYPES OF HEARING LOSS * Pre-lingual deafness * Occurs before the child has acquired speech * Post-lingual deafness * Occurs after the child has acquired speech ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR 3 Major parts of the ear * Outer ear * Middle ear * Inner ear * OUTER EAR -Consists of the Auricle (part of the ear that protrudes from the side of the head) until the tympanic membrane (eardrum). -Sound is “collected “ by the Auricle and is funneled through the external auditory canal to the eardrum, which vibrates sending sound waves to the middle ear. * MIDDLE EAR -Consists of the eardrum and 3 tiny bones * Malleus (Hammer) * Incus (Anvil) * Stapes (Stirrup) They are contained in an air-filed space. They conduct vibrations of the eardrum to the oval window which is the link between the middle ear and the inner ear. * INNER EAR -An intricate mechanism of thousand of moving parts. -Often called a “labyrinth” * Divided into 2 sections: * Vestibular mechanism * Responsible for sense of balance * Cochlea * Most important oragn for hearing * contains the parts necessary to convert the mechanical action of the Middle ear to electric signal in the Inner ear that is transmitted to the brain. CAUSES 3 Major classifications: 1. Conductive loss -Impairments that...

Words: 841 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Full Inclusion: Down Syndrome

...already bringing in the broken-hearted, the sick and the maimed” (The Rock Church, 2013). With the promise from Isaiah 12:3, “With joy you will draw water from the wells of salvation”, The Rock Church begins a life-long difference in a broken city. Then after many years, a mother and her son with Down syndrome named “Brian” came to service. The church was developing and expanding its structures at the time. The Pastor was preaching about how the members could help by donations to pay off the upgraded church. Pledges were being made, and Brian was only a young child at the time. He wanted to pledge. He wanted to get involved. His mother was astounded by Brian’s need to be involved. At first, the mother did not think of Brian being able to determine his involvement in the pledge; however she did not want to confuse the love of the Lord that Brian was clearly showing. She did not think it was possible for him to get, but she quickly learned she was wrong. This is when RCWOC decided to make a fully inclusive children’s youth ministry program, and they named it after Brian. RCWOC is dedicated in meeting the needs of all children that attend the church. Down Syndrome: A Full Inclusion Plan for The Rock Church Like today’s many churches, The Rock Church & World Outreach Center (RCWOC) is a Nondenominational Church located in the older part of San Bernardino, California. The...

Words: 5000 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Essay

...Sudden infant death syndrome is when an infant, under the age of one, dies during the night from an unexplained cause. It is rare for SIDS to occur within the first month, chances are higher around 2-4 months of age. It is only diagnosed after a complete autopsy examination is done, showing no specific reason for death. It is unclear if there are a combination of causes or a single cause but most of the infants are relatively healthy prior to SIDS. Even though the knowledge and education of this disease has grown it still results in thousands of deaths each year. Pathophysiology A hypothesis has been brought about that questions SIDS delay in the growth of nerve cells in the brain that are life-threatening to normal lung and heart functions (Carolan, 2015). The examinations done on the brainstems of babies that have died from SIDS has shown a developmental delay in the function and structure of a few serotonin binding nerve cell pathways in the brain (2015). These specific pathways are believed to be important in...

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

...even often sound like a broken record, -- repeating words over and over again. They may even act as though they are deaf, refusing to respond when their names are called. c) Behavioral: Most autistic children and adults will avoid any physical contact. They may respond better to a slight touch, but any other type of affection such as cuddling or hugging they try to avoid. Some autistic people will fixate themselves to certain objects like oscillating fans, spinning tops. They may sometimes display repetitive movements, such as rocking their body’s back and forth, or their fingers are in constant motion. d) Medical: Some people with autism may suffer from epilepsy and other types of seizure disorders. In some cases, if an autistic child regresses in areas such as in speech, they may be likely develop a seizure disorder. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? Sociocultural causes: Researchers...

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as Autism is a neurological disorder that affects the normal brain function. It is a disorder characterized by deficits in three major areas of behavior-social, communicative and the display of repetitive or restricted behaviors. This research paper will provide a review of people with autism spectrum disorders, including the symptoms, diagnosis criteria, and possible causes. In addition, it will describe with how it has impacted the society, families and themselves. Completing the Puzzle of Autism Spectrum Disorder Can you imagine trying to understand what your parents or peers are saying but you don’t really know what the words mean? Sometimes this can make a child very upset and frustrated just because they can’t come up with the right words to express his or her feelings or thoughts. These kids with special needs try to live their lives by learning to handle stuff that are challenging and annoying for them. People with autism can make a significant contribution to society, as well as to their families. However, having autism is generally difficult for the person themselves and their family, it also involves great financial sacrifice. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as “Autism” is a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, affecting a person’s communication skill, social interaction, behavior and interest. ASDs are spectrum...

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7