Premium Essay

Multinational Cost Me Capital and Term Structure


Submitted By nuriddin199022
Words 19422
Pages 78
The specific objectives of this chapter are to: l explain how corporate and country characteristics influence an MNC’s cost of capital, explain why there are differences in the costs of capital among countries, and explain how corporate and country characteristics are considered by an MNC when it establishes its capital structure.



An MNC finances its operations by using a mixture of fixed interest borrowing and equity financing that can minimize the overall cost of capital (the weighted average of its interest rate and dividend payments). By minimizing the cost of capital used to finance a given size and risk of operations, financial managers can maximize the value of the company and therefore maximize shareholder wealth.




Apart from working capital, a firm’s capital consists of equity (retained earnings and funds obtained by issuing shares) and debt (borrowed funds). With these funds a firm invests in a portfolio of projects, each project potentially offering different risks and different returns. The interest rate that the firm applies or charges to these projects (the cost of using the firm’s capital) will therefore vary according to the project’s particular risk. Profitable investment in this context is where the firm invests in projects that achieve returns greater than that required by their risk. A project that achieves a 20% return from investing in car parks (safe) is arguably a better performer than a project achieving a 25% return from financing a musical show (risky) in that many of the musical shows will fail and most of the investments in car parks will succeed – it is only a higher expected return. For convenience, rather than use NPV terminology we use the closely related IRR

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

International Finance

...DOI:10.12691/jfe-2-3 Rethinking Multinational Enterprises’ Capital Budgeting in the Globalized New Millennium Fabio Pizzutilo* Department of Business and law studies, University of Bari *Corresponding author: A strict interpretation of the Ricardian assumptions on international trade leads to a conclusion in favour of the impossibility of a firm investing abroad. Even extending the Ricardian model by including capital among the factors of production, it has to be supposed that, from a purely economic and financial perspective, the choice between directly investing abroad and not doing so is totally indifferent. It is the existence of imperfections in the real and/or financial markets that give rise to the convenience for a firm to exploit its competitive advantages through foreign direct investment (FDI). In a broad sense, a multinational enterprise (MNE) can be intended as a company that holds controlled firms, producing branches, divisions, establishments, subsidiaries, etc., in a foreign country. The reasons that can persuade a firm to become multinational are manifold. First of all, it can be the sole action in order to conduct a specific business. Think about the activity of the extraction of raw materials: it cannot be conducted anywhere other than the mine’s location. Many firms are seeking greater production efficiency, and are thus investing in countries where one or more of the factors of production, capital included, are undervalued given...

Words: 1923 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Purpose of This Paper, Prepared by Jessica Chan Under the Supervision of Robert F. Bruner Is About Analyzing the Companies Coca Cola and Pepsi After Pepsi Has Announced a Merger with Quaker Oats Company with a Deal

...The purpose of this paper, prepared by Jessica Chan under the supervision of Robert F. Bruner is about analyzing the companies Coca Cola and Pepsi after Pepsi has announced a merger with Quaker Oats Company with a deal at around $14 billion. With this deal Pepsi would have access to 83.6% of the sport drink market and around 33% of the U.S. noncarbonated-beverage market, followed by Coke with 21%. The paper wants to answer the questions how the latest announcement of Pepsi has an effect on the two companies´ prospects for value creation by showing the company background of both companies, giving a briefly industry overview of the beverage market and competitive events and establishing a financial comparison, especially with ratio and economic profit analysis. In the world Coca Cola and Pepsi have towered as the two leading brands of beverages. In the year 2000, Coca Cola was the largest manufacturer, distributor, marketer of soft-drink concentrates and syrups in the world and its market value reached $110.01 billion. On the other side Pepsi was a $20 billion worth company in 2000, acting in the snack food, soft drink and noncarbonated beverage market. Both companies have reached worldwide expansion of their markets, which include a large product range of beverages, apparel and paraphernalia with their respective logos. Both have grown into longstanding global and social industry leaders. Coca Cola´s annual sales were $20.5 billion which were earned also through a variety of...

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unilever Nepal Financial Analysis

...------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents CHAPTER: ONE INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT………………………….1-4 CHAPTER: TWO INTRODUCTION OF THE ORGANIZATION……..…………5-9 CHAPTER: THREE CAPITAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS………………………….10-15 Fixed Assets……………………………………………………….10-12 Inventories…………………………………………………………12-15 CHAPTER: FOUR ANALYSIS OF ASSETS…………………………………………..16-18 CHAPTER: FIVE CASH FLOW ANALYSIS………..………………………………19-26 CHAPTER: SIX FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS…...............................27-28 CHAPTER: SEVEN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION……………………… CHAPTER: ONE INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT Theory is just limited to knowledge, but practical approach gives the platform for applicability. Learning only on theoretical basis limits our knowledge horizon and keeps us far from real world. So, in order to have enough understanding on the accounting process, this project aims at applying theory into practice. The annual report project in the first term of our accounting course in MBA is assigned to us to make us learn everything we can about one company using its annual report, the internet, the press, stock market and contract with company officials. Thus, this annual report project on Unilever Nepal Limited (UNL) is prepared as a part of learning practical applicability of accounting processes. Objectives of the report Every report has objectives. It is on the basis of these objectives that report is directed in a fixed path and contains...

Words: 7324 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay


...Challenges for Developing Countries in International Trade Introduction: Globalization is becoming an irresistibly stream in this age. People believe that globalization will bring tremendous for turn and benefit for them. However, as the deepening of globalization, it has revealed a lot of problem, especially for developing countries. This essay is to discuss challenges faced by developing countries in the context of international trade in the process of globalization. The author wills look into their challenges in international trade of manufacture goods, agriculture products and services. Globalization Globalization is probably the most frequent emerging word in the news today. Concerning about what is globalization, it reminds me of a joke, which is about Princess Diana’s death. In this joke, Princess Diana’s death is claimed to be a symbol of globalization, for the reason that this car accident is highly globalized: it is an English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a French tunnel, driving a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was drunk on Scottish whisky, followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles; treated by an American doctor, using Brazilian medicines. This is sent to you by an American, using Bill Gates's technology, and you're probably reading this on your computer, that uses Taiwanese chips, and a Korean monitor, assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, transported by Indian lorry-drivers,...

Words: 2246 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Pioneer Petroleum Corporation

...Stowe. Corporate Financial Management, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall Publishing (Pearson), 2007. ISBN: 9780132278720. Harvard Business Review Cases (HC) purchased and downloaded online at: Case ordering numbers are given in parentheses next to each case in the Tentative Schedule. HP (Hewlett Packard) 10 B II, 17BII financial calculator or the equivalent. V. Course Description and Purpose The UNCG Graduate Bulletin describes MBA 625 as follows: "Finance in the strategic management process; corporate strategies and shareholder value creation, financing decisions, distribution policy, and long-term investment decisions.” The learning outcomes from this course are as follows: 1. Recognize the role played by the finance function in developing a global strategic plan. 2. Evaluate the extent to which a firm’s investment, financing, and dividend decisions contribution to creating value for its...

Words: 4596 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay


...UNIT 2 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS THEORIES International Business (Trade) Theories Objectives After reading this unit, you should be able to : • understand the analytical foundations of international business • be familiar with the international trade theories • explain the FDI approaches to international business. Structure 2.1 Foundations of International Business 2.2 International Trade Theories Theory of Mercantilism Theory of Absolute Cost Advantage Theory of Comparative Cost Advantage Heckscher-Ohlin Model Leonief Paradox 2.3 FDI Theories Market Imperfections Approach Product Life Cycle Approach Transaction Cost Approach The Eclectic Paradigm 2.4 Summary 2.5 Key Words 2.6 Self-assessment Questions 2.7 Further Readings 2.1 FOUNDATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS The analytical framework of international business is build around-the activities of MNEs enunciated by the process of internationalisation. The FDI on the part of an MNE attempts to overcome the obstructions to trade in foreign countries. The strategies relating to the functional areas, such as production, marketing, finance and price policies, are adopted by the MNEs in such a manner that an amicable relationship between home and host nations is created. Foreign direct investment can be distinguished from the other forms of international business, such as exporting, licencing, joint ventures and management contracts. Basically...

Words: 8686 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Exam Outline

...essential tests to decide if you should diversify 1. “Attractiveness Test” – the industry you enter must be attractive or capable of making attractive 2. “Cost-Of-Entry” – it must not capitalize all future profits 3. “BETTER OFF TEST” – the new unit must gain an advantage from being linked to the company (P&G & Gillete) * The attractiveness test and cost-of-entry usually cancel each other out. * An argument for diversification is “economies of scope” – This could be tangible resources such as sharing distribution networks, therefore eliminating duplication * You can also explore a brand to achieve “economies of scope” * Also management and organization capabilities = “economies of scope” * You don’t need to diversify to achieve “economies of scope”, you can license 1. ex: - Pepsi selling Starbucks Frappachino * Deciding which way to achieve “economies of scope” is a debate about market contracts (legal documents and watching partner not exploit) vs. internalization (running a diversified company) * If a resource can be licensed out close to real value, do it. * “Parenting Advantage” can help explain most successful diversification strategies * Diversified Firms can avoid external capital and have better financial information but allocating money can become...

Words: 3939 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

What Are the Sources and Limits of Mnc Power

...of MNC power? Multinational Corporations in a Global Economy IR 120 - 201136597 - Catharina Knobloch 1. Introduction As MNCs are getting increasingly important as actors in political bargaining, the purpose of this essay is to provide a (more or less) detailed overview over the sources and limits of the power of multinational corporations (MNCs). In the first section, I am going to lead into this topic by giving some definitions. In addition to that, I am also going to explain the role of MNCs in the international governance based on the typology of regime types. Then I am going to examine the most important sources and forms of business power, before taking into account the limits and the vulnerability of MNC power. 2. Definitions First, the term of the “multinational corporation” is difficult to be generalised due to extensive variations among the current examples (corporations are of different size, age, nationality industry, pursuing distinct decision-making processes and strategy-setting patterns, etc.) In order to define it more precisely, a multinational corporation is a firm, which owns assets and controls activities in different countries. As a consequence, the corporation needs at least one subsidiary in a non-domestic country to be classified as an MNC (just foreign trade is not sufficient). Some examples of these include Shell, General Motors, IBM or BP that operates in more than 100 countries. There are four categories of multinational corporations:...

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...around 55 cement assembling organizations, the vast majority of which are in operations either on a substantial or little scale. Atotal of 34, including multinational cement makers, are in business production.Among nearby brands, Shah Cement, Meghna Cement, Crown Cement, Fresh Cement, Premier Cement and Seven Circle Cement are understood over the country.The five multinational cement organizations in operation are Holcim, Heidelberg, Lafarge Surma,Cemex and Emirates. Growth Bangladesh cement industry showcase on the planet. In spite of the late worldwide economic upheavals, the Bangladesh economy proceeds with its enduring walk with development in abundance of 6% in the course of recent years. Right now limit of the business speaks the truth 20 million tons. Top10 players are distant from everyone else controlling more than 70 % of the aggregate business limit. The business is growing at the rate of 20-25% in the late years. Per capita utilization is 65 kg (FY2009) while India and Pakistan, our two neighbors, have per capita utilization of 135kg and 130kg individually. This demonstrates huge degree for development in the Bangladesh cement industry in the long term. The estimating of cement of different players in the business are near to each other. Currently, the standard cost of one pack of cement delivered by the multinational & nearby cement companies runs inside BDT 450 to BDT 500 for each bag. Cement organizations recorded on the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) represent just...

Words: 3469 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Business Post Group

...INTRODUCTIONS 1 1.1Brief Overview of the Project of Business Post Group Company 1 1.2 Brief Background 1 1.3 The Formation of Business Post Group Company. 2 1.4 Present Status 2 1.5 THE COMPANY ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS POST GROUP. 3 1.6.1 Business Activities 3 1.6.2 Listing 3 1.6.3 Form of Financing 3 1.6.4Market 4 1.6.5 Group Structure (if multinational company) 4 1.6.6Market Capitalization 4 CHAPTER TWO 5 2.0 BUSINESS POST GROUP (UK MAIL GROUP PLC) SHARE PERFORMANCE FOR YEAR 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. 5 2.2THE USEFULL INFORMATION OF ANNUAL REPORT 6 CHAPTER THREE 7 3.1Liquidity Ratios 7 3.1.1 Current Ratio 7 3.1.2 Acid test (quick) Ratio 9 3.1.3 Cash Ratio 10 3.2 PROFITABILITY RATIO 12 3.2.1 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) 12 3.2.2 Return on Shareholder’s Equity (ROE) 13 3.2.3 NETPROFIT MARGIN 3.3EFFICIENCY RATIO 17 3.3.1 INVETORY TURNOVER 17 3.3.2 AVERANGE/ RECEIVABLE COLLECTION PERIOD 18 3.3.3 CREDITORS PAYMENT PERIOD 19 3.4 FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 21 3.4.1 EQUITY RATIO 21 3.4.2 DEBIT RATIO 23 3.4.3 DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO 24 CHAPTER FOUR 26 4.0 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF WAITROSE COMPANY 26 4.1 Corporate Social Responsibility 26 5.0 CONCULISION AND RECOMMENDATION 27 5.1 CONCLUSION 27 5.1.2...

Words: 7402 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Global Me

...1. Create a fictional MNE which manufactures an imaginary product and choose a country in which to conduct FDI. Communication has become a necessity in today’s world for everyone and every age. People from all over the globe communicate for either business, casual or for family reasons. The ability to talk, see and share things with people who are thousands miles away or simple in the next state over has become one of the fastest developing areas in technology. Global Me, a new software that can be applied to any device whether it is a phone, computer, ipad, mp3 player, television or any other type will allow for free web cam communication, audio and sharing of any kind of file. This software will infuse all other social networking sites and communications into one simple, easy to use program that works for everyone and everyone and every type of software. Many people have different devices and need to download certain programs that can only be useful if another person has the same program. This software will solve all of those headaches and be the easiest, user friendly and convenient social networking software available. It will be able to be used for medical purposes to allow doctors to communicate and see patients through a robot type device without having to be in the same state or even country. Surgeries will be able to be performed by top doctors from countries around the world. Social and business communication will increase because now everyone will be able to use...

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...4 Cultural globalization 5 4. Pro or against globalization? 6 4.1 Advantages of globalization 6 4.2 Disadvantages of globalization 6 4.3 Institutes 6 5. Conclusion 7 6. Sources 7 1. Background Globalization is simply becoming world-wide or making it world-wide. It exists at a lot of places in different sizes. Globalization is to create a good world economy. This could be done by big multinational companies. The reason why I mention the multinationals is because of the influence that they (can) have on the economy worldwide. After all, the world trade plays the biggest part in it. However globalization and the free world trade don’t automatically mean that the well-being is divided all over the world. But where did it start? Who started it and why is it so important for the well being of the world? Well, the globalization existed during different levels/steps. People/companies with power from the past created our current globalize civilization. The first level was when the South conquered the North and applying economical structures. Consequences were the slavery. The second level was the colonization. The North plundered the South, recreated maps and set up one religion and forced their language to be the official language. The third level was pressuring through the political side but the fourth step is the step of globalization that we all go through right now. Because after the first and second world war, the fall of the Berlin wall and the...

Words: 1905 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Fdi and Mnc

...FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND THE MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION CHAPTER 2. 2.1. INTRODUCTION International business activity is by no means a recent phenomenon. The lives of Phoenicians and Carthaginians, in the ancient world, were deeply dependent on international business. This economic activity included foreign direct investment (FDI), joint ventures and strategic alliances, among other forms of internationalisation (Moore and Lewis, 1999). Several multinational corporations (MNEs) can also be identified in Europe in the middle ages and in the beginning of the modern era (Dunning, 1993a; Jones, 1996). The origins of modern international business activity however, are associated with the industrial revolution. Modern MNEs, in particular, have their roots in the massive international movement of factors that took place in the nineteenth century (Dunning, 1993a: p.99). Resource-seeking was the most common motivation of FDI in this period, even if by 1850 many firms had already crossed the Atlantic, in both directions, in what can be defined as market-seeking investment (Dunning, 1993a: p.100; Jones, 1996: p.5). 8 Despite the presence of FDI, most foreign investment in the nineteenth century - and indeed until the late 1940s – was portfolio capital. As a result, international business activity was largely ignored in economic theory until the late 1950s. On the one hand, the phenomenon did not have a major perceived economic impact. It was widely assumed that MNEs were...

Words: 11031 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

The Future of Financial Reporting: Convergence or Not

...Prepared Remarks by Sir David Tweedie, Chairman of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), to the US Chamber of Commerce Event, “‘The Future of Financial Reporting: Convergence or Not?”’ Washington, DC, USA 10 March 2011 I would like to thank the US Chamber of Commerce and its Center for Capital Market Competitiveness for organising today’s event on the future of financial reporting. I have a great affinity with the United States and have always enjoyed my time here. With that in mind, it is not surprising that we at the IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have worked so successfully in partnership over the past decade. I am delighted to present at the same event as my friend and colleague, Leslie Seidman. This event on the future of financial reporting is timely. Years from now, we will look back on 2011 as a year when the future path of financial reporting was determined. There are two key activities coming to a head this year. First, the IASB and the FASB are now nearing the completion of a nine-year programme to improve International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) and US generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and to bring about their convergence. Second, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) will make a decision on the use of IFRSs by US domestic companies. The SEC’s decision will be felt well beyond the borders of the United States. Today, more than 100 countries either require or permit the use of IFRSs for listed...

Words: 4620 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Emerging Markets Survey

...Emerging Markets Perspectives - CEO Insights Emerging Markets Perspectives - CEO Insights 1 Convergence & Differentiation What is success in a connected world?* Methodology This report was developed to provide a unique perspective from which to view the successes of companies based in emerging markets. While there are many reports providing valuable insights on how multinationals can expand into emerging markets, very few take a systematic approach towards looking at how emerging-market companies have not only fended off developed-world multinationals, but also found their own ways to expand into foreign markets. In addition to drawing on the insights of PricewaterhouseCoopers partners and associates from every market, we relied on two additional sources: 1. The 11th Annual PwC Global CEO Survey: The authoritative analysis of CEO views on business opportunities and risks of operating in an increasingly connected world. PricewaterhouseCoopers has published the survey for more than a decade, reaching out to more than 1,100 chief executive officers worldwide. The 11th Annual Global CEO Survey was launched in January 2008 at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos. The survey data were re-analysed for this report at the country level as well as by contrasting insights from developed versus emerging markets. For the purposes of this report, we define “developed nations” to include 19 economies, including the United States and Canada, 15 in Western Europe, Japan...

Words: 17505 - Pages: 71