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New Health and Scoail Unit 5


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Course Title | BTEC National Health & Social Care | Unit Title | Anatomy and Physiology for health & social care | Level | 3 | Unit Number | 5 | Unit Credit | 10 | Assignment Title | Anatomy and Physiology for health & social care | Part Unit | | Whole Unit | Yes | Assessor | Shanroy Dehaney | Start Date | 20/05/15 | Submission Date | 10/06/15 | Feedback Date | 17/05/15 | Vocational Context | Task 1 - 3 (P1,P2,P3)You are working in a health clinic and have been asked to produce a poster to explain the functions of the main cell, tissue and body components to display in the clinic. Task 4 (P4,M1,D1)You are an advisor in your local sports centre and you have been asked to design and produce an information booklet to explain to clients how the body requires and utilises energy. This should include:Produce a written report on the body’s response to exercise. The report will be based on primary and secondary research. The report will include:Task 5 (P5,M2,D2) 1. An explanation of the concept of homeostasis and its role in exercise and healthy functioning of the body. 2. Measurements collected from practical work involving physical activity and your interpretation of them together with comments on the validity of the data collected.Task 6 (P6)Complete exercise programme and complete data form and graphs sheets | The Brief | Task 1 (P1)Using a large piece of paper, produce an annotated poster of a cell as it is seen under the microscope. You must include the following; * Organelles – nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula * Golgi apparatus * LysosomesThe notes accompanying the labels should include the main activities carried out by the organelles. Cells: cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm; organelles – mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, lysosomeTask 2 (P2)Produce a written assignment that shows an understanding of the main tissue types and the roles they play in two named organs. You need to outline the structure of the main tissues of the body. You could supplement your written description with large annotated diagrams of the named organs to provide illustrated accounts. Ensure that the functions you describe are specific to the named organs and not general.Tissues:epithelial: simple (cuboidal, columnar, squamous, ciliated), compound (simple, keratinised)connective: blood, cartilage, bone, areolar, adipose muscle: striated, non-striated, cardiacnervous: neurones, neoroglia examples of where each tissue type might be foundTask 3 (P3)Imagine that you wish to explain to individuals using a local health centre how the body works, and produce a series of annotated diagrams to provide an overview of each body system. 1. Draw your own version of the gross structure of each body system listed below, labelling each part with its name and adding a short description of the function of the part.Body systems to be included are: * cardiovascular * respiratory * digestive * renal * nervous * endocrine * reproductive – male and female * lymphatic * musculo – skeletal * immuneMain functions of systems: overall function of each system, e.g digestion of food materials, maintenance of oxygen supply, transport and supply of materials to cells, receptors of information from the environment, co-ordination, eliminating waste products, reproduction; overview of interactions of the different structures within each systemTask 4 (P4)To achieve this, you need to explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body.First you have to decide which two systems you will choose. The cardiovascular system should really be one of them, to help understanding and give coherence. Imagine the booklet is for an athlete or an individual on a restricted diet.If digestion is one of your selected systems you need only consider the three major macronutrients present: protein, carbohydrate and lipids. Start with mechanical digestion in the mouth and explain what happens in each part of the alimentary canal. You need not go beyond the ileum but you do need to include absorption and the fate of the end products of digestion, where this is associated with energy metabolism.The focus of the respiratory system should be on breathing, gaseous exchange and cell respirationThe cardiovascular system should include the role of the blood transport of materials within plasma and haemoglobin.M1 - You have to discuss the role of energy in the body. You will need to explain that energy in the body comes from the diet and describe how it is transformed into energy used by the body as well as saying where the energy is used.D1 - You have to analyse how two body systems interrelate with each other to perform a named function of functions. Use examples to explain how these body systems interrelate with each other. As you explain your work, you will naturally make links – for instance the regulation of plasma glucose by the endocrine system, or the way in which the nervous system is involved in the regulation of the cardiac cycle. Try to make at least five links.Energy: forms, eg chemical, heat, sound, electrical, lightEnergy laws: conservation of energy; transformation of energyEnergy metabolism: role of energy in the body; anabolism and catabolism; activities involved in supplying energy to the cells of the body– roles of cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systemsCardiovascular system: heart – structure, cardiac cycle, heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, bloodvessels– arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins; pulmonary and systemic circulation; structure andfunction of the bloodRespiratory system: role of air passages in nose; structure and functions of trachea, bronchi, lungs bronchialtree, alveoli; role of ciliated epithelial tissue; respiratory muscles– intercostal muscles, diaphragm; ventilation, gaseous exchange, diffusionDigestive system: alimentary canal – oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon; liver, pancreas,salivary glands; role of digestive system in breakdown and absorption of food materials, ingestion, peristalsis, digestion, absorption, egestionRole of enzymes in digestion: amylases, proteases, lipases; sites of secretion; role in digestionMajor products of digestion: peptides and amino acids, sugars, glycerol and fatty acids; roles in the body;storage of excess fats and carbohydrates; deamination of excess proteins and the fate of end products;role of the liver; role of the kidneysAbsorption of food: into blood; into lacteals; role of villi and microvilliTask 5 (P5,M2,D2)Using your knowledge of body systems, explain the concept of homeostasis. Using examples of the homeostatic mechanisms involved in regulating the heart rate, breathing rate and body temperature would be particularly relevant for this report. (P5)(Homeostasis: definition of homeostasis, internal environment, concept of negative feedback as a regulatoryMechanism Homeostatic mechanisms for regulation of:heart rate: roles of internal receptors, autonomic nervous system-sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply, cardiac centre, sinoatrial node; effects of increased body temperature and adrenaline on heart rate breathing rate: roles of internal receptors, autonomic nervous system – sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply, respiratory centre, diaphragm and intercostal muscles body temperature: production of heat by the body, eg through metabolic processes; loss of heat by the body – radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation; roles of hypothalamus, autonomic nervous system – sympathetic and parasympathetic, skin – role of arterioles and sweat glands; effects of shivering; implications of surface area to volume ratios, eg in the care of babies; fever blood glucose levels: roles of pancreas, liver, insulin, glucagon)M2 - This requires you to discuss probable homeostatic responses to changes in the environment inside and outside the body brought upon during exercise. * When you start to run, your muscles need a lot more oxygen and glucose. How is this accomplished? What prevents the cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems from over-compensating during exercise? * Muscular activity generates heat. How does the body resist overheatingD2 - you have to evaluate the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body. * What might happen if body temperature and blood glucose fall below or rise above their normal ranges * What might be the consequences of having a very slow or very rapid heart and breathing rate?Task 6 (P6, M3)You must follow guidelines from your tutor to measure heart rate, breathing rate and body temperature before and after a standard period of exercise: * Design a pattern of exercise for your individual, taking into account their state of health and fitness * You are recommended to take measurements before the exercise, immediately after it stops and then two or three more readings in the first five minutes of recovery and at longer intervals until the individuals measurements have returned to their pre-exercise levels * Design your results chart * Carry out practical work, recording the data collected on the results chart you have designed. You should obtain a witness testimony from your tutor to confirm you have collected measurements yourself and done so safely.To meet M3 you should present all the data you have collected before and after the exercise period with reference to validity.Measurements: pulse rate, breathing rate, temperature; normal values and ranges; safe practice in takingmeasurements, recognition of factors affecting reliability of measurementsNormal variations: as measured at rest and then at intervals during recovery following a standard exercisetest, eg Harvard step testData presentation and interpretation: graphs and charts; supporting explanations of collated data |

Grading Criteria. | Evidence | What you have to do | P1 Outline the functions of the main cell components | PosterPosterHandouts and drawings | You must outline the functions of the main cell components. This means giving an overview of the cell structure and function without including any more detail than is covered in the text.You can include a separate image of each organelle.Please remember to reference all images used in your work.Two organs you can choose might be the stomach and skin. Here are some examples of tissue types that occur in these two groups. 1. The stomach has three layers of non-striated muscle in its wall and an inner lining of columnar epithelium and goblet cells. The tissue connecting the lining with the muscular coat is areolar tissue.Describe these three tissues and their roles in the functioning of the stomach 2. Skin has an outer layer of keratinised stratified epithelium and a deeper layer of areolar tissue overlying adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.Describe keratinised stratified epithelium, adipose tissue and striated muscle and their roles in the functioning of the skin.You can download images of the more complicated systems from the internet. Delete any prepared text and make the images by inserting labels and functions as in task.You have to outline the gross structure of all the main body systems. You need not include any details of microscopic structures (such as alveoli or nephrons), as these are not part of the gross structure.Make sure each image you download is of good quality and clear enough to label.The renal, female productive and endocrine systems are particularly suitable for your own diagrams as they are less complex than others | P2 Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body | | | P3Outline the gross structure ofall the main body systems | | | | P4 Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body | Written report | Complete a written piece of work which details energyEnsure you discuss and the role in detail | M1 Discuss the role of energy in the body | | | D1 Analyse how two body systems interrelate toperform a named function/ functions | | | | P5 Explain the concept of homeostasis | Written report | You will need to consider a falling glucose level as energy is being utilised for muscular activity, an increased demand for oxygen and the need to eliminate more carbon dioxide, (cardiovascular and respiratory mechanisms) and an increased body temperature from working muscles. You could use the data you have collected to support your discussion as well as other sources of information.You will need to show the importance of keeping to a narrow range of variables and what can happen if this is not done. Remember how cell enzymes are responsible for speeding up chemical reactions in processes like respiration and how sensitive enzymes are to some changes | M2 Discuss the probable homeostatic responsesto changes in the internal environment during exercise | | | D2 Evaluate the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of thebody. | | | | P6 Follow guidelines to interpret collected data for heart rate, breathing rate and temperature before and after a standard period of exercise. | Exercise form | | M3 Present data collected before and after a standard period of exercise with reference tovalidity. | Exercise form and written report | You should present the data recorded on your results chart as tables and charts and must make comments about the validity of your data. Validity refers to the soundness of your results or how true they are. Often, this will include how many readings you have taken or whether you have assumed certain trends which may not have been so had you taken more results. You could explain any perceived errors or times when the activity did not quite go to plan. |

Optional timeline Date | Activity | Outcome /Evidence | Grading Criteria | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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