Free Essay

Nsa Week 1

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By shaunk3716
Words 753
Pages 4
1. Describe a local land line phone system based on the following Landline Telephone Components:

a. Local Loop- it is a loop of copper wire that allows current to flow from the telephone to the central office and back.
b. Central Office- The central office serves a group of customers in a certain or local area. A good example the book utilizes is that the customers associated with the central office are identified by the first 3 digits of their phone number (not the zip code).
c. Local Exchanges- I’m assuming you mean the carriers not the customers, Local Exchange Carriers are local telephone companies that provide service along with other Local Exchange Carriers within a designated geographical area.
d. POP- Point of Presence is the point where either a Local Exchange Carrier or a long-distance carrier meets another long-distance carrier.
e. Long Distance System – A long-distance system is a system that connects local exchange carriers together in different local access and transport areas and can connect within the same local access and transport area.
f. Fixed Line – a fixed line telephone is a phone that could only be connected to one phone. It began with the Bell Telephone Company in 1877 and lacked the ability to connect to multiple phones which were connected through a single central office.

2. Define and describe the following Telecommunications Network Components:
a. Cellular Telephones:
i. Voice- The transmission of analog information via earlier cell phones similar to the way a fixed-telephone transmits voice. ii. Data- The second generation cell phones can transmit and receive digital data which not only allows talking on the phone; it allows other options such as accessing the internet.

b. Telephone Network Topology:
i. Demarcation Point- Is the point at which the responsibility of the service provider ends. ii. Equipment- The equipment for Demarcation point for a customer includes the tie-in OSP (outside plant) cable to the customers premise equipment racks and active equipment. In a FIFTH networks, the connection is typically made in the customer’s premises whereby fiber-optic or copper cabling is connected to the ONT (optical network terminal). iii. Access Networks- An access network is part of the network that connects the individual customer or business to the telecommunications system. iv. Regional/Metro Networks- A metro network is responsible for aggregating information from the local exchanges of a specific service provider, as well as information from other independent service providers, and sending the information to the regional and long-haul/core network.
A regional network also referred to as a WAN network is basically a larger version of a MAN network. It is responsible for aggregation of information from metro networks. Regional networks are typically the last point before information traffic is put onto the core network.

c. Cable TV:
i. Broadcast TV- Broadcast TV prior to the 1950’s was information primarily delivered over fixed lines or radio broadcasts. ii. Community Antenna- In the early stages, it was an antenna placed on the highest point, such as a hilltop with a copper cable that carried the signal from the antenna to the user or group of users. iii. Network Access Point- Is a terminal that serves as a connection point for drop cables. iv. Interface Device- A network interface device is in an all plastic enclosure designed to house the electronics that support a network. The device interfaces with existing cabling for television, telephone, and internet connectivity.

d. Telecommunication Services:
i. RBOCs- Regional Bell Operating Companies are made up of seven service providers that provide most of the fixed-line, wireless, and data services in the U.S due to a suit against AT&T by the government in 1984. ii. Unbundling- Also referred to as local-loop unbundling, is a regulatory process by which multiple telecommunications service providers can lease space on the local exchange connecting to a customer’s home or business. iii. MSOs- Multiple System Operators are cable TV companies that offer television services to consumers using radio frequency over copper and Fiber optic networks. iv. ISPs- An internet service provider is a company that provides access to the internet.
v. Triple Play- Is a data option offered by ISP which includes high speed internet, voice, and video services. vi. Cloud Computing- Is a way to increase the capabilities of a device or add new capabilities or services without making any hardware changes to the device. Some of the key cloud computing services today are data storage, computation, and software.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Nsa: Surveillance Awareness Project Proposal

...The NSA has the capability to read email, snoop on private social network conversations, observe phone call records, and track the physical locations of citizens not charged nor suspected of any crime, without so much as a warrant. Worse, the demographic most affected this level of snooping on our digital lives, the 18-24 year-old college crowd, is the least knowledgeable and most politically apathetic about the issue. This is a recipe for disaster, and this proposal seeks funding for an awareness campaign that will address it. This campaign will raise awareness about mass surveillance and the Snowden disclosures. We will use posters and flyers to dry attention to the issue. We will use the University of New Mexico as a testing ground, using before and after surveys to gauge effectiveness. If the campaign proves successful, we will recruit volunteers and raise a second round of funding to bring the campaign to college campuses across the nation. Team Underachievers would be at the forefront of both campaigns, personally executing the trial campaign and overseeing the potential national one. After the acceptance of this proposal, we will immediately begin designing our materials and sourcing the cheapest places to mass produce them. We look forward to discussing our proposal in depth and answering any questions or concerns...

Words: 3481 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Rainforest

...Student Name | Sherry taylor | Course and Section Number | Program of Study | Man1030 | business | Introduction to Business MAN1030 Week 2 Individual Work The Challenges to Ensure Your Organization Acts Ethically and is Socially Responsible Assignment Instructions | To complete this assignment: 1. Select question 1, 2, or 3 below and answer it in the space provided. 2. Reflect on the information presented in this week’s lesson and provide an insightful response to each question writing no more than two paragraphs. 3. An example of an excellent response is given for you. | Save and Submit to Dropbox | 1. Save your work as a Microsoft Word 2010 (.docx) file that includes your name, course code, and title in the file name. For example: JaneSmith_MAN1030_Week2.docx. 2. To submit your assignment, go to the Dropbox and click "Submit Assignment." 3. Click on the drop-down menu to select the Week 2: Individual Work basket in the Dropbox. | Objective:Describe the importance of business ethics and social responsibility. EXAMPLE:Find a current article about ethics in business. After reading the article, write a response in which you summarize the article and, in your own words, assess the article. | Example answer:I found an article discussing NSA spying on Verizon, and whether it was ethical for Verizon to disclose that it was providing NSA with all phone records....

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Nsa Surveillance Program

...NSA Surveillance Program Eric D. Reeves ITT Tech Online MG517 – Ethical and Regulatory Environment Dr. Carrie A. O'Hare June 9, 2013 Abstract/Executive Summary The American people are reaping what they sow.  They were so eager to have any semblance of security after 9/11, that they allowed the Patriot Act to be rammed through Congress and signed into law all in a matter of days despite warnings from critics that it could be used to infringe upon citizens’ rights. NSA Surveillance Program has been in the news over the past week.  It was revealed Wednesday June 5, 2013 in The Guardian that the NSA had requested the phone records of millions of Version’s customers regardless of whether they were suspected of suspicious activity or not. In addition it seems that other carriers are requesting similar information. * Introduction: This week millions of Americans was informed by The Guardian of a top-secret government order that was approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, requiring that Verizon release and hand over millions of Americans’ phone records to the national Security Agency. Of course this information made many Americans uncomfortable and people started freaking out. Then the Washington Post reported that not only has the government been keeping an eye on whom we call, when, and how long we talk to them, but it’s also been tapping into the servers of nine major U.S....

Words: 2521 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Government and the Cloud

...------------------------------------------------- The Government and “The Cloud” DéAna Colón Project-Based Information Systems, 90.480.032, TP5 Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 US Privacy Rights 3 Loss of Companies’ Products/Services 4 Government’s Cloud-Data Security 6 Negative Impact on International Relations 7 Loopholes 8 Conclusion 9 Sources 10 Figure 1: Cisco's Projected Revenue Chart 5 Figure 2: Key Stakeholders and Responsibilities for FedRAMP 7 Introduction With the technological advances made, cloud-based data storage has become a staple in businesses worldwide. Storing data using a web-based content management system offers a limitless amount of off-site storage, allowing companies to save larger amounts of data longer. The United States government currently has the unwarranted authority to read emails or access cloud-based data that has been stored for six months or more. Both positive and negative aspects are realized with this controversy. On a positive perspective, many feel the government accessing the data could be beneficial. Probing may help the government prevent terrorism in the United States. It may also provide the information needed to better forecast the country’s economic future. A disparaging concern is that companies feel the government is violating privacy rights. In addition, possible data leaks may result in a company’s loss of product or services....

Words: 2612 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Internet Surveillance

...In 2013, NSA whistle blower Edward Snowden revealed previously unknown details of global surveillance programs run by the United States' NSA in close cooperation with three partners: Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The documents leaked by Mr. Snowden revealed details about the NSA secretly tapping into Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from millions of accounts worldwide. The shocking evidenced released by Mr. Snowden reveals that lawmakers and politicians should take greater control over how and why they are using their surveillance technologies, and question whether or not the fight against terrorism justifies the use of these surveillance programs on citizens as well. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that there be continued innovation in internet security in order to create services and products which can counter-act the use of these programs on ordinary citizens who don’t want their data accessible to anyone but themselves. Spying agencies are able to cripple the civil liberties and the right to privacy of citizens, therefore it is imperative that the government protect the rights of citizens through reforms on Surveillance Acts, but it is also equally pertinent for citizens take initiative and push for new reforms and innovation in online security. Surveillance is defined as the “monitoring of people and systems in order to regulate their behaviour” (Castree) and has been a rooted part of many cultures and civilizations....

Words: 1527 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Data Mning

...As the world’s largest non-alcoholic beverage company, Coca-Cola generates petabytes of data from various sources. Multi-channel retail data, customer profile data from loyalty programs, social media data, supply chain data, competitor data, sales and shipment data from bottling partners as well as transaction and merchandising data. Coca-cola collects vast amounts of data and they take a refreshing approach in exploiting that data and deriving value from it. Chief Big Data Insights Officer, Esat Sezer, explains that Coca-Cola takes a strategic approach instead of a tactical approach with big data. They use the vast amount of available data sets to change the way they approach IT. They have embraced big data technologies and as such were able to create a shared services centre for their financial transactional activities as well as an employee service centre for HR activities. They moved from a decentralized approach to a centralized approach, where the data is combined centrally and available via the shared platforms across the organization. In addition, Coca-Cola has almost 70 million Facebook followers and big data enables Coca-Cola to connect to these followers better and be able to grow the brand advocacy. Coca-Cola also leverages Point of Sales data from companies like Walmart (Walmart alone is responsible for $ 4 billion in Coca-Cola sales annually) to build customer profiles, create centralized iPad reporting across the company and enable Collaborative Planning,......

Words: 2706 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Writing a Report

...Last week, top management requested a review of household consumption behaviour in the United Kingdom. They are particularly interested in whether the recent financial crisis and the economic recession that followed, have permanently altered consumption patterns in the country. The chief analyst, and head of your department, holds a briefing with the entire team in order to assign tasks. You have been asked to do what you have been doing since day one, which is secondary data collection. Confident in your abilities, you see this as an opportunity to gain a more substantive role within the department. You argue that you can provide a thorough and sophisticated analysis of consumer expenditure, complete with reliable forecasts for the foreseeable future. You suggest preparing a report on the analysis of only a subset of goods and services to showcase your technical and analytical skills. The chief analyst agrees to consider your work. If the report you present is at par with the required standard, both in technical detail and analytical discussion, you would be assigned a more prestigious role in the larger scale project, which could lead to a promotion within the department to a more senior level. You are forwarded the data file report1213.dta, which contains, among other, information on UK household expenditure on certain ‘items’ from a wider survey of Consumer Trends in the country....

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Not-for-Profit

...Christina Selden Week 8 12-7 1. This grant has the characteristics of an exchange transaction rather than a contribution. It is not donor restricted and therefore would be reported in an unrestricted fund. 2014 No entry 2015 Research expenses (direct) 4 Cash (or accounts payable) 4 Grants and contracts receivable 6 Revenue from sponsored research 6 Cash 6 Grants and contracts receivable 6 2. 2014 Pledges receivable (from NSA) 6 Revenues from contributions 6 2015 Research expenses (direct) 4 Cash (or accounts payable) 4 Due from restricted fund 6 Resources released from restrictions 6 Cash 6 Due from restricted fund 6 Cash 6 Pledges receivable (from NSA) 6 Resources released from restrictions 6 Cash 6 3. The grant revenue from the SGMA was recognized only as the research was carried out. It is an ordinary commercial cost plus contract. The restricted contribution from the NSA was recognized when the pledge was made. 4....

Words: 1171 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Copycat

...Trust Me, I'm a "Psychologist" tweet it @trustpsychology See translation Like · Comment · Share · 1 Darryl Lovendino shared a link. 2 March · iOS · Drugs As Tools For Spirituality "The program is a voyage chart, a series of signals, which, like the pilot’s radio provides the basic orienting information required for the “trip.” - Timoth... YOUTUBE.COM Like · Comment · Share Darryl Lovendino Write a comment... Darryl Lovendino 21 February · New look mogs. Edward Darryl Lovendino's photo. Like · Comment · Share · 104 News Feed In a relationship with Jun Ji-Hyun From Seoul, Korea Born on 9 July 1994 (20 years old) Followed by 1,892 people FRIENDS · 936 Min Sung Jung Son Joana San...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

33 Sumaries

...1. 6/6/2013 Doug Gross. * Barack Obama believes that there should be internet access in all schools. He wants to provide funds to around 99% of public schools for them to be able to have internet, even in libraries. He says that he wants all American students to be connected online in five years. Usually, adults don’t go for this type of thing they want children to not be so ‘connected’ to the internet. They want kids to not spend so much time on computers, but he almost wants just that to happen. People are becoming way too dependent on computers and the internet, which even libraries are eventually only going to be used just for that. Although Obama is more so moderate, this idea is clearly making him to be a liberal. He wants the change and wants to continue to further the change on technology. 2. 6/8/2013 Maureen Dowd * In this article, she quotes the book 1984. She is talking about how Bush felt about 9/11 and some of the after effects. It turns out that, for seven years the N.S.A was taking information from our phone calls. This all started while Bush was president through a program called prism. Prism would let the F.B.I. and N.S.A. into many social media websites and was able to access all of our information. These people were trying to spot out terrorists, and will go to any means necessary. According to Obama, they necessarily can’t hear the conversations; they are just able to learn about who we call....

Words: 4728 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Jcsuacgsauycgsau

...This Week in Sex: Bisexual Men Have Unique Needs, Casual Sex Is Good for Some, Later Childbirth Linked to Longer Life by Martha Kempner June 27, 2014 - 11:50 am A new study suggests that reactions to casual sex are mostly about the individuals who are having it and how authentic they are being to their own sexual mores. (Couple in bed via Shutterstock) This Week in Sex is a weekly summary of news and research related to sexual behavior, sexuality education, contraception, STIs, and more. The Public Health Community and the Needs of Bisexual Men A new study in the Journal of Preventative Medicine argues that the public health community has not paid enough attention to the unique needs of bisexual men. In Beyond the Bisexual Bridge, author William Jeffries suggests that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are often seen as transmitters of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, and, more to the point, as the way in which certain diseases or epidemics jump from gay men to heterosexuals of both sexes. By looking at them as disease vectors and not a population with their own sexual health issues, however, Jeffries believes that we are making bisexual men more vulnerable to STIs. Only about 2 percent of the male population identifies as MSMW but, according to the study, their sexual health needs and experiences are different from those of heterosexual or straight men....

Words: 3174 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Week 2 Programming

...Console.WriteLine("Enter Color:"); String number1 = String.Empty; number1 = Console.ReadLine(); Program 1. Console.WriteLine("Matt Mattes"); Console.WriteLine("112 N. Cambie, Post Falls ID, 83854"); Console.WriteLine("208-818-5620"); Console.WriteLine("NSA");...

Words: 251 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mobile Technology and Privacy

...Privacy and Culture: Comparative study of privacy issues with respect to mobile technology in India and America Sreeranjani K Pattabiraman Abstract The past decade has witnessed a huge shift in the development of mobile technology which has led to privacy issues, murmurings of which started surfacing only in recent years. A lot of research has been carried out by academicians on mobile technology and its impact on society. There have also been comparative studies on how privacy has changed for people over the years with the boom of social networking sites and smart phones. But, there has not been a substantial study or analysis conducted on how people's privacy has been directly affected by the ever-increasing population boom of mobile-phone users. This comparative study analyzes the concept of privacy with respect to mobile surveillance and draws upon prior work in the field of mobile surveillance, ranging from popular press on government surveillance in India and USA and case studies in these two countries related to people’s view on privacy, to the works of ACLU (American Civil Liberty Union) in USA and Stop CMS (Central Monitoring System) in India. The study is built around the analysis and comparison of the issue of mobile surveillance in both the countries, how people dealt with this, and the role of culture in determining people’s view on privacy. It also proposes suggestions for how future research can be carried out in the field of mobile......

Words: 7224 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Sample Assignment

...MR Frankie Yee 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 1.0 Current Market Situation Analysis 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Market Situation 1.3 Competitive situation 1.4 Distribution Situation 2.0 Macro-environment situation 3.0 Micro-environment situation 4.0 Opportunity & Issue Analysis 4.1 SWOT Issue Analysis 4.2 Objectives 4.2.1 Financial Objectives 4.2.2 Marketing Objectives 5.0 Marketing Strategy 5.1 Segmentation & Targeting 5.2 Positioning and Branding 6.0 Marketing Mix 6.1 Product 6.2 Price 6.3 Place 6.4 Promotion 6.5 People 6.6 Programs 6.7 Processes 6.8 Performance 7.0 Implementation 7.1 New package offering with Financial Analysis 8.0 Marketing Activities 8.1 Marketing Activities 9.0 Marketing Organization 10.0 Control 11.0 Summary Referencing Group Project Marking Guide 2 4 5 5 5 7 9 10 12 13 13 15 15 15 16 16 17 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 27 29 29 31 31 31 33 34 Executive Summary Singapore Contract Bridge Association (SCBA) is one of the sixty National Sports Associations (NSA) in Singapore, under the advisory umbrella of Singapore Sports Council (SSC), facing challenges in the area of increasing its revenue which will enable them to further promote the game Bridge to a larger target of the public. However, the perceived difficulties by the in-house committee was that the game Bridge compared to the numerous sports and games out in the market, has little...

Words: 7659 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Moder Totalitarianism

...Modern Totalitarianism. In the 1940s through the 1960s, the world lived in a time of war. In September 1939 World War II broke out , and was followed by the Cold War of 1947 that lasted up until 1991. The historic wars of these times influenced literature and the writers of the time, as they shaped their novels and books around these events. Writers such as George Orwell and Kurt Vonnegut created novels of dystopian societies to alert nations that communism was not as great as it sounded. British writer George Orwell wrote the novel 1984 published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. in 1949. 1984 is a political novel written with the purpose of warning readers in the West of the dangers of totalitarian government. In 1949, the Cold War had not yet escalated, and many Americans supported communism as possible political systems for the west. Therefore, Orwell wrote his novel in order to expose the cruelty and oppression of communist countries. In his dystopian nation, Orwell gave a sneak peak of what a country could become if the people gave all the power to the government. In 1984, Orwell portrays the perfect totalitarian society in which the government monitors and controls every aspect of human life to the extent that having a disloyal thought is against the law. They do so with the use of technology such as tele screens and microphones across the city which allowed the government to monitor all the citizens almost all of the times. In order to keep the citizens of......

Words: 2560 - Pages: 11