Premium Essay

Post Modernism

In: English and Literature

Submitted By samgula
Words 786
Pages 4
Joyce Samantha B. Gula
Introduction / Summary of Postmodernism
Postmodernism is the belief that:
(1) Most theoretical concepts are defined by their role in the conjectured theoretical network. (A subset are 'operationally' defined by a fairly direct tie to observations.)
(2) The theoretical network is incomplete.
(3) It follows that theoretical concepts are 'open', or what logicians call 'partially interpreted'. Research continues precisely because they are open; the research task is to 'close' them, although never completely.
The current Postmodern belief is that a correct description of Reality is impossible. This extreme skepticism, of which Friedrich Nietzsche, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn are particularly famous, assumes that;
a) All truth is limited, approximate, and is constantly evolving (Nietzsche, Kuhn, Popper).
b) No theory can ever be proved true - we can only show that a theory is false (Popper).
c) No theory can ever explain all things consistently (Godel's incompleteness theorem).
d) There is always a separation between our mind & ideas of things and the thing in itself (Kant).
e) Physical reality is not deterministic (Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics, Bohr).
f) Science concepts are mental constructs (logical positivism, Mach, Carnap).
g) Metaphysics is empty of content.
h) Thus absolute and certain truth that explains all things is unobtainable.
As Taborsky writes of Postmodern philosophy;
.. the Mediated concept of Truth, is that it first admits that there is no such thing as absolute, pure Truth. There is a reality, which may be abstract or sensual ... but one cannot access it/know it ..'in-itself'. One can only 'know' it within the socially constructed (or species-constructed) 'mediative-habits' of one's particular society/species/whatever. (Taborsky)
Effectively Postmodernism comes to the...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Robert Venturi's Post Modernism

...of the necessary complex and contradictory architecture, which essentially contains ambiguity and tension. Rather than exclude everything, inclusion of unity becomes the task of his architecture. He emphasizes the play of compromising of element which leads to difficult whole. The writing doesn’t reject nor accept any prevailing style, instead it abstracts the element of the building that demonstrates the complexity and contradiction in his thought and from them he combines and derives a new form of hybrid architecture. On the other hand, it had been a controversy topic which he claimed that he was never and won’t be a post- modernism architect. However, his works and theory demonstrate postmodernism architecture which they claimed that they never intended to do so. The tension begins to surface, such influential pieces towards the post modernism, is claimed that the intention was never to be one. The relation between practice and theory of his work is then interrogated and investigated in this writing. Analysis Ambiguity and tension are everywhere in an architecture of complexity and contradiction. Architecture is a form and substance-abstract and concrete and its meaning derives from is interior characteristics and its particular context (Venturi, 1977, p20). Presents day architect, in their visionary compulsion to invent new techniques, have neglected their obligation to be experts in existing conventions. (Venturi, 1977, p43) Old clichés in new......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Notes on Post-Fordism and Post-Modernism

...Notes on post-Fordism and postmodernism Post-Fordism and Postmoderism: * Capitalism requires a large number of low-skilled workers willing to put up with alienating, repetitive work on mass production assembly lines. This system is often called Fordism because the Ford motor company was the first to introduce this. * Bowles and Gintis’ correspondence principle states that school mirrors the work place, and see the mass education system as preparing pupils to accept this kind of work. * Postmodernists argue that this view is out-dated and that society has entered a new postmodern phase and are now fundamentally different from the modern society that both Marxists and Functionalists have written about. * Postmodernists reject the Marxist idea that we still live in a two class society, and the claim that education reproduces class inequality. * They argue that class divisions are no longer important and that society is now much more diverse an fragment. * Postmodernists also argue that the economy has shifted away from assembly-line mass production and is now based on ‘flexible specialisation’ where production is customised for small specialist markets. * The Post-Fordism system requires a skilled, adaptable workforce able to use advanced technology and transfer their skills rapidly from one specialised task to another. * Post-Fordism calls for a different kind of education system where instead of preparing pupils to be low-skilled, low-paid...

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Post Modernism And Post-Modernism

...Post-modernism is the sociological perspective that talks about modern social development as the end of the industrial era, while being critical of the Enlightenment era that its bid to achieve “certainty and universal criteria of perfection and a ‘good life’ was a wasted effort” as stated by Zygmunt Bauman. Furthermore, they challenge the positivistic view of objectivity and challenge it with the concept of relativism. Stating that there are no universals, or any objective scientific truths. The post-modernists further shed light on the changes in society from the industrial era or the modern age to the now post modern age. Much of the post-modern perspective is about how it is almost impossible to scientifically analyze the industrial world...

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Post Modernism

...International Journal of Arts and Sciences 3(15): 238-254 (2010) CD-ROM. ISSN: 1944-6934 © InternationalJournal.org Filipino Philosophy and Post-Modernity Raymundo R. Pavo, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Philippines Abstract: Post-Modernity, with its stress on freedom and creativity, is a vantage point that can dispose Filipino thinkers to philosophically formulate, construct and develop thought systems. This liberating milieu can be reckoned as a fertile occasion where Filipinos can explore the conditions of possibilities that grant a philosophical status to thoughts, statements or constructions that either come from or pertain to the Filipino mind. Such that when we use the concept Filipino Philosophy, we are well-conscious of these two interrelated points – The Identity and Referential Nature of the concept Filipino, and the connotation/intension of the term Philosophy. Is it Filipino? Is it philosophical? These are the questions that have guided the ruminations in this philosophical treatise. And as an initial insight to such questions, we propose a kind of vantage point that can address the identity and referential nature of the term Filipino in a Filipino Philosophy and the philosophical substance of its claim. This perspective, we shall argue, may be construed by a social-scientist-philosopher. As a social scientist, this thinker is mindful of the descriptions or characteristics that may be regarded as telling of the Filipino milieu. As a philosopher,......

Words: 10004 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Modernism

...The dominant artistic movement from about 1900 to 1940, modernism was characterized by the reexamination of existence from every possible angle. Modernist writers sought to leave the traditions of nineteenth-century literature behind in terms of form, content, and expression. They realized that a new industrial age—full of machines, buildings, and technology—had ushered out rural living forever, and the result was often a pessimistic view of what lay before humankind. Frequent themes in modernist works are loneliness and isolation (even in cities teeming with people), and a significant number of writers tried to capture that sense of solitude by engaging in stream-of-consciousness writing, which captures the thought process of a single character as it happens without interruption. Some of the most famous modernist authors include Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Virginia Woolf, and James Joyce. 1. Open form and free verse are distinguishing characteristics of modernist poetry. Though commonplace now, this style was quite a break from nineteenth-century rules about meter and rhyme. 2. The moniker “The Lost Generation” was coined by Gertrude Stein and refers to those artists of the 1920s who had become disillusioned with America and found themselves living as ex-patriots in Europe, chiefly in France. 3. An example of stream-of-consciousness (also called “interior monologue”) from Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway: “She felt somehow very like him—the young man......

Words: 1678 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Postmordenism Essay

...‘Society has now entered a postmodern age and we need new theories to understand it.’ Assess this view. Society has experienced important changes in recent times. Some sociologists argue that these changes are so reflective that they represent an important shift, from the modern society of the past two centuries, to a new, postmodern society from the era of modernity to the era of postmodernity. Other sociologists disagree and argue that although recent changes have been very significant, these are actually part of modernity itself. In addition to this, opinions are also divided on what theory we need to understand these changes in society. Some have adopted the perspective known as postmodernism to describe society today while others have adopted existing modernist theories such as Marxism. Most sociologists agree that modern society emerged during the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century in Western Europe. Before understanding whether our current society is modern or postmodern, it is important to define a modern society. Modern societies are nation states; they are a key political unit in a bounded territory ruled by a centralized state and the people usually share the same language and culture. Another aspect of modern societies is capitalism, based in private ownership of means of production, maintaining the conditions under which it operates. Lash and Urry describe this as `organized capitalism. Wealth distribution in modern societies is uneven and Fordist......

Words: 2155 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

"Girl" by Jamaica Kincaid

...Professor Kenefick 9:30 – 10:45 “Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid (Post-Modernism) Based on our lecture in class, I view “Girl” as a Post-Modern work. If “Girl” is viewed as ‘Modern’, the work is seen as nurturing, however if viewed as ‘Post-Modern’, the work is seen as abusive. The structure and language convey a tone of repressiveness and obedience. The mother is preaching at the girl to tell her how to act. The daughter meekly accepts what the mother says and only twice does she speak against her mother. Even then, she spoke in a passive manner. The mother-daughter relationship lacks real intimacy. The use of the word “slut” tells us the mother does not have a high opinion of the daughter even before the mother’s orders can be carried out. The mother is extremely dictatorial, which in itself is not a nurturing quality. Post-Modernism is work that denotes negativity and hopelessness and is meant to shake up the audience. Kincaid does an excellent job of this. Her use of sentence structure (the long sentences); the excess use of semi-colons; and the open ending of the story are demonstrative of Post-Modern writings. An important element is ‘deconstruction’ for example, how the story is really more of a speech and not a formalized story with definite structure. Another example is the writing style, which is the narrative. We do not know exactly who is speaking, and absolute clarity is absent because in Post-Modern writing it does not necessarily......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History

...Modern Art or Modernism is the loose term given to the succession of styles and movements in art and architecture which dominated Western culture from 19th Century up until the 1960’s. Movements associated with Modern art include Impressionism, Cubism, Bauhaus, Surrealism, Futurism, Pop Art and Op Art. Modern Art rejects the past as a model for the art of the present and is characterized by constant innovation. Modern Art grew out of the Impressionist's rejection of the 'imitation of life' school of art. Their emphasis on the act of painting, on the paint itself, can be seen in the Expressionist and Cubist art of the turn-of-the-century.  Modern art was also often driven by various social and political agendas. These were often utopian, and modernism was in general associated with ideal visions of human life and society and a belief in progress. From the 1970’s artists and movements began to react against Modernism and post-modernism was formed. Some different types of the movements in art are: abstract, action art, American realism, architecture, art deco, and art nouveau, Asian, Bauhaus, black and white, celebrity, cityscape, colorful, comic book art, conceptual art, contemporary art, cubism, cuisine, exclusive, expressionism, fauvism, figurative, floral, framed prints, Modern art and many more. There were a lot of movements in the art industry ever since the beginning of Modern art which started in the 19th Century. Surrealism is a style of art and literature developed......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

American Art and Modernity

...experience • Lone Tenement (George Bellows) o Wanted to facec the ugly in city as well as beautiful o Worked against Whistler (avoided aesheticism) • Rawness of city, depicted vaudeville (which is like mixture of acts such as burlesque, comedians, music, etc) o Liked to show economic conditions of urban poor • Ash Can painting style: thick and messy, meant to look like it was applied slap-dash manner, jittery o Ash can artists started as illustrationalists o Borrowed from manet but were more interested in giving subjects agency • Called insufficiently modern • Whistler’s work is about distancing us, Bellows is about confronting the difficult world, the real world, gritty grimy The Stieglitz Circle & Transatlantic Modernism General: Cubism, Italian Futurists, Fauvism,...

Words: 3722 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Postmodernism

...Andy Warhol and Cindy Sherman to clearly define some of the postmodern artists who are still very well-known today as much as they were known back in the 60s and 70s onwards. I will be explaining how postmodernism has changed and what is happening in today's society. What is the meaning of Postmodernism? Postmodernism is an exasperating term, and so are postmodern, postmodernist, postmodernity, and whatever else one might come across in the way of derivation. In the avalanche of articles and books that have made use of the term since the late 1950s, postmodernism has been applied at different levels of conceptual abstraction to a range of objects and phenomena in what we did call reality (Bertens,1995 p3). Postmodernism is also related to Modernism which refers to a certain period in Western culture, which covered the later Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries. However, others dated the movement in the 1960s after the War, notably to Marshall McLuhan's coining of the phrase: “ The medium is the message” (1964). By this, I believe McLuhan means that the manner in which the message is mediated becomes more important than the meaning of the message itself. However, according to Jean Baudrillard, McLuhan himself, did UP 502522 not see that beyond the neutralization of all content, one could still...

Words: 2074 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Comparison Modernism and Postmodernism

...Modernism/Postmodernism A representation of belonging in the poem ''I Too'' by Hughes Williams and ''A Wife'S Story'' by Mukherjee In this essay, I compare Hughes poem ''I, too'' published in 1925 (Modernism) and Mukherjee's story ''A Wife' Story'' published in 1988 (Postmodernism). The focus of my comparison will be on belonging as I believe this theme could be attributed to both texts. First of all, the poem ''I, too'' is about a black man who belongs to and wants to be seen as an American which is especially emphasised by the poem's title ''I, too''. A similar expression is used in the last line of the poem which therefore forms a frame. Evidently, this can be understood as a statement which expresses that this person is a citizen of America because he is represented throughout the whole poem from the beginning to the end. The little difference between the first and 18th line can be interpreted as a sort of improvement which takes place within the poem because singing America means he does something to actually belong to it. The statement ''I, too, am America'' can be seen as rather passive; hence it can be argued that the narrator is accepted and finally belongs to the American culture. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that the narrator is excluded from American society by stating that ''they sent me to eat in the kitchen when company comes'' (l.3-4). This citation suggests that he is separated from the others as they do not wish to eat with him but; hence it...

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

American Modernism and House Made of Dawn

...Universität Bayreuth “ Notes on Indian Country: Native American Literature” SS 2012 Claudia Deetjen American Modernism and House Made of Dawn Daniel Quitz Matrikelnummer: 1164204 Englisch (5) / Geschichte (5), LA Maximilianstrasse 16, 95444 Bayreuth Tel.: 0176/ 73911615 danielquitz@t-online.de Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Defining American Modernism 3. American Modernism in House Made of Dawn 3.1 Complex and Modern Urban Life 3.2 Alienation: The Portrait of a Lost Generation 3.3 The Stream of Consciousness 3.4 Other Features 4. Conclusion 5. Bibliography Quitz 1 1. Introduction When Navarre Scott Momaday first published his award-winning novel House Made of Dawn, literary critics celebrated the book as the Renaissance of Native American Literature. The novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1969, has influenced both readers and well-known Native American writers such as Leslie Marmon Silko or Sherman Alexie since its first publication. Moreover, it has certainly made the success of Native American Literature possible. This is one of the reasons why Momaday can be considered as the “dean of Native American writers“ (Hager 2). House Made of Dawn is about Abel, a young Native American who returns home to Walatowa from World War II. There, he struggles to reintegrate into the tribal community as he is torn between two different worlds. On the one hand, it is the traditional environment of his......

Words: 4226 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Cultural Studies In Literature

...literary study was established on a resistance between the canon and its other, mainstream culture. The theory wars of the 1970s and the 1980s and, specifically, the appearance of structuralist and post-structuralist theory, changed this relationship. With the passing of writing, the refinement amongst high and popular culture was no more extended reasonable, and the field of request moved from literary into Cultural Studies. In this work, Anthony Easthope contends this new train must locate a methodological agreement for its examination of authoritative and famous writings. Through a point by point feedback of contending speculations (British cultural studies, New Historicism, cultural materialism) he demonstrates...

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Experiment in Modernist Fiction

...Experiment in Modernist Fiction Modernism is a current which defines everything that is new in matters of art, literature or music. The main focus of our interest is modernist literature which is a subdivision of modernism and begins during the early stages of the 20th century, being seen in opposition to the traditional values promoted until the first World War. Many branches develop during this period (psychology, philosophy, political institutions etc.) and the realism of the earlier times is now rejected and replaced by the idea that everything is relative. Things take a new shift and the absolute truths vanish, leaving room for multiple interpretations and personalized opinions which are presented now, in writing. But how can one define something that has no clear conclusion? An element of this sort cannot have a finality, therefore, it is understood according to one’s personal background and experience. Modernist literature will always raise serious issues concerning the purpose and form of literature, questioning its former aspects. What are the reasons for writing a novel and what should a novel consist of? For example, the notion of “novel” becomes ambiguous in the mind of Virginia Woolf, who declared after writing “Mrs. Dalloway” that “I’m glad to be quit this time of writing a novel, and hope never to be accused of it again.” Next to Virginia Woolf which is believed to be one of the greatest modern authors, the faithful readers come across names like James......

Words: 1600 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Blahahahah

...Pop art is now most associated with the work of New York artists of the early 1960s such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, and Claes Oldenburg, but artists who drew on popular imagery were part of an international phenomenon in various cities from the mid-1950s onwards. Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop's reintroduction of identifiable imagery (drawn from mass media and popular culture) was a major shift for the direction of modernism. The subject matter became far from traditional "high art" themes of morality, mythology, and classic history; rather, Pop artists celebrated commonplace objects and people of everyday life, in this way seeking to elevate popular culture to the level of fine art. Perhaps owing to the incorporation of commercial images, Pop art has become one of the most recognizable styles of modern art. By creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture objects and media stars, the Pop art movement aimed to blur the boundaries between "high" art and "low" culture. The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and that art may borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art. It could be argued that the Abstract Expressionists searched for trauma in the soul, while Pop artists searched for traces of the same trauma in the mediated world of advertising, cartoons, and popular imagery at large. But it is perhaps more precise to say that Pop artists were the first to......

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6