Free Essay

Productive and Unproductive Behaviors

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By venturavha
Words 1064
Pages 5
Productive and Counterproductive Behavior in Organizations
XXXX
PSY/428
August 24, 2011

Productive and Counterproductive Behavior in Organizations
The behaviors of employees in an organization are known as productive and counterproductive, these behaviors can benefit an organization or they can have a negative impact. There has been a lot of Psychological research done that examines these behaviors in an attempt to enhance job performance. This paper attempts to define both the counterproductive behaviors that can be detrimental to an organization and the productive employee behaviors that enhance an organization.
Productive Behavior and its impact on an organization
Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of the organization displayed from their employees (Jex & Britt, 2008). Three of the more common forms of productive employee behaviors are job performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and innovation. Job performance in generic terms covers all of the behaviors that employees engage in while on the job (Jex & Britt, 2008). This unfortunately is not very accurate because employees often engage in behaviors that have little to do with the job task the employees are performing. Job performance may be better described as not only how well an employee performs a job task, but also includes other forms of productive behavior. Over time the research has concluded that three variables can be pointed to as predictors of job performance. One is general cognitive ability. The second one is level of job experience and lastly there is the personality trait of conscientiousness (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is another form of productive behavior. Generally speaking, OCB refers to those behaviors that are not a part of an employees’ formal job description or behaviors for which employees are not formally rewarded (Jex & Britt, 2008). OCB in an organization can be categorized into 5 different forms altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, conscientiousness and civic virtue. These behaviors are based on our beliefs, attitudes, control, intentions and normality. These courteous, helping behaviors contribute positively to organizations effectiveness. Employees engage in OCB primarily because of the positive affect and perception of the level of fairness with which they are treated by an organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). The third and final form of productive behavior is innovation. This form of productive behavior may be thought of as instances in which employees come up with very novel ideas or concepts that further the goals of the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). These ideas or concepts are most visible as a new product or service however, not all ideas take the form of a product or service. These ideas may take the form of new procedures, cost saving measures or revised administrative procedures.
Counterproductive Behavior and its impact on an organization
Employees tend to engage in productive behaviors. However, employees may also, at times, engage in behaviors that run counter to organizational goals. These behaviors are known as counterproductive behaviors and these behaviors work against the goals of the organization (Jex & Britt, 2008). Some examples of these behaviors are substandard job performance, high levels of absenteeism, unsafe job practices, employee turnover, theft, violence, substance abuse, and sexual harassment. These types of behaviors can result in high costs for organizations.
Absenteeism and turnover are two of the most common counterproductive behaviors in an organization. Absenteeism can simply be defined as not showing up for work. Absenteeism has a negative impact on productivity, causes a loss of revenue, and may also lead to less customer satisfaction. However, an organizations goal is to predict and control absences. The common distinction is between excused and unexcused absences. Making this distinction is important because different types of absences may be caused by different variables (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Another counterproductive behavior is employee turnover. Employee turnover has long been viewed by organizational psychologist as a behavioral response to negative feelings about one’s job or job situation. Turnover can be distinguished between optimal and dysfunctional turnover. Optimal turnover occurs in professional sports when players on teams in small markets leave because their current team does not have the financial resources to retain their star players (Jex & Britt, 2008). Turnover can be classed as dysfunctional if there is a consistent pattern whereby good employees leave, or if there is an extremely high rate of employee turnover. A consistently high rate of turnover or good employees leaving translates into increased cost associated with having to constantly recruit and train new employees. This can also tarnish the image of an organization replacing a good image with an image of “chewing up and spitting out” employees (Jex & Britt, 2008). An employee that engages in unsafe behavior, such as not following health or safety codes, is another example of counterproductive behavior. Unsafe behavior can lead to increased expenses due to workman’s compensation claims and can also lead to employee absenteeism. Finally, anti-social behavior such as violence, substance abuse, sexual harassment, and theft all have the potential to cause an organization many problems such as law suits, damage to the company’s reputation, and loss of revenue.
Strategies
Organizations need to come up with strategies to increase productive behavior and decrease counterproductive behavior. When an organization keeps employees happy and healthy organizations are taking steps to increase productive behavior. Some of the ways that an organization can increase employee satisfaction is through fair compensation, adequate benefits, employee appreciation programs, and by creating an environment where the employee feels safe.
An employee’s counterproductive behaviors can be decreased by placing employees in positions that match their skill sets. Companies can be proactive in mediating worker conflicts, and by discouraging absenteeism. Counterproductive behaviors such as violence, sexual harassment, substance abuse, and theft are rarer and less predictable. This can be countered through educating employees on the law, implementing a disciplinary policy that prohibits these behaviors and requiring random drug tests are some methods to help keep these types of behaviors under control.
Conclusion
The success of an organization depends on the level of productivity their employees can achieve. As illustrated in this paper productive and counterproductive behaviors have a direct impact on job performance and the overall success of an organization. By organizations developing and using strategies to enhance the productive behaviors of employees companies will improve their chances of attaining an organizations goals.

Reference
Jex, S., & Britt, T. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Productive and Unproductive Behaviors

...Productive And Unproductive Behaviors Alex Solivan ITT Tech Sylmar SP2750 March 27, 2013 Productive and Unproductive Behaviors During our discussions on the Dracula exercise I observed good and bad behaviors. I usually like to be on the back of all discussions and tend to conform to the majority. I know is a bad habit, but is something that hopefully will get better as the class progresses. As for the group, I noticed that there were others that did what I did and just say yes to all of the ideas the on of the members of the group were talking about. Our group had some very effective ways in which we handled the Dracula exercise. From the begging of the exercise, we all knew what our goal was. We were all in the same page. The group understood what the task was and we went and discussed what we thought were our goals. Each member in the group had a chance to make a claim and defend their point of view. No one got angry with anybody and the discussions were civilized. No one got yelled at or made fun of for stating their point. Everybody had an idea on how to kill Dracula and the discussions sometimes ended just being funny. When we couldn’t agree on certain items on the table, we all went around and made a general consensus of what could be the best possible solution. As with any group discussions, not all sides agreed with the order that we decided for the table. As an observer and participant in this group, I did notice that there is always someone that tries or...

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors

...Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors PSY/428 Organizational Psychology October 1, 2012 Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Employee behavior can have either positive or negative effects on job performance or the performance of the organization. This writing will define productive and counterproductive employee behavior, describe the impact of these behaviors on job and organizational performance, and provide several recommendations to increase productive behavior and decrease counterproductive behavior within organizations. Definitions Employees typically exhibit behaviors that contribute to a positive pursuit of the organization’s goals and objectives. Among these positive behaviors are dedication, competency, motivation, and innovation. Sometimes employees can engage in behaviors that contribute to a negative effect on the organization’s goals. Among these behaviors is ineffectiveness, unsafe behavior, and turn over. Very destructive behavior such as sexual harassment, substance abuse, theft, and violence can become very costly to organizations according to Jex and Britt (2009). Productive behaviors also can be linked to ethics within the workplace. With the overreaching implication of ethics, good and right conduct goes beyond the express requirements of rules and laws. Accordingly, the definition can be expanded to mean productive behaviors that place the benefit of the organization above personal benefit. It also includes the dimension that...

Words: 1621 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Counterproductive and Productive Organizational Paper

...Running Head: Counterproductive/Productive Behavior and Organizational Development Veronica Rogers Psy/428 April 10, 2011 Debra Julian Inside an organization employees can contribute affirmatively or adversely with regard to their employing organization’s all in all achievement and performance . The organizations that ream for the most part of productive behaviors from their personnel usually integrate propelling and leadership activities that incite these actions (Jex & Britt, 2008). This paper will explicate counterproductive and productive behaviors and depict the influence those actions have on job performance and all around execution of an organization. Counterproductive Behaviors Rationalization says that workers ought to desire to excel in their jobs. Still regardless this rationale, a number of workers do not. For different grounds workers will at times behave counterproductively regarding their employer’s all in all objectives. Exemplars of these forms of behaviors are ,unproductive job performance, repeated absenteeism from work, precarious behavior, overturn, thievery , aggression, substance abuse, and unwanted sexual advances (Jex & Britt, 2008). These kinds of actions may beget high costs for organizations. Identifying Counterproductive Behavior The good way administration can expose counterproductive behavior amidst the employees is to execute regular performance evaluations and assessments. There are many approaches for executing...

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Leadership

...ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT (WMP13- SECTION-A) TOPIC: NARCISSISM A PERSONALITY DISORDER OR EFFICIENT LEADERSHIP STYLE GROUP MEMBERS: MAHENDRA PRATAP SINGH ABSTRACT: Narcissism- a personality trait encompassing grandiosity, arrogance, self-absorption, entitlement, fragile self-esteem, and hostility- is an attribute of many powerful leaders. Narcissistic leaders have grandiose belief systems and leadership styles, and are generally motivated by their needs for power and admiration rather than empathetic concern for the constituents and institutions they lead. However, narcissists also possess the charisma and grand vision that are vital to effective leadership. We should also critically review the traits of Narcissists Leadership, productive Narcissism, Unproductive Narcissism, it’s pros & cons, behavior of Narcissists leaders in crisis management & organizational recommendations. We can say that no leadership style is pure & have side effects of each other in small proportions among themselves, predominant constituent will be the main style & others will also be in small fractions. So, there is a little bit of narcissism in every individual. Narcissistic Leadership an Assessment Narcissism is a term used to describe a focus on the self and self-admiration that is taken to an extreme. The word "narcissism" comes from a Greek myth in which a handsome young man named Narcissus sees his reflection in a pool of water and falls in love with it. Narcissistic...

Words: 3742 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Psy428

...Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors PSY428 March 26th, 2012 An organization’s productivity and an employee’s job satisfaction level are both determined by the productivity and counterproductive behaviors in the workplace. In order to effectively change counterproductive behaviors or reinforce productive behaviors, leaders must be able to understand and deal with these types of conduct. “After identifying behaviors a company can then evaluate the relationship between job behaviors in relation to job performance”(2011). Defining Productive Behaviors According to "Productive And Counterproductive Behavior" (2011), “Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of the organization.” During an employee’s transition period or “learning curve”, he or she is not a productive member of an organization. At this time, the organization considers the new hire as a liability. The new employee is being remunerated for a job that is not being performed to the performance level an organization would consider productive. Defining Counterproductive Behaviors According to Flaherty and Moss (2007), “Counterproductive work behaviors – that is, acts that employees undertake that are intended to damage the organization or its members…”(p.2550). These behaviors vary from absenteeism, theft, verbal abuse, damage of company property, and even physical assault. These behaviors, add more labor...

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Productive and Counterproductive Behavior

...Running head: Productive and Counterproductive Behavior * * * * * * * * Productive and Counterproductive Behavior * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Introduction * In any working environment, there are many behaviors that influence and contribute to our job performance. Some of this behavior is positive and some may be negative. Both behaviors can impact the success and environment of an organization. I will be analyzing productive and counterproductive behaviors in the work place and explaining the impact they have on employees and businesses. * Definition of Productive Behavior and Counterproductive Behavior * Productive behavior is any behavior that is performed by employees to meet organizational goals and expectations. These behaviors include being efficient with time management, performing all job duties, and ensuring work is completed in a timely manner. Employees that are productive are focused on meeting expectations and perform at their best. Counterproductive behavior is the opposite of productive behavior. Counterproductive behavior is when employees are unproductive with their time at work and not performing their assigned job duties. This behavior is influenced by many different factors that affect the organization in a negative manner. Many unsuccessful businesses are due to employees being counterproductive. * The Impact...

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Union Change

...Northeastern University | Union and civil service reform | Increasing productivity in the public sector | | Lauren Patrick | Professor Marion Mason | POLS7305 34800 Institutional Leadership SEC 01 April 22, 2011 Executive Summary The target audience is the City of Boston labor management commission and the Massachusetts legislature. The current collective bargaining agreement between the City of Boston and AFSCME and the Massachusetts Legislature, Title IV, Chapter 31 creates controlling and overly-bureaucratic policies. These policies outline employee procedures, in particular hiring, disciplining, promoting and evaluation procedures that are outdated and ineffective. Unions protect employees from unfair employment practices, yet some have hurt the overall staff morale and productivity. There is a deep and long standing perception of public employees that they are lazy and incompetent. This is far from the truth, but certain policies regarding hiring, promoting, and disciplinary actions are decreasing employee productivity. To incorporate motivational elements in the public sector and give more discretion to public managers, policies must be changed. When a manager would like to promote an employee, it is a long and drawn out process, that often after much effort is exhibited, the potential promotion falls through. Where the private sector motivates through financial incentives and promotions, the public sector has no tools to promote good...

Words: 5539 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Case Study 1: Manager Who Doubled Productivity

...1. How did Cliff take advantage of principles of operant conditioning to modify his staff’s behavior? Cliff’s took advantage of the principles of operant conditioning to modify his staff’s behavior in a few different rewarding and positive ways. Cliff noticed when he accepted the position of manager, that there was a high turnover rate in the company and employees were “unproductive and insufficient.” Many past employees quit because the prior manager was very negative, and often criticized when work was not done properly. Cliff decided to not criticize or punish his employees unless it was absolutely necessary. Some approaches of operant conditioning Cliff took were complimenting employees often for their hard work. He set goals for them to reach, for example every Friday afternoon he would buy lunch for all staff members that met their goals everyday that week. Cliff also incorporated spot checks on what staff members were accomplishing, and if they were working hard and meeting goals he would reward them with things like, acquiring a few more extra minutes for lunch. 2. Why did Cliff’s predecessor’s strategy of punishing undesirable behavior not work very well? Even if punishment and reinforcement strategies were equally effective at controlling behavior, why would reinforcement remain preferable? The previous managers strategy of punishing undesirable behavior did not work well because the staff felt demoralized and some even quit. When the staff is being constantly...

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Group Motivtion

...Group Motivation Inventory Paper Sinead Groarke PSY/430 Group Motivation Inventory Paper Robin Goins Group Motivation Inventory Paper Goals I have learnt ways to make the business groups feel responsible for its performances is to get all off the entire team involved in the creation of the business objectives. Have planned meetings prior to the next year, and let the team know what the organization is expecting as far as productivities are concerned, then motivation of the team for development of ways for exceeding expectations. One may increase the motivational factors of exceeded expectations by having a paid bonus plan in place for the group if it exceeds the organizations objectives. Clarification An excellent manager knows the abilities and strengths of every business group member. But in order for the group to be motivated and effective, the group members must understand what to expect from every member. The manager must hold meetings every week to review the responsibilities of all group members, to highlight the group’s successes and get input on how to meet the challenges the team is experiences. Individuals Management must always remind the group about the organization’s mission statements and the objectives of the business group in order to keep the group’s focuses on the objectives. But one also should continue to work with all members of the groups to assist them reach their objectives as well. This knowledge affects the way I interact in groups...

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Misuse Company Time

...Question 11: Give an example of behavior that might be unethical even though “everyone is doing it”. Discussions about ethical issues, not to mention attempts to encourage ethical behavior, are constantly derailed by the invocation of common misstatements of ethical principles. Some of these are honest misconceptions, some are intentional distortions, some are self-serving rationalizations, and some, upon examination, simply make no sense at all. The first golden rationalization is “everybody does it”, this is the most common excuse has been used in ethical misconduct. It is based on the flawed assumption that the ethical nature of an act is somehow improved by the number of people who do it, and if "everybody does it," then it is implicitly all right for you to do it as well. One of examples is Inappropriate Computer Use. That is employees use company computers to engage in unethical behavior as using the company computers and resources for personal purposes. For instant, an employee who is not permitted to use the Internet for personal reasons commits an unethical act by shopping online while at work. Random Internet surfing takes away from the time she spends on work-related activities. Also, it takes away the concentration level that should be focus on their jobs. Employees sometimes use company email to spread inappropriate websites or videos to co-workers, some of which could be deemed offensive by the recipients. We have terms used to identify people who Web when...

Words: 360 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Leadership

...the same time how a leader acts can drive a climate to be productive or unproductive. There are factors that will influence the leadership styles of my group partners, and they are as following: • The leader personal background: Personality, values, knowledge, ethics, and experience the leader has. • Staff being supervised: Staff are individuals with different backgrounds and personalities. The leadership style used will depend upon the individual and how he/she will respond best to it. • The organization: Traditions, philosophy, concerns and values of the organization will influence how the leader/manager will act. Some of the ways of understanding my group partners leadership styles, are base in the decision making, the need for control, the willingness to reach goals, the assertiveness (speaking up), the working with others, the contribution, the risk-taking, the reporting, the energy level, the future planning, how to be more productive, developing others, responding to crisis, handling change. Many of these actions are demonstrated in all the of my group members, even knowing that they are two different leadership styles in our group, the director and the problem solver. Trying to understand the director leadership style from two of my group members, shows me that they are fast paced, they take control, they are confident, strong willed, assertive, decisive, productive, they want results, they organized...

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Brussels and Bradshaw

...Brussels and Bradshaw Juan Luis Aquino Grantham University Abstract This case studies the insight into how internships are conducted at Brussels and Bradshaw (B&B). It covered most of the issue discussed up to this point in the class and the text and how it could be done wrong. Although this could be an exceptional case, some of these behaviors are prevalent throughout the business community today. Identifying and finding right solutions is the key in correcting attitudes and behaviors which are detrimental to any organization success Brussels and Bradshaw There is some key organizational behavior issues evident in this case include the way this firm is design or structured. There is a lack of control of employees of the firm, employees’ span of control, and work environment. Brussels & Bradshaw has an immediate problem with the design of the firm. They have a person who is the responsible for reviews, employee placement, and tasks of a human resource employee despite the fact that she does not have the training to do so. Also because of the firm structure she doesn’t have any authority to enforce any change in the way subordinates are treated. In addition, she failed to comply with the tasks that fall within her responsibility, for example, introducing Locke to her mentor, and following up on employee issues. In order to resolve this firm would have to train Richards in the...

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

High Noon at Hp

...High Noon at HP 1.) HP’s board of directors did not fulfill their duties to the shareholders during this period of time. They let personal feelings and egos get in the way of accomplishing things. Board meetings were not as productive as they should have been because of bickering and the fear that something may get leaked out to the media. There were too many CEOs in one room to be productive; everyone wanted to be in charge. 2.) One perspective (Fiorina’s), viewed the role of the board as a way to seek counseling and guidance about the direction the company was headed. The other perspective (Perkins’s) believed that the board should be more involved with the operations of the company and management decisions. He wanted to be able to have an opportunity to control innovation, etc. 3.) Yes, I believe she was treated fairly. The board gave her plenty of chances to do what she wanted to do with the company; they even went through a merger with Compaq. Actually, I feel the board made a mistake of not firing her earlier. She liked to micromanage others by requiring everything to go through her. She should have allowed for her subordinates to be more involved with the functions going internally at HP. 4.) The leak investigations conducted by Dunn were stupid and counterproductive to everything. She should have focused her efforts and attention to getting along with the members of the board and trying to get some real things accomplished that benefit...

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Strategic Change Management

...changes. The following steps and systems were used to involve the stake holders. • Conducted numerous strategic interviews with Bob, Jack and Betty on individual and group level which allowed them to express both personal and professional obstacles which was hindering the process of transition. • Implement unambiguous job description by clarifying roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders. • Developed consistent policies which were both clear and official to be strictly followed by Bob and Jack and further implementing the policies to the entire firm. • Forcing Bob to be more pro-active in giving Jack both macro and micro understanding of the business • Initiating leadership training to Bob enabling him to set limits on Jack’s unproductive approach. • Scheduling specific times for Bob and Jack to interact and revamp their personal relation. • Sitting Jack and Betty down to identify their goals and express the underlying issues. • Impart training to all stakeholders on basic communication and relation building by not using confrontational language and by isolating personal difference from business relation. 3.2 Develop a change management strategy with stakeholders of RDA. (AC 3.2 : Develop a change management strategy with stakeholders of RDA). Each stakeholders had their own personal issues, responsibilities, differences and goals,...

Words: 1477 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Gieco

...ABSENTEEISM AND TARDINESS An employee, who misses work, even part of a day, is expensive for an employer. The company frequently must pay for those unproductive hours—for example, by providing sick pay to an employee who calls in sick. In addition, the other employees may be less productive when they have to cover for someone who is absent or tardy. A recent survey found that absenteeism cost employers an average of $645 per employee in 2003. The company provides sick days for good reasons: to allow employees to rest and recover and to prevent them from infecting the rest of the workforce. Recent research indicates that absenteeism is associated with physical health stressors, including being diagnosed with a heart condition, being diagnosed with a chronic condition, and being hospitalized. It is important to note that psychological health stressors (e.g., depression, anxiety) were not significantly associated with absenteeism. Rather, employees seeking mental health treatment for psychological health stressors were more likely to show up for work even when a sickness absence was justified. In other words, employees seeking mental health treatment were more likely to work under suboptimal conditions. Whatever the cause of absenteeism, problems arise when absences are unexcused or recur with suspicious regularity. In addition, missing work is often a sign of a deeper problem, such as a family, anger about something at work, or plans to leave the organization. People have to realize...

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5