Free Essay

Sample Reports

In: Business and Management

Submitted By guxiangon
Words 3267
Pages 14
Recent Global Trends in the Structure of Industry and the Current Issues Facing Leading International Firms in Fashion Retailing

Recent Global Trends in the Structure of Industry and the Current Issues Facing Leading International Firms in Fashion Retailing


The fashion industry appears to be very dynamic with constant changes in customer attitudes altering the strategies of international firms and thus the structures of industry. The increase in customers concerned with environmentally issues has

been mirrored as stores offer increasing ranges of eco-friendly products. A similar trend has occurred with relation to ethical shoppers. Companies understand the importance of being seen to be an ethical retailer and so many have invested in overseas management to keep track of suppliers. Different companies have chosen different strategies to help them to overcome current issues in international markets. For instance, Zara has progressed via forward integration, whereas H&M contract work out to suppliers. One strategy that all leading firms have adopted is the use of company websites. They are used to promote online shopping which has increased dramatically recently and it believed to continue increasing for some time. The elimination of quantitative import restrictions in 2004 must also be highlighted since it altered the way some company’s trade. It also allowed developing countries to extend into other branches of the fashion chain other than production. A further apparent trend would be the decrease in expenditure. This is thought to be the result of the current financial state which is causing customers to restrict their spending. The availability of cheap fashionable clothing from discount stores such as Primark may also be to blame for this decrease.

This report deals with ‘mass’ fashion and does not deal with the top end of the market.


1. Introduction 2. The Fashion Industry as a Chain 3. Recent Global Trends 3.1 Environmental and Ethical Issues 3.2 Expenditure Patterns 3.3 Online Shopping 3.4 Elimination of Quantitative Import Restrictions 4. Leading International Companies and Their Current Issues and Strategies 4.1 Marks and Spencer (M&S) 4.2 H&M 4.3 Zara 5. Conclusions 6. References

1 1 3 3 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 10

1. INTRODUCTION It is essential that fashion retailers remain flexible to meet the demands from their customers. From ensuring they always have the most update styles, to revising their company strategies to fit in with new attitudes, change is an essential part of business in the fashion industry. Competition in this sector is extremely fierce as large internationally chains battle for customer loyalty. However, although customers play a huge role in the structure of industry the drive companies have to increase profits also results in changes in the structure.

2. The Fashion Industry as a Chain Traditionally retailers would have had to place their orders with supplier’s months ahead of season and 9 months was a standard lead time. This delay was not due to production or even shipping across countries, but lay with the process involved with documentation. This included procedures such as quota approvals and letters of credit for overseas suppliers. (Birtwistle & Moore, 2004)

Now with modern logistics customers expect instant product availability. The development of computer systems have replaced paper work and speeded up the process to make the transition from production through to retail much more efficient.

One change which has occurred in the fashion chain is the location of the production stage. Production has moved abroad to take advantage of the low wages overseas. Both M&S and Next ‘have boosted margins by moving abroad’. (Financial Times, 12th July 2008) However, with wages on the increase in many developing countries, companies are seeking to move once more. For example some companies are moving ‘Into parts of China that are not experiencing the same levels of wage inflation’. (Financial Times, 12th July 2008)


The flow chart below illustrates the chain which describes the current fashion industry.

Design Research

•The company must conduct research into current fashions to ensure the products they design fit in with trends that the customers will want to buy.


•Designing a product that is suitable for the desired market and relates to current trends. Other important factors will include price of fabric and components, ability to produce in mass and how long it will take to produce the garment.

Sourcing of •Finding the relevant materials at a suitable price and location. raw materials

•Producing garments to design specifications.

Exporting of finished goods

•To the countries in which they will be sold.

•To specific retailers/ branches.

Marketing/ Advertising

•To attract customers and also to make use of any brand names the company may have to make the products more likely to sell.


•The actual selling of the garments to the customer. •The service here is essential as it portrays the companies values to the customer.

•The end of the chain.



3.1 ENIVONMENTAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES The public are becoming increasingly aware of their impact on the environment which is why so many stores now offer eco-friendly options. For example, M&S have launched their ‘eco- plan’ A. This is a 5 year plan to reduce the stores impact on the environment. The plan includes: (Marks & Spencer updates on progress of its ‘eco-plan’, Plan A [online], 2008)  Their ‘Wash at 30˚’ campaign, which to date has helped save 50,000 tonnes of 2 a year.  M&S Oxfam clothing exchange, which raised £1 million for the charity.

Increased use of fair-trade cotton, which has increased fair-trade cotton sales by 105%.

Charging for carrier bags, which has reduced usage by 80%.

Opening a store in Shanghai with particular emphasis on this plan. The store is fitted with environmentally friendly wall panelling, water saving toilets and energy efficient light bulbs.

These changes help to present a good corporate image, which may influence a customer’s choice of where to shop. However, the majority of leading companies in fashion retailing are multi-national companies, meaning they operate in a number of different countries across the world. Therefore, differences in opinions may be present in different areas of the world, depending on culture and social influences. The graph on the next page illustrates this diversity in views (TNS, 2008):


% of Customers that would seek out ecofriendly options

% of Consumers who would seek out environmentally friendly options
100 80 60 40 20 0 UK Italy Country Spain Germany

Figure1- Graph to show how the importance of the environment differs across countries. (Drawn based on information from TNS Global)

The graph illustrates how Italy is the most environmentally aware of the four countries. The vast difference in attitudes mean companies may have to present different lines in different countries. For example, lines featuring organic cotton may be more likely to succeed in Italy. Ethical issues are also becoming increasingly more important to consumers. With most companies contracting out work to suppliers for production it becomes difficult to maintain control. Pressure to exploit low cost labour has arisen as suppliers aim to cut costs in order to secure contracts with leading firms. A recent issue has been exposed relating to ethical issues at Primark. The BBC aired a Panorama documentary ‘Primark on the rack’ relating to an under-cover investigation which was carried out to explore the working conditions of Primark’s employees overseas. Sarah Arnott reported how the documentary caused demonstrations outside Primark’s London branch and how the programme seriously damaged Primark’s image. Primark’s reaction to Panorama’s findings was to axe 3 of its South Indian suppliers for ‘subcontracting the embroidery work to groups using child labour’, claiming they had ‘no option but to drop those factories’. War on Want, the charity


behind the protest, felt that Primark's response was ‘just a public relations stunt’. (Arnott, 2008) Primark clearly understand how important an ethical business approach is to their company image as they joined the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) in May 2006. Primark claims the reason for their success is straightforward. They create simple designs in popular sizes and do not run expensive advertising campaigns. They also work in close partnership with their suppliers and take advantage of economies of scale. Economies of scale relates to the relationship between quantity and cost of goods. Which means that by purchasing in bulk costs can be reduced. (Primark: Ethical Strategy [online], 2008)

3.2 EXPENDITURE PATTERNS Figure 2 shows how expenditure has decreased from February to July 2008. This is likely to be due to the current financial crisis. The increase in unemployment numbers and the decrease in house prices has resulted in people being more careful with their money, so it is not surprising that sales have decreased.

Graph to Illustrate the Decline in Expenditure in Fashion Retailing
16.5 16 Expenditure (£bn) 15.5 15 14.5 14 13.5 13 Feb-08 Mar-08 Apr-08 May-08 Month Jun-08 Jul-08

Figure2- Graph showing the change in expenditure pattern over a 6 month period in 2008. Adapted from (TNS Sales Data [online], 2008)


3.3 ONLINE SHOPPING Many more people shop online now, making it even more important for stores to offer the option to shop online. Visits to online stores have increased by ‘2.2 per cent year-on-year in March, while high street foot traffic fell 2.7 per cent’. (Experian Footfall citied in Financial Times 2008). Mintel expect that online shopping in the UK and France will triple in the next 4 years. Whilst the growth in Germany may be slower as the use of computers is less. (Financial Times, 2nd April 2008) Possible reasons for this increase:     More trust in websites. Broadband makes it quicker to shop online. Many stores now offer online discounts. People have busier careers so find it more convenient to shop from their computer.


The elimination of the quantitative import restrictions under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) at the end of 2004 altered the chain involved in the fashion industry. Prior to the elimination of this regulation, if export quotas for a country reached their maximum (e.g. Hong Kong) then clothing assembly would be subcontracted out to developing countries with spare export quota remaining. This often included countries such as Bangladesh that had a poorly educated, low wage, labour force. (OECD, 2004)

The restrictions that were in place discouraged developing countries from creating their own competitive textile industry. However, the removal of such restrictions opened the opportunity for developing countries to expand across the chain. Despite this opportunity many developing countries would have faced problems with lack of knowledge in design, marketing, retail and finance. (OECD, 2004)


The major change to have resulted from the abolition is that imports from China have increased significantly. This has created a great amount of competition for countries in the European Union and the America and is becoming a cause for concern as it is having ‘damaging effects on the other countries development efforts’. (Financial Times, 29th August 2005)

4. LEADING INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR CURRENT ISSUES AND STRATEGIES 4.1 M&S Marks and Spencer has 912 stores globally which includes 622 UK stores and is recognised internationally for its quality clothing. (M&S: Press

Releases[online], 2008). However, despite M&S being a well known brand for decades the company has hit problems recently. The Financial Times reported how the company’s pre-tax profits in the 6 months to September 27th fell by a third this year ,with a 6% decrease in likefor-like sales in clothing and home ware. Conversely, figures for famous discount store Primark report a 4% increase in the year to September 13 th 2008. With M&S focusing on the entire spectrum of customers and aiming to produce quality clothing at an affordable price the company should be ‘recession-resistant’. (Financial Times, 5th November 2008) This information suggests that customers are turning to cheaper stores to help their money stretch further.

M&S pride themselves on the fact that they have never needed to run advertising campaigns to bring in customers. However, with their recent financial reports M&S have no choice but to accept that times are changing. They are faced with an ageing customer basis and their prices are no match for stores such as Primark. M&S have taken action to ensure their position does not deteriorate further. This has included closing stores, cutting staff and attempting to improve their designs. (Tungate, 2005) .M&S’s strategy has


also been to reassure its investors on their dividends which has ‘helped the shares outperform in recent weeks’. (Financial Times, 5th November 2008)

4.2 H&M

The Swedish company H&M opened its first store in 1947 and now have 1,000 stores spread across 20 countries. Now sales outside Sweden account for 90% of their annual turnover. (Tungate, 2005)

Jörgen Andersson the marketing director of H&M believes their success has come from their idea that everyone should have equal choice, and that being able to afford designer fashion doesn’t necessarily mean you have style. He commented that their strategy is ‘not just a business idea, it’s a political one’ (Andersson citied in Tungate 2005). The company grew up with a Social Democrat government and so believe their strategy is part of their heritage. (Tungate, 2005)

The company, which sells over 600 million items a year, feel they owe their success to 3 essential factors ‘inventive design, the best quality at the best price, and efficient logistics.’ (Tungate, 2005) Other important factors include design which they stress the importance of individuality in. They believe they do not replicate designs from fashion shows; instead their team of 100 designers travel to absorb new ideas. They select key trends from exhibitions, films, magazines and trade fairs. (Tungate, 2005). Andersson adds ‘We don’t dictate style. Our style is whatever our customers demand’. (Andersson citied in Tungate 2005)

H&M do not actually own any factories for production. The company prefer to have suppliers make their garments and instead have a code of conduct for them to sign. Additionally H&M have computerised stock management to ensure new items arrive in store every day. Both of these management techniques help H&M to maintain control throughout the chain. (Tungate, 2005)

4.3 ZARA Zara, Inditex’s parent company, opened its first store in 1975 in Spain. And the group now boast 4,000 stores across 71 countries (Inditex:Timeline [online], 2008). The group believe they have expanded so rapidly due to the use of ‘innovative management and logistics techniques’. (The Guardian, 12th August 2008) Inditex’s strategy has been to build up a brand name in a location before branching out with different names. This has allowed the group to return greater profits as they take advantage of economies of scale. Zara have also spent very little on advertising, unlike their Swedish rival H&M, preferring to use their stores which are ‘purpose-built to look like fashion boutiques’ to attract customers. (The Guardian, 12th August 2008)

Another key difference in the strategy of Zara, compared with H&M and other high-street chains, is that 50% of the clothing is made in their own factories in Spain located close to its headquarters (Tungate, 2005). This helps them to maintain control over production, which gives them an advantage as they can easily alter their supply quantities to meet the demands of the customer. This is a good example of forward integration as the company has branched into production. This allows Zara to utilize economies of scope during production as all of their products require similar assembly processes.


The constant demand for new lines means that the fashion industry never has chance to stand still. Customers expect instant availability as soon as a trend becomes apparent so companies have to get the finished product in stores as soon as possible. This is where modern logistics and strong management across the chain become essential.

As production moves abroad to take advantage of cheaper labour ethical issues are becoming increasingly more important. Companies must ensure that all the workers are being treated ethically including a fair wage, good working conditions and reasonable working hours.

Environmentally concerns are also becoming more apparent. Recently more customers are seeking environmentally friendly options and this is reflected in the increase in eco ranges in stores.

Although expenditure has decreased in recent months due to the current financial crisis, there has been an increase in online shopping. There are many reasons for this, including changes in lifestyles which mean people find it more convenient to shop from their computers.

The changes made to regulations in 2004 also affected the structure of industry, as for the first time developing countries can seek a competitive industry in fashion for themselves instead of just manufacturing the products for the developed world.

Arnott, S. (2008, June 23). Primark faces demonstration after child labour TV exposé [online]. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from Birtwistle, G., & Moore, C. M. (2004). Fashion retailing [electronic book]. part 1. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publishing. Financial Times. (12th July 2008). Financial Times. (29th August 2005). Financial Times. (2nd April 2008). Financial Times. (5th November 2008). Inditex:Timeline [online]. (2008). Retrieved November 16, 2008, from


M&S: Press Releases[online]. (2008, October 2). Retrieved November 11, 2008, from Marks & Spencer updates on progress of its ‘eco-plan’, Plan A [online]. (2008, November 4). Retrieved November 6, 2008, from er OECD. (2004, October). OECD: A New World Map [online]. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from Primark: Ethical Strategy [online]. (2008). Retrieved November 1, 2008, from The Guardian. (12th August 2008). TNS. (2008, October 20). British consumers least willing to pay extra for green. Retrieved 11 1, 2008, from TNS Sales Data [online]. (2008). Retrieved October 20, 2008, from Tungate, M. (2005). Fashion Brands: Branding Style from Armani to Zara. Kogan Page Limited.


Marker’s comments Mid- 2.1 Structure, style and presentation: A good structure but I did wonder whether the section on the 3 firms made for more description than analysis. Excellent diagram to show how the fashion chain is structured. Bibliography and references well done. Depth of understanding: Generally good especially on the broad concerns that are affecting the industry and on the end of the MFA. Becomes a bit UKfocused and pins too much on short-term figures rather than medium-term trends. Balance between description and critical analysis: Generally analytical in approach but the section on the 3 retailed becomes descriptive: what are the lessons that come out of this? Answers (possibly) – need for clearer strategy aimed at particular market segments, logistics and IT, branding. Descriptive material has to be used. Quality of research and use of sources: Generally good research but no academic articles. If you’re focusing on particular firms, look for academic articles on then using Google Scholar or journal databases as these will help top deepen the analysis.


Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sample Report

...BLUE BOOK SERVICES 845 E. GENEVA ROAD CAROL STREAM, IL 60188 Phone 630 668-3500 FAX 630 668-0303 Email Web Site BLUE BOOK SERVICES Business Report on Santos Produce of America, Inc. *SAMPLE* Information available through 7/01/2014 © Blue Book Services, Inc. This COMPLETE BUSINESS REPORT is provided to the subscriber under the terms of the Membership Agreement and is IN CONFIDENCE, for the subscriber’s exclusive use, without recourse and without guarantee of correctness. Trade experience information may include disputed items, skipped invoices or other extenuating circumstances. This SAMPLE Business Report mimics the Blue Book Business Report. The Guest Reports show a sub-set of this report depending upon the level of report purchased (Blue Book Scores and Equifax information are available only to Members). BB #987654 Santos Produce of America, Inc. P.O. Box 12345 Laredo, TX 78041 USA 2876 Waterfall Dr. Dallas, TX 75201 Phone: 956 555-9878 Fax: 956 555-1619 Credit Snapshot: Current HQ Rating: Current Blue Book Score: Last Financial Statement Date: Net Worth: Avg Integrity/Ability (‘X’) Reports: (past 6 months) 2500M XXXX A 868 12/31/2013 $8,670,144 3.99 (Industry Avg: 3.43) (scale: 1=poor, 4=excellent) Business Snapshot: Incorporation Date: Incorporated In: PACA License Number: March 6, 1986 Texas 123456 Business Ownership: Richard L.......

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Sample Report

...------------------------------------------------- Sample report Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems Assignment 1 - Topic: scanners Date:  Student name:  Student number:  Tutor name:  Tutorial time: Abstract This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. Table of contents | Abstract | i | 1.0 | Introduction | 1 | 2.0 | How scanners work | 2 | 3.0 | Types of scanners | 2 | | 3.1 | Drum scanners | 2 | | 3.2 | Flatbed scanners | 2 | | 3.3 | Sheet-fed scanners | 2 | | 3.4 | Slide scanners | 3 | | 3.5 | Hand held scanners | 3 | 4.0 | Scanner specifications | 3 | | 4.1 | Resolution | 3 | | 4.2 | Bit-depth | 4 | | 4.3 | Dynamic......

Words: 2638 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Sample Report

...A survey was conducted amongst ______ students to get their insights on smoking and also their personal experiences with it. We divided the questionnaire for smokers and non-smokers. We managed to get a total of 50 participants in which 60% were non-smokers and 40% were smokers. The questions regarding smoking facts were answered by both sides. Both smokers and non-smokers seem to have just a slight understanding on what smoking really does to the body and to those around them. Based on the findings, we recommend that students be exposed to the real dangers of smoking. We suggest exhibitions, competitions, talks or maybe even a health class. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS-----------------------------------------------------vi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-------------------------------------------------------vii I. INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------1 Background Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Scope II. RELATED LITERATURE-------------------------------------------- III. PROCEDURES--------------------------------------------------------- IV. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS---------------------------------------- V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS----------------- REFERENCES LIST------------------------------------------------------------- APPENDIX—SURVEY INSTRUMENT------------------------------------ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TABLES 1. EFFECTS THAT ARE CAUSED BY......

Words: 6513 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Sample Report

...Contents “COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INPUBLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS” 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 2 Customer satisfaction 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3 MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY 4 Introduction: 4 BANKING INDUSTRY : AN OVERVIEW 6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 6 Research Methodology 7 DATA ANALYSIS 7 FINDINGS 8 RECOMMENDATIONS 8 Limitation of the Study 9 Questionnaire 9 “COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INPUBLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The working of the customer's mind is a mystery which is difficult to solve andunderstanding the nuances of what customer satisfaction is, a challenging task. Thisexercise in the context of the banking industry will give us an insight into the parametersof customer satisfaction and their measurement. In the organised segment, bankingsystem occupies an important place in nation’s economy. It plays a pivotal role in theeconomic development of a country and forms the core of the money market in anadvanced country. The commercial banks in India comprise of both Public sector as wellas private sector banks. There are total 28 Public sector and 27 private sector banks arefunctioning in the country presently. Banks have to deal with many customers everydayand render various types of services to its customer.It's a well known fact that no businesscan exist without customers.  Not so long ago, accessing our own money was about setting......

Words: 6523 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Report Sample

...REPORT ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROSPECTS OF MANUFACTURING AIR & OIL FILTERS IN BANGLADESH REPORT ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROSPECTS OF MANUFACTURING AIR & OIL FILTERS IN BANGLADESH Prepared for Dr. Syed Ferhat Anwar Professor Course Instructor Marketing Research Prepared by Group #1, MBA 39th batch Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman Roll #16 Mohammad Khaled Shams Roll #22 Md. Shahriar Ferdous Roll #51 Hasina Marium Roll #63 Laila Akther Roll #77 Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka November 20, 2006 5th of April, 2011 abcd Faculty School of Business Presidency University 11-A, Road#92, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212. Subject:   Submission of report. Dear miss, Here is the report titled ‘introduce a new sea food restaurant in Bangladesh ‘which is due on 05.04.2011 as a requirement for completing the course on Business Communication (BUS-221). We have enjoyed preparing the project. In preparing this project, we have tried our level best to include all the relevant information. We have gathered all this assignment’s information and materials from various books, newspaper and survey. We try to work company’s all side, how it can reach their maximum goal. We would also express our heartfelt gratitude to you for your proper advice, guidance, and suggestion during the preparing this assignment. If you consider our mistakes as pardonable, we will be very pleased and it will......

Words: 1041 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sample Report

...Evaluative Criteria: Candidates for equipment options will be evaluated using the following criteria:  Cost  Customization and Adaptability Options  Required Level of Operator Assistance  Durability  Lead Time / Availability  Skier’s Physical Abilities  Performance Quality  Safety Features The purpose of this Proposal is to seek your approval of the research project on the topic you have requested. In the following pages we will explore in greater detail your reasons for the study, the methods and schedule to be used,my qualifications as the preparer of this proposal, and a proposed budget for the study. Project Procedures Significance of Problem You have been participating in the adaptive skiing program through Outdoors For All since January, 2008. During that time you have utilized the equipment provided by Outdoors For All, namely consisting of the Bi-Unique model of bi-ski and a pair of outrigger skis that are attached to each of your arms. As the equipment provided by Outdoors For All is utilized by several different skiers with different needs, abilities, and physical characteristics, individual users are often required to make compromises in order to use the equipment. You have expressed frustration at the amount of setup time required to re-adapt the equipment each week to fit you and your specific abilities. This includes  Readjustment of the skis fore-aft position  Readjustment of safety straps in the seating system and the leg retention......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sample of Wine Report

...WWW.EUROMONITOR.COM SAMPLE REPORT FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY LIST OF CONTENTS AND TABLES Wine in Venezuela - Category analysis .......................................................................................... 1 Headlines ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Trends ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Production, Imports and Exports................................................................................................. 3 Competitive Landscape .................................................................................................................. 3 Prospects ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Category Data ................................................................................................................................. 5 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28 Table 29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 Sales of Wine by Category: Total Volume 2006-2011 .................................. 5 Sales of Wine by Category: Total Value 2006-2011 .....

Words: 12635 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Sample Written Report

...Claro M. Recto Information and Communication Technology High School Doña Aurora St., Claro M. Recto, Angeles City Telephone #(045) 887 5502 E-mail Add: Website: Name: Year and Section: Topic: Objectives: 1. Trace the development of the Modern Periodic Table of Elements; 2. Describe the contributions of early scientists in the development of the Periodic Table of Elements; and 3. Analyze the basis of arrangement of elements in the Modern Periodic Table. Introduction: The periodic table is a table in which all of the known elements are listed. The table arranges the elements in order of increasing proton number to show the similarities of chemical elements. Therefore elements with structural similarities & atomic number are placed together. These elements can be placed into two different categories, metals & non-metals. The early years of the 19th century witnessed a rapid development in chemistry. The art of distinguishing similarities and differences among atoms prompted scientists to devise a way of arranging the elements. Relationships were discerned more readily among the compounds than among the elements; thus, the classification of elements lagged many years behind the classification of compounds. Development of the Periodic Table It was in 1817 when Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner showed that the atomic weight of strontium lies midway between those of......

Words: 1105 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Defendant Report Sample

...Defendant CECIL ALLEN SANDERS came in to see the Judge in regards to a final notice letter defendant had received in the mail. I explained to defendant that his license was currently suspended and defendant got upset because in the final notice letter it did not stated that. While I was trying to explain to defendant where it stated and what the letter stated then defendant interrupted and he did not want to hear it. Then, I advised him that I was going to check with the Judge, if Judge was available to see him because open court was over. Defendant called be “Bubba” and defendant stated to me “You do whatever it’s up your skirt” and I replied “excuse me: and he said it again “Yes, You do whatever it’s up your skirt.”I was shocked because...

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Inspection Report - Sample

...The following report provides a brief description of the first five (5) wild things encountered during the exploration of the island currently identified as WTWTA. The five wild things have been labeled as • Long-Nosed Sea Monitor (Foundem inwaterus) • Horned Lion (Leo decapitatum) • Razor-Toothed Sheep (Ovinus noshaggum) • Bearded Behemoth (Needus clippingem) • Ginger-tressed Hairy Duck (Canardus hirsutus) The current labels are used for cataloguing purposes in order to make note-taking easier. Long-Nosed Sea Monitor (Foundem inwaterus) This ocean-dwelling creature seems to keep at least a third of its body above the waterline. Two horns protrude from a head that is covered in blonde hair. The mouth, lined with nine incisors along the upper jaw, resembles that of an alligator, giving this wild thing the appearance of having a long nose. There are six spines along the back of the neck and three claws on each of the visible front feet. The top of a wing-like structure covers the top of the front feet. Attempts to observe the rest of the body have so far been unsuccessful. Horned Lion (Leo decapitatum) This quadruped seems to lead the wild things and is almost double the size of the smallest wild thing: the razor-toothed sheep. A total of sixteen claws are evenly spread across this creature’s four feet. The body and head resemble that of its namesake, the lion. The difference, however, lies in the three horns that adorn the head. Two are......

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Shoplifting Report Sample beeping sound, which indicated one of the subjects possibly had unpurchased items with them. Vallejo said she confronted Williams and the female, and told them to walk back into the store. Vallejo said the female walked back through the sensor gates and they did not make any noise. Vallejo said Williams walked through the gates and they beeped again. Vallejo said Williams told her he did not have anything in his bag, but she told him the sensors would not got off if he did not have anything. Vallejo said Williams opened an Express bag he had with him and pulled out a pair of blue Harold 9 shorts. Vallejo said Williams offered to pay for the shorts, but she told him it was too late. Vallejo said they called mall security and 911 to report the incident. Vallejo said the female left without identifying...

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pyc3704 Assignment 1

...Assignment One: Data Sheet 1 Kimmy Givins NorthCentral University Dr. Boysen-Rotelli 08/10/2014 Date File 1 Chapter One 1) Determine whether the evaluated group is a population or a sample. a) Based on a randomly selected group of 500 patients with high cholesterol, it was found that 67% have heart disease. Is this a population or a sample; explain your answer. Sample is made up of of the raw data collected from 500 patients which is the sample and 67% is the sample statistics. Bennett, Briggis, & Triola (2009) the raw data is collected from a subnet of patient with high cholesterol (p.3). Which indicate this as a sample from the raw data and sample statistics. b) An investigation of 150 randomly selected local restaurants concluded that 42% of local...

Words: 1907 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Research Review

...Research Review Marketing Research-"the function that links the consumers, customers, and public to the marketer through information — information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Observation research-is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting Convenience sample- is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. Probability/nonprobability-Probability sampling, or random sampling, is a sampling technique in which the probability of getting any particular sample may be calculated. Nonprobability sampling does not meet this criterion and should be used with caution. Nonprobability sampling techniques cannot be used to infer from the sample to the general population MIS- Interis a general term for the computer systems in an enterprise that provide information about its business. vs. Intranet- An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization Primary Research- consists of a collection of original primary data Secondary Research- Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Business Research

...” 2015). Quantitative research “is about asking people for their opinions in a structured way so that you can produce hard facts and statistics to guide you. To get reliable statistical results, it’s important to survey people in fairly large numbers and to make sure they are a representative sample of your target market.” ("What Is Quantitative Research?” 2015). There also are descriptive and statistical approach’s in this paper that will help with understand what is best for you business research. When constructing a business research there are several sampling methods that can be used. Some sampling methods would be simple random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling and quota sampling and etc. The article I chose to do is called Qualitative and quantitative methods for sampling zooplankton in shallow coastal estuaries. “Many different devices are used for sampling zooplankton. Every sampler has its advantages and limitations in terms of sampling ease and efficiency, which is why hydro biologists search for devices that could increase sampling efficiency and decrease human effort (Nunez et al. 2008).” In this article they used the plankton net sampling method and it is used to sample the lake or pond.” These sampling methods all have their strengths and weakness and to choose...

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Self report activity Suggest an appropriate null hypothesis for this study. (4marks) There will be no difference male and female beliefs about their driving skills. 2) Describe and evaluate a suitable procedure for this study (10 marks) My target population will be teachers at Lagan College. My sample would be 10 males and 10 females that are drivers. I would use self selected sampling to gather my participants, this would mean only people who can drive would come forward as they know what the study consists of. An advantage of this sampling method is that it is usually quick and easy to get the subjects needed. In order to tell the teachers about the study I would hold a staff meeting about it and also place posters around the school eg: the teaches staff room. The independent variable for this study is the number of men and women chosen. The dependant variable is how they think of their driving. Are you a good driver? Yes or no How good a driver would you say you are on a scale of 1-5? (1=very good and 5=not good at all) 2. 3. 4. 5 The advantage of using an open question would be it gives the participants the opportunity to state if they think they are good drivers and also give a reason why. Feelings and emotions can also be described. Men will report on the rating scale that they think they are very good at driving. The advantage of using a rating scale is that it provides details about pps feelings but in the form of quantitative data, so that......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2