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Semantic Analysis on Philippine Movie Advertisements of Star Cinema

In: English and Literature

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This study entitled "Register Analysis on Philippine Movie Advertisements of Star Cinema" was conducted to have the following goals: first, to characterize linguistic factors such as diction and language variety and second, to characterize non-linguistic factors such as types of movies.
This research is expected to be beneficial for the students, the advertisers and the other researchers. It shows a specific example of register namely the register on Philippines movie advertisement. This can be used as an additional reference for studying language and creating advertisements text that is considered to be efficient and effective for attracting and encouraging readers to make use of the company with its products and services. Moreover, the results of this research also can be hopefully used as a reference for those who are interested in analyzing language variety, especially the one in movie advertisement.
Communication also happens in the business and industry. The most common form of communication in business and industry is between the manufacturers and the consumers. In business, someone will do everything to get the maximum profit and the success of his/her company. One of their effects is through advertisement. It represents pictures of life in daily life. Advertisements are identified as the texts that do their best to get people‟s attentions to make them turn toward them (Goddard, 1998: 6). The purposes of advertisements are to influence and motivate the public to buy and use the products or services or to follow the ideas. The advertisers spread the information of their products by using appropriate and effective language. By using appropriate and effective language, the customers will get impression of the product offered then they will decide to buy them. Movie advertisement is the kind of advertisement to promote the movie itself. The advertiser wants to give the information of certain movie and try to attract the readers to watch the movie. Therefore, he or she uses interesting and attractive languages.
Language is an important media in communication. It is impossible to conduct social cooperation and communication without language. Language makes people understand each other. That is the reason why language and society should be studied together in the field of sociolinguistics. According to Holmes (1992), particularly, sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society. They are interested in explaining why people speak differently in different social contexts, and they are concerned with identifying the social functions of language and the ways it is used to convey social meaning (1992: 1). Meanwhile, Finegan & Biber say that the term sociolinguistics draws a distinction between the sociology of language,’with a focus on sociological matters, and sociolinguistics,’ with a focus on language (1994: 3).
Language plays an important role in the daily life of human beings. Hence, it is commonly understood that language exists in a society. They are interdependent. In other words, the language needs the society where it exists, and the society needs the language in their daily life.
Hartman and Stork (in Alwasilah, 1985: 63) states that register is a variety of language for specific purposes, as opposed to a social or regional dialect (which varies by the speaker). Register may be more narrowly defined by reference to subject matter (Field of Discourse, e.g. the jargon of fishing, gambling, etc), to medium (Mode of Discourse, e.g. printed material, written letter, message on tape etc), or to level of formality (Manner of Discourse, e.g. formal, casual, intimate, etc).
Trudgill (1974) defines that register is a language variety that is shaped by the work environment.
“Occupational linguistic varieties of that sort have been register, and likely to occur in any situation involving members of particular profession or occupation.”(1974: 104).
This view is supported by Wardaugh (1992):
“Register is another complicating factor in any study of language varieties. Registers are sets of vocabulary items associated with discrete occupational or social group.”(1992: 49).
Meanwhile, Chaika (1994: 42) argues, “A style may be associated with a particular social occasion. Then it is called register or functional variety of speech.” Moreover, Finegan & Biber view register in the sociolinguistic perspective. They state that if sociolinguistics is a wide-ranging term, register is equally tough to corral. Broadly conceived, a register is a language variety viewed with respect to its context of use (Finegar & Biber, 1994: 4). Besides, they also argue that register entails text and implies a relationship between text and context (ibid: 7).
The register study has four specific characteristics as what has been stated by Atkinson and Biber (ibid: 352). The characteristics are:

1) Register studies involve descriptive analysis of actually occurring discourse. 2.) Register studies aim to characterize language varieties. 3) Register studies present formal linguistic characterizations of language varieties 4) Register studies also analyze the situational characteristics of language varieties, and functional or conventional relationships between form and situation are posited.
From the definitions above, we may conclude that sociolinguistic views of each register are different from the others. The difference can be analyzed from different points of view.
Further, Halliday and Hasan (1985) propose three aspects that make register different from each other. The three aspects are field, tenor, and mode. They say that register is a configuration of meaning that is typically associated with a particular situational configuration of field, tenor and mode. Moreover, registers may be narrowly defined by reference to subject matter (Field of Discourse), to medium (Mode of Discourse), or to level of formality (Manner of Discourse) (Hartmann & Stork, in Alwasilah, 1985: 63). Then, Alwasilah, makes the register diagram based on that opinion.
Language is used by human beings in their daily life as a means of communication. In communicating process, someone will choose certain words.
One word is arranged together with the other words to make the perfect utterance. Moreover, someone who is rich on wording, he or she will be able to choose the proper words to express his or her ideas.
According to Keraf (2004: 24), choice of words or diction is the ability to differentiate the meaning of ideas and to find out word which is proper with the situation, condition and feeling of the hearer. Meanwhile, in, it states that diction, in its original, primary meaning, refers to the writer's or the speaker's distinctive vocabulary choices and style of expression. Diction has multiple concerns; register — words being either formal or informal in social context — is foremost ( In advertisement, the advertiser should know the consumers well. It means he or she knows for whom the advertisement is dedicated. Therefore, the diction plays important role in advertisement to attract the consumers since the purpose of advertisement is to influence the consumers to use or buy the product (Sudiana, 1986: 12)
Stylistic and Style 1.1 Stylistic
The term of style is different from stylistic. In analyzing the language style, it requires a particular approach called as stylistic. Stylistic is the study of the use of language style. In Kamus Linguistik, Kridalaksana states that the term stylistic means (1) Study of language used in literature, interdisciplinary science between linguistic and literature (2) Linguistic application on language style in literature (2001: 202). Meanwhile, Turner (in Lyons, 1981) states, ―Stylistics is the part of linguistics which concentrates on variation in the use of language often, but not exclusively, with a special attention to the most conscious and complex uses of language in literature‖ (1977: 614). Further, he argues “Stylistics means the study of style with suggestion from the form of the word, of a scientific or at least a methodical study.” (1977: 615)
From the definitions above, stylistics does not only mean of the study of language style in literature but also style in linguistic. The conclusion is in line with what has been written in, ‘Stylistic is the study of varieties of language whose properties position that language in context. For example, the language of advertising, politics, religion, individual authors, etc‘. (http//
1.2 Style Style is a kind of language varieties. Keraf (2004: 113) explains that style or language style is considered as the way to show the mind through particular language which expresses soul and character. Moreover, he classifies style into several ways, such as:
a) Style based on diction; formal, informal and conversational (2004: 117)
b) Style based on intonation; high, middle, and low (ibid: 121)
c) Style based on sentence structure: climax, anti-climax, parallelism, antithesis, and repetition (ibid: 124)
d) Style based on direct and indirect meaning: rhetorical and figurative (ibid:
In addition, Soepomo (in Chaer and Agustina, 2004: 71) classifies language style into three parts; rhetorical, formal and informal. Rhetorical is used for rhetoric circumstances which have high aesthetics. Meanwhile, formal and informal is related to situation where the language is used.
Formal language is standardization of sentence structure and diction (2004: 72). However, in many advertisements, formal language aims at respecting and appreciating the consumers. Meanwhile, informal language is often applied in casual situation. Its character is usually marked by the appearance of contraction sentences to make intimate and closer situation to hearer.
In general, the term advertisement is defined as the structured and composed non personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services & ideas) by identified sponsors through various media (Arens 2002: 7). Meanwhile, Dunn (1978: 58) states that advertisement is any paid, non personal communication through various media by firms, non profit organization and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertisement message and who hope to inform or persuade member particular audience The message can be audio as in radio advertisement, visual as in television advertisement or cinema advertisement.
Another words, we can say that advertisement is an art of sending special information messages to public with a possible minimum price (ibid).
From the definition above, it can be concluded that advertisement is one of mass communication means to be used for presentation and promotion of ideas, products and services by an identified sponsors or company through impersonal media. It is not only to inform a product or services but also to persuade and to convince the society. The use of word ‗art‘ above implies that advertisement is not a solely a process of sending art in creating the advertisement in order to be more interesting and attractive.
Kasali (1992) states that in general, advertisement has the aims to change prospective consumers to be loyal consumers for a certain period of time or to develop positive attitude of the prospective consumers, so that they become loyal consumers in the future. Therefore, it is very important for the advertisers to know why people read advertisement and how to create an attractive advertisement.
Film is one of means of communication that has big role in human life. Film has been a social phenomenon as a popular form of entertainment. Film is a miniature of human life, which portrays human life in different angle. Film not only displays moving images of real people and objects visually with its real social context, but also communicates the desires, needs and aspirations of human or even society.
1.1The Film Genres
According to Mc. Gown in Sofiah (1990), he divides the film typology into the following terms:
1. Drama Film
A drama film usually tells about the great story of human‘s life which contains any conflicts. Those conflicts, moreover, happen between two people or more. A drama can be romantic, comedy and tragedy. Romantic drama usually draws about love story among the characters and usually has a happy ending (1990: 38). A romance film, moreover, can be loosely defined as any film in which the central plot (the premise of the story) revolves around the romantic involvement of the story's protagonists ( Meanwhile, comedy is dramatic work that is humorous and usually has a happy ending. Comedy is the events which inevitably find happy resolution. It is cheerful and optimism (Russell: 8). On the other hand, tragedy involves events which climax in unhappy disaster which is somber and pessimism. It means that the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow (ibid: 7).
2. War Film
A war film describes the battle situation in mostly scenes of film story (Gown in Sofiah, 1990: 40). For example: ―The Lion‖ film that draws about situation in World War I. In line with this opinion, defines that a war film acknowledges the horror and heartbreak of war, letting the actual combat fighting (against nations or humankind) on land, sea, or in the air provide the primary plot or background for the action of the film (http//
3. Epics/historical Film
Epics film include costume dramas, historical dramas, war films, medieval romps, or 'period pictures' that often cover a large expanse of time set against a vast, panoramic backdrop. Epics often share elements of the elaborate adventure films genre. Epics take an historical or imagined event, mythic, legendary, or heroic figure, and add an extravagant setting and lavish costumes, accompanied by grandeur and spectacle, dramatic scope, high production values, and a sweeping musical score (ibid).

4. Crime Film
A crime film tells about the activities that involve breaking the law, such as drugs trading, violence in traffic light, juvenile delinquency, etc. Those activities, moreover, relate to law enforcer (Gown in Sofiah, 1990: 40).
5. Adventure Film
Adventure films recite about the challenging adventure among a professional spy, tourist and journalist. They are all involved into the destroying of violence that makes them to have certain adventure, such as ―James Bond‖ film (ibid: 42). Adventure films are usually exciting stories, with new experiences or exotic locales, very similar to or often paired with the action film genre (http//
6. Cartoon Film
Cartoon film is a film made by photographing a series of drawings. Meanwhile, an animated cartoon is a series of still drawings that, when viewed in rapid succession, gives the impression of a moving picture (1990: 44).

7. Kids Film
This kind of movie describes the story of children‘s life which is mostly performed by children as the actors (ibid: 44). ―Bed Time Stories (2009)‖ film is an example of kid‘s movie which tells about children‘s wishes before going to bed.
8. Mystery and Horror Film
Both mystery and horror film are merely similar. Those films have similarity in term of revealing the phenomenon of supernatural. However, those also have difference in term of its effect to the audiences. Mystery film usually dealing with a puzzle crime only arouses the audiences‘ perplexes. Meanwhile, horror film makes the audience becomes fear (ibid: 46). Webster's Collegiate Dictionary gives the primary definition of horror as "a painful and intense fear, dread, or dismay." Horror movie is, broadly, movie intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the viewers. (
9. Suspense Film
A suspense film has particular character that gives anxiety or apprehension resulting from uncertainty and unexplained matters. Moreover, by watching this film, the audience will be grasped with strained actions (1990: 47).

Star Cinema ABS-CBN Film Productions, Inc. (d/b/a Star Cinema), is a Filipino film and television production company, a film distributor, and the country's largest film production company that produces most of the highest grossing Filipino films of all time.
Star Cinema distributes its own films as well as films from different production companies. In recent years, due to the popularity of independent films, Star Cinema created new divisions that would specialize on indie film and other markets. These are Sine Screen and Skylight Films. Star Cinema also redistributes classic films restored by ABS-CBN Film Archive and Central Digital Lab, Inc.
The television unit of Star Cinema is Star Creatives (formerly Star Television). It was established in 2000 to produce television series specifically for the network ABS-CBN. It started its television venture in 2000 with Pangako sa ’Yo (known internationally as The Promise), a series that had gained huge following in the country and abroad. The series had a very successful run in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Namibia, and in Singapore. It was followed by another successful series Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay (2002). In 2008, its most expensive television production Lobo (known internationally as She Wolf), received the Banff World Media Festival for best telenovela program and earned Angel Locsin an International Emmy Awards nomination for best performance of an actress. Sana Maulit Muli (2008), also gained a following in Taiwan when it was dubbed in Taiwanese Minnan. Kahit Isang Saglit (2008) became a finalist in the 37th International Emmy Awards. Its 2010 production, Magkaribal, became a finalist to the 2011 New York International Independent Film and Video Festival for best telenovela. Budoy (2011-2012) is also a finalist to the 2013 New York Festivals International Television & Film Awards. Soap operas produced by Star Television had been subtitled and dubbed to several languages including English, Turkish, Khmer, Mandarin and French and most notably those that are targeted to Asia Pacific and South Africa. One of the programs dubbed in French is Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay which will cater to French-speaking audience in Africa and Europe.
The data of this research were the use of diction, the language variety and the non-linguistic factors in register of written Philippine movie advertisements promoted by Star Cinema from Februay 2013 until April 2014.

This research investigates the characteristics for both linguistic and non-linguistic factors in the register of Philippine movie advertisement of Star Cinema. Detail examination of both linguistic and non-linguistic phenomenon are described in this chapter.
Table 1.1 shows the Film Description and Types of Film Genre.
Table 1.1 Film Description | Types of Film Genre | A Moment in Time | Romantic Drama | It Takes A Man and A Woman | Romantic Comedy Drama | Maybe this Time | Romantic Comedy Drama | Da Possessed | Horror Comedy |

The film entitled, “A Moment in Time” is a romantic drama. The films, ”It Takes A Man and A Woman” and, “Maybe This Time” is a romantic comedy drama. And the film entitled,”Da Possessed” is a horror comedy.

Table 1.2 shows the Film Genre, Diction, and The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements. Film Genre | Diction | The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements | Romantic Drama | * challenge * healer * way | Love changed her.But life changed him.As a secret, comes between them.This valentines, fall in love with the pair that stole our hearts and swept the nation.Can love fix what life has broken?All it needs is a moment in time. | Romantic Comedy Drama | * person * invisible | A very special lovechanged their lives.A love story we thought would have a happy ending. Ended.When the past returns..And feelings are unmasked..Will things ever be the same?What will it take to bring back their happy ending? | Romantic Comedy Drama | * bridge * seeker | Time drove them apart..Change brings them together..Will love find them this time?A film that will make your summer the new valentines season.Will their love stand a chance?May this time | Horror Comedy Drama | * person | Ramon is the one. The coward!But da best sa pamilya.And the one has a mission.Da one becomes the possess.This summer, Vhong Navarro is back as Da Man with Da Woman.Da family..Da goon..And da spirits..And da possessed.. |

1.1Register Analysis of Romantic Drama Movie Advertisement

A.The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements Love changed her..
But life changed him..
As a secret, comes between them.
This valentines, fall in love with the pair that stole our hearts and swept the nation.
Can love fix what life has broken? All it needs is.. A moment in time.
(A Moment in Time Movie Advertisement)
Film Genre
A Moment in Time is a 2013 Filipino film directed by Emmanuel Quindo Palo starring Coco Martin and Julia Montes. The film was shot in Amsterdam and other cities like Paris. The film was produced by Dreamscape Cinema and Star Cinema and released February 13, 2013.
Patrick (Coco Martin) is a part-time waiter and self-employed artist. He meets Jillian (Julia Montes) on a subway and the two fell in love. Patrick later discovers Jillian's past and has a hard time accepting the truth. He starts to make her suffer by pretending that he really loves her. What will happen when Jillian moves? And what will happen when Patrick comes back to apologize?
This movie belongs to a romantic drama that draws a love story. Therefore, the target consumers of this movie genre are adult.
In advertising the movie, the advertiser begins with the statement that seems to let the consumers imagine something. It gives the formal style of language. The sentence, As a secret, comes between them., the word secret states the challenge that the characters will face. The sentence, Can love fix what life has broken?, the word love serves as the healer to heal of what has broken. And the sentence, All it needs is a moment in time., the word time serves as the way to heal what has broken.

B. The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements A very special love changed their lives.
A love story we thought would have a happy ending. Ended.
When the past returns..
And feelings are unmasked..
Will things ever be the same?
What will it take to bring back their happy ending?
(It takes A Man and A Woman Movie Advertisement)
Film Genre
It Takes a Man and a Woman is a 2013 Filipino romantic comedy drama film directed by Cathy Garcia-Molina. It is the third installment in the film series, A Very Special Love. The film was produced by Star Cinema and VIVA Films and released on a Black Saturday, March 30, 2013. John Lloyd Cruz and Sarah Geronimo reprise their roles as Miggy Montenegro and Laida Magtalas respectively.
The film received overwhelming reviews from critics and fans. The film was a huge box office success, it sets and breaks box office records in Philippines. The film is currently the second-highest grossing Filipino film of all time if only domestic figures will be counted, highest grossing non-MMFF film, the highest grossing Filipino romance film, and the highest grossing Filipino film of 2013.
This movie belongs to a romantic comedy drama that draws a love story. Therefore, the target consumers of this movie genre are adult.
In advertising the movie, the advertiser begins with the informational statement. It gives the formal style of language. The sentence, When the past returns., the word past refers to the person which is one of the character of the movie. The sentence, And feelings are unmasked., the word unmasked refers to the invisible feelings that the characters still feel to each other.

C. The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements Time drove them apart.. Change brings them together..
Will love find them this time?
A film that will make your summer the new valentines season.
Will their love stand a chance? May this time. (Maybe This Time Movie Advertisement)
Film Genre
Maybe This Time is a 2014 Filipino film directed by Jerry Lopez Sineneng starring Sarah Geronimo and Coco Martin. The film, produced by Star Cinema and Viva Films and distributed by Star Cinema officially premiered in the Philippines on May 28, 2014.
Steph Asuncion (Sarah Geronimo) and Tonio Bugayong (Coco Martin) were once in love. Back then, she was a young girl who wanted a simple life and he was older, more ambitious than she was. Tonio was a small town guy who wants to board a ship to provide for his family’s furniture business. Sarah was a Manila girl who spends the summer in the province for community service. What might have been a sweet relationship ended sourly when Tonio left without saying goodbye. Steph was heartbroken and it taught her to dream bigger to be worthy of love. Will their paths cross again? Will they overcome the pains of the past to give love a second chance? This is a story between two people who will be reminded about the importance of being true to one’s self in order for true love to happen.
This movie belongs to a romantic comedy drama that draws a love story. Therefore, the target consumers of this movie genre are adult.
In advertising the movie, the advertiser begins with the informational statement. The sentence, Time drove them apart., the word drove means bridge that will unite the characters. The sentence, Will love find them this time?, the word love means the seeker that will catch the characters.

D. The Written Lines in Movie Advertisements Ramon is the one.
The coward!
But da best sa pamilya.
And the one has a mission.
Da one becomes the possess.
This summer, Vhong Navarro is back as Da Man with Da Woman.
Da family..
Da goon..
And da spirits..
And da possessed..
(Da Possessed Movie Advertisement)

Film Genre
Da Possessed is a Filipino horror, comedy film directed by Joyce Bernal starring Vhong Navarro and Solenn Heussaff. The film, produced and distributed by Star Cinema officially premiered in the Philippines on April 19, 2014.
The mother-reliant and weakling Ramon (Vhong Navarro) is forced to work as a landscape artist to pay off their family's debt. In his work field, he meets the lovable femme fatal boss Anna (Solenn Heussaff), who he falls in love head over heels with. Working hard as he tries to impress, Ramon unknowingly digs the graveyard of three victims of injustice whose souls begin to haunt and possess Ramon's body for vengeance; thus ruining his courtship and eventual relationship with Anna. Meanwhile, to prove the purest of his intentions, Ramon needs to stand up for Anna against her father Don Demetrio (Joey Marquez) who is a syndicate leader. But because of Ramon's cowardice, this comes as a major challenge, on top of the disturbance brought by the three ghosts headed by Kemerut (John Lapus). As Ramon tries to solve the mystery behind these hauntings, he discovers that ghosts are trying to revenge against Don Demetrio. Ramon, in able to save himself from the possession was compelled to work with the ghosts who are seeking for justice. As Ramon struggles to fight for love and justice, he also learns the true meaning of courage which leads him into peacefully serving justice to the three ghosts and at the same time, save himself and Anna from the impending danger that Don Demetrio poses on them.
This movie belongs to a horror comedy drama that draws a love story. Therefore, the target consumers of this movie genre are adult.
In advertising the movie, the advertiser begins with statement the name of the main character. The sentence, The coward!, states the informal style of language. The sentence, And the one has mission., the word one refers to the person which was the main character. The sentence, Da one becomes the possess, Da family, Da goon, and Da spirit, the advertiser changed the article ‘The’ as ‘Da’ so that it could catch the consumers attention which made the lines informal.

CONCLUSION Register is an interesting sociolinguistics topic to discuss. The characteristics of linguistic factors, such as diction, language variety and non- linguistic factors in the register of Philippine movie advertisement have particular point of views that can be differentiated from other types of register. Consequently, those factors are able to create a register in Philippines movie advertisement. The diction factors have important role in advertisement to attract the consumers since the purpose of advertisement is to influence the consumers to use or buy the product. Moreover, the diction factors give the information of movie story and aim at arising the consumers’ intention to watch the movie. In terms of language variety, the written texts of Philippine movie advertisement cover many terms of language varieties in the form of phrases and sentences. Then, the use of language style in register of movie advertisement is also interesting to discuss. Informal style used by the advertiser aims at building an intimate and casual impression. Meanwhile, the formal style tends to give an elite impression of movie story, and has purpose to respect the consumers. The advertisement using the exaggeration of language, for example, purposes to increase the consumers’ curiosity.

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...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

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