Premium Essay

Sme Development in Ghana


Submitted By Henry265
Words 1907
Pages 8
There is no universally agreed definition of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Some define them in terms of their total revenue, while others use the number of employees as an indicator. The European Union defines a medium-sized enterprise as one with a headcount of 250, a small firm as one with a headcount of less than 50 and a microenterprise as one with a maximum of 10 employees. The National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) which is the regulatory body for SMEs in Ghana defines SMEs in terms of both fixed asset and number of employees. It defines an SME as an enterprise with turnover greater than US$200,000 and not more than US$5 million equivalent (NBSSI)

The SME market constitutes the vast majority of businesses in Ghana and over the years has evolved to become the key supplier and service provider to large corporations, including multinational and transnational corporations. Principally, SME’s has contributed to:
Expanding output;
Providing value-added activities in the manufacturing sector;
Creating employment opportunities especially in the services sector;
Contributing to broadening Ghana‟s export base;
Increased competition;

SMEs are important to almost all economies in the world, especially to those in developing countries. They contribute to productivity and job creation; they serve as a nursery for larger firms constituting the next step for micro enterprises (Palma and Gabriel, 2005).

In addition, SMEs tend to be the primary driver for job creation as they are labor intensive and employ more labor per unit capita than larger enterprises thereby creating more jobs in the economy. This is also evident in developing countries like Ghana, as it is estimated that the sector employs about 35% of labor (Mensah and Rolland, 2004). Again according to Sowa et al (1992), even for some public

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Development of Smes in Ghana: Analyzing the Constraints to Growth

...Recognizing this evidence, policy emphasis has shifted to pinpointing complementary policies that will lead an economy from stabilization to growth. The policy debate today focuses on reforms. Ghana immediately after independence made tremendous effort towards achieving full employment and socio economic development through public investment in medium and large scale enterprises. Notwithstanding the direct involvement and the effort of the government, the sector is saddled with a lot of constraints, including scarce capital, intensive technology, foreign exchange constraints, poor management, corruption and inadequate attention to economic viability and market prospects which has resulted in poor performance of the industries in terms of output and employment (Steel & Webster, 1992). Following an economic recession in the 1980’s which resulted in the retrenchment of workers from the civil service, the rationalization of production in the private sector under the Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) was launched in 1983, and the high population growth rate of 2.6% per annum, coupled with the inability of the medium and large scale enterprises to grow and expand over time to absorb the idle labour, the SMEs has become an important option and alternative source of employment. SMEs have been...

Words: 21472 - Pages: 86

Free Essay

The Effect of Micro Credit on the Development of Smes in Ghana

...INTRODUCTION Many economic development advocates have stated that for a country like Ghana to come to reach the development heights of the developed nation, they must empower their citizens to break the bond of poverty, which is engulfing them. As the world is gradually becoming a global village most countries in the world are making unending quest to attain a higher level of development that is a type of development where most of its people are employed and are earning enough to subsist and perpetuate its generation. SME’s have an important role on many aspects, such as employment, taxes and innovation that most of times is regarded as something on the responsibility of large firms. In “The Theory of Economic Development” Schumpeter (1934) emphasizes the role of entrepreneur, as a prime cause of economic development, which is development achieved through innovation. Taking this into consideration if the entrepreneur has an important role for development, then this role is achieved through the “institution” that he/she represents. SME activities that would help to propel development and promote the wellbeing of the citizenry most governments are now playing various facilitation roles in collaboration with NGOs and other stakeholders to enable the private sector provide diverse goods and services, including job creation for the people. Many developing countries have shifted their strategic economic focus to embrace the development of an entrepreneural middle-class with the...

Words: 2632 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Smes in Ghana

...Background of Literature Review on SMEs in Ghana: Globally, the contribution of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to the growth of national economies is significant. In the developed economies such as Germany and the United Kingdom small businesses are recognized as the main engines for growth and development. Indeed, studies conducted in recent years in developed markets, including the Freedman studies done in the United Kingdom, confirm that small businesses account for the highest number of registered companies and make significant contributions to economic growth and prosperity. In Ghana, readily available data on SMEs is scarce but statistics from the Registrar General’s Department suggests that 92 per cent of companies registered are micro, small and medium enterprises. SMEs in Ghana have also been noted to provide about 85 per cent of manufacturing employment, contribute about 70 per cent to Ghana’s GDP, and therefore have catalytic impacts on economic growth, income and employment. It is estimated that SMEs employ 22% of the adult population in developing countries (Daniels, 1994; Daniels & Ngwira, 1992; Daniels & fisseha. 1992; Fisseha. 1992; Fisseha & Mcpherson, 1991; Gallagher & Robson, 1995 and Kayanula & Quartey, 2000). The sector employs about 15.5% of the labour force in Ghana (Parker et al, 1994), has experienced higher employment growth than micro and large – scale enterprises. Definition of SMEs There is no single, uniformly acceptable definition of a small...

Words: 1637 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Msme India

...& water transport operators, small business and professional & self-employed.The definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises under the services sector is as below: | | * A microenterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment does not exceed Rs.10 lakh; | | * A smallenterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment is more than Rs.10 lakh but does not exceed Rs.2 crore; and | | * A medium enterprise is an enterprise where the investment in equipment is more than Rs.2 crore but does not exceed Rs.5 crore.Indian SMEs represent the model of socio-economic policies of Government which emphasized job creation at all levels of income stratum and diffusion of economic power in the hands of few, discouraging monopolistic practices of production and marketing; and contributing to growth of economy and foreign exchange earning with low import-intensive operations. Indian SMEs also play...

Words: 1728 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Growth of Microfinance in Ghana

...MBA RESEARCH PROPOSAL TOPIC: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INCREASE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFINANCE IN THE GHANAIAN ECONOMY NAME: BELINDA AKU ATEPOR INDEX NUMBER: 10224399 SUPERVISOR: DR. CHARLES ANDOH TABLE OF CONTENT Background of the Study ………………………………………….......................................3 Problem Statement ……………………………………………….........................................4 Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………………..5 Research Problems ………………………………………………………………………….5 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………...5 Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………..6 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………. Scope and Limitations ……………………………………………………………………...7 Chapter Outline …………………………………………………………………………….8 References…... DEFINITION What Is Microfinance? Microfinance, according to Otero (1999, p.8) is “the provision of financial services to low-income poor and very poor self-employed people”. These financial services according to Ledgerwood (1999) generally include savings and credit but can also include other financial services such as insurance and payment services. Schreiner and Colombet (2001, p.339) define microfinance as “the attempt to improve access to small deposits and small loans for poor households neglected by banks.” Therefore, microfinance involves the provision of financial services such as savings, loans and insurance to poor people living in both urban and rural settings who are unable to obtain...

Words: 2777 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Effects of Micro-Financing on Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises in Mombasa County

...Veronica W. Ngugi1, Dr F. Kerongo2 1 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya, Department of Economics and Commerce, School of Human Resource Development 2 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya, Department of Economics and Commerce, School of Human Resource Development loans to finance their business operations. The fundamental objective of this study was to assess the effects of Micro financing on growth of small and micro enterprises in Mombasa County. Despite access to credit SMEs growth remains a major problem. Access to credit should enable a business to achieve their growth objective. Despite this it is interesting to note that most of the SMEs could not survive third year of incubation period. Descriptive Survey method was employed in this study. The study adopted stratified and systematic random sampling method. The sample size was 157 SMEs. Semi-structured questionnaire was designed to facilitate the acquisition of data. Data was collected from 102 respondents, a response rate of sixty five percent. Sales, income and competitiveness were used as the independent variable while growth of SMEs as dependant variable. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data. Results indicated that microfinance has positive effects on growth of SMEs. Majority of the owners indicated that microfinance has enabled them to expand businesses, build their business assets. Also ability of the business to complete was enhanced...

Words: 4317 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Smes Failures

...ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CONSTANT POWER OUTAGES ON SMES IN NIGERIA International Centre for Basic Research, 20 Limpopo Street, FHA, Abuja College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State been identified [2]. A particular finding revealed the high cost of providing back-up energy (partly infrastructural) for SMEs which sometimes is as critical as three times the cost of publicly supplied electricity [3], [4]. In Nigeria and perhaps generally, SMEs classification is done on the basis of capital investment and employed labour force while other criteria could be the annual turnover or gross output [5]. Until very recently, energy was rarely cited as one of the problems militating against the development of SMEs in Nigeria and elsewhere. This study is built on the argument that, unlike larger businesses, the establishment and operation of SMEs promotes economic development which by extension, boosts a country’s GDP number [6] (see Fig. 1). A separate study identifies this link (between SMEs and GDP) but could not establish if it is actually responsible for economic growth [7] while another study presents a decreasing link of 51%, 39% and 16% of GDP being produced by SMEs in high-income, medium income and low-income countries respectively [8]. Elsewhere, it has been confirmed that SMEs were responsible for pulling the US out of economic slump and can therefore, serve...

Words: 4169 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Define Research in General and Enumerate the Characteristics Types and Essential Features of Research and Steps Involved in the Research Process of Research

...P.O. Box KS 470 Kumasi 29th January, 2013 Dear Sir/Madam APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT AS SME SALES AND ENTERPRISE SERVICES MANAGER I am a young man and a Ghanaian by birth. I wish to apply for employment as SME Sales and Enterprises Services Manager in your reputable institution; I hold Bachelor of Management Studies degree from University of Cape Coast. I have enormous experience in sales and human relationship/customer care. I have the desire to improve and maintain a strong customer service and relationships over a longer term. Constant and regular market survey to discover potential customers with current quotations gives me both comparative and absolute advantage to work with your organization. . I want to be part of a team to meet new challenges in a competitive market and develop the necessary skills and training to deliver quality service, Please find attached my resume for your attention. Counting on your co-operation. Yours faithfully, ………………… (Felix Oppong Gyamfi) FELIX OPPONG GYAMFI Phone +233 (0)243 960241 E-mail Language Spoken: English and Twi Personal Details SEX : MALE DATE OF BIRTH : 3RD APRIL 1984 ...

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Microfinance as a Tool for Poverty Reduction in the Kwahu South District of Ghana

...against risks such as illness, accident or death. In most cases, access to these financial services that are so central to sustainable development are either denied or made very difficult. Consequently, people frequently have no choice but to resort to local moneylenders who charge usurious rates of interest or use informal and, therefore, insecure ways of performing transactions such as payments and money transfer. The above is reflected in the quotation by the past Secretary-General of the United Nations: ‘‘The stark reality is that most people in the world still lack access to sustainable financial services, whether it is savings, credit or insurance. The great challenge before us is to address the constraints that exclude people from full participation in the financial sector. Together, we can and must build inclusive financial sectors that help people improve their lives (United Nations, 1997).’’ With almost thirty per cent of the country's population living in poverty, the Government of Ghana clearly faces an enormous challenge to reduce poverty especially in the three northern savannah regions where there is the greatest concentration of poor people. To achieve rapid and sustainable reduction in poverty, it is necessary to have an integrated policy with the various elements of the strategy reinforcing each other. The World Development Report for 1990 (World Bank, 1990) found that poverty can be reduced most effectively by a strategy with two equally important elements...

Words: 20209 - Pages: 81

Premium Essay

Electronic Payments

...Systems in Ghana |Prince Kwame Senyo | | |University of Ghana | | | | | INTRODUCTION Technological advancement has caught up with us in the developing world and there is a need to rapidly change and focus on how best we can make optimum use of this opportunity. Payment for goods and services have been simplified and expedited by the introduction of new technological innovations. Statistics from the World Payment Report (2011) indicates there is a global increase in the volume of non-cash payments transactions by 5% in 2009 to 260 billion in 2011. The payment for goods and services in Ghana is mostly cash based and characterized by long queues and delays. A study by Abor (2004) pointed out that, before the introduction of electronic payment in Ghana customers will have to go to their banks to perform all transaction and with the long queues in most of our banks, payment became a problem. Heeks (2002) described information system in developing economies like Ghana as questionable and coupled with different challenges. However, Boateng (2011) implied that, the government of Ghana has...

Words: 1925 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Faces of Indebtness

...FACES OF INDEBTNESS 1) KENYA Kenyan borrowers promptly repay their loans despite the stiff interest rates and high inflation, presenting a lower default risk investment environment for banks compared to other parts of the world. The low default risk for banks has however not translated to lower interest rates for customers despite the credit referencing system taking effect. The credit risk is measured in terms of gross non-performing advances as a percentage of the total gross advances. A survey by audit firm RSM Ashvir, based on banks 2012 financial reports showed only 4.6 per cent of loans by banks in 2011 ended up as non-performing advances. The banking industry disbursed Sh1, 335 billion, out of which only Sh61.4 million was defaulted. The risk has consistently decreased from 7.9 per cent in 2009 to 6.3 per cent in 2010. With the increase in interest rates and inflation rate, non-performing advances were expected to go higher, but it is not the case. This shows that the risk in the Kenyan market is low Interest rates spiked in December 2011 after the Central bank increased its key lending rate to a high of 18 per cent to curb the inflation rate which had peaked at 19.72 per cent in November that year. Though both the Central Bank Rate and inflation rate have dropped to 9.5 per cent and 4.11 per cent, banks are still lending at an average of 17.84 per cent. Microfinance institutions in Kenya have suffered significant loan repayment default resulting into subsequently...

Words: 8289 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Challenges Facing the Fashion Industry in Ghana

...CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The environment in which the fashion industry operates the world over has become turbulent, unpredictable and therefore, difficult to exert managerial control. Cultures around the world are constantly influencing each other; hence, the world’s cultures are changing fashion constantly. Also, social, economic, political and legal factors keep changing than before. Competition in the fashion industry is so rife such that the survival of fashion organizations cannot be guaranteed (Stuart, 1995). During the last decade, the developments of new technologies all over the world and growing globalization of countries economies have produced the fastest changes ever. The fashion industry in Ghana, especially, the clothing sub sector (which is the focus of this study) has not been without the effect of economic, political, social, cultural and legal pressures brought to bear on all organizations. In recent years, protectionism has given way to globalization. With that change, Ghanaian clothing sector of the fashion industry has had to compete with imports from low wage countries. Retailers, unencumbered by protectionism, have also seized on the opportunity, often choosing to go directly to offshore manufacturers. As retailers become larger and more globally connected, they continue to build global brands marketed around the world. In doing so, they eliminate many Ghanaian clothing companies from their supply chain. The result has been major market...

Words: 6584 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay


...CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter reviews literature related to this study. This was done with the expectation that relevant information would be obtained to help shape and enrich the study, knowledge of what has been done on this topic is important in helping to clarify issues. The following topics were reviewed for the study; definition of loan, definition of SME, general principles of lending, loan monitoring and control, access to credit as well as repayment performance: theory and practice. 2.1 Definition of loan A loan is a type of debt like all debt instruments, a loan entrails the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower. The borrower initially receives an amount of money from the lender which they pay back, using but not always in regular installment. Types of loans There are many different types of loans you can take out. When you are looking to borrow money, it’s important that you know your options. i. Open-ended loans: they are loans that you can borrow over and over again. Credit cards and lines of credit are the most common types of open-ended loans. With both of these loans, you have a credit limit that you can purchase against. Each time you make a purchase, your available credit decreases. As you make payments, your available increases allowing you to use the same credit over and over. ii. Closed-ended loans: this cannot be borrowed once they have been repaid. As you make payments on...

Words: 11858 - Pages: 48

Free Essay


...individuals that helped attain the goals of the evaluation. 1. National Credit Regulator (NCR) for the opportunity afforded to Underhill Corporate Solutions (the research consultants) to conduct this study “Literature Review on Small and Medium Enterprises’ Access to Credit And Support in South Africa”. 2. Client project managers: Thandile Gubevu and Darrell Beghin, for facilitating the overall project exercise and the useful comments on the draft report that helped shape the format of the final report. 3. NCR board members; for useful and valuable comments on the draft report that helped in the development of detailed and well informed recommendations. 4. Finally, special appreciation to key research team members, namely; i. Edmore Mahembe, ii. Chiara Chiumya, and iii. Peter Mbewe. 2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 7 INTRODUCTION 13 1.1 13 1.2 2 Introduction Importance of SMEs in the economy 13 STUDY METHODOLOGY 2.1 17 Background 17 2.1.1 Project rationale 17 2.1.2 Problem statement 17 2.1.3 Study objectives 17 2.1.4 Scope of the study 17 2.2 Study Methodology:...

Words: 32474 - Pages: 130

Premium Essay

The Role of Business Economics in National Development

...INTRODUCTION Following this introduction on Nigeria’s economic development challenge, this paper reviews business economics, outlining the relationship with innovation and social entrepreneurship. It also presents a holistic framework for economic development covering the individual, firm and macro levels, and outlines the roles of stakeholders at each level, in fostering national development. It concludes by calling on all stakeholders to play their part in leveraging entrepreneurship and all aspects of business economics to unleash the wealth of human capital that Nigeria is endowed with so that more people can participate in the transformation of Nigeria. Nigeria as the most populous country in Africa is naturally endowed with millions and millions of acres of arable land, 38.5 billion barrels of stated oil reserves, vast gas reserves, a variety of unexploited minerals, and a wealth of human capital by virtue of its estimated population of 150 million. It is the world’s eighth largest exporter of oil, and Africa’s second largest economy, after South Africa. Nigeria accounts for 15 per cent of Africa’s population, contributes 11 per cent of Africa’s total output and 16 per cent of its foreign reserves while it accounts for half of the population and more than two-thirds of the output of the West Africa sub-region. It has been at the forefront of the resolution of many political challenges in Africa. Over the last decade, Nigeria has implemented far reaching economic reforms...

Words: 2924 - Pages: 12