Free Essay

Static Routing

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By philipe213
Words 1962
Pages 8
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)

ENRUTAMIENTO ESTÁTICO BAJO LINUX
OBJETIVOS:






Repasar los comandos configuración básica de red.
Interpretar las capacidades de enrutamiento estático embebidas en la Minidistribución de Linux desarrollada por el Laboratorio de Sistemas de la UTN FRC.
Diagnosticar, detectar y corregir problemas de conectividad en un entorno de red con rutas. Afianzar la capacidad de entendimiento y parametrización de la tabla de encaminamiento. Aplicar los lineamientos teóricos de encaminamiento estático en un entorno concreto, manipulable y tangible.

NOTA:





Lea atentamente el enunciado de la práctica, realice los pasos sugeridos, intente razonar sobre el resultado y complete el cuestionario.
Al finalizar la práctica, cada grupo deberá entregar el cuestionario resuelto al docente responsable de la práctica.
En algunos casos, se requiere participación inter-grupal para solucionar los requerimientos Cada grupo deberá rotular de manera no invasiva el/los equipos que administre de manera tal que pueda ser rápidamente identificable por los restantes grupos

INTRODUCCIÓN
Deberán configurarse equipos a fin de obtener el entorno de red expuesto a continuación como escenario. Para ello tener en cuenta que cada grupo será responsable de la configuración de un router y una PC en cada una de las redes en las que dicho router participe. Asimismo, deberá coordinar con el resto de los grupos las acciones tendientes a satisfacer las premisas impuestas por las consignas.
En consecuencia, se ocuparán de un total de 14 computadoras por instancia del práctico que se aplique, según los siguientes lineamientos:


Una PC por cada router



Una o más PCs para cada una de las redes Net_I, Net_II, Net_III y Net_IV.



Tres PCs correspondientes a los Hosts_A, Host_B y Host_Alone

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)

En función de la cantidad de alumnos, pueden ejecutarse simultáneamente varias instancias del práctico variando el valor de X para cada valor de red o host conforme a las siguientes consideraciones: Red

Valor Variable ‘X’

Subnet Mask

Net_I

1x.0.0.0

255.0.0.0

Net_II

192.168.x.0

255.255.255.0

Net_III

172.8x.0.0

255.255.0.0

Net_IV

216.244.19x.0

255.255.255.0

Host_Alone

200.69.20x.221

255.255.255.252

Host_A

192.168.1x2.24

255.255.255.0

Host_B

192.168.1x2.7

255.255.255.0

Alias de IP
La funcionalidad de IP_alias en Linux permite definir interfaces virtuales, tanto sobre una placa de red física como sobre la interfaz de bucle local. Para ello se utiliza el comando ifconfig con el modificador
“:A”. En la configuración de una interfaz mediante ifconfig, el parámetro A suministrado a continuación de los “:” inmediatamente después de la interfaz sobre la que se crea el alias, hace referencia al alias que se desea crear, pudiendo asumir valores desde 0 en adelante. Por ejemplo, los siguientes comandos crean dos alias sobre una placa física eth0:
Ifconfig eth0:0 172.86.0.2 netmask 255.255.0.0 up
Ifconfig eth0:1 10.0.0.2 netmask 255.0.0.0 up
Un único dispositivo físico puede soportar varios alias, razón por la cual podrán emularse routers sobre equipos con una sola placa de red.

Configuración de rutas
El comando route permite gestión de la tabla de encaminamiento en lo que a visualización, agregado y eliminación de rutas se refiere. Ejecutando route sin parámetros se muestra la tabla vigente, mientras que el agregado de rutas se realiza bajo los siguientes lineamientos:
Ruta a red por gateway: Route add –net [red] netmask [subnet mask] gw [ip_gateway]
Ruta a red por dispositivo: Route add –net [red] netmask [subnet mask] dev [interfaz]
Ruta a un host: Route add –host [host] netmask [subnet mask] gw [ip_gateway]

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)
Escenario a Implementar
Host_B
192.168.102.7 / 24
NET_I
10.0.0.0
255.0.0.0

eth0
X.Y.Z.252

Router03

eth0
X.Y.Z.251

FDDI

eth0:0
X.Y.Z.252

NET_IV
216.244.192.0
255.255.255.0

Router04

eth0:0
X.Y.Z.251
eth0
X.Y.Z.254

eth0:0
X.Y.Z..254

eth0:1
X.Y.Z.254

Host_A
192.168.102.24 / 24

eth0:1
W.X.Y.222

eth0
X.Y.Z.253
Router02

Router01

eth0:0
X.Y.Z.253
Host_Alone
200.69.208.221 /
255.255.255.252

NET_III
172.86.0.0
255.255.0.0

NET_II
192.168.8.0
255.255.255.0

ACTIVIDADES
Tras la asignación un router a cada grupo, los integrantes del mismo deberán realizar las siguientes prácticas y completar los requerimientos.

1. Configuración de equipos miembro
Entiéndase por equipo miembro a todo host que no represente un router.
1.a) Configurar las interfaces Ethernet de acuerdo al siguiente esquema:
Grupo
Router
01
02
03
04

10.0.0.0
10.0.0.1

Redes en las que participa el router / host a configurar
192.168.8.0
172.86.0.0 216.244.192.0
Alone
192.168.8.1
172.86.0.1
172.86.0.2 216.244.192.1 202.69.208.221

10.0.0.2
216.244.192.2

FDDI

192.168.102.7
192.168.102.24

Host_A: administrado por el grupo correspondiente a Router04
Host_B: administrado por el grupo correspondiente a Router03

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)

1.b) ¿Qué sucede con la tabla de encaminamiento tras configurar la interfaz de un equipo miembro?

1.c) Completar el siguiente cuadro con el resumen de las tareas de configuración de los equipos miembro Grupo N °
I
Router

…..

II
III

Red en la que se encuentra IP Asignada / Subnet Mask
10.0.0.0
10.0.0.1
/
Ifconfig ...

Comando
-----

Ifconfig ...
--Ifconfig ...

1.d) Para cada PC del punto 1.a), arbitrar los medios necesarios para que pueda comunicarse con la red adyacente mediante el establecimiento de una puerta de enlace predeterminada. Para el caso en que deba elegirse entre varias interfaces, optar por la que contenga el mayor valor en el último byte de la dirección asignada.

Grupo N °
I
Router

…..

II
III

IP Asignada / Subnet Mask
10.0.0.1
Ifconfig ...

Puerta de enlace
10.0.0.254

Comando
-----

Ifconfig ...
--Ifconfig ...

2. Configuración de routers

2.a) Configurar todas las interfaces del router conforme a la nomenclatura expuesta en el diagrama escenario y a continuación, especificar:

Grupo
Router

…..

Interfaz
Eth0
Eth0:0
Eth0:1

Dirección IP

Subnet Mask

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)

2.b) Verificar el estado del redireccionamiento de paquetes entre las interfaces del router.
Parámetro del sistema a verificar
Estado
Comando

Ip_forward
1 – 0 / Habilitado - Deshabilitado cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Al concluir, desde el router, verificar si existe conectividad con cada uno de los equipos miembro configurado en las redes adyacentes.

2.c)Probar la conectividad entre hosts pertenecientes a redes vecinas del router (NO sobre el router) detallando la siguiente información:
Grupo N °
I
Router

II
…..
III

Host Origen
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.1
192.168.0.1

Host Destino
192.168.8.01
172.86.0.1
172.86.0.1

TTL Promedio en ms. failed failed failed 2.d) Habilitar la funcionalidad de Linux que permite el desplazamiento de paquetes entre interfaces de red de un mismo host.
Comando:

Echo “1”> /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

2.e) Repetir la siguiente prueba de conectividad entre hosts pertenecientes a redes vecinas del router y suministrar los nuevos valores obtenidos:
Grupo N °
I
Router

II
…..
III

Red Origen
10.0.0.0
10.0.0.0
192.168.8.0

Red Destino
TTL promedio para 5 paquetes
192.168.8.0 20.2 ms
172.86.0.0 xx
172.86.0.0 yy

Se verifica la funcionalidad esperada tras la habilitación del redireccionamiento entre intefaces?

Advertir que la conectividad entre redes se logra sin necesidad de agregar rutas adicionales a las de acceso a red directamente conectada en cada interfaz del router. Habilitar la redirección entre placas de red fue suficiente para conseguir el enrutamiento de paquetes entre redes adyacentes.

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)

3. Análisis de Conectividad
3.a) Desconfigurar la puerta de enlace por defecto de un host perteneciente a la red destino correspondiente al ítem I del punto 2.e) y repetir la prueba de conectividad para dicho caso.

I

Host Origen
10.0.0.1

Host Destino
192.168.8.1

Resultado de la prueba
Fallido

3.b) Realizar ping a la interfaz del router conectada a la red destino correspondiente al ítem I del punto
2.e)

I

Host Origen
10.0.0.1

IP Router
192.168.8.254

Resultado de la prueba
Exitoso

3.c ) Confrontar los resultados obtenidos en 3.a) y 3.b) teniendo en cuenta que la interfaz del router se encuentra en la misma red destino que el host al cual se le desconfiguró la puerta de enlace. A qué se debe el resultado ? Por qué los paquetes llegan a la interfaz del router conectada directamente a la red destino pero no se obtiene respuesta del host desconfigurado ?

3.d) Al finalizar la prueba de comportamiento, restaurar la configuración del host destino desconfigurado. 4. Establecimiento de rutas

1) De acuerdo con las premisas expuestas a continuación, realizar los cambios necesarios sobre los equipos correspondientes a las redes sobre las cuales el grupo tiene ingerencia. En cada caso, verificar la conectividad con el comando ping entre los hosts afectados que administra el grupo. 4.1.a) Permitir solo al equipo 172.86.0.2 interactuar con Host_Alone
Comando:

Route add –net 200.69.208.220 netmask 255.255.255.252 gw 172.86.0.253

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

Universidad Tecnológica Nacional – F.R.C
Redes de Información (RIN)
Además, brindar el soporte necesario para garantizar conectividad entre la red Net_I y Host_Alone, aplicando configuraciones sobre Router02
Comando:

Route add –net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 172.86.0.254

4.1.b) Sobre la PC de la red Net_IV administrada por el grupo correspondiente al Router04, realizar los cambios necesarios tendientes a lograr la conectividad de dicha PC con Host_A exclusivamente, sin que exista vínculo con Host_B
Comando:

Route add -host 192.168.102.24 gw 216.244.192.252

4.1.c) Arbitrar los medios necesarios para permitir la existencia de conectividad entre Host_B y la red
10.0.0.0.
Sobre Host_B
Comando:

Route add –net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 192.168.102.251

Sobre Host 10.0.0.2 (host de Net _I administrado por el grupo router 3)
Comando: Route add –net 192.168.102.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 10.0.0.251

4.1.d) Permitir a la red 10.0.0.0 llegar a Host_Alone. Aplicar los cambios necesarios sobre Router01, especificando, además, la configuración que debería tener Router02 para materializar la conectividad requerida. Sobre Router01
Comando:

Route add –net 200.69.208.220 netmask 255.255.255.252 gw 172.86.0.253

.
Sobre Router02- Ya aplicada en respuesta a 4.1.a
Comando: Route add –net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 172.86.0.254

2) En función del entorno de red resultante, especificar el resultado de la aplicación del comando
“traceroute 10.0.0.1” desde Host_Alone

1 – 200.69.208.222
2 – 172.86.0.254
3 – 10.0.0.1

TP Enrutamiento Estático Bajo Linux

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...that indicate a routing problem is the inability to access hosts on a specific network or the inability to access any remote network. The following table lists various problems that are typically caused by routing issues. Problem Description If one or more hosts can only communicate with hosts on the local subnet, the problem is likely with the default gateway configuration. Can't access hosts outside the local subnet If a single host is having problems, verify the default gateway setting on that host. If multiple hosts are having problems, verify the default gateway setting, and verify that the DHCP server is configured to deliver the correct default gateway address. If all hosts have the same problem, and if the default gateway setting is correct, verify that the default gateway server is up and configured for routing. If hosts are unable to contact hosts on a specific subnet, but communication with other subnets is working, check the following: Verify that the router connected to the subnet is up. Use the route command on the default gateway of the local subnet and verify that the router has a route to the remote subnet. If necessary, configure a static route or a routing protocol so that the route can be learned automatically. Use traceroute to view the route taken to the destination network. Identify the last router in the path, then troubleshoot routing at that point. Check for routing loops in the path to the destination network. A routing loop is caused......

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...Semester Two Journal and Study Guide CISCO SYSTEMS NETWORKING Academy CCNA 2 Chapter 1 WANs and Routers One major characteristic of a wide-area network (WAN) is that the network operates beyond the local LAN's geographic scope. It uses the services of carriers, such as regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs), Sprint, and MCI. WANs use serial connections of various types to access bandwidth over wide-area geographies. By definition, the WAN connects devices that are separated by wide areas. WAN devices include the following: • • • • • • Routers, which offer many services, including internetworking and WAN interface ports Switches, which connect to WAN bandwidth for voice, data, and video communication Modems, which interface voice-grade services and channel service units/digital service units Channel service units/data service units (CSUs/DSUs) that interface T1/E1 services and Terminal Adapters/Network Termination 1 (TA/NT1s) TA/NT1s that interface Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services Communication servers, which concentrate on dial-in and dial-out user communication Concept Questions 1. A WAN is used to interconnect local-area networks (LANs) that are typically separated by a large geographic area. A WAN operates at the OSI reference model physical and data link layers. The WAN provides for the exchange of data packets/frames between routers/bridges and the LANs that they support. Draw a WAN that includes three LANs. 1 of 116 CCNA 2 Chapter 1 WANs and...

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