Free Essay

Structure Sesign Pattern

In: Business and Management

Submitted By piusharma10
Words 3378
Pages 14

Design Patterns
In Software Engineering we use different design pattern as a general solution to commonly occurring design problems. Originally 23 design patterns were introduced by 4 authors in their book, who came to be known as “Gang of four.”
The 3 Basic types of design patterns are:
Creational patterns
Structural patterns
Behavioural patterns
In this term paper we’ll discuss about structural design patterns.

Structural patterns
Structural Design Patterns are design patterns that deals with Class and Object composition. It does the following things:
1. It uses the concept of interface by using inheritance.
2. It defines object in such ways as to use them for multiple purpose.
3. It helps to relate various entities using different means by finding their relationship with each other.
Various types of Structural Design Patterns are given below:
Adapter: It acts as a translator to match interface between two incompatible classes.
Bridge: Separates abstract interface from its implementation, which provides a cleaner implementation of real-world objects and allows the implementation details to be changed easily.
Composite: used when creating hierarchical object models, this allows clients to treat individual objects uniformly.
Decorator: It extends the functionality of individual objects by wrapping them with one or more decorator classes. These decorators can modify existing members and add new methods and properties at run-time.
Facade: It is used to provide a high-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use. It helps to create a unified interface to a set of interfaces in the subsystem.
Flyweight: It is used to minimize resource usage when working with very large no. of objects.
Proxy: In its most general form it is an interface to something else (Subject class).It can be used when we don’t want to access resource directly.
Private class data: Restricts accessor/mutator access

Now let’s discuss about each structural pattern in detail.

Adapter Pattern

The adapter pattern is adapting between classes and objects. Like any adapter in the real world it is used to be an interface, a bridge between two objects. In real world we have adapters for power supplies, adapters for camera memory cards, and so on. Probably everyone have seen some adapters for memory cards. If you can’t plug in the camera memory in your laptop you can use and adapter. You plug the camera memory in the adapter and the adapter in to laptop slot. That's it, it's really simple.
It's the same in software development. In a situation when you have some class expecting some type of object and you have an object offering the same features.
It converts the interface of a class into another interface clients expect.
Adapter lets classes work together, that could not otherwise because of incompatible interfaces.

Implementation The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Adapter Pattern:

Participants The classes/objects participating in adapter pattern:
Target - defines the domain-specific interface that Client uses.
Adapter - adapts the interface Adaptee to the Target interface.
Adaptee - defines an existing interface that needs adapting.
Client - collaborates with objects conforming to the Target interface.
Non Software Examples of Adapter Patterns : Power Supply Adapters, card readers and adapters, ...

Objects Adapters - Based on Delegation and single inheritance
Objects Adapters are the example of the adapter pattern. It uses composition, the Adaptee delegates the calls to Adaptee (opossed to class adapters which extends the Adaptee). This behaviour gives us a few advantages over the class adapters. The main advantage is that the Adapter adapts not only the Adpatee but all its subclasses.
Class Adapters - Based on Multiple Inheritance
Class adapters can be implemented in languages supporting multiple inheritance.Thus, such adapters cannot be easy implemented in Java, C# or VB.NET.
Class adapter uses inheritance instead of composition. It means that instead of delegating the calls to the Adaptee, it subclasses it. In conclusion it must subclass both the Target and the Adaptee. There are advantages and disadvantages:
It adapts the specific Adaptee class. The class it extends. If that one is subclassed it cannot be adapted by the existing adapter.

Bridge Pattern
The intent of this pattern is to decouple abstraction from implementation so that the two can vary independently.

The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Bridge Pattern: Participants
Abstraction - Abstraction defines abstraction interface.
AbstractionImpl - Implements the abstraction interface using a reference to an object of type Implementor.
Implementor - Implementor defines the interface for implementation classes. This interface does not need to correspond directly to abstraction interface and can be very different. Abstraction imp provides an implementation in terms of operations provided by Implementor interface.
ConcreteImplementor1, ConcreteImplementor2 - Implements the Implementor interface.


The bridge pattern applies when there is a need to avoid permanent binding between an abstraction and an implementation and when the abstraction and implementation need to vary independently. Using the bridge pattern would leave the client code unchanged with no need to recompile the code.

Related Patterns
Abstract Factory Pattern - An Abstract Factory pattern can be used create and configure a particular Bridge, for example a factory can choose the suitable concrete implementor at runtime.
Known Uses: Graphical User Interface Frameworks
Graphical User Interface Frameworks use the bridge pattern to separate abstractions from platform specific implementation. For example GUI frameworks separate a Window abstraction from a Window implementation for Linux or Mac OS using the bridge pattern.

Composite Pattern

There are times when a program needs to manipulate a tree data structure and it is necessary to treat both Branches as well as Leaf Nodes uniformly. For example a program that manipulates a file system. A file system is a tree structure that contains Branches which are Folders as well as Leaf nodes which are Files. In such cases Bridge pattern is used.

The intent of this pattern is to compose objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies.
Composite lets clients treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly.

The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Composite Pattern:

Component - Component is the abstraction for leafs and composites. It defines the interface that must be implemented by the objects in the composition. For example a file system resource defines move, copy, rename, and getSize methods for files and folders.
Leaf - Leafs are objects that have no children. They implement services described by the Component interface. For example a file object implements move, copy, rename, as well as getSize methods which are related to the Component interface.
Composite - A Composite stores child components in addition to implementing methods defined by the component interface. Composites implement methods defined in the Component interface by delegating to child components. In addition composites provide additional methods for adding, removing, as well as getting components.
Client - The client manipulates objects in the hierarchy using the component interface.

A client has a reference to a tree data structure and needs to perform operations on all nodes independent of the fact that a node might be a branch or a leaf. The client simply obtains reference to the required node using the component interface, and deals with the node using this interface; it doesn’t matter if the node is a composite or a leaf.

The composite pattern applies when there is a part-whole hierarchy of objects and a client needs to deal with objects uniformly regardless of the fact that an object might be a leaf or a branch.

Example - Graphics Drawing Editor.
In graphics editors a shape can be basic or complex. An example of a simple shape is a line, where a complex shape is a rectangle which is made of four line objects. Since shapes have many operations in common such as rendering the shape to screen, and since shapes follow a part-whole hierarchy, composite pattern can be used to enable the program to deal with all shapes uniformly.

Graphics Editors use composite pattern to implement complex and simple graphics as previously explained.
File System implementations use the composite design pattern.
The composite pattern defines class hierarchies consisting of primitive objects and composite objects. Primitive objects can be composed into more complex objects, which in turn can be composed.
Clients treat primitive and composite objects uniformly through a component interface which makes client code simple.
Adding new components can be easy and client code does not need to be changed since client deals with the new components through the component interface.

Related Patterns
Decorator Pattern - Decorator is often used with Composite. When decorators and composites are used together, they will usually have a common parent class. So decorators will have to support the Component interface with operations like Add, Remove, and GetChild.

Decorator Pattern

Extending an object’s functionality can be done at compile time by using inheritance however it might be necessary to extend an object’s functionality dynamically as an object is used.
For example to extend the functionality of the graphical window for example by adding a frame to the window, would require extending the window class to create a FramedWindow class. To create a framed window it is necessary to create its object. It would be impossible to start with a plain window and to extend its functionality at runtime to become a framed window.

The intent of this pattern is to add additional responsibilities dynamically to an object.

The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Decorator Pattern:

Component - Interface for objects that can have responsibilities added to them dynamically.
ConcreteComponent - Defines an object to which additional responsibilities can be added.
Decorator - Maintains a reference to a Component object and defines an interface that conforms to Component's interface.
Concrete Decorators - Concrete Decorators extend the functionality of the component by adding state or adding behavior.
The decorator pattern applies when there is a need to dynamically add as well as remove responsibilities to a class, and when subclassing would be impossible due to the large number of subclasses that could result.

Example - Extending capabilities of a Graphical Window at runtime

In Graphical User Interface toolkits windows behaviors can be added dynamically by using the decorator design pattern.
Related Patterns
Adapter Pattern - A decorator is different from an adapter in that a decorator changes object's responsibilities, while an adapter changes an object interface.
Composite Pattern - A decorator can be viewed as a degenerate composite with only one component. However, a decorator adds additional responsibilities.
Decoration is more convenient for adding functionalities to objects instead of entire classes at runtime. With decoration it is also possible to remove the added functionalities dynamically.
Decoration adds functionality to objects at runtime which would make debugging system functionality harder.

Flyweight Pattern

Some programs require a large number of objects that have some shared state among them. Consider for example a game of war, were there is a large number of soldier objects; a soldier object maintain the graphical representation of a soldier, soldier behavior such as motion, and firing weapons, location etc. Creating a large number of soldier objects is a necessity but it would incur a huge memory cost. In such case Flyweight pattern is used.

The intent of this pattern is to use sharing to support a large number of objects that have part of their internal state in common where the other part of state can vary.

The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Flyweight Pattern: Participants
Flyweight - Declares an interface through which flyweights can receive and act on extrinsic state.
ConcreteFlyweight - Implements the Flyweight interface and stores intrinsic state. A ConcreteFlyweight object must be sharable. The Concrete flyweight object must maintain state that it is intrinsic to it, and must be able to manipulate state that is extrinsic. In the war game example graphical representation is an intrinsic state, where location and health states are extrinsic. Soldier moves, the motion behavior manipulates the external state (location) to create a new location.
FlyweightFactory - The factory creates and manages flyweight objects. In addition the factory ensures sharing of the flyweight objects. The factory maintains a pool of different flyweight objects and returns an object from the pool if it is already created, adds one to the pool and returns it in case it is new. In the war example a Soldier Flyweight factory can create two types of flyweights: a Soldier flyweight, as well as a Colonel Flyweight. When the Client asks the Factory for a soldier, the factory checks to see if there is a soldier in the pool, if there is, it is returned to the client, if there is no soldier in pool, a soldier is created, added to pool, and returned to the client, the next time a client asks for a soldier, the soldier created previously is returned, no new soldier is created.
Client - A client maintains references to flyweights in addition to computing and maintaining extrinsic state

A client needs a flyweight object; it calls the factory to get the flyweight object. The factory checks a pool of flyweights to determine if a flyweight object of the requested type is in the pool, if there is, the reference to that object is returned. If there is no object of the required type, the factory creates a flyweight of the requested type, adds it to the pool, and returns a reference to the flyweight. The flyweight maintains a state that is shared among the large number of objects that we have created the flyweight for and provides methods to manipulate external state (State that vary from object to object and is not common among the objects we have created the flyweight for).

The flyweight pattern applies to a program using a huge number of objects that have part of their internal state in common where the other part of state can vary. The pattern is used when the larger part of the object’s state can be made extrinsic (external to that object).

Flyweight pattern saves memory by sharing flyweight objects among clients. The amount of memory saved generally depends on the number of flyweight categories saved (for example a soldier category and a lieutenant category as discussed earlier).

Related Patterns
Factory and Singleton patterns - Flyweights are usually created using a factory and the singleton is applied to that factory so that for each type or category of flyweights a single instance is returned.
State and Strategy Patterns - State and Strategy objects are usually implemented as Flyweights.

Proxy Pattern

Sometimes we need the ability to control the access to an object. For example if we need to use only a few methods of some costly objects we'll initialize those objects when we need them entirely. Until that point we can use some light objects exposing the same interface as the heavy objects. These light objects are called proxies.
This ability to control the access to an object can be required for a variety of reasons: controlling when a costly object needs to be instantiated and initialized, giving different access rights to an object, as well as providing a sophisticated means of accessing and referencing objects running in other processes, on other machines.
The intent of this pattern is to provide a Placeholder for an object to control references to it.

Structure and Implementation
The figure below shows a UML class diagram for the Proxy Pattern: Participants
Subject - Interface implemented by the RealSubject and representing its services. The interface must be implemented by the proxy as well so that the proxy can be used in any location where the RealSubject can be used.
Proxy: Maintains a reference that allows the Proxy to access the RealSubject.
Also it implements the same interface implemented by the RealSubject so that the Proxy can be substituted for the RealSubject.
Controls access to the RealSubject and may be responsible for its creation and deletion.
RealSubject - The real object that the proxy represents.
A client obtains a reference to a Proxy, the client then handles the proxy in the same way it handles RealSubject and thus invoking the method doSomething(). At that point the proxy can do different things prior to invoking RealSubject’s method. The client might create a RealSubject object at that point, perform initialization, check permissions of the client to invoke the method, and then invoke the method on the object.

The Proxy design pattern is applicable when there is a need to control access to an Object, as well as when there is a need for a sophisticated reference to an Object. Common Situation where the proxy pattern is applicable is:
Virtual Proxies: delaying the creation and initialization of expensive objects until needed, where the objects are created on demand (For example creating the RealSubject object only when the doSomething method is invoked).
Protection Proxies: where a proxy controls access to RealSubject methods, by giving access to some objects while denying access to others.
Related Patterns
Adapter Design Pattern - The adapter implements a different interface to the object it adapts where a proxy implements the same interface as its subject.
Decorator Design Pattern - A decorator implementation can be the same as the proxy however a decorator adds responsibilities to an object while a proxy controls access to it.

Facade Design Pattern

When a segment of the client community needs a simplified interface to the overall functionality of a complex subsystem.
It provides a unified interface to a set of interfaces in a subsystem. Facade defines a higher-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use.
Wrap a complicated subsystem with a simpler interface.

The Facade defines a unified, higher level interface to a subsystem that makes it easier to use. Consumers encounter a Facade when ordering from a catalog. The consumer calls one number and speaks with a customer service representative. The customer service representative acts as a Facade, providing an interface to the order fulfillment department, the billing department, and the shipping department.

Identify a simpler, unified interface for the subsystem or component.
Design a 'wrapper' class that encapsulates the subsystem.
The facade/wrapper captures the complexity and collaborations of the component, and delegates to the appropriate methods.
The client uses (is coupled to) the Facade only.
Consider whether additional Facades would add value
Facade defines a new interface, whereas Adapter uses an old interface
Whereas Flyweight shows how to make lots of little objects, Facade shows how to make a single object represent an entire subsystem.

Private Class Data

A class may expose its attributes (class variables) to manipulation when manipulation is no longer desirable, e.g. after construction. Using the private class data design pattern prevents that undesirable manipulation.
The motivation for this design pattern comes from the design goal of protecting class state by minimizing the visibility of its attributes (data).

It control write access to class attributes
Separate data from methods that use it
Encapsulate class data initialization.

The private class data design pattern solves the problems above by extracting a data class for the target class and giving the target class instance an instance of the extracted data class.

Create data class and move to data class all attributes that need hiding.
Create in main class instance of data class. Main class must initialize data class through the data class's constructor.
The private class data design pattern seeks to reduce exposure of attributes by limiting their visibility.It reduces the number of class attributes by encapsulating them in single Data object.
It allows the class designer to remove write privilege of attributes that are intended to be set only during construction, even from methods of the target class.


We have presented advantages for data structures implementation of the following design patterns: Flyweight, Bridge, Adapter, Decorator, Composite, Façade, Private Data class. Structural patterns focus on the composition of classes and objects into larger structures. They deal with run-time compositions that are more dynamic than traditional multiple inheritance, object sharing and interface adaptation, and dynamic addition of responsibilities to objects.

Book: Design Patterns By Rupinder Kaur

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Patterns

...Organizational Patterns A case study in a large utility company Software Engineering Project Management Course Presentation - Fall 2008 Introduction 1. a. A little bit history Early work by Alfred L. Kroeber Kroeber, 1963 Milestone work by Christopher Alexander Alexander, 1979 pattern researches actively conducted in the organization domain in terms of software development (1991 - ) b. c. 2. What is organizational pattern? “Organizational patterns are recurring structures of relationship, usually in a professional organization, that help the organization achieve its goals” Wikipedia 2008 2 Key research directions 1. Social network analysis Coplien, 1995 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Requirements acquisition Whitenack, 1995 Kerth, 1995 Harrison, 1996 Berczuk et. al., 2003 Evolution from analysis to design Formation and function of teams Episodes (or Agile) Scrum Configuration management patterns Cunningham, 1996 Sutherland, 2007, Sutherland, 2008 3 Organizational patterns, Agile, and Scrum 1. There are patterns in Agile development methodology Scrum is the first formal organizational pattern to describe a complete Agile process Sutherland, 2008 2. 4 Case study – Organizational Environment 1. a. Organization Environment Description The author is working with an utility holding company that provides electric and natural gas services to more than 1 million customers The IT department focuses on......

Words: 1570 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Structure and Pattern of Introduction of Business Related Discipline Research Articles

...Structure and Pattern of Introduction of Business Related Discipline Research Articles Qing Tian I. Introduction Business and economics papers have made a significant contribution to the development of the corporations and economics growth. However, it may be difficult for the readers to fully understand the materials if the structure of the papers is very complicated. In recent decades, there is an increasing trend in the complicacy of business and economics papers (Ellison, 2000). This phenomenon will induce more complexity in comprehending profound research papers. Regarding it, some basic models have been invented to give a general guideline of the building blocks of the research papers. For example, for writing an introduction of an article, Swales (1990) introduced a rhetorical pattern called create-a-research-space (CARS) which segments the introduction into three major parts, namely move 1, 2 and 3. The move 1 aims to give a background information of the topic of the research paper, depicting a general picture of which area the paper will fall into. The next move known as niche basically serves to connect move 1 and 3, illustrating the motive and inspiration of the paper (Swales & Feak, 2012). Followed by niche is the main purpose of the article. By presenting in either a purposive or descriptive way, the author can show a ultimate goal of the article. However, although some kinds of standardizations have been made to formalize the research papers, the......

Words: 2079 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Design Patterns

...Design Patterns CSS/422 September 2, 2013 Design Patterns When developing enterprise software there are several design patterns to choose from. The factory method, abstract factory method, dispatcher data access object (DOA), and model-view-controller (MVC) are design patterns that play an important role in the software development process. By implementing proven design patterns the development process is accelerated and more efficient. The reuse of these patterns also prevents the occurrence of the more subtle issues that may cause significant problems while improving the code readability for architects and coders who are familiar with the design patterns. For effective software design, the consideration of issues that may not become apparent until the latter stages of implementation is essential (SourceMaking, 2012). Factory Method The factory method design pattern creates a family of related objects instantiated by subclasses (University of Phoenix, 2010). This design pattern creates objects without detailing the class of object to be created. The factory method design pattern defines a separate method for the creation of objects by employing subclasses to override the derived type of object being created. In addition, the factory method makes a design more customizable while only slightly increasing its complexity. While other design patterns require new classes, the factory method simply necessitates a new operation (SourceMaking, 2012).......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sentenc Patterns

...SENTENCE PATTERNS: SAMPLES 1. S--Vi--(Adv.) (Subject--Intransitive Verb--Adverb, usually optional) The man coughed (loudly). The audience laughed. The guest has arrived. The children walked down the street. The waiter hurried away from the door. Note: An intransitive verb is an action verb that does not require a direct object or a complement to complete its meaning. The word "intransitive" literally means "does not carry across." Therefore, the action of the verb does not transfer to an object, that is, a person or thing that receives the action of the verb. Often, adverbs or adverb phrases will appear in these sentences to expand the basic meaning of the verb. Note: Some intransitive verbs can take a direct object in a different sentence. Usually the meaning of the verb changes in a sentence requiring a direct object. Here is an example: He runs every morning. (intransitive verb) He runs a successful business. (transitive verb) SENTENCE PATTERNS: SAMPLES 2. Transitive Verb Patterns (Active Voice) A. S--Vtr--DO (Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object) The dog catches the ball. The baby likes bananas. Dogs chase cats. That man teaches English. The scientist performed an experiment. Note: Some verbs require an adverb with this pattern. S--Vtr--DO--Adv. (Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Adverb) The guard put the key in the door. The police treated the old man politely. B. S--Vtr--IO--DO ...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Design Pattern

...设计模式总结: Observer pattern: The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods. It is mainly used to implement distributed event handling systems. The Observer pattern is also a key part in the familiar Model View Controller (MVC) architectural pattern. Singleton pattern: In software engineering, the singleton pattern is a design pattern that restricts the instantiation of a class to one object. This is useful when exactly one object is needed to coordinate actions across the system. That is you only want one object and use it in multiple places. there are two ways of implement singleton pattern, create database connection and login file can be a very good example of singleton pattern: here we will look at create database connection: old ways of implementation: (lazy loading) private static Database instanceOld; public static Database getInstanceOld(){ if(instanceOld == null){ instanceOld = new Database(); } return instanceOld; } since the old way of singleton implementation has thread safe problem, for example: there are several thread invoke getInstanceOld() method and there will be several instance created. new way: (early loadings) private static Database instance = new Database(); private Database(){//private constructor } public static Database......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Design Pattern

...Design Patterns Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software Produced by KevinZhang Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software Contents Preface to CD ........................................................ 5 Preface to Book ...................................................... 7 Foreword ............................................................. 9 Guide to Readers .................................................... 10 1 Introduction ...................................................... 11 1.1 What Is a Design Pattern? ...................................... 12 1.2 Design Patterns in Smalltalk MVC ............................... 14 1.3 Describing Design Patterns ..................................... 16 1.4 The Catalog of Design Patterns ................................. 18 1.5 Organizing the Catalog ......................................... 21 1.6 How Design Patterns Solve Design Problems ...................... 23 1.7 How to Select a Design Pattern ................................. 42 1.8 How to Use a Design Pattern .................................... 44 2 A Case Study: Designing a Document Editor ......................... 46 2.1 Design Problems ................................................ 46 2.2 Document Structure ............................................. 47 2.3 Formatting ..................................................... 53 2.4 Embellishing the User Interface ................................ 56 2.5 Supporting......

Words: 84976 - Pages: 340

Free Essay

Design Patterns

...Term paper On Design patterns Advanced topics in software engineering CSC 532 Submitted by:- Harpreet Singh Abstract:- Design patterns, a standard solution to problems in object oriented software engineering, are considered to be a well formed language to represent software design. Their benefits have been widely acknowledged by software professionals throughout the world. Design patterns can be classified according to multiple criteria the most common being the type of problem they solve. Till today many design patterns have been established and many more are being found as time passes. Patterns capture knowledge from various parts of software developing. Design patterns are helpful to the designers in a way that they represent the collective wisdom and experience of the community and their implementation leads to better quality software and also a novice designer does not find it difficult to understand the systems functionality. A very important advantage of design patterns is the fact that they speed up the development process by providing an almost ready-made solution that has been used earlier and proved to be efficient. Another advantage is that they allow for a generalized solution that does not depend on understanding a specific design problem from all its aspects, and thus ease reusing this solution. Apart from that they help the new developers to ignore traps and pitfalls which have earlier been learned by other developers by costly......

Words: 2632 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Looking for Patterns

...Looking for Patterns Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician who lived during the 17th century. He is credited with creating a mechanical calculator, and he influenced the development of probability theory, economics, programming, and geometry. A pattern of numbers in the form of a triangle was named after him, although the pattern was known by other, ancient civilizations. The triangle demonstrates the inherent order of numbers and math. The exercises below challenge you to find and define patterns. Often being a good problem solver relies on one’s ability to recognize patterns and changes in patterns. • How many triangles can you find in this picture? 27 • Develop a rule to describe the number of circles in the figures below. Find the number of circles in the 20th figure, and indicate the reasoning. Figure 1 Figure Number Number of Circles 1 1 Figure 2 2 6 3 11 Figure 3 Figure 4 4 16 5 21 6 26 7 31 ...Figure 20 8 36 20 96 What is the general rule to describe how many circles are in each figure? • Find the relationship between the pyramid steps needed to build rows 6 through 10. Ro w# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 0 9 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 3 6 12 0 7 28 8 4 21 0 6 2 1 56 12 6 25 2 5 15 35 70 12 6 21 0 4 10 20 35 56 8 4 12 0 3 6 10 15 2 1 28 3 6 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3a. Find as many relationships between the numbers in the pyramid as you can, and describe them. • • • Both sides are symmetrical You can get each number by...

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research Pattern

...A typical research pattern might consist of five stages: * targeting study – to identify companies within a sector, to quantify sectors and to highlight new or adjacent sectors for further investigation; * issue identification and formulation of offer – structured interviews covering size and scope of potential customer activity, existing products/services, current purchase criteria and trends combined with database and financial analysis leading to a formulated offer; * opportunity quantification – having formulated a product or service offer, further structured interviews, questionnaires or web-polling to establish probabilities of spend, movement to new product, service or supplier, information channels and timing; * product/service launch programme – planning and developing a launch or expansion building on the contacts made, developing new targets and adjusting the percentage spent in marketing areas; * segmentation and refinement – ongoing work to analyse the returns, setting sales and commission targets, developing target ‘take’ and return figures Step 1 - Read websites and blogs about the market Before doing business in any new market, read websites and blogs about that particular market. Fortunately, there are websites and blogs written about almost every market in the world, describing its history, culture, business customs, key players and local business politics. Step 2 - Talk to people who already know the market and its culture Don't......

Words: 4513 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Eye Pattern

...The unique pattern in the human iris is formed by ten months of age, and remains unchanged throughout one's lifetime. The probability of two persons having the same iris pattern is nearly impossible. In The Rayid Model of Iris Interpretation, there are four constitutional iris patterns: Two primary and two secondary. The two primary structures are \Jewel" and \Flower". Everyone has one of these two patterns as their dominant iris structure. The primary iris pattern is modi ed by the secondary pattern: either \Stream" or \Shaker". Personality traits and characteristics are di erent for each of these structures. In addition to the in uence of Stream or Shaker, personality is modi ed by birth order position and other factors. The presence of brown or dark-colored freckle-like dots or ecks in the iris indicates a thinking-oriented, analytical person. These color spots, which can range from yellow to gold to brown, are referred to as jewels, and this mentally-oriented personality is referred to as a Jewel. Distinctly curved or rounded openings in the bers of the iris (like petals of a ower), indicate a feeling-oriented personality. These openings, which look as if the light colored iris bers have round holes within them, are called owers, and we refer to the feeling-type of personality as a \Flower". The \Stream" type in the Rayid Model is called the kinesthetic type. Metaphorically, it is referred to as a stream. The iris of a person with a......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...establishing legal guidelines, procedures, and sanctions; and devising coercive mechanisms to ensure compliance. "(Lieberman, R., 1999) It is the goal of the HR Director to create a table consistent working environment. Robert Lieberman (1999) says that, "the patterns of stability and change in policy paradigms that are apparent in both countries even in the short time span under study here. Clearly both ideas and institutions matter — ideas as frames for the definition of problems and the linkage of problems with solutions, and institutions as filters of ideas and regulators of the process of policy choice — and a complete explanation of race policy will consider not only both elements but also the ways in which they interact to reconstruct patterns of race relations." In some instances both countries policies could read the same, yet be interpreted differently. In an effort to keep all entities involved headed in the same direction there has to be a clear communication and regulatory rules to ensure the partnership remains stable. Conversely, they say, companies have to give employees the "freedom" that's essential to innovate. Organizational Structure Raymond Miles and Charles Snow, authors of ,"Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process" help provide the strategy typology appropriate for outcome desired. The particular typology appropriate for Office Depot and Reliance Retail is the "Analyzer". This is the description of a company that is purposely more......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...determined from the analysis. Description of the Research Design and Procedures Used: Completely explain step-by-step what was done. Sources of Data: Give complete information about who, what, when, where, and how the data was collected. Sampling Procedures: Explain how the data was limited to the amount which was gathered. If all of the available data were not utilized, how was a representative sample achieved? Methods and Instruments of Data Gathering: Explain the procedures for obtaining the data collected. Include the forms or manner by which it was recorded. Statistical Treatment: Explain the complete mathematical procedures used in analyzing the data and determining the significance of the results. Analysis of Data: Describe the patterns observed in the data. Use tables and figures to help clarify the material when possible. Summary and Conclusions: This section condenses the previous sections, succinctly presents the results concerning the hypotheses, and suggests what else can be done. Restatement of the Problem: This is a short reiteration of the problem. Description of the Procedures: This is a brief reiteration of important elements of the design of the study. Major Findings: The final results from the analysis are presented, the hypothesis stated, and the decision about the rejection or the failure to reject the hypothesis is given. Conclusions: Comments about the implication of the findings are presented. Recommendations for Further Investigation:......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Eating Patterns

...Lowenberg, Miriam Elizabeth; Todhunter, Elizabeth Neige; Wilson, E. D.; Savage, J. R.; and Lubawski, J. L. (1979). Food and People. New York: Wiley. Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Darker Side of the All American Meal. New York: Houghton Mifflin. The overall pattern of food that a person eats is more important to a healthy diet than focusing on single foods or individual nutrients, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in its newly updated position paper "Total Diet Approach to Healthy Eating." According to the position paper: "In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as 'good' or 'bad' is overly simplistic and may foster unhealthy eating behaviors." The Academy's position paper stresses that moderation, portion size and exercise are the key concepts for balancing food and beverage intakes. The position paper has been published in the February Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and can be found on the Academy's website. It states: It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. The Academy's......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Thought Patterns

...and those of others. The negativity and positivity degree in these perceptions, in other words, our thought patterns have a direct relationship with our level of competence and the success of our communication. Manz and Neck define the process of constructing thought patterns as self-leadership of thought. It is stated that with the application of specific cognitive strategies, individuals have control over their thoughts, and these thoughts have direct impact on their communicative performance. There are two ways of self-leadership of thoughts; challenging destructive thinking and building up constructive thoughts patterns. They define ten different kinds of destructive thinking with the suggestions of altering them into constructive thoughts. Labeling, having been discussed in our class as well, is one of the destructive thoughts hindering personal communication effectiveness. To clarify, assuming that a manager is lacking knowledge and awareness of individual different communication styles and has expressive-reflective communication style. She would inevitably evaluate one of the employees, who has an instrumental communication style with his being inadequate in his report or his indifferent nature of communication with her. She would label him with the words such as `unmotivated, inadequate, anti-social, etc.`. In all likelihood, these judgmental thought patterns have impact on her behaviors negatively and thus begin the cycle of negativity with poor conversational......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Patterns of Evolution

...Patterns of Evolution Humans are still subjected to the same pressures of natural selection as other organisms because we also compete for sources of food as our society becomes over populated while adapting to environmental concerns, such as global warming with radically different changes in climates, contaminated water sources, or other forms of pollution. Survival of the human race will require reproduction to avoid becoming extinct, thus ensuring the perpetuation of favorable traits in preceding generations. Biologists have recognized that patterns of evolution exist and can vary because every species is unique. Convergent evolution is unrelated organisms living in similar environments, which can evolve with similar characteristics, such as the example of a hurricane can look and feel the same, whether it occurs in Florida or Italy. Divergent evolution, species living in different regions that were closely related, yet perhaps drifted apart, such as the example of the polar bear and the brown bear. Polar bears developed new characteristics because they needed blubber to keep warm in the snowy climates in comparison to the brown bear. Adaptive radiation, several species move into a new territory and evolves into a completely new species, which began from a single species, such as the marsupials – kangaroos with powerful, long legs to cover large areas of land, and koalas with smaller, centralized bodies allowing them to climb trees. Co-evolution occurs between......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2