Free Essay

Textile Experience

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Muhammadakhtar
Words 5262
Pages 22
PREFACE: To The Evaluators Of My Training Program

If we look at our surroundings, all the human beings would be wearing some cloth, most of which is woven. Today the average consumption of textile products per person per year is 6.7 Kg. The world population has crossed the six billion figure, so more than 40 million tons of fabric is utilized by the mankind of world each year. Indeed both consumption per person and population are increasing at a faster pace. Consumption per person is confidently expected to increase after December 2004, as WTO would eliminate the quota costs, import duties and other such tariffs. To be competitive in the textile market, the manufacturers of this industry will have to transfer this benefit of low cost to the customers, which in turn would encourage the customers to buy more. This process would yield economies of scale for the producers and thus the textile companies will achieve enormous growth. Pakistan has competitive edge over many other countries in the textile industry, so it will more focus and capitalize on this concern.
This gives a view of future prospects of opportunities in textile and importance of textile products. More specifically the shade, look, handfeel of fabric and durability of shade are the crucial factors of concern for the textile customers (these factors are expected to gain more attention of customers in future). These factors are complied in dyeing processes. Kohinoor Dyeing Mills Ltd. (KDML) is involved in the business of dyeing of woven fabric. It is equipped with state of the art and highly automated technology. The vision of respected MD KDML and the modern machinery deployed here has helped KDML to emerge as a very market player in a very short period of less than two years.
It was an honor for me to learn about the dyeing processes in KDML, I started my training, which is an integral part of learning with zeal and devotion from 10th of October to 31st October. On successful completion of training, I compiled the report now in your hand that provides a deep insight of what I learnt about the different processes and departments. It would also help analyze the sufficiency of knowledge/information for planning and control of production with extremely high efficiency and effectiveness.
The report is primarily prepared for the evaluators of my training program but it would also work as comprehensive introduction to dyeing generally and processes at KDML specifically. It will help the new Management Trainees to explore more, considering this report as base.
The organization of the report is same as that of my training schedule. I have gone through all the departments in a sequence as the fabric moves intradepartmental and interdepartmental i.e from Greige to folding of finished fabric. I have put my best efforts to compile this report, but if any mistake found – should be ignored considering me quite fresh and limited period of training (20 days).


No words are sufficient to acknowledge the blessings of almighty Allah, who provided me with the opportunity to learn whatever I did. I wish to thank the respected MD Mr. Sayeed Saigol, who allowed some time to be given to me for training and practically observe the processes. The quality of learning about different departments/processes was greatly enhanced by the dedicated mangers of the concerned departments. I am sincerely grateful to Mr. Anwar-ul-Haq Manager Dyeing who honored me to observe and learn the functions of machines.
The inspiration, guidance and keen interest for optimum utilization of my stipulated training time by Mr. Sheikh Adeel Incharge PPC department and Mr. Hamid Bahir Assitant Manager HR department made me indebted to both of them. I am extremely privileged to Mrs. Rabia Babar Deputy Manager Q.A and Mrs. Saima Junaid Deputy Manager Lab who have contributed by word and example in my learning. I remain grateful to all of the Supervisors, Section Technologists and Machine Technologists who have provided me with the knowledge of practical working of machines.

Tariq Mehmood
Management Trainee
PPC Department KDML

Q.A Greige
a) Introduction:
Greige Section of Q.A deptt. is created for the purpose of eliminating the B-Grade fabric just after receiving so that the potential cost of processes to dye such fabric should be eliminated. The head of Q.A department is Mrs Rabia , while the Greige Section is under the supervision of Mr. Nisar.

b) Responsibility of Q.A: To check the Greige fabric @ quite earlier stage so that no value should be added in B-Grade Fabric.

c) Types of Machines: I) Inspection Frames II) Rolling Frames III) Stitching Machine

d) Fabric movement from Godown to Q.A Greige
Fabric either Commercial or purchased by Marketing department is received by Godown and Q.A Greige gets it issued with the details of quality, width and number of rolls by giving Fabric Transfer Note (FTN) to Godown. The quality of fabric is inspected according to the program given by PPC. This section of Q.A inspects the fabric and separates the A-Grade and B-Grade and after rolling dispatches both types of fabrics back to the Godown.

e) Faults of Fabric
The fabric is checked against the following faults, which sets the parameters for quality; I) Broken end II) Loose end III) Tight end IV) Knots V) Reed Marks VI) Mis Pic VII) Double Pic VIII) Starting Mark IX) Crack X) Float XI) Weft Mark XII) Fluff XIII) Manding Mark XIV) Misdrawn XV) Mix Yarn XVI) Seizing Stain XVII) Hard Size XVIII) Sizing Lines XIX) Temple Mark XX) Oil Stain XXI) Oil Yarn XXII) Selvedge Defects XXIII) Reed Cut XXIV) Let Off Bar XXV) Loose Weft XXVI) Tangled warp XXVII) Long Denting
XXVIII) Warp Shade XXIX) Shade Variation XXX) Count Variation XXXI) Wrapping Mark XXXII) Noosle Mark
XXXIII) Thick Thin Place XXXIV) Count Bar XXXV) Oily Weft XXXVI) Black End
XXXVII) Fungus
XXXVIII) Water Stain

The inspection of Greige fabric is based on American 4 Point system, under which a fault, the size/intensity of the fault is valued and a specific no. in 1-4 domain is assigned. These points usually depend on the length of defect; 1 point is assigned for 1 to 3 inches defect, 2 is assigned for 3 to 6, 3 is assigned for 6 to 9 and 4 is assigned to any defect over 9 inches. The rule for acceptance/rejectance is that if sum of these points per 100 yards exceeds 25, the fabric is considered B-Grade and if considered so, is returned to the Godown. Contrary to this if these points are < 25 per 100 yards, the fabric is considered A-Grade and thus rolled on the rolling machine in order to be further used easily on winding. The Management by Objective rule is applied to get the maximum production; targets are given to Inspectors and Rolling Inspectors and if there is any discrepancy (less output/efficiency) the supervisor used to be accountable for that.

f) Capacity
The capacity of inspection of greige fabric is 36,000 to 40,000 per day (four inspection frames) while rolling capacity is 42,000 to 56,000 a day (one rolling machine).


a) Functions of Godown
The Godown performs the following functions I) Receives the fabric II) Maintains the record of fabric and makes the stock report III) Physically takes care of that fabric IV) Issues to Q.A Greige for inspection V) Receives the fabric back from Q.A VI) Issues the fabric to Production

b) How It Works?
When the greige fabric enters into KDML, the Security people on the gate makes IGP (Inward Gate Pass), Godown receives the fabric with IGP and issues a Fabric Transfer Note against that IGP to Q.A Greige. After inspection the fabric is received back by Godown with the details of A-Grade and B-Grade. The detail of stock is provided to PPC on daily basis. PPC gives the Greige Issuance request to Godown according to the priorities given by Marketing Department. After receiving Greige Issuance request from PPC the fabric is issued to Winding Section of Pre-treatment department

Pre Treatments

A) Winding

A-a) Functions of Winding

Winding Section performs the following functions I) Receives the fabric from Godown for Production II) Checks whether the fabric is same as given by the program from PPC III) Winds the greige fabric over batchers IV) Receives the Route Card from PPC and attaches them with the concerned greige on batchers V) Hands over the fabric to singing

A-b) Capacity of Winding

The winding capacity of the machine is more than 80,000 mtrs/day but actually 65,000 mtrs fabric on average is winded daily.

A-c) Kinds of Stoppages

I) Unavailability of batchers & Jacque II) Unavailability of fabric III) Mechanical/Electrical fault in machine IV) Rolls mixed (e.g the quality in 100% Cotton and PC) V) Decisions pending on whether to wind the fabric with major fault or stop.

A-d) How It Works?

When PPC gives the greige fabric issuance request to godown for production, a copy of the same is given to winding people. This request includes the information like construction, quality, total qty and number of batchers. The Winding Section receives the fabric from Godown, gives them its receiving and winds it according to the priority program given from PPC. The Route Card is also received at this time and is attached with the concerned batchers. There is one winding machine and four persons are required to run the machine properly. There are three shifts and thus total number of employees in this section is 12 with one supervisor in general shift.

B) Singing & Desizing

In singing a flame burns the fiber on the surface of fabric. Desizing is the process of removing the sizing chemical (starch). Dry singe is the process in which the fabric is not passed through the decizing washers, but just singed and winded on the batchers.

B-a) How It Works?

The fabric is dried by dryers at first, brushed, the fibers are burned by the burning flame and then it passes through the first washer, squeezed, passes through 2nd washers, squeezed and winded at last. The fabric winded on the batchers after singing desizing is put on the stations of rotation where the fabric absorbs the chemicals and swells.
The chemicals used for desizing with their affect are as follows; I) Biesol HT-100 (desizer) II) Sandozine MRZ/felosan Jet (soap-eliminates the dirt) III) Heptol KEB (eliminates the tiny metallic particles) IV) Acetic acid (maintains the PH)

B-b) Speeds for different qualities

The machine is run on about 110 to 125 m/minute for PC, 100 m/minute for 100% Cotton, 100m/minute for Cotton-lycra.

B-c) Capacity of Singing

The singing capacity is 140,000 mtrs per day, but on average 90,000 mtrs is singed decized daily.

B-d) Rotation Time and Capacity

The rotation time for PC is 8hrs and for Cotton 10hrs. Variation in the time occurs +ively for less count fabric and –ively for more count fabric. The rotation capacity is 108,000 to 180,000 mtrs per day (18 stations for rotation of batchers. The capacity varies with rotation time).

B-e) Kinds of Stoppages

I) NO station vacant II) Electrical/mechanical faults (Ignition fault, burner fault, squeezer problem, chemical pump problem, winding problem) III) Fabric not available IV) Maintenance V) Steam unavailable VI) Computer held

C) Scouring & Bleaching

Scouring removes the impurities of metallic particles, dust and dirt. Bleaching removes the impurities remained after scouring and whitens the fabric by hydrogen per oxide (H2O2).

C-a) Processes in Scouring & Bleaching

The fabric passes from three washers contained with liquor made of sodium hydro oxide (NaOH), Heptol KEB and Felosan Jet (the quantities of chemicals varies with different qualities of Cotton, PC and Cotton-lycra). It is squeezed so that this chemical must not pass on in the next washers; the same process is enhanced by brobosats. The doctor blades of brobosat prevent the chemicals to go forward. The fabric goes through the 1st steamer where the steam is applied to the fabric, again passes through three washers contained with liquor made of above mentioned chemicals, squeezed and passes through doctor blades, again gone through the steamer (2nd steamer), passes from five washers contained with liquor of hydrogen per oxide (H2O2), Sodium Hydro oxide (NaOH), Contavan Gal, Heptol KEB and Felosan Jet and is winded at last. The 2nd last washer (10th) is separate from other 4 neighboring washers as it just maintains the PH. The liquor moves from last washer to the previous one, so that it must pass from the fine liquor at the end. The fabric remains from 17 minutes in 1st steamer and for 12 minutes in 2nd steamer. The temperature set point for both the steamers is 100C0 and this temperature holds good for all qualities of PC, Cotton, Cotton-lycra and Cotton-viscose.

C-b) Speeds for different qualities

Speed depends upon the gsm (gram per square meter) as depicted in the following table;
|GSM |Speed |Dwell Time |
|100 |110 |17 |
|150 |110 |17 |
|180 |110 |17 |
|200 |100 |17 |
|250 |85 |17 |
|300 |70 |17 |
|350 |65 |17 |
|400 |50 |17 |
|500 |40 |17 |
|600 |30 |17 |

C-c) Capacity of Scouring Bleaching

The capacity of scouring bleaching is 100,000 mtrs/day.
1st steamer capacity is 410kg/mtr (conveyer length 4mtrs)
2nd steamer capacity 330kg/mtr (conveyer length 3mtrs)
The fabric weight on each meter of belt can be calculated in the following way.
Gsm = 280
Speed = 70 m/minute
Width = 67”
Dwell time = 17 minute
Linear mtr weight = gsmxwidth(in mtrs) = 280 x 1.71 = 478.8 g/linear meter
Total fabric on belt = speed x dwell time x linear mtr weight = 70 x 17 x 478.8 = 569772 gram = 569772/1000 kg = 570 kg/mtr of belt

D) Curing

D-a) Functions of curing

In curing the polypropylene in the fabric is melt at high temperatures given in the curing machine. The fabric is cured either before singing or after bleaching, mercerizing or dyeing. Even sometimes the fabric needs to be cured after finishing if some polypropylene is found in it.

D-b) How It Works?

The fabric moves into the chambers where it revolves over the bars situated vertically parallel. The space of the chambers used to be full of hot air, that ultimately affects the fabric and helps melt the polypropylene that is exhausted through the heavy exhausts in the air. Before winding on the batchers the fabric revolves over the cold drums containing cold water in order to cool down the fabric after achieving the desired purpose from heat.

D-c) Speeds for different qualities

The speed for all the qualities of Cotton and PC remains constant at 50m/minute. The Cotton-lycra fabric is not cured. The fabric in the chambers used to be 200 mtrs and it remains in the chambers for four minutes at 215C0 . The finished fabric is cured at the speed of 40mtrs/min and remains for 5 minutes in the chambers at 150C0

D-d) Production Capacity

The production capacity of the curing machine is about 65,000 mtrs/day on avge.

D-e) Kinds of Stoppages

I) Electrical/Mechanical fault II) Lack of air used in dancers/compensators III) Lack of Thermo Oil from boiler IV) Lack of water used to cool the fabric after passing from the hot chambers.

E) Mercerizing

E-a) Functions of Mercerizing

The primary function of mercerizing is to increase the dyeability of fabric, but it also controls the PH and gets the fabric shinier than done on the bleaching. In mercerizing recipe for Cotton and Cotton-lycra is 280 BE (baume) of NaOH and for PC 220 BE of NaOH. The hot mercerizing is usually executed on the temperature of 60C0 and the reaction time given to the fabric is 30 seconds (for the fabrics with gsm in the range of 100-350). While the cold mercerizing is done on the temperature of 15C0 and the reaction time given to the fabric is 50 seconds.

E-b) Speeds for Different Qualities

For hot mercerizing 90 mtrs/minute speed holds good for all light and heavy qualities of Cotton, PC and Cotton-lycra, while in cold mercerizing the machine is run at the speed of 55mtrs/minute for all types and qualities of fabric.
Maximum cloth production = 3300kg/hr at 85 mtrs/minute. Due to ineffective dyeing at 85 mtrs/minute, the recommended speed for 7x7 qualities is 75 mtrs/minute. Likewise any quality with gsm 400-500 shall be run at the speed of 70 mtrs/minute. Similarly qualities with gsm 500-600 shall be run at the speed of 60 mtrs/minute.

E-c) Capacity of Mercerizing

The production capacity of mercerizing depends upon the gsm and type of mercerizing as well. The approximate capacity is 100,000 mtrs/day.

E-d) Kinds of Stoppages

I) Pins stretching the fabric broken II) Electrical/Mechanical fault III) Caustic unavailability IV) Leading fabric tears


A) Thermosole

There are two types of dyeing by technique; i) Exhaust dyeing ii) Continuous dyeing
KDML is not using exhaust dyeing technique and just following continuous dyeing. In exhaust dyeing the solution of dyes is put in the pot, certain temperature is given and the fabric is dipped into it and then dried. But the capacity cannot be more than 800kg/day. For this reason continuous dyeing technique is vastly used these days. KDML has two thermosoles for this purpose.

A-a) Types of Dyeing (by processes) I) Reactive dyeing II) Disperse dyeing III) VAT dyeing IV) Pigment dyeing V) Disperse/Reactive dyeing

A-b) How It Works?

The different fabrics used to have different charges over them, so the dyes prepared for each fabric needs to have opposite charge to be attracted by the fabric. The reactive dyeing technique is used for 100% cotton fabric dyeing. The reactive dyeing technique is also used to dye Cotton-lycra fabric since the lycra in Cotton-lycra fabric used to be under 3% and in the core of the yarn, so it need not to be dyed and just the cotton portion of the fabric is dyed. Polyester portion of the PC fabric is always dyed by disperse dyeing as for the 100% Polyester, while the Cotton portion is dyed by the reactive dyeing.
For PC dyeing there are two routes; i) One bath dyeing ii) Two bath dyeing
In one bath dyeing the solution for both Cotton (reactive dyes) and Polyester (disperse dyes) is mixed and each portion of the PC fabric absorbs its respective dyes while passing through the trough of Padder. The fabric passes through the infrared rays (two infrared chambers) to minimize the moisture in the fabric and from hot chambers (five chambers) to give some required temperature to dyes for their reaction. Contrary to this in two bath dyeing first the Polyester is dyed using disperse dyeing technique (disperse dyeing-neither soluble nor insoluble), the dyes of which reacts at a temperature of 210-215C0 . This temperature is provided in drying chambers by steam generated with thermooil. The fabric is washed to remove all the unreacted dyes from Polyester part and stains from cotton. For 2nd bath the fabric is again passed on through the same process but with different dyes (reactive dyes). The temperature desired for the reaction of reactive dyes is 150C0 .
The moisture of liquor of dyes is reduced in IR chambers where the temperature used to be about 1200-1300C0. The first three chambers are drying chambers those completely removes the moisture from the fabric and when the fabric passes into the first curing chamber (2nd last chamber), there is zero moisturizer in the fabric so the dyes reacts with the fabric.
Pigment dyeing is also used 100% Cotton fabric, the pigment does not penetrate into the yarn and thus the fabric but makes a layer over the fabric and fails to become a part of the fabric as in case of reactive dyeing.

A-c) Capacity of Thermosole

The average capacity of dyeing is 90,000 mtrs/days varying on the construction, speed and quality of the fabric.

A-d) Speeds for different qualities

Speed depends upon two factors; construction/quality of fabric and process of dyeing (Reactive, Disperse, VAT).
The speed used to be high in disperse, medium in reactive and low in VAT. (high, medium & slow are comparing with each other). For heavy qualities like 7/7 68x38 with gsm near 380, the speed remains in the range of 45 to 48 mtrs/minute, while for light qualities like 45/45 100x50 with gsm near 100, the machine is run at about 70 to 80 mtrs/minute. All the qualities lighter than 380 are run at more speed than the former case, and the heavier qualities than 100 are run at slow speed than in the later case.

A-e) Kinds of Stoppages

I) Electrical faults (like IR problem, drive error, dosing problem, computer held etc.) II) Mechanical faults (like problem in auto dosing, trough movement, balance of tension in rollers, air pressure, steam, thermooil etc.) III) Unavailability of fabric IV) Unavailability of batchers V) Unavailability of dyes VI) Cleaning of padder before running new shade VII) Late decision making in shade matching

B) Pad Steam

B-a) How It Works?

Pad steam, as evident from its name have a pad for chemicals and one steamer. There are also nine washers in the system, which removes the unreacted dyes from fabric after these are applied in thermosole. The solution is poured into the last washers through pumps and pipes, which is further passed on to the 2nd last (4th) washer and then to third and so on. The chemical pad and the steamers are used only for VAT dyeing while washers are used for all types of dyeing. There is a special class of dyes for VAT. These dyes do not react at any temperature given in the drying and curing chambers. That’s why heat with moisturizer (steam) is applied which helps the yarn to expand and the dyes could penetrate deep into the yarn. The chemicals in the trough of chemical pad help the VAT dyes to be fixed in steamer. The last process is drying; the fabric swatches are cut before winding to check the continuity of shade. The shade in left, center and right is also checked with the help of stitching the center on either side of attached left and right. This makes the variation in left center and right shades prominent while viewing in the customer’s specified light source mentioned in the route cards (like D65, TL84 and CWF).
B-b) Speeds for different qualities
B-c) Capacity of Pad Steam
B-d) Kinds of Stoppages


The lab is a check on each process/deptt as any process for its continuation needs confirmation from lab. Lab tests the quality of the process and for this purpose following tests are conducted;

Tests required for color fabric

I) Gsm II) Shrinkage III) Width IV) Skewness V) Tear strength VI) Tensile strength VII) Pilling VIII) Abrasion IX) Crocking (wet, dry) X) Washing fastness XI) Sewability XII) Data color report

Tests required for white fabric

I) Gsm II) Shrinkage III) Width IV) Skewness V) Pilling VI) Abrasion VII) Tear VIII) Tensile IX) Sewability X) Data color report XI) Whiteness

Tests required for PFD

I) Gsm II) Shrinkage III) Width IV) Skewness V) Pilling VI) Abrasion VII) Tear VIII) Tensile IX) Sewability X) Absorbancy XI) Tegewa XII) PH
Light Fastness; measures the affect of light on the shade and it takes 20 hrs to complete.
Pilling; measures the affect on fabric by rubbing on the same fabric, there are two types of pilling tests i) Pilling ii) Tumble pilling
Abrasion; there are two machines available to measure the abrasion i) Nu-Martindale abrasion ii) Flex abrasion
Data Color Machine is like photo spectrometer, measures the wavelength of color. It gives the measurement for both color standard and the dips prepared. With the help of this comparison it can be concluded where we are? Either on darker side or lighter side, redder side or yellowish side. Crocking; crockmeter measures the crocking by attaching a small swatch of white fabric with the bar, which moves horizontally on the fabric under consideration. The shade on the white is compared with the grey-scale visually and some specific number in the range of 1 to 5 is assigned. 5 is the best where there is no crocking or transfer of shade at all while 1 is very poor.


By viewing the color standard, some blends of dyes are prepared and the sample fabric given from marketing is dyed on the mini-thermo sole. There is also mini Pad Steam for VAT dyeing dips. The fabric is washed to remove the unreacted dyes and is dried and chemicals of respective chemical finishes are applied. The fabric is dried again and the shade of this fabric (dip) is compared with the standard in the light source as mentioned by the customer. Following the same way few options are prepared. This fabric is cut into different length and width swatches and are sent to Q.A, and Marketing. Marketing people gets the approval of any option from these options, and the approved option is considered as standard for production. But if the customer does not approve any of the option prepared, then some new options are prepared and sent to customer through marketing.


9 Stenter

A-a) Functions of Stenter

The stenter performs the following functions; I) Controls the PH by applying Invatex II) Controls skewness III) Controls bow IV) Controls the width V) Applies the chemical finishes (like Teflon, Soil Released, Resin etc.) VI) Heat sets the fabric

A-b) How It Works?

Skew, bow and width can be controlled in one cycle along with either applying invatex or chemical finish. For Teflon finish the invatex is applied before applying the Teflon chemical finish. There are nine spindles and ten chambers in the stentor along with skew-bow controller at the start. Spindles are used to control width and these are kept loose in the start, gets tighten gradually and looses again in the end. These spindles pass through the chambers, where the fabric over the spindles absorbs heat generated by the hot thermo oil in pipes. Temperature in the chambers is directly proportional to the weight (gsm) and remains in the range of 100-210C0 . The temperature gradually increases from 1st chamber to last one. The fabric is cooled down on the cool drums after getting out from the chambers and is winded over the batchers in the end. The length of chain is 70 mtrs on each side while the length of chambers is 30 mtr.

A-c) Speeds for Different Qualities and Finishes
Speed is inversely proportional to the weight of the fabric. It also depends upon the contents and finish of the fabric, but heavily depends upon the construction of the fabric. The stenter is run in the range of 40 mtrs/minute to 85 mtrs/minute varying with the gsm, finish and content of the fabric. Most of the fabric is run at the speed of 60 mtrs/minute.

A-d) Capacity of Stenters
Capacity varies with speed which in turn depends upon three other factors, but considering 60 mtrs/minute the average speed, the capacity is 85,000 mtrs/day of one stenter.

A-e) Kinds of Stoppages I) Lack of water (used for chemical solution) II) Electrical/Mechanical fault III) Air pressure IV) Thermo boiler V) Cleaning of rollers of pad VI) Unavailability of fabric VII) Batchers unavailable for winding VIII) Lab tests for samples IX) Sensor problem X) Compensator limit

12 Emerizing

Emerizing is the process of making the handfeel of fabric soft by rubbing the emri paper with fabric. This process raises the hair of yarn above the surface of fabric. Peaching and microsanding are alternatively used for emerizing.
There are two machines in the emerizing section; i) Lafer ii) Sucker Muller
Both machine operate differently for the same purpose-emerizing.

B-a) Lafer

In lafer, the fabric passes over the rollers, which are fixed on a drum in such a way that they can revolve around their relevant fixed axis. The drum also revolves around its fixed axis. The emri paper (composed of fabric with metal dots over it) is winded on each of the rollers. To create tension in the fabric, 4 rollers revolve over the top center of main drum. The fabric after rubbed from one side passes through these four rollers and is rubbed again by emri paper (winded on the rollers) on the other side.
After this microsanding the fabric is brushed (brushes are diagonally winded on the rollers) for the purpose of removing any fluff on the fabric. The beater beats the fabric to remove any fluff that remained even after brushing. This fluff is exhausted by the heavy air exhausts. The pressure (tension in the fabric) is increased in order to increase the peach. The rollers peaching the fabric revolves in such a way that one revolves in clockwise and the other in counter-clockwise direction.

B-b) Sucker Muller

Sucker performs the same function as does the Lafer but in a bit different way. Following are the differences of Sucker to Lafer i) There are four medium-seized rollers (instead of 24 small rollers in Lafer) ii) Ragmal is winded over the rollers instead of emri paper. These also run in clock wise and anti-clockwise direction after one another. iii) There is no any brush, so just beater beats the fabric to remove the tiny particles of fluff. iv) There is no batcher operator, but just the trolley operator

B-c) Speeds for Different Qualities
The speed of emerizing is dead slow as compared to the other machines in Bleaching, dyeing or finishing. The rang of speed is 5-30 mtrs/minute, but usually runs on about 10 to 17 mtrs/minute – depending on the quality and peach of the fabric. For heavy quality and heavy peach, the speed comes down. For heavy peach the speed is decreased and pressure on the fabric is increased so that it should be more rubbed with the rollers. For PC fabric the machine can be run at higher speed than for cotton. ▪ The average speed of Lafer is 13 m/min ▪ The average speed of Sucker is 10 m/min

B-d) Capacity of the Machines
Considering the average speed of Lafer and Sucker, the capacity is calculated as follows;
Lafer 13 m/min = 780 m/hr = 18720 m/day
Sucker 10 m/min = 600 m/hr = 14400 m/day
Total = 33120 m/day

B-e) Kinds of Stoppages I) Electrical/Mechanical fault II) Fabric unavailability III) Untimely decisions

C) Sanforizing

C-a) Functions of Sanforizing

Sanforizing machine performs the following functions; I) Controls the shrinkage (unsually in the range of 0% to 10%) II) Controls the skewness III) Controls the handfeel (stiff, soft)

C-b) How It Works?

The fabric comes in the J-box from the batchers, and is showered and damped to moist the fabric. It passes through Stretching unit of warp and weft, in case there is any problem in width. It controls the shrinkage of fabric

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