Free Essay

Herbal Textile


Submitted By bharat7992
Words 8277
Pages 34




This is to certify that the following student, Bharat Gupta has carried out the survey and study on “Herbal Textiles” and submitted this document in partial fulfillment of Undergraduate Program in Textile Design in the year 2014.

Dr. Reena Aggarwal Dr. Bhawana Chanana
(Course Coordinator) (Mentor)

I would like to give my greatest gratitude to the director of NIFT, Mrs. Nilima Rani for giving me this opportunity to learn various courses that would help me pursue my career as a textile designer. I would also like to thank the course coordinator of Textile Design, Dr. Reena Aggarwal, my mentor Ms. Bhawana Chanana and subject teacher, Ms. Bhawana Chanana for helping me and guiding me throughout the study for this document and helping me improve the quality of my research.

The expansion of textile production and consumption has led to an increased pollution, water shortages, fossil fuel and raw material depletion and climate change. Production of polyester fiber, the most widely used manmade fiber, consumes no renewable resources and high energy levels and generates atmospheric emissions. Also finishing of textiles consumes a large amount of water as well and energy. However, production of apparels is more environmentally friendly; still, outsourcing from low cost countries consumes more fuel for transportation. A throw away mentality has also been adopted by the consumers with the ongoing fast fashion and cheaper clothing trends.
In a nutshell, the world needs to move towards sustainable fashion in order to consume less and save for the future generations. Also the use of certain textiles and the process carried out on them are medically verified as harmful to the human body.
Ayurvastra, coming from the Sanskrit word “Ayur” meaning life and “Vastra” meaning dress. It’s the garment or the textile that ensures better health ad long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarns, jute, silk etc. are used to male Ayurvastra by dyeing them with desired herbs. Other processes are carried out on natural fabrics, which in turn contribute to one’s health and life. A need for the same has increased popularity around the world. A sustainable and beneficial textile, which certainly does, needs adaptation by the consumers all across the world.
Herbal textiles for fashion or for other uses of textiles, made beneficial to the human body in numerous manners is a all new culture all together which certainly does no harm to the environment making it highly sustainable. Also, it promotes the use of natural dyes over synthetic dyes. Similarly, also the use of natural and manmade eco friendly fibers over synthetic fibres. (source:


1. Introduction 6
2. Significance 7
3. Objective 8

4. Review Of Literature
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Principle
4.3. Background Art
4.4. Benefits of Herbal Textile
4.5. Enviromental Benefits
4.6. Manufacutring Process of Herbal Dyeing
4.7. Uses/Application

5. Research Methodology
5.1. Sample Selection
5.2. Sample Size
5.3. Tools Of Data Collection
5.4. Results
5.5. SWOT Analysis 34

6. Conclusion 44
7. Bibliography 45

The expansion of textile production and consumption has contributed to increasing pollution, water shortages, fossil fuel and raw material depletion, and climate change. Production of polyester fibre, the most widely used man-made fibre, consumes non-renewable resources and high energy levels, and generates atmospheric emissions. Modern automated textile plants consume large amounts of energy. Textile finishing consumes large amounts of water and energy and often produces harmful effiuent. Apparel production is more environmentally friendly, but sourcing from low cost countries consumes more fuel for transportation. Among consumers, the trend towards fast fashion and cheaper clothing has led to a throw-away mentality. Although recycling activity remains at a low level - for economic and quality reasons. Some retailers are also voluntarily attaching "eco-labels" to garments to provide environmental information. Although these have met with varying levels of success in the marketplace, they can encourage "best practice" in manufacturing. Some labeling schemes, such as the EU Ecolabel Scheme and its associated flower logo, adopt a full life cycle or "cradle to grave" approach while others, such as Öko-Tex, focus on a single aspect of an item such as its environmental attributes, social attributes, or individual phases of its life cycle. Other initiatives include REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) legislation which aims to encourage safe and eco-friendly chemical production.''' The Sanskrit word 'Ayur' means life and Vastra means dress. Ayurvastra is the garment that ensures better health and long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarn, jute fibre, silk, wool etc. are used to make Ayurvastra by dyeing them with the desired herbs in a controlled temperature and environment. Ayurvastra cloth is completely free of synthetic chemicals and toxic irritants and is totally organic, sustainable and biodegradable. The color of the Ayurvastra is gained from the medicinal preparation only and no other colorants are used. Resultantly, its property will last as long as the colour is there. The roots, fiowers, leaves, seeds and barks of around 200 herbs are used to make the dyes. Since the natural herbs are generally found in very beautiful shades, Ayurvastra is also becoming very popular for its colour properties. It has been proved that certain synthetic dyes used in garments are harmful to the human body. So garments carrying herbal property will be beneficial to the human body.

Herbal clothes, is an ancient technique of dyeing textiles in medicinal herbs. Organic clothing has been in India for over the last 5000 years. This came into existence from when Ayurveda or the uses of herbs have been practiced in India. When exposed to skin, the herbs are absorbed into the body and may function as a means of providing Ayurveda treatment for a broad range of diseases including diabetes, skin infections, asthma, arthritis, and hypertension. It is also known to strengthen the immune system. Organic garments are 100 percent organic, completely free of synthetic chemicals and toxic irritants, and biodegradable.
These herbals are used traditionally in Ayurvedic treatment and many medical applications. When this fabric is worn, the medicinal property of the fabric is then transferred to the skin, which is against the fabric.
It is now suspected that many of the synthetic dyes are carcinogenic in nature and have in life systems. Colorful dye can be extracted from flowers for dyeing textile fiber. These herbal dyes are not toxic, not allergic to human health, easily available and more economical. (Source: Ayurvedic herbs being used for medicinal purposes

The current situation insists there is a need to bring about a change in the way human is living his life. The constant increment in pollution, non-biodegradable chemicals and a subsequent and significant increase in health deterioration suggests a more eco friendly approach. An approach which helps in avoiding depletion of our surroundings.

Textile, today, is one if the basic need of human being. After the industrial revolution, use of synthetic dyes as well has manmade fabrics as multiplied by a huge fold. As a matter of fact, what is being used all around the world in large quantity is actually harming the environment. However, in recent years, textile industry has indeed taken a huge leap towards bringing about a more sustainable approach. Natural dyes and organic fabrics are being produced in full swing and are being adopted by producers as well as consumers.

Ayurvastra is the garment or the textile that ensures better health ad long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarns, jute, silk etc. are used to male Ayurvastra by dyeing them with desired herbs. Other processes are carried out on natural fabrics, which in turn contribute to one’s health and life.
Ayurvastra uses organic fibers which are also dyed in herbal dyes. Herbal dyes are extracted from herbs which have a medicinal property and are beneficial to one’s health by helping them prevent as well as cure numerous medical conditions.
The objective is to make people aware of what sustainability is and how an Ayurvastra is highly beneficial in terms of being eco friendly as well as beneficial to their health. The aim is spread knowledge about the how using herbal textile will not only help the environment but will also be beneficial to their health.


4.1. Introduction
Treats man as a whole which is a combination of bone, mind and soul.” Color has plays an important role in human life since Stone Age to present silicon age. Color application not only improves surface appearance of the substrate but also expresses emotion and ideas of the wearer. It is renowned for its philosophy and medicinal knowledge since ancient time. Herbs have a great medicinal nature & are a natural form of life. Those vegetable/natural plants, which have medicinal value, are known as “Herb”. The term “Natural Dye” refers to dyes obtained from plants, insects and mineral substrates and was used for dyeing textile material. The main natural dye substances used in India have been extracted from the roots, barks, stems, rinds of seeds, flowers and fruits of various dye-producing plants.
Herbal medicinal products and cosmetics are being widely used successfully worldwide. Herbs are well known for its medicinal properties, are used to prepare Ayurvedic Medicine, Herbal Beauty Products, Herbal toiletries, etc. Using the herbs for dyeing the textile can epitomize by general trends towards eco friendly dyeing.
With the influx of synthetic dye substitutes for natural dyes in 18th & 19thcentury, the natural dye has ceased in most part of the world. This is due to the fact that synthetic dyes were cheaper and the dyeing process was simpler. However in recent days vegetables dyes are being used along with chemical dyes and other chemicals in some of the interior parts of India mainly because of the color shades it gives and simpler dyeing technique.
Dyeing is one of the processes of decorating textiles with different dye stuff like natural or synthetic. Plants and herbs are the major source of the natural dyes and their parts, such as stems, wood, leaves, fruits and seeds etc, are used for extracting color components.
Natural dyes are known for their soft, lustrous colors and endurance. Even after a long period they retain a great beauty and charm. Originating from natural sources, they do not create any pollution problem and in some cases, the ‘waste’ obtained in the process becomes an ideal fertilizer.
Due to current eco- consciousness there has been a revival of inherent in eco-friendly natural dyes throughout the world. The application of herbal products on the textile substances is a very new concept. It gives a new direction towards the treatments of various diseases through textile industry.
Herbal Textile is dyed entirely with herbal extractions, without using any sort of chemicals. The herbs used are different from vegetable dyes as they are not only natural but also have medicinal value. These herbs are applied directly to the fabric with the help of natural ingredients, so that the medicinal value of the herbs can be kept intact. No chemical process is adopted while dyeing. Even bleaching of cloth is done naturally by exposing it to sunlight. The herbs also do not pollute the environment through contamination of water resources in areas close to processing units. All kinds of shades of red, yellow, brown, orange and green etc. can be prepared with the help of these herbs.
When the textile is dyed with the extractions obtained from various herbs, they are referred to as Herbal Textile. When the dyeing is done with herbal extractions, no chemicals are used in its dyeing process. Whereas, some chemicals such as copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate are used as catalysts when dyeing is done with vegetable dyes. So, herbal dyes are different from vegetable dyes as they also carry some or the other medicinal value.
The concept of herbal textiles is derived from Ayurvastra - a branch of Ayurveda, the ancient 5,000 year old Indian system of Vedic healthcare. Loosely translated, “ayur” is Sanskrit for health, “Veda” means wisdom, and “vastra” is cloth or clothing. Ayurvastra clothing is made from organic cotton fabric that has been permeated with special herbs and oils that promote health and cure special diseases depending upon the blends of embedded herbs and oils.
Since long time Ayurvastra cloth has been in use in the treatment of a broad range of diseases such as diabetes, skin infections, eczema, psoriasis, hypertension and high blood pressure, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, and even some forms of cancer. Ayurvastra clothing is believed to help restore balance within the body’s systems and strengthen the immune system
It is to be noted that 80% of pollution is connected directly or indirectly with textile. Industry survey from all over the world have revealed that in next 50 years, water & vegetation will become a rare commodity if the rate of pollution continues at the same pace. Hence, there is indeed an alarming needs to shift from synthetic textiles as well as dyes to a more sustainable and efficient textiles and dyes.

4.2. Principle

"Ayurvastra" is based on the Ayurvedic principle of direct touch with body pores. Regular contact with a cloth made from the yams infused with organic herbs and medicinal plant extracts wool Relieve metabolic disorders and threads a new line of healthy living. By coming in contact with Ayurvastra, the body loses toxins and its metabolism is enhanced.
Conventional Western medicine and traditional Eastern medicine recognize the skin as being the body's largest organ. Ayurveda identifies seven unique layers comprising the skin. Each layer has a distinct function and supports the layers about it. Starting at the outermost layer, the seven layers defined by Ayurveda are: Avabhasini, Lohita, Shweta, Tamra, Vedini, Rohini and Mamsadhara. The fourth layer, Tamra, supports the immune system and performs the function of acting as a barrier. According to Maharishi Ayurveda, "Skin infections refiect an imbalance in this layer." The skin can act as a barrier but also as a conduit for outside substances to enter the body. Many environmental toxins and chemicals in conventional clothing are assimilated into the body through the skin. Anything that can improve the skin's natural ability to block and resist harmful chemicals and toxins from entering the body wül be beneficial to health. The Ayur vastra cloth and clothing can improve the skin's ability to act as a barrier to external and environmental toxins, the wearer's health might be improved.'' ^ The most effective time to wear Ayurvastra clothing is when the body is most at rest such as during sleep or meditating because this is when the body is naturally healing and reestablishing balance. This is why Ayurvastra doth is often used for sleepwear, bed sheets, towels, meditation clothes and coir mats.

4.3. Background Art
The principal object of this invention is to make not only eco friendly textiles but to impart other medicinal values of herbs along with natural color of those herbs. Since dyeing is done by not only extracting color alone from the herbs, but other medicinal ingredients of herbs are also imparted on textile articles with color. This makes the textile article unique with not only natural color of herb, but also having other medicinal value of herbs on that textile article.
Practically human body is 24 hrs in contact with some or other textile article in day to day life. Therefore it should be important that textile should not be harmful to human body in any ways.
Synthetic chemical is used in dyeing the cloth. The principal object of this invention is to make more environment friendly textile material, moreover as the cloths are in touch with human body for 24 hours, it should not be harmful to the human body, not only that but it prevents and also cures number of diseases.
Presently in the textile market, synthetic chemicals are being used to dye the textile articles. In most of the textile Mills for dyeing, the article is processed under Machine; however, at small extent hand-operated dyeing is also adopted. In dying process, either the yarn or gray cloth is passed through the different stages. The stages are Desizing, Bleaching, Scouring, Mordanting, Dyeing, Washing, Color Fixing, Finishing the dyed material. Colors used for dyeing are obtained from synthetic chemicals or from vegetables plants along with chemicals to fix the dye.
Conventional chemical dyeing process developed about 80 years back. About 8000 hazardous chemicals are involved in conventional dyeing process. The tradition of dyeing the textile article with chemicals was started in Germany & Switzerland, after that slowly it was continuously used worldwide. The waste material of dyeing and printing, containing hazardous chemicals is dispatched in environment after finishing the process. Which pollutes the environment and natural resources by polluting soil, water & air? Which may be a source of some Skin related problems, Respiratory diseases, Cancer etc? Universally synthetic chemicals used to impart colors in fabric & yarn may invite harmful causative diseases, due to direct touch of chemicals with skin & directly transmit the same into human body.
In conventional chemical dyeing, the chemical structure constitutes amines, amongst which cancer producing 42 amines or chemicals may be present. These cancer producing chemicals (amines) when exposed to the environment enter into human body via skin, respiration or other transportable route; which may cause Skin Cancer, Throat Cancer, Blood Cancer and many of other Cancer along with skin related diseases.
Chemical dyed cloths are not advisable for Children, Pregnant Woman & Handicap, because it is most allergic to skin, hamper body respiration, is cancerous and Septic. In conventional dyeing process, chemicals used once to dye the cloths are repeatedly used for further dyeing to make color bright & fast.
Ten years back Eco-friendly and vegetable dyeing process started in market to compete with the Chemical dyeing process. Comparatively it has achieved a remarkable height. Eco-friendly dyeing process is less hazardous & beneficial as compare to conventional chemical dyeing. About 8000 chemicals are still in use for eco friendly dyeing but with restricted parameters. The process is totally machine based and does not harm the natural form of life & environment if followed as per norms. Amines are an important constituent of chemical structure, of which 22 banned cancerous amines excluded from the process. Azo free eco friendly dyeing process is presume to be less hazardous than conventional chemical dyeing. Thus it is Non Allergic, Non Cancerous, does not affect Body Respiration to that extent; hence advisable for Children, Pregnant woman and Allergic patients. However, degradable detergents are used to remove the dirt from cloths before dying process. Turmeric: The most widely used herb for herbal dyeing (Source:
A root of concept goes to 4000 years back. In Indian heritage the medicinal value of herbs and dyeing is also mentioned in “Vedas” and “Arthasashtra”. The technique was totally lost due to unavailable records. Novel herbal dye is extracted from natural medicinal plants. Herbal dye is used to impart natural color in cloths. Garments made from the said cloth when comes in direct touch with human skin, it will protect human skin from many diseases by transmitting medicinal value of the herbs to skin and into body by transpiration. Initial Laboratory test have already proved it and moreover, now a days the constant experimental work is in process to overcome other health problems.
The novel method of herbal dyeing to textile article is 100% natural and not a single synthetic chemical involved in dyeing process. In the novel method, there is no use of all banned amines (42 cancer producing chemicals) & detergents; so the dyeing process & herbal wear are totally Azo free. Herbal dyeing is eco friendly and modernized.
The waste of dyeing and printing process containing an herbal dye dispatched in the environment does not cause any type of pollution in environment, but on the contrary it may be useful as fertilizer and enhance the value of non fertile land.
Using herbs in novel process of dyeing the textile article gives protection against Cancer, Skin disease, Respiratory disease. It is having Antiallergic, Antiseptic and Antimicrobial functions. Herbal wear is advisable to all the age of people, children, handicapped and pregnant woman.
Preparing herbal cloths such as nightwear, fashion wear, Bandages, mask, sportswear, sheeting, undergarments, shirts, etc. helps in curing a number of diseases and shield the human skin by adding medicinal value of herbs to cloths. Herbal dyeing is applied to textile articles like: Raw fiber, Woven fabric, Knitted fabric, Non woven fabric, Stitched garment etc. Since all cotton material are cellulose based; hence wood, paper should be regarded as textile article. Textile article could be only or a blend of Plant fiber and Animal fiber. The raw materials for such textile articles include cotton, silk, wool, etc.

Herbal dyes used to obtain variety of colors either as single ingredient or plural. Natural colors applicable to herbal dyeing include coloring matters available from a large variety of medicinal plants such as: Myrobalans (Terminalia Chebula), Alum (Argilla vitriolutum), Neem (Indian Lilac), Indigo, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Brajil wood (Caesalponia Sappan), Onion (Allium cepa), Potato (Solanum Tuberosum), Indian Madder/Madder (Rubia Cordifolia, Rubia Munjista), Henna Plant (Lawsonia inermis, Lalba), Amaltas (Cassia Fistuin), Cateccu (Unsaria gambir), Lal Kashish, Saffron (Crocus Sativas), MeriGold (Galendula officinalis), Lime (Carbonate of Lime), Woad vat, Guar Gum, Peanut oil, Caster oil, Iron scrap, Apple Tree (Pyrus Malus), Jaggery, Sandal wood, AAL, Urine (stale), Kachuka Aata, Khar etc.

Medicinal effect derived from several herbs, are described below:
1. Neem: It is effective against cough & breathing problem, leprosy, eyes and skin diseases, kidney diseases, Asthma, Tuberculosis, acidity, Impurities in blood.
2. Indigo: It is effective against stomach related diseases, Heart diseases, kidney diseases, asthma, lung & mental disorders, Tuberculosis, skin diseases. It is antiseptic, antiallergic, insect repellent in nature.
3. Brajil wood: It is effective against acidity, cough, stone disease. It is a Blood purifier.
4. Onion: It is effective against cough, insomnia, acidity, skin & eye disease, Hysteria, Bronchitis, kidney disease.
5. Alum: it is effective against various kidney diseases, cough, plague, E & T problem, mouth ulcer, Asthma, cough, pain in ear, leprosy. It is Anti poisonous & has wound healing properties.
6. Myrobalans: It is effective against anemia, heart diseases, inflammation, stone diseases, breathing problems, perspiration, cough.
7. Pomegranate: It is effective against acidity, heart diseases, Body temperature, cough, throat & mouth inflammation, burning problems.
8. Indian Madder: It is effective against eye disease, paralysis, ear disease, blood impurities, cough, skin disease.
9. Henna: It is effective against eye disease, stone disease, jaundice, blood impurities, skin disease, mouth ulcer.
10. Turmeric: It is effective against cough, skin disease, anemia, acidity, worms in body, liver disease, jaundice, Bronchitis, wound healing.
11. Amaltas: It is effective against heart disease, E & T disease, eye disease, skin disease, constipation, stone disease.
12. Potato: It is effective against acidity, cough.
13. Cateccu: It is effective against pimples, cough, & mouth ulcer.
14. Saffron: It is effective against heart disease, liver disease, leprosy.
15. Marigold: It is effective against inflammation on breasts, cough, asthma, skin disease.
16. Lime: It is effective against constipation, impurities in blood and urine, inflammatory disease; tuberculosis.
17. Apple: It is effective against constipation, cough, rheumatism.
18. Caster Oil: It is having strong insect repellent properties, maintains temperature of the skin, easy in body transpiration.
19. Safflower: It keeps a cholesterol level law, Provides Ca++ and Vitamin F.
20. Peanut oil: It keeps nutritional value of the skin intact, provide freshness in the skin, high protein, hinder infections specially Tuberculosis and Hepatitis.
21. Sandal wood: It gives cooling sensation to skin, helps in curing skin itching, insect repellent.
22. Guar Gum: It helps in body transpiration, hinder body infection.
23. Jaggery: It helps in building Ca++ and good for bones.
24. AAL: It helps in solving breath related diseases, wound healing, Glucoside and morindin, it is blood purifier.
25. Urine: Provide nourishment to skin and opens pores of skin.
26. Kachuka Aata: Cure inflammation in skin and wounds.
27. Lal Kashish: It is oxidizing agent.
28. Woad Vat: It is effective against stomach related diseases, Heart diseases, kidney diseases, asthma, lung & mental disorders, Tuberculosis, skin diseases. (source:

Extracts of the above mentioned herbs are used as dye. Herbal dyes are extracted directly from herbal plant without use of alkali. The conventional chemical dyeing is not only hazardous but inferior in dye reception.
Herbal dyes are used in printing the textile article. Kachuka Aata or Guar gum are used as adjuvant in printing the textile article.
In the present herbal dyeing process, the cloth and yarn of textile article is passed through different stages: Desizing, Bleaching, Scouring, Galling, Mordanting, dyeing is applied to textile articles like: Raw fiber, Woven fabric, Knitted fabric, Non woven fabric, Stitched garment etc. Since all cotton material are cellulose based; hence wood, paper should be regarded as textile article. Textile article could be only or a blend of Plant fiber and Animal fiber. The raw materials for such textile articles include cotton, silk, wool, etc.
Herbal dyes used to obtain variety of colors either as single ingredient or plural. Natural colors applicable to herbal dyeing include coloring matters available from a large variety of medicinal plants such as: Myrobalans (Terminalia Chebula), Alum (Argilla vitriolutum), Neem (Indian Lilac), Indigo, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Brajil wood (Caesalponia Sappan), Onion (Allium cepa), Potato (Solanum Tuberosum), Indian Madder/Madder (Rubia Cordifolia, Rubia Munjista), Henna Plant (Lawsonia inermis, Lalba), Amaltas (Cassia Fistuin), Cateccu (Unsaria gambir), Lal Kashish, Saffron (Crocus Sativus), MeriGold (Galendula officinalis), Lime (Carbonate of Lime), Woad vat, Guar Gum, Peanut oil, Caster oil, Iron scrap, Apple Tree (Pyrus Malus), Jaggery, Sandal wood, AAL, Urine (stale), Kachuka Aata, Khar etc.



4.4. Benefits of Herbal Textiles
Herbal clothing can help reduce exposure to allergens and other irritants and give a comfortable feeling.

1. Manual farming and organic practices have a lower carbon footprint as the entire process consumes less fuel and energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to chemical textiles.
2. Not grown from genetically modified cottonseed.
3. Grown with natural rather than synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, no chemical defoliants used.
4. Eco-friendly processing that does not compromise workers' health and helps reduce water and electric use and toxic runoff.
5. Strict testing ensures the absence of contaminants like nickel, lead, formaldehyde, amines, pesticides and heavy metals.
6. People with allergies and chemical sensitivity especially benefit from organic cotton clothing, as conventional cotton may retain harmful toxic residues. Even if you don't have sensitive skin, organic cotton will just feel better against your skin.
7. Children are at greater risk for pesticide-related health problems. Organic Cotton though grown without using pesticides & insecticides is still dyed using hundreds of so called low impact chemical dyes adults. Millions of children in the US receive up to 35% of their estimated lifetime dose of some carcinogenic pesticides by age five through food, contaminated drinking water, household use, and pesticide drift.

Various of herbs used for dyeing fabrics.

4.5. Environmental Benefits

1. Improved soil fertility
2. Increasing cotton yields
3. Massive saving of precious water. This is important as cotton is a water-hungry crop, which can cause problems in areas without high natural water availability. It has a positive effect on the content of organic matter and helps to avoid soil acidification. It improves soil structure by increasing soil activity, thus reducing the risk of erosion
4. It promotes the development of earthworms and above ground arthropods, thus improving the growth conditions of the crop. Furthermore, organic crops profit from root symbioses and are better able to exploit the soil, and organic fields accommodate a greater variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.

4.6. The Process of Herbal Textile Manufacturing

The process of producing herbal textiles begins with 100% organic yarn / fabric and every step in the preparation of herbal cloth and clothing is carefully and precisely controlled and no chemical process is adopted while dyeing and processing the fabric. The process of herbal dyeing starts with the gray cloth passing through several stages of treatment before it becomes colorful and ready to wear. Fabric and yarns that can be used for herbal dyeing are certified organic cotton, natural cotton, silk wool, linen, jute, hemp and their natural blends.

1. Desizing : The washing of processed grey cloth starts with removing sizing, gums and oils used in the course of weaving by washing with natural mineral-rich water and sea salts.

Yarn is boiled for 1 Hour in solution of Sea salt/Khar salt (desi Papad, Suji) having natural minerals. Yarn is dipped in solution for 12 hrs-24 hrs. After Trumpling the yarn with hands or legs, washed it with clear water by thrashing on stone. Then it was kept for drying in sunlight by hanging upon Bamboo stick.

Yarn is passed through this process for removing the sizing, gums, oils, impurities and stains on it, which makes the yarn more absorbent for the herbals. In the said washing of yarn detergent is not involved.

2. Bleaching: The bleaching of cloth is done naturally by exposing it to direct sunlight, then it is bleached with biodegradable, naturally derived, organic cleaning agents and surfactants like Saptala (Acacia sinuata), Phenila (Sapindus mukorossi) etc. (source:

The dried yarn is now kept open in sunlight for 2-3 days by hanging on Bamboo stick. Water is sprinkled over it constantly at shorter intervals.

The yarn is now soaked in solution of either camel/buffalo/cow/sheep dung. The yarn is kept immerse for 12 hours in the said solution. Again the yarn is kept open in sun for drying, by hanging upon Bamboo stick for 4-5 hours. Constantly water is sprinkled over it at the shorter interval. The process is continued for 3-5 days, till required whiteness and softness in yarn is achieved. Camel/Buffalo/Cow/Sheep dung is used for both scouring and bleaching the yarn.

3. Mordanting : To make the colors bright and fast, natural mordants such as, myroballans, rubhabs leaves, oils, minerals, alum, bark of lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), kenduka (Diospyrose ebenum), fruit extracts of haritaki (Terminalia chebula), iron vat, etc, are used, but mordants like copper, chrome, zinc, tin, etc, are avoided due to the environmental reasons.
This is the process of giving fast & bright colors on textile article. Before preparing a yarn for dyeing, the yarn is passed through tannic acid (tannin) treatment and mordanting. Mordanting is performed before dyeing. Here, Myrobalans is a natural source (herb) of Tannin which can be used alone or with Alum salt, a natural source (herb) for mordanting. In the sense Myrobalans and Alum salt are used for color development and color fixing properties. Both can be used separately or together as per requirement of shade of color.

Galling: Yarn is well soaked in solution of Myrobalans (harde) for some time. Myrobalans solution is prepared in water by taking 30% Myrobalans/wt of yarn, Kept the yarn open for drying in sun by hanging upon Bamboo stick. After drying, the same process is repeated for at least 2-3 times. The yarn get a yellowish tint after this stage. This is also an process for mordanting by use of natural tennin.
Mordanting: Yarn is dipped in solution of Alum salt (7%-25% of Alum/wt. of fabric). Alumina is a substance of Alum salt. Alum salt is used as mordant for the fixation of dye on yarn. After this, yarn was ready for red dyeing. Other mordants like: Iron salts, Copper salts, Chromium salts, Tin salts, etc. are available from natural resources can also be used over & above the Alum salts for modifying the shade of dye produced. Iron is used as a mordant for the fixation of colors for Violet. Iron & copper vat is made from natural source as Jaggery, oil, copper & iron rich sources. Grass and Tea are natural source of Alum salt.
Dyeing: The organic cotton yarn or fabric is then dyed in a carefully controlled mixture of herbal dyes depending upon the disease or ailment being treated.The dyes used for dyeing herbal clothing comes by blending and carefully preparing different medicinal herbs, plants, flowers, roots and barks.The temperatures of the dyes, the duration and number of the dye soaks, the blend of herbs, and even the equipment used are carefully controlled.These herbs are applied directly to the fabric with the help of natural ingredients, so as to keep the medicinal value of the herbs intact.All kinds of shades of red, yellow, brown, orange and green, etc, can be prepared with the help of these herbs.



After mordanting the yarn when ready after above stated process, is boil at about 80° C. to 100° C. for 45 min-180 min in the solution of herbal dye of our desired color, until the color is fully absorbed. During boiling keep on rotating the yarn in herbal solution for even color penetration.

Preparing Dye Solution from the Extract of Herbs:
Dye is extracted from the herbs by soaking herbs in water (quantity of water about 15 to 20 times than wt of herbs) and boiled at 90° C. for 1.5 hrs-2 hrs. The solution is kept for overnight. It is strained through cloth to avoid unwanted dyes & bigger particles of herbs and other unwanted dust particles. Now the strained solution is ready as herbal dye solution. In preparing dye solution of turmeric the method is same as above but the temperature should be maintained at 60°C.The medicated cloth is allowed to cool and repeatedly washed to remove any loose particles and is always dried in shades.

5. Washing: Now the dyed yarn is washed in running water (river water or artificial) to remove unattached dye.

6. Color Fixation: Some time after Myrobalans treatment textile is also dipped in cold solution of required herbs.Now after giving a wash, the dyed yarn is kept for boiling in solution of “Dhavdi/Jajaku leaves” for 45 min-90 min. This step is used to fix the color of dye on yarn and increase the depth of color without using any synthetic chemicals. Further dyed yarn is washed and kept open in sun by hanging upon Bamboo stick for drying.

7. Finishing: The finishing process used after herbal dyeing is also organic and is given by sprinkling pure water on the cloth and then stretching under pressure, using hand rolls, aloe vera, castor oil etc.

Finally the dyed yarn is passed under finishing. In which the dyed yarn is kept in rice paste or sugar to give stiffness and shine.

Now the dyed yarn is ready. Each and every step of dyeing the silk and wool yarn is similar to cotton yarn. However; the care should be taken in case of animal fiber, not over boil the dyeing solution, as too much heating harms the quality of animal fibers.

8. Recycling Residue : The entire process is organic. It does not pollute the environment like synthetic dye. Solid and liquid waste is separated through the process of filtration and used for farming purposes - as a manure and for watering the fields and the waste is used as bio-manure and also to generate bio gas.

4.7. Uses/Application of Herbal Textiles

The most effective time to use herbal clothing is when the body is at rest such as during sleep or meditation because this is when the body is naturally healing and reestablishing balance. Skin is recognized as being the body’s largest organ. The skin can act as a barrier but also as a conduit for outside substances to enter the body. Many environmental toxins and chemicals in conventional clothing are assimilated into the body through the skin. Anything which can improve the skin’s natural ability to block and resist harmful chemicals and toxins from entering the body will be beneficial to health.
Keeping this in mind, herbal textile is often used in making bed coverings, undergarments, towels, meditation clothes, sleepwear, and other such garments that stay close to human skin so that all its benefits could be absorbed through the skin. The technology for making herbal clothing is also being utilized for making coir mats, mattresses, door mats and carpets. For coir mats, the fibers are first soaked in herbal dyes and then woven into coir mats.

The first showroom in Ahmedabad opened in 2012 and has organic cotton clothes, undergarments, Yoga apparels and Aura’s own SPA line
One of the major objectives of the colloquium was to find out about the awareness of Herbal Textiles. Do people know about herbal textiles and its benefits? In order to find out the same, a survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Since herbal textiles could be future of apparel industry, the appropriate samples for conducting the survey were students of National Institute of Fashion Technology from various centers. This would gove a better picture since the result would conclude the awareness about herbal textiles amongst the future of the industry.

Sample Selection: Students of a fashion college
Sample Size: 100
Randomly selected sample size for results: 25

Name…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Age:……………………………………………………………. Sex (M/F)………………………………………………………………………

1. How would you define sustainable fashion?
a) Whether the materials are sourced locally
b) Produced with a low Carbon Footprint
c) Fewer chemicals and water used
d) Don't know

2. Do you think if you knew more about the ethical issues in popular fashion brands this would push you to looking into buying from elsewhere
a) Yes
b) No If not. Why?...................................................................................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Have you heard of eco-friendly fashion?
a) Yes
b) No

4. Are you aware of ayurvedic textile?
a) Yes
b) No

5. If yes, are you aware of the benefits of herbal or ayurvedic wear to ones health?
a) Yes
b) No

6. From where did you learn about herbal wear?
a) Magazines
b) Internet
c) Newspaper
d) Friends
e) Others……………………………………………………………………………..

7. When looking at a buying a product is the price the most important thing you look at first?
a) Yes
b) No

8. Would you pay for eco fashion which also has medical benefits was cheaper?
a) Yes
b) No

9. Are you aware of any herbal wear brand?
a) Yes
b) No
If yes, what brands do you know……………………………………………………………………………………

10. Would you like to shift to eco fashion which will benefit your health by curing and preventing various medical conditions?
a) Yes
b) No

1. How would you define sustainable fashion? Whether the materials are sourced locally 3 11.5%
Produced with a low Carbon Footprint 8 30.8%
Fewer chemicals and water used 11 42.3%
Don't know 4 15.4%

2. Do you think if you knew more about the ethical issues in popular fashion brands this would push you to looking into buying from elsewhere Yes 17 65.4%
No 9 34.6%

3. Have you heard of eco-friendly fashion? Yes 25 96.2%
No 1 3.8%

4. Are you aware of ayurvedic/herbal textile? Yes 17 65.4%
No 9 34.6%
5. If yes, are you aware of the benefits of herbal or ayurvedic wear to ones health? Yes 10 41.7%
No 14 58.3%

6. From where did you learn about herbal wear? Magazine 2 9.1%
Internet 8 36.4%
Newpaper 1 4.5%
Friends 8 36.4%
Other 3 13.6%
7. When looking at buying a product is the price the most important thing you look at first? Yes 13 52%
No 12 48%

8. Would you pay for eco fashion which also has medical benefits if it is cheaper? Yes 21 84%
No 4 16%

1. Herbs used in Ayurvastra are known to cure allergies having anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory properties. Ayurvastra is extra smooth and good for transpiradon that helps in recovering various diseases. It may help treat a broad range of diseases such as skin infecdons, diabetes, eczema, psoriasis, hypertension, high blood pressure, asthma, arthrids, rheumadsm, and insomnia. . It can also relieve general body aches, stimulate weight loss, and strengthen the immune system. Ayurvastra can fiarther be used as an energy booster, mood enhancer, for overall well-being, calming, and blood purificadon and cooling.
2. Herbal dyes do not pollute like synthedc dye. Dye effiuent during herbal dyeing can irrigate agriculture (used as bio manure and compost), including human food crops and used to generate biogas.
3. The cloth is bleached with cow's urine, which has high medicinal value.
4. The dyeing gum too is herbal. Dyes are cerdfied organic by Control Union / SKAL. 5. The wide array of unique, naturally occurring colors cannot be duplicated with synthedc dyes, thus new shades can be developed. The cloth does not lose its effect even after constant use.
6. Use of herbal dyes improves the aesthedc quality of the cotton fabrics in the niost eco-friendly way. 7. A simple synthedc fabric will not degrade for at least 200 years whilst Ayurvastra naturally breaks down without damaging the environment. 8. Using plant derivadves for dyes promotes agriculture and provides income for farming families. Ayurvastra is a way to revitalize and increase the market for their handloom industries and to create a niche for their ecofriendly handloom fabrics. 9. Some of the environmentally conscious industries engaged in producing herbal texdles, make organically recycled textile paper bags by sdtching the leftover organic and herbal dyed fabrics which can counter the growing menace of plasdc bag polludon.
10. The Ayurvastra reinforces the importance of sustaining the planet for future generadons and for the well being of the current generadon using age old pracdces, which do not add up to global warming but helps in minimising

1. Natural Fabrics and dyes are poor subsdtutes for synthedc colors, in terms of range and tonal variadons.
2. It is very important to follow the care instrucdons during washing Ayurvastra. Use of organic soap recommended for washing Ayurvastra cloth. These should be washed separately with bleach-free detergent. For machine wash, gende cycle is recommended. The doth should be ironed with a warm iron; steam ironing is ideal; should be ironed to shape and dried in shade.
3. The process is very complex, manual and time consuming. The yam or fabric has to be dipped in medicinal extracts and herbal dyes using pot-boil system with special gumming process, then dried, mercerized and weaved sdtched or knitted in to different texdle materials.
4. Not all dresses are applied for same auments. The colour of the Ayurvastra is gained from the medicinal preparadon only and no other colourants are used. So we cannot give all colours for all diseases.
1. There is increasing demand for herbal textüe around the globe. Their affordabüity favours Ayurvastra. The lower cost producdon keeps the price of these texdles low. For example if a kilo of chemical dye average costs Rs.3500 per kg while this herbal dye can have by just Rs.l50 a küo. An Ayurvastra sari therefore is priced above Rs.300 as compared to silk sari going up to Rs. 15000.
2. The spread of Ayurvastra and Ayurveda into other cultures and regions of the world express the growing interest in more tradidonal and natural healthcare systems that are based upon restoring balance and health through natural methods rather than through Western medicines.
3. Globally, as many countries have been enforcing a ban on texdles that have been colored using chemical dyes, this had been a body blow to the handloom industry. At the same dme, textües dyed using natural vegetable dyes, espedaüy medicinal plants, have been commanding a huge market due to their obvious advantages.
4. Bulk producdon can be a possibility through innovadve techniques.

5. Capadty of dyeing evenly in length of over 1000mtrs of same shade through innovadve controlled machine reduces the requirement of Sun, running water etc. which is a must in any such natural process. 6. In 2005 a clinical evaluadon is conducted at the Govemment ayurveda college, Trivandrum under the supervision of the health department, Kerala on coir and textüe materials. The study proved to be very posidve in terms of medicinal properdes. Again in 2006 a study has been conducted on Therapeudc value of texdle materials alone and this too found to be posidve.
7. As Ayurvastra is environment friendly the huge impact it can have in the texdle industry is beyond explanadon. These not only prevent the diseases but also perk up the immune system in hviman body thus can be worn -by any and all as a general health product. It gives us the leverage to market this monopoly product with ease and the benefits.
8. It can be expected that vision of spreading this unique technology and thereby opening up a new arena of entrepreneurship, job orientadon and economical stabüity will be welcomed by the sodety as a whole.
9. Based upon the successful resiüts of this clinical trial, the Kerala State Govemment has inidated a more in depth and expanded study into the possible effecdveness of ayurvastra in other diseases including some cancers.^
10. A strong Ayurvastra market will hdp secure the livelihoods of local Indian ' farmers, weavers, and tribes. Ayurvastra producdon also encourages culdvadon and conservadon of medicinal plant biodiversity. It plays important role for women empowerment organizadon and advocate for the poor.
1. Some people claim that there is a side effect on children, as high levels of formaldehyde has toxic effects on chüdren.'-' But dll date not a single report of allergic reacdons to Ayurvastra has been registered.'
2. Although Ayurveda is herbal and non-cosmedc and has shown great results so far, it would be wrong to expect a mirade. In fact, unlüce andretroviral remedies, they would not show quick results. Apart from that, since they use a number of herbs, they may not also go along with the antiretroviral therapy. It is therefore; better, to go for proper consultadon, before opting for Ayurvedic medicinal methods.
3. Due to lack of avaüability of predse technical knowledge on the extracting and dyeing technique, it has not commerdally succeeded like the synthedc dyes.
Ayurvastra believes in restoring the balance within the body‟s system and strengthen the immune system. The various herbs used have well proven antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Various emergNatural extract impregnated wellness garments are hoping to tackle various diseases like hypertension, heart ailments, arthritis, asthma and diabetes with the herbal dyed bed linens, mattresses, healing herbal blankets, sun white towels, comforting apparels, aprons, night wears and so on. As the waste generated during the process also can be efficiently used as fertilizers, wellness fabric is purely a green technology that definitely soothes our souls. ing brands like „Ayurvastra‟, „Ayurganic‟ etc are developing herbal textiles can resist and fight against diseases.

Scope of Ayurvastra is endless and it is the way to keep people healthy. Ayurvastra principle is used to maintain good health and adopt a healthy way of life. Ayurvastra has been receiving increased awareness from many parts of the world. National government ministries and state government with the India consider Ayurvastra as a way to revitalize and increase the market for their handloom industries and to create a niche for their eco-friendly handloom fabrics.
The concept of dyes that are natural and improve the wearer's health is fascinating. Ayurvastra, life sustaining, eco friendly clothing is another feather in the ayurveda's cap. These are truly chemical- free, naturally dyed apparel featuring organic cotton and colors made from medicinally rich botanicals and herbs from India. Beautiful apparel with an exceptional hand and style can be produced with this. Allopathic medicine treats the symptoms whereas ayurveda the underlying causes. Ayurveda has proven a boon. Even Harvard and Yale universities are teaching this andent but modern health system their medical schools. It is time for the Indian government and textile industries to wake up and give urgent encouragement to support predous heritage of India.

i. Herbal Antimicrobial Finish for Cotton Fabric by Dr.G.Bagyiilakshmi, Ms.Kokilavani. Department of Textiles and Clothing, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore. ii. Antimicrobial activity of some natural dyes By : Kiyni Singh, Astha Jain, Shikha Panwar, Deepti Gupta, .S.K. Khare Dept. of Textile and Chemistry, IITD. iii. Natural dyes & its application by M.L. Gukajani & Gupta. iv.
v. vi. vii. viii. India today magazine, 2004 edition ix.
x. http:// xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. xviii. Application of Herbal Extracts for Antimicrobial Property By: R. V. Adivarekar, N. Kanoongo, M. Nerurkar & N. Khurana Source: The Journal of Textile Association xix. Herbal textiles: Green business, green earth!!! By :Deepak Kumar', Abhishek Srivastava^, Raghav Vidyarthi', Dharmendra Gupta'* & Abhishek Kumar^

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Herbal Tea

...economic condition and majority of the Filipino families have a small income so they cannot afford expensive or branded medicine. The researcher believed in the saying “Prevention is better than cure”, that is why she took the initiative of studying the acceptability of Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano leaves into herbal tea. Herbs are everywhere. They are available in a variety of forms; including fresh, dried, in tablets or capsules or in liquid form such as juice or tea. The leaves of Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano are abundantly found in the Philippines. The use of medicinal plants or herbs has been gaining popularity these past few years in the Philippines and worldwide as more clinical proof emerges that validates many of the age-old alternative medicines used by Filipino folks that have been passed on. The curative effects of the herbs were tested by traditional healers on their patient. The knowledge and skills on the curative application of any given herbal medicine has been handed down from generation to generation. In this study the researcher aims to produce Malunggay, Bignay, Ashitaba and Guyabano leaves into herbal tea. Background of the study Tea is known as the nature’s “wonder drug”. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world, exceeded only by the universal solvent – water. Tea is an integral part of everyday societal life in many of the world’s most populous countries. Ever wonder why the...

Words: 1035 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Synopsis, on Medicinal Plant of India’s vascular flora and constitutes the biggest spectrum of biodiversity used by people for a specific purpose (Hamilton et al., 2006). In fact, of the total pharmaceutical drug supply available worldwide, only 15% is consumed in developing countries (Lydecker et al., 1992), supporting the much-quoted WHO’s estimate that 80% of people worldwide rely on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare. The majority of these people are in developing countries, where rapid population growth is expected to increase pressures on medicinal plant resources. In the recent past the role of medicinal plants to cure various ailments has been reinvented. Increasing interest by multinational pharmaceutical companies and domestic manufacturers of herbal-based medicines is contributing significant economic growth of the global medicinal plants sector. However, unsustainable exploitation of medicinal plants has led to the extinction of many plants and many plants are on the verge of extinction. Internationally, the trade in medicinal plants is estimated to be worth $60 billion per year (World Bank, 2004) increasing at a rate of 7% a year (Koul and Wahab, 2004). However, very little of the raw material to supply this demand is from cultivated sources. Of the 3000 or so species known to be in international trade (Schippmann et al, 2006) there are approximately 900 for which commercial cultivation is underway or in development (Mulliken and Inskipp, 2006). Putting it another way, about 70-...

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Aboca, Case Study

...A. COMPANY INTRODUCTION 1. History and development Deriving name form a beautiful Tuscan village in the Valtiberina, Aboca S.s. was founded by Valentino Mercati in 1978 and has grown to become the leading herbal company in Italy since then. Aboca S.s manufactures herbs from its organic farms and using both in-house technologies and those developed in collaboration with numerous Italian and foreign universities in order to develop a vertically integrated agro pharmaceutical product line. Today Aboca capacity can cultivates more than 1700 acres. The farming processes are guaranteed to be organic, seed selection, planting, fertilization, and pest control, harvesting and cleaning. Aboca is the only brand that can achieve the optimum level of active principles (an herbal component that induces the therapeutic effect) in its products whereas over 20 chemists arein charged in its manufacturing and quality control laboratories. By having its own marketing design department and direct sales force, there attractive product packaging, in-store displays and advertising props make Aboca a favored supplier to pharmacies and herbal shops. Now Aboca is the supplier for over 7000 retailers in Italy. Moreover, Aboca maintains its quality leadership with an investment of 10% of its revenue into research and development. Such investment has led tomany inventions in new product lines and manufacturing processes of the brand. Today, like 30 years ago, the focus of Aboca is still on researching...

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Laau Lapaau

...La’au Lapa’au In this current day and age, technological advancements like antibiotics and medical instruments have taken precedence over things like home remedies and herbal healing leaving them practically obsolete. Through technology, many argue that we’ve been able to “improve” our overall health and extend our longevity. But through technology, many have lost sight tradition, the ways of our ancestors, the “organic” way of living. Taking a look back at our history, it’s clear to see that Hawaiians survived thrived even, off the land. It provided much more than just food, water, and shelter, it provided other things like medicine and healing. With the Hawaiian Islands being the northernmost Polynesian settlement and the most isolated, a unique and diversified plant life was able to develop. According to Gutamanis, before the initial contact in 1778, the Hawaiian culture was oriented around these ideals of harmony and interconnectedness. Hawaiians placed high value on the Hawaiian plants and were even called “gardeners” instead of farmers by Dr. E. S. Craighill Handy, one of the first people to study La’au Lapa’au in depth. Nowadays, many would agree that Hawaiian medicine was skillfully developed as they recognized the importance of both mental and physical health. In the same way, Abbott speaks on how Hawaiians placed diseases into 2 categories, causes from forces outside the body and causes from forces within the body. She continues on by saying that the first category...

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Business Management

...Succession Plan * Shahnaz Husain is one of the most successful entrepreneurs in India. Her company, Shahnaz Husain Herbals is one of the largest manufacturers of herbal products in the world which has employed about 4200 people in 650 salons, spread across 104 countries. * She developed an interest in beauty treatments and decided to study cosmetology. She trained extensively in cosmetic therapy for 10 years in some of the leading institutes of London, Paris, New York and Copenhagen which provided a boost to her company. * She returned to India in the year 1977 and offered Ayurvedic method of treatment especially. The products were environment friendly which attracted a lot of Indians. * She achieved growth due to the quality of her products and the result-oriented treatment she offered. She commented, “I have relied only on clientele feedback, based on clinical treatments and this is what has made the ranges truly unique and result oriented.” * In 1977, when she returned to India, she set up a parlor at her home in New Delhi. She had then put up a banner with her qualification on it which helped in advertising her brand. * Within days she was booked for the next 6 months. She then removed the banner and since then she never advertised. She let her products speak for themselves. Best Practice Management * Shahnaz Husain’s aim was to get India on the world beauty map as she felt terrible about the fact that India was never represented at any world beauty...

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...SQUARE SQUARE today symbolizes a name – a state of mind. But its journey to the growth and prosperity has been no bed of roses. From the inception in 1958, it has today burgeoned into one of the top line conglomerates in Bangladesh. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd., the flagship company, is holding the strong leadership position in the pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh since 1985 and is now on its way to becoming a high performance global player. SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Limited is the largest pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh and it has been continuously in the 1st position among all national and multinational companies since 1985. It was established in 1958 and converted into a public limited company in 1991. The sales turnover of SPL was more than Taka 7.5 Billion (US$ 107.91 million) with about 16.92% market share (April 2006– March 2007) having a growth rate of about 23.17%. History of SQUARE Group |1958 :  | |Debut of Square Pharma as a Partnership Firm. | | | |1964 :  | |Converted into a Private Limited Company. | | ...

Words: 1683 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Bangladesh Garments Export

...Bangladesh garment exports boom despite disasters Published July 09, 2013 AFP * In this photograph taken on June 23, 2010, Bangladeshi women sew clothes in a garment factory in Ashulia. Output from Bangladesh's accident-prone garment sector has increased in June, with demand from foreign retailers still growing despite the country's factory disaster in April. (AFP/File) DHAKA (AFP) –  Output from Bangladesh's accident-prone garment sector increased in June, data showed Tuesday, with demand from foreign retailers still growing despite the country's factory disaster in April. At least 1,129 people were killed when the Rana Plaza factory complex collapsed outside the capital Dhaka in April, sparking demonstrations against Western brands and prompting some retailers to threaten to cancel orders. Government data released on Tuesday showed that the country's total exports -- 80 percent of which come from the garment sector -- soared by 16 percent year-on-year in June to $2.7 billion, following an increase of 15 percent in May. "The disasters didn't have much impact. They are scattered incidents," head of the government's Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) Shuvhashish Bose told AFP, referring to the Rana Plaza tragedy and other factory fires that have killed another 130 workers since November. Total exports from Bangladesh, the second-biggest clothing manufacturer in the world after China, grew by 11 percent to a record $27.02 billion in the 2012-13 financial year to June. ...

Words: 18334 - Pages: 74

Free Essay


...------------------------------------------------- The Himalaya Drug Company From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The-Himalaya-Drug-Company-Logo The Himalaya Drug Company | Introduced | 1930 | Markets | Global | Website | | The Himalaya Drug Company was founded in 1930 by Mr. M. Manal with a vision to bring Ayurveda to society in a contemporary form and to unravel the mystery behind the 5,000 year old system of medicine. Himalaya’s product range includes: pharmaceutical, personal care, baby care,animal health and nutrition. Himalaya Global Holdings Ltd. (HGH), located at the Dubai International Financial Centre, is the parent of The Himalaya Drug Company worldwide. It is also the global headquarters of all Himalaya subsidiaries.[1] Company Profile: Eighty three years ago, on a visit to Burma (Myanmar), Mr. Manal saw restless elephants being fed with a root to pacify them. The plant from which this root was taken was Rauwolfia serpentina. Fascinated by the plant's effect on elephants, he had it scientifically evaluated. After extensive research, Serpina, the world's first anti-hypertensive drug, was launched in 1934 ans is sold till today. The premise of researching nature forms the foundation of Himalaya’s operations. Himalaya pioneered used modern science to rediscover and validate Ayurvedic principles. Since its inception, the company has focused on developing safe and natural remedies to address a variety of ailments. Today...

Words: 3448 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

A Pair of Stockings

...This story today is called "A Pair of Silk Stockings." It was written by Kate Chopin Little Mrs. Sommers suddenly acquires fifteen dollars, which seems like a large amount to her. Feeling important and wealthy, she considers how to invest her money, feeling that she must carefully spend the money. During the night, she thinks of a sensible use for the money. She determines that she should spend a dollar or two extra for Janie's shoes, so that they will last longer and be of better quality, and she plans to buy some fabric for her children's clothing. After that, she will still have enough money for new stockings and hats for everyone, which pleases her because her children will have new clothing for the first time in a while. Mrs. Sommers used to have more money long ago, before her marriage, but she does not worry about the past or the future, focusing mostly on the present. Mrs. Sommers is used to cheap purchase, but today she is tired and forgets to eat lunch. While sitting on a stool to rest before her shopping, she realizes that her hand has brushed against a pair of two-dollar silk stockings. She continues to feel the splendid fabric and asks the shop girl for a pair in her size. After choosing a black pair of stockings, Mrs. Sommers buys them and goes directly to the ladies' waiting room to change. For once, she abandons thinking about responsibility or about why she is so satisfied at her purchase. She sits in the room for a while, reveling in her stockings...

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...then it is skimmed. New bio-engineering technique is then applied to make a protein spinning fluid. This fluid is suitable for wet spinning process through which the final high-grade textile fiber is made. While spinning, a solvent is used by most of the manufacturers and micro-zinc ion is embedded in the fiber which gives it the characteristics of being bacteriostatic and durable. It combines the advantages of both, natural as well as synthetic fibers. Milk protein fiber is a kind of fresh fiber that has very healthy functions. It contains eighteen amino-acids, which are beneficial to human health. It can be spun alone or with cashmere, silk, spun silk, cotton, wool, ramie and other fibers to make fabrics. The fabrics made of these fibers nourish and take care of skin in a very efficient manner by keeping away allergies and even wrinkles. The fabrics made from milk yarn are primarily used in manufacturing kidswear, top-grade underwear, shirts, T shirts, loungewear, etc. Characteristics of Milk Yarn The milk yarn has got many properties that are enough to make it one of the most sought after fabrics of the future. - The natural protein humectant factor is present in the milk fiber, which makes skin more delicate and smooth. As such Fabrics made of milk yarns are suitable for household textiles. - The amino acids...

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Once Upon a Time

...Well once again:) before Julia lived happily ever after with my dearly beloved wifey, she was living i a world born of yarn and cotton~ Little Julia would swing around all day among the cotton trees swinging from yarn vine to yarn vine And the big button of a sun would light up the comfy little world:) One day, she noticed a strange little hole in the fabric of her world>< Julia decides to see if she could mend the hole But just as she went nearer, the hole sucks her in and POOF!! The hole sealed up behind her She was in a dark place as she found herself on a soft landing Somehow the darkness frightened her and she cuddled with the softness of her surroundings and laid there hoping she was in a bad dream Hours passed and soon some clinking noises were heard, much too foreign to Julia's soft fabric ears The lights came up, and she found herself among similar looking monkeys just like her, and it frightened her a little She froze and prayed hard as she had been thrown into a strange new world and feels totally insecure Just then a dashing looking giant came and looked at her gently She could feel something warm in her little cotton heart Feeling secure with the giant she wanted to move and reach out to the giant but somehow she couldnt move a muscle Worried the giant would leave she began to panic To her relief the giant pick her up gently and brought her with him:) she was so relief that she was saved from the strange place and even though she isnt back...

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Greetings! We, the fourth year BS Accountancy students from the University of Santo Tomas, currently enrolled in the course, Thesis Writing (Thesis 1), are conducting a research study entitled “The Cost-benefit Analysis of the Use of Natural Dyes, Multi-cyclone and Water Scrubber System in the Boiler and Water Treatment Plants of a Textile Finishing Corporation in the Philippines.” Your Company’s Name (Optional): Number of years of being a customer of Just Textile Finishing Corporation: Four years and above Less than one year One to three years Last Transaction with Just Textile Finishing Corporation: Less than one month ago 6 - 12 months ago 1 - 6 months ago More than a year ago Are you aware that Just Textile Finishing Corporation is already using Natural Dyes in dyeing fabrics? Yes No Not concerned Do you prefer the use of natural dyes instead of synthetic dyes in dyeing fabrics? Yes No Not concerned Directions:Below are statements with which you may indicate your answer by encircling the appropriate number. A scale of 1 to 5 has been used. | Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided ...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...SELECTING FABRICS, COLORS, AND SUSTAINABLE FLOORING Charita Y Parker ID121Rp Donna Pennella February 4,2013 Flooring Living Room I chose the Bamboo flooring foe the living room area because it is a truly sustainable harvested grass that regenerates at a speed faster than hardwood. Bamboo mature rapidly but harvesting does not kill the plant. Duro-design uses only fully mature Moso bamboo which is selected for superior strength and maximum hardness. I think it fits in to my overall concept because I believe wood flooring is traditional. Duro Design Ash Brown bamboo flooring Flooring Bedroom I chose carpet for the bedroom because carpet is a natural insulator. Using it in a wall to wall application increases the R-Value or insulation level of the carpet area. Having carpet helps you save money on your utility cost while reducing energy. Clear Tech Filament PET Caret id the sustainable soft flooring I chose because it is made form recycled plastic bottles. It has the attributes of polyester as well as exceptional performance characteristics such as excellent appearance retention and longterm wear.( Shaw Floor 00244 Maple Flooring for Hobby Area I chose the same flooring in the Hobby area as I did in the Living Room Duro Design Ash brown bamboo flooring Color Selection for Living Room SHERWIN WILLIAMS- ANTIGUITY WALL COLOR SW6402 I CHOSE THESE COLORS FOR THE LIVING ROOM BECAUSE THE CLIENT LIKES EARTHY COLORS , SO I TRIED MY BEST TO STAY...

Words: 1019 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...The main objective of their marketing activities is to react swiftly: Zara is able to design, produce and deliver the product to the customer in just one month. The main reason for this is that Zara does not forecast the designed clothing. Fabrics and garments are the only materials to be purchased on the basis of forecasts. Their main strength is to capture real-time information on the shop floor and develop designs on the basis of this information: so-called ‘commercial managers’ conceptualize the type of garments and the kind of fabric it will be made off. Based on this real-time information, garments and its technical specifications are prepared in strong collaboration with other departments along the supply chain. In doing so, the final design is ‘assembled’ on the basis of current customer demand. This gives Zara a strong competitive advantage since they integrated the product development with up-to date marketing activities and information. Also, Zara does not invest in expensive commercials or campaigns. Most of Zara’s marketing budget is spent on information technology and communications to keep ahead of day-to-day trend information. This gives the supply chain flexibility and a competitive advantage. Another important differentiator is that Zara puts more emphasis on offering different styles rather then increasing the volume per item. The flexible supply chain can produce quickly enough, so large numbers in stock does not add value. Their suppliers are found in...

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...RAFI, the General Manager of MUHAMMAD RAFI GARMENT INDUSTRIES (PVT) LTD, Lahore Pakistan was trying to implement a management information system. He was facing resistance from Mr. Kashif, his most senior Supervisor. MR. ZAHID RAFI wondered what he could do to overcome this resistance. Company Background Westward Exports was an exporter of ladies cotton garments. It was a private company established in 1971. It was a family run business and all four directors were brothers. Over the past fourteen years the exports of the company had grown from Rs. 0.71 million in 1972-73 to Rs. 59.76 million in 1984. Almost 90% of the exports went to USA. It owned no manufacturing facility of any kind. It purchased cotton cloth from six different textile mills and had the cloth dyed and printed. This fabric was then passed on to 138 stitching subcontractors. The company had been expanding the product line over the years and by 1983 it was exporting about one million garments in over one hundred basic designs. The 100 designs were presented in a large of fabric types, shades, designs and sizes. When seen in the context that the company had to get all these things done through subcontractors, the managerial control of the operations became quite challenging. The directors who had always been actively involved in each and every aspect of the business, and made all the decisions by themselves, felt the heat of changing situations. They appreciated the problem and decided to hire some...

Words: 852 - Pages: 4