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Herbal Textile

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This is to certify that the following student, Bharat Gupta has carried out the survey and study on “Herbal Textiles” and submitted this document in partial fulfillment of Undergraduate Program in Textile Design in the year 2014.

Dr. Reena Aggarwal Dr. Bhawana Chanana
(Course Coordinator) (Mentor)

I would like to give my greatest gratitude to the director of NIFT, Mrs. Nilima Rani for giving me this opportunity to learn various courses that would help me pursue my career as a textile designer. I would also like to thank the course coordinator of Textile Design, Dr. Reena Aggarwal, my mentor Ms. Bhawana Chanana and subject teacher, Ms. Bhawana Chanana for helping me and guiding me throughout the study for this document and helping me improve the quality of my research.

The expansion of textile production and consumption has led to an increased pollution, water shortages, fossil fuel and raw material depletion and climate change. Production of polyester fiber, the most widely used manmade fiber, consumes no renewable resources and high energy levels and generates atmospheric emissions. Also finishing of textiles consumes a large amount of water as well and energy. However, production of apparels is more environmentally friendly; still, outsourcing from low cost countries consumes more fuel for transportation. A throw away mentality has also been adopted by the consumers with the ongoing fast fashion and cheaper clothing trends.
In a nutshell, the world needs to move towards sustainable fashion in order to consume less and save for the future generations. Also the use of certain textiles and the process carried out on them are medically verified as harmful to the human body.
Ayurvastra, coming from the Sanskrit word “Ayur” meaning life and “Vastra” meaning dress. It’s the garment or the textile that ensures better health ad long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarns, jute, silk etc. are used to male Ayurvastra by dyeing them with desired herbs. Other processes are carried out on natural fabrics, which in turn contribute to one’s health and life. A need for the same has increased popularity around the world. A sustainable and beneficial textile, which certainly does, needs adaptation by the consumers all across the world.
Herbal textiles for fashion or for other uses of textiles, made beneficial to the human body in numerous manners is a all new culture all together which certainly does no harm to the environment making it highly sustainable. Also, it promotes the use of natural dyes over synthetic dyes. Similarly, also the use of natural and manmade eco friendly fibers over synthetic fibres. (source:


1. Introduction 6
2. Significance 7
3. Objective 8

4. Review Of Literature
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Principle
4.3. Background Art
4.4. Benefits of Herbal Textile
4.5. Enviromental Benefits
4.6. Manufacutring Process of Herbal Dyeing
4.7. Uses/Application

5. Research Methodology
5.1. Sample Selection
5.2. Sample Size
5.3. Tools Of Data Collection
5.4. Results
5.5. SWOT Analysis 34

6. Conclusion 44
7. Bibliography 45

The expansion of textile production and consumption has contributed to increasing pollution, water shortages, fossil fuel and raw material depletion, and climate change. Production of polyester fibre, the most widely used man-made fibre, consumes non-renewable resources and high energy levels, and generates atmospheric emissions. Modern automated textile plants consume large amounts of energy. Textile finishing consumes large amounts of water and energy and often produces harmful effiuent. Apparel production is more environmentally friendly, but sourcing from low cost countries consumes more fuel for transportation. Among consumers, the trend towards fast fashion and cheaper clothing has led to a throw-away mentality. Although recycling activity remains at a low level - for economic and quality reasons. Some retailers are also voluntarily attaching "eco-labels" to garments to provide environmental information. Although these have met with varying levels of success in the marketplace, they can encourage "best practice" in manufacturing. Some labeling schemes, such as the EU Ecolabel Scheme and its associated flower logo, adopt a full life cycle or "cradle to grave" approach while others, such as Öko-Tex, focus on a single aspect of an item such as its environmental attributes, social attributes, or individual phases of its life cycle. Other initiatives include REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) legislation which aims to encourage safe and eco-friendly chemical production.''' The Sanskrit word 'Ayur' means life and Vastra means dress. Ayurvastra is the garment that ensures better health and long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarn, jute fibre, silk, wool etc. are used to make Ayurvastra by dyeing them with the desired herbs in a controlled temperature and environment. Ayurvastra cloth is completely free of synthetic chemicals and toxic irritants and is totally organic, sustainable and biodegradable. The color of the Ayurvastra is gained from the medicinal preparation only and no other colorants are used. Resultantly, its property will last as long as the colour is there. The roots, fiowers, leaves, seeds and barks of around 200 herbs are used to make the dyes. Since the natural herbs are generally found in very beautiful shades, Ayurvastra is also becoming very popular for its colour properties. It has been proved that certain synthetic dyes used in garments are harmful to the human body. So garments carrying herbal property will be beneficial to the human body.

Herbal clothes, is an ancient technique of dyeing textiles in medicinal herbs. Organic clothing has been in India for over the last 5000 years. This came into existence from when Ayurveda or the uses of herbs have been practiced in India. When exposed to skin, the herbs are absorbed into the body and may function as a means of providing Ayurveda treatment for a broad range of diseases including diabetes, skin infections, asthma, arthritis, and hypertension. It is also known to strengthen the immune system. Organic garments are 100 percent organic, completely free of synthetic chemicals and toxic irritants, and biodegradable.
These herbals are used traditionally in Ayurvedic treatment and many medical applications. When this fabric is worn, the medicinal property of the fabric is then transferred to the skin, which is against the fabric.
It is now suspected that many of the synthetic dyes are carcinogenic in nature and have in life systems. Colorful dye can be extracted from flowers for dyeing textile fiber. These herbal dyes are not toxic, not allergic to human health, easily available and more economical. (Source: Ayurvedic herbs being used for medicinal purposes

The current situation insists there is a need to bring about a change in the way human is living his life. The constant increment in pollution, non-biodegradable chemicals and a subsequent and significant increase in health deterioration suggests a more eco friendly approach. An approach which helps in avoiding depletion of our surroundings.

Textile, today, is one if the basic need of human being. After the industrial revolution, use of synthetic dyes as well has manmade fabrics as multiplied by a huge fold. As a matter of fact, what is being used all around the world in large quantity is actually harming the environment. However, in recent years, textile industry has indeed taken a huge leap towards bringing about a more sustainable approach. Natural dyes and organic fabrics are being produced in full swing and are being adopted by producers as well as consumers.

Ayurvastra is the garment or the textile that ensures better health ad long life. Normal fabrics like organically grown cotton yarns, jute, silk etc. are used to male Ayurvastra by dyeing them with desired herbs. Other processes are carried out on natural fabrics, which in turn contribute to one’s health and life.
Ayurvastra uses organic fibers which are also dyed in herbal dyes. Herbal dyes are extracted from herbs which have a medicinal property and are beneficial to one’s health by helping them prevent as well as cure numerous medical conditions.
The objective is to make people aware of what sustainability is and how an Ayurvastra is highly beneficial in terms of being eco friendly as well as beneficial to their health. The aim is spread knowledge about the how using herbal textile will not only help the environment but will also be beneficial to their health.


4.1. Introduction
Treats man as a whole which is a combination of bone, mind and soul.” Color has plays an important role in human life since Stone Age to present silicon age. Color application not only improves surface appearance of the substrate but also expresses emotion and ideas of the wearer. It is renowned for its philosophy and medicinal knowledge since ancient time. Herbs have a great medicinal nature & are a natural form of life. Those vegetable/natural plants, which have medicinal value, are known as “Herb”. The term “Natural Dye” refers to dyes obtained from plants, insects and mineral substrates and was used for dyeing textile material. The main natural dye substances used in India have been extracted from the roots, barks, stems, rinds of seeds, flowers and fruits of various dye-producing plants.
Herbal medicinal products and cosmetics are being widely used successfully worldwide. Herbs are well known for its medicinal properties, are used to prepare Ayurvedic Medicine, Herbal Beauty Products, Herbal toiletries, etc. Using the herbs for dyeing the textile can epitomize by general trends towards eco friendly dyeing.
With the influx of synthetic dye substitutes for natural dyes in 18th & 19thcentury, the natural dye has ceased in most part of the world. This is due to the fact that synthetic dyes were cheaper and the dyeing process was simpler. However in recent days vegetables dyes are being used along with chemical dyes and other chemicals in some of the interior parts of India mainly because of the color shades it gives and simpler dyeing technique.
Dyeing is one of the processes of decorating textiles with different dye stuff like natural or synthetic. Plants and herbs are the major source of the natural dyes and their parts, such as stems, wood, leaves, fruits and seeds etc, are used for extracting color components.
Natural dyes are known for their soft, lustrous colors and endurance. Even after a long period they retain a great beauty and charm. Originating from natural sources, they do not create any pollution problem and in some cases, the ‘waste’ obtained in the process becomes an ideal fertilizer.
Due to current eco- consciousness there has been a revival of inherent in eco-friendly natural dyes throughout the world. The application of herbal products on the textile substances is a very new concept. It gives a new direction towards the treatments of various diseases through textile industry.
Herbal Textile is dyed entirely with herbal extractions, without using any sort of chemicals. The herbs used are different from vegetable dyes as they are not only natural but also have medicinal value. These herbs are applied directly to the fabric with the help of natural ingredients, so that the medicinal value of the herbs can be kept intact. No chemical process is adopted while dyeing. Even bleaching of cloth is done naturally by exposing it to sunlight. The herbs also do not pollute the environment through contamination of water resources in areas close to processing units. All kinds of shades of red, yellow, brown, orange and green etc. can be prepared with the help of these herbs.
When the textile is dyed with the extractions obtained from various herbs, they are referred to as Herbal Textile. When the dyeing is done with herbal extractions, no chemicals are used in its dyeing process. Whereas, some chemicals such as copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate are used as catalysts when dyeing is done with vegetable dyes. So, herbal dyes are different from vegetable dyes as they also carry some or the other medicinal value.
The concept of herbal textiles is derived from Ayurvastra - a branch of Ayurveda, the ancient 5,000 year old Indian system of Vedic healthcare. Loosely translated, “ayur” is Sanskrit for health, “Veda” means wisdom, and “vastra” is cloth or clothing. Ayurvastra clothing is made from organic cotton fabric that has been permeated with special herbs and oils that promote health and cure special diseases depending upon the blends of embedded herbs and oils.
Since long time Ayurvastra cloth has been in use in the treatment of a broad range of diseases such as diabetes, skin infections, eczema, psoriasis, hypertension and high blood pressure, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, and even some forms of cancer. Ayurvastra clothing is believed to help restore balance within the body’s systems and strengthen the immune system
It is to be noted that 80% of pollution is connected directly or indirectly with textile. Industry survey from all over the world have revealed that in next 50 years, water & vegetation will become a rare commodity if the rate of pollution continues at the same pace. Hence, there is indeed an alarming needs to shift from synthetic textiles as well as dyes to a more sustainable and efficient textiles and dyes.

4.2. Principle

"Ayurvastra" is based on the Ayurvedic principle of direct touch with body pores. Regular contact with a cloth made from the yams infused with organic herbs and medicinal plant extracts wool Relieve metabolic disorders and threads a new line of healthy living. By coming in contact with Ayurvastra, the body loses toxins and its metabolism is enhanced.
Conventional Western medicine and traditional Eastern medicine recognize the skin as being the body's largest organ. Ayurveda identifies seven unique layers comprising the skin. Each layer has a distinct function and supports the layers about it. Starting at the outermost layer, the seven layers defined by Ayurveda are: Avabhasini, Lohita, Shweta, Tamra, Vedini, Rohini and Mamsadhara. The fourth layer, Tamra, supports the immune system and performs the function of acting as a barrier. According to Maharishi Ayurveda, "Skin infections refiect an imbalance in this layer." The skin can act as a barrier but also as a conduit for outside substances to enter the body. Many environmental toxins and chemicals in conventional clothing are assimilated into the body through the skin. Anything that can improve the skin's natural ability to block and resist harmful chemicals and toxins from entering the body wül be beneficial to health. The Ayur vastra cloth and clothing can improve the skin's ability to act as a barrier to external and environmental toxins, the wearer's health might be improved.'' ^ The most effective time to wear Ayurvastra clothing is when the body is most at rest such as during sleep or meditating because this is when the body is naturally healing and reestablishing balance. This is why Ayurvastra doth is often used for sleepwear, bed sheets, towels, meditation clothes and coir mats.

4.3. Background Art
The principal object of this invention is to make not only eco friendly textiles but to impart other medicinal values of herbs along with natural color of those herbs. Since dyeing is done by not only extracting color alone from the herbs, but other medicinal ingredients of herbs are also imparted on textile articles with color. This makes the textile article unique with not only natural color of herb, but also having other medicinal value of herbs on that textile article.
Practically human body is 24 hrs in contact with some or other textile article in day to day life. Therefore it should be important that textile should not be harmful to human body in any ways.
Synthetic chemical is used in dyeing the cloth. The principal object of this invention is to make more environment friendly textile material, moreover as the cloths are in touch with human body for 24 hours, it should not be harmful to the human body, not only that but it prevents and also cures number of diseases.
Presently in the textile market, synthetic chemicals are being used to dye the textile articles. In most of the textile Mills for dyeing, the article is processed under Machine; however, at small extent hand-operated dyeing is also adopted. In dying process, either the yarn or gray cloth is passed through the different stages. The stages are Desizing, Bleaching, Scouring, Mordanting, Dyeing, Washing, Color Fixing, Finishing the dyed material. Colors used for dyeing are obtained from synthetic chemicals or from vegetables plants along with chemicals to fix the dye.
Conventional chemical dyeing process developed about 80 years back. About 8000 hazardous chemicals are involved in conventional dyeing process. The tradition of dyeing the textile article with chemicals was started in Germany & Switzerland, after that slowly it was continuously used worldwide. The waste material of dyeing and printing, containing hazardous chemicals is dispatched in environment after finishing the process. Which pollutes the environment and natural resources by polluting soil, water & air? Which may be a source of some Skin related problems, Respiratory diseases, Cancer etc? Universally synthetic chemicals used to impart colors in fabric & yarn may invite harmful causative diseases, due to direct touch of chemicals with skin & directly transmit the same into human body.
In conventional chemical dyeing, the chemical structure constitutes amines, amongst which cancer producing 42 amines or chemicals may be present. These cancer producing chemicals (amines) when exposed to the environment enter into human body via skin, respiration or other transportable route; which may cause Skin Cancer, Throat Cancer, Blood Cancer and many of other Cancer along with skin related diseases.
Chemical dyed cloths are not advisable for Children, Pregnant Woman & Handicap, because it is most allergic to skin, hamper body respiration, is cancerous and Septic. In conventional dyeing process, chemicals used once to dye the cloths are repeatedly used for further dyeing to make color bright & fast.
Ten years back Eco-friendly and vegetable dyeing process started in market to compete with the Chemical dyeing process. Comparatively it has achieved a remarkable height. Eco-friendly dyeing process is less hazardous & beneficial as compare to conventional chemical dyeing. About 8000 chemicals are still in use for eco friendly dyeing but with restricted parameters. The process is totally machine based and does not harm the natural form of life & environment if followed as per norms. Amines are an important constituent of chemical structure, of which 22 banned cancerous amines excluded from the process. Azo free eco friendly dyeing process is presume to be less hazardous than conventional chemical dyeing. Thus it is Non Allergic, Non Cancerous, does not affect Body Respiration to that extent; hence advisable for Children, Pregnant woman and Allergic patients. However, degradable detergents are used to remove the dirt from cloths before dying process. Turmeric: The most widely used herb for herbal dyeing (Source:
A root of concept goes to 4000 years back. In Indian heritage the medicinal value of herbs and dyeing is also mentioned in “Vedas” and “Arthasashtra”. The technique was totally lost due to unavailable records. Novel herbal dye is extracted from natural medicinal plants. Herbal dye is used to impart natural color in cloths. Garments made from the said cloth when comes in direct touch with human skin, it will protect human skin from many diseases by transmitting medicinal value of the herbs to skin and into body by transpiration. Initial Laboratory test have already proved it and moreover, now a days the constant experimental work is in process to overcome other health problems.
The novel method of herbal dyeing to textile article is 100% natural and not a single synthetic chemical involved in dyeing process. In the novel method, there is no use of all banned amines (42 cancer producing chemicals) & detergents; so the dyeing process & herbal wear are totally Azo free. Herbal dyeing is eco friendly and modernized.
The waste of dyeing and printing process containing an herbal dye dispatched in the environment does not cause any type of pollution in environment, but on the contrary it may be useful as fertilizer and enhance the value of non fertile land.
Using herbs in novel process of dyeing the textile article gives protection against Cancer, Skin disease, Respiratory disease. It is having Antiallergic, Antiseptic and Antimicrobial functions. Herbal wear is advisable to all the age of people, children, handicapped and pregnant woman.
Preparing herbal cloths such as nightwear, fashion wear, Bandages, mask, sportswear, sheeting, undergarments, shirts, etc. helps in curing a number of diseases and shield the human skin by adding medicinal value of herbs to cloths. Herbal dyeing is applied to textile articles like: Raw fiber, Woven fabric, Knitted fabric, Non woven fabric, Stitched garment etc. Since all cotton material are cellulose based; hence wood, paper should be regarded as textile article. Textile article could be only or a blend of Plant fiber and Animal fiber. The raw materials for such textile articles include cotton, silk, wool, etc.

Herbal dyes used to obtain variety of colors either as single ingredient or plural. Natural colors applicable to herbal dyeing include coloring matters available from a large variety of medicinal plants such as: Myrobalans (Terminalia Chebula), Alum (Argilla vitriolutum), Neem (Indian Lilac), Indigo, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Brajil wood (Caesalponia Sappan), Onion (Allium cepa), Potato (Solanum Tuberosum), Indian Madder/Madder (Rubia Cordifolia, Rubia Munjista), Henna Plant (Lawsonia inermis, Lalba), Amaltas (Cassia Fistuin), Cateccu (Unsaria gambir), Lal Kashish, Saffron (Crocus Sativas), MeriGold (Galendula officinalis), Lime (Carbonate of Lime), Woad vat, Guar Gum, Peanut oil, Caster oil, Iron scrap, Apple Tree (Pyrus Malus), Jaggery, Sandal wood, AAL, Urine (stale), Kachuka Aata, Khar etc.

Medicinal effect derived from several herbs, are described below:
1. Neem: It is effective against cough & breathing problem, leprosy, eyes and skin diseases, kidney diseases, Asthma, Tuberculosis, acidity, Impurities in blood.
2. Indigo: It is effective against stomach related diseases, Heart diseases, kidney diseases, asthma, lung & mental disorders, Tuberculosis, skin diseases. It is antiseptic, antiallergic, insect repellent in nature.
3. Brajil wood: It is effective against acidity, cough, stone disease. It is a Blood purifier.
4. Onion: It is effective against cough, insomnia, acidity, skin & eye disease, Hysteria, Bronchitis, kidney disease.
5. Alum: it is effective against various kidney diseases, cough, plague, E & T problem, mouth ulcer, Asthma, cough, pain in ear, leprosy. It is Anti poisonous & has wound healing properties.
6. Myrobalans: It is effective against anemia, heart diseases, inflammation, stone diseases, breathing problems, perspiration, cough.
7. Pomegranate: It is effective against acidity, heart diseases, Body temperature, cough, throat & mouth inflammation, burning problems.
8. Indian Madder: It is effective against eye disease, paralysis, ear disease, blood impurities, cough, skin disease.
9. Henna: It is effective against eye disease, stone disease, jaundice, blood impurities, skin disease, mouth ulcer.
10. Turmeric: It is effective against cough, skin disease, anemia, acidity, worms in body, liver disease, jaundice, Bronchitis, wound healing.
11. Amaltas: It is effective against heart disease, E & T disease, eye disease, skin disease, constipation, stone disease.
12. Potato: It is effective against acidity, cough.
13. Cateccu: It is effective against pimples, cough, & mouth ulcer.
14. Saffron: It is effective against heart disease, liver disease, leprosy.
15. Marigold: It is effective against inflammation on breasts, cough, asthma, skin disease.
16. Lime: It is effective against constipation, impurities in blood and urine, inflammatory disease; tuberculosis.
17. Apple: It is effective against constipation, cough, rheumatism.
18. Caster Oil: It is having strong insect repellent properties, maintains temperature of the skin, easy in body transpiration.
19. Safflower: It keeps a cholesterol level law, Provides Ca++ and Vitamin F.
20. Peanut oil: It keeps nutritional value of the skin intact, provide freshness in the skin, high protein, hinder infections specially Tuberculosis and Hepatitis.
21. Sandal wood: It gives cooling sensation to skin, helps in curing skin itching, insect repellent.
22. Guar Gum: It helps in body transpiration, hinder body infection.
23. Jaggery: It helps in building Ca++ and good for bones.
24. AAL: It helps in solving breath related diseases, wound healing, Glucoside and morindin, it is blood purifier.
25. Urine: Provide nourishment to skin and opens pores of skin.
26. Kachuka Aata: Cure inflammation in skin and wounds.
27. Lal Kashish: It is oxidizing agent.
28. Woad Vat: It is effective against stomach related diseases, Heart diseases, kidney diseases, asthma, lung & mental disorders, Tuberculosis, skin diseases. (source:

Extracts of the above mentioned herbs are used as dye. Herbal dyes are extracted directly from herbal plant without use of alkali. The conventional chemical dyeing is not only hazardous but inferior in dye reception.
Herbal dyes are used in printing the textile article. Kachuka Aata or Guar gum are used as adjuvant in printing the textile article.
In the present herbal dyeing process, the cloth and yarn of textile article is passed through different stages: Desizing, Bleaching, Scouring, Galling, Mordanting, dyeing is applied to textile articles like: Raw fiber, Woven fabric, Knitted fabric, Non woven fabric, Stitched garment etc. Since all cotton material are cellulose based; hence wood, paper should be regarded as textile article. Textile article could be only or a blend of Plant fiber and Animal fiber. The raw materials for such textile articles include cotton, silk, wool, etc.
Herbal dyes used to obtain variety of colors either as single ingredient or plural. Natural colors applicable to herbal dyeing include coloring matters available from a large variety of medicinal plants such as: Myrobalans (Terminalia Chebula), Alum (Argilla vitriolutum), Neem (Indian Lilac), Indigo, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Brajil wood (Caesalponia Sappan), Onion (Allium cepa), Potato (Solanum Tuberosum), Indian Madder/Madder (Rubia Cordifolia, Rubia Munjista), Henna Plant (Lawsonia inermis, Lalba), Amaltas (Cassia Fistuin), Cateccu (Unsaria gambir), Lal Kashish, Saffron (Crocus Sativus), MeriGold (Galendula officinalis), Lime (Carbonate of Lime), Woad vat, Guar Gum, Peanut oil, Caster oil, Iron scrap, Apple Tree (Pyrus Malus), Jaggery, Sandal wood, AAL, Urine (stale), Kachuka Aata, Khar etc.



4.4. Benefits of Herbal Textiles
Herbal clothing can help reduce exposure to allergens and other irritants and give a comfortable feeling.

1. Manual farming and organic practices have a lower carbon footprint as the entire process consumes less fuel and energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to chemical textiles.
2. Not grown from genetically modified cottonseed.
3. Grown with natural rather than synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, no chemical defoliants used.
4. Eco-friendly processing that does not compromise workers' health and helps reduce water and electric use and toxic runoff.
5. Strict testing ensures the absence of contaminants like nickel, lead, formaldehyde, amines, pesticides and heavy metals.
6. People with allergies and chemical sensitivity especially benefit from organic cotton clothing, as conventional cotton may retain harmful toxic residues. Even if you don't have sensitive skin, organic cotton will just feel better against your skin.
7. Children are at greater risk for pesticide-related health problems. Organic Cotton though grown without using pesticides & insecticides is still dyed using hundreds of so called low impact chemical dyes adults. Millions of children in the US receive up to 35% of their estimated lifetime dose of some carcinogenic pesticides by age five through food, contaminated drinking water, household use, and pesticide drift.

Various of herbs used for dyeing fabrics.

4.5. Environmental Benefits

1. Improved soil fertility
2. Increasing cotton yields
3. Massive saving of precious water. This is important as cotton is a water-hungry crop, which can cause problems in areas without high natural water availability. It has a positive effect on the content of organic matter and helps to avoid soil acidification. It improves soil structure by increasing soil activity, thus reducing the risk of erosion
4. It promotes the development of earthworms and above ground arthropods, thus improving the growth conditions of the crop. Furthermore, organic crops profit from root symbioses and are better able to exploit the soil, and organic fields accommodate a greater variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.

4.6. The Process of Herbal Textile Manufacturing

The process of producing herbal textiles begins with 100% organic yarn / fabric and every step in the preparation of herbal cloth and clothing is carefully and precisely controlled and no chemical process is adopted while dyeing and processing the fabric. The process of herbal dyeing starts with the gray cloth passing through several stages of treatment before it becomes colorful and ready to wear. Fabric and yarns that can be used for herbal dyeing are certified organic cotton, natural cotton, silk wool, linen, jute, hemp and their natural blends.

1. Desizing : The washing of processed grey cloth starts with removing sizing, gums and oils used in the course of weaving by washing with natural mineral-rich water and sea salts.

Yarn is boiled for 1 Hour in solution of Sea salt/Khar salt (desi Papad, Suji) having natural minerals. Yarn is dipped in solution for 12 hrs-24 hrs. After Trumpling the yarn with hands or legs, washed it with clear water by thrashing on stone. Then it was kept for drying in sunlight by hanging upon Bamboo stick.

Yarn is passed through this process for removing the sizing, gums, oils, impurities and stains on it, which makes the yarn more absorbent for the herbals. In the said washing of yarn detergent is not involved.

2. Bleaching: The bleaching of cloth is done naturally by exposing it to direct sunlight, then it is bleached with biodegradable, naturally derived, organic cleaning agents and surfactants like Saptala (Acacia sinuata), Phenila (Sapindus mukorossi) etc. (source:

The dried yarn is now kept open in sunlight for 2-3 days by hanging on Bamboo stick. Water is sprinkled over it constantly at shorter intervals.

The yarn is now soaked in solution of either camel/buffalo/cow/sheep dung. The yarn is kept immerse for 12 hours in the said solution. Again the yarn is kept open in sun for drying, by hanging upon Bamboo stick for 4-5 hours. Constantly water is sprinkled over it at the shorter interval. The process is continued for 3-5 days, till required whiteness and softness in yarn is achieved. Camel/Buffalo/Cow/Sheep dung is used for both scouring and bleaching the yarn.

3. Mordanting : To make the colors bright and fast, natural mordants such as, myroballans, rubhabs leaves, oils, minerals, alum, bark of lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), kenduka (Diospyrose ebenum), fruit extracts of haritaki (Terminalia chebula), iron vat, etc, are used, but mordants like copper, chrome, zinc, tin, etc, are avoided due to the environmental reasons.
This is the process of giving fast & bright colors on textile article. Before preparing a yarn for dyeing, the yarn is passed through tannic acid (tannin) treatment and mordanting. Mordanting is performed before dyeing. Here, Myrobalans is a natural source (herb) of Tannin which can be used alone or with Alum salt, a natural source (herb) for mordanting. In the sense Myrobalans and Alum salt are used for color development and color fixing properties. Both can be used separately or together as per requirement of shade of color.

Galling: Yarn is well soaked in solution of Myrobalans (harde) for some time. Myrobalans solution is prepared in water by taking 30% Myrobalans/wt of yarn, Kept the yarn open for drying in sun by hanging upon Bamboo stick. After drying, the same process is repeated for at least 2-3 times. The yarn get a yellowish tint after this stage. This is also an process for mordanting by use of natural tennin.
Mordanting: Yarn is dipped in solution of Alum salt (7%-25% of Alum/wt. of fabric). Alumina is a substance of Alum salt. Alum salt is used as mordant for the fixation of dye on yarn. After this, yarn was ready for red dyeing. Other mordants like: Iron salts, Copper salts, Chromium salts, Tin salts, etc. are available from natural resources can also be used over & above the Alum salts for modifying the shade of dye produced. Iron is used as a mordant for the fixation of colors for Violet. Iron & copper vat is made from natural source as Jaggery, oil, copper & iron rich sources. Grass and Tea are natural source of Alum salt.
Dyeing: The organic cotton yarn or fabric is then dyed in a carefully controlled mixture of herbal dyes depending upon the disease or ailment being treated.The dyes used for dyeing herbal clothing comes by blending and carefully preparing different medicinal herbs, plants, flowers, roots and barks.The temperatures of the dyes, the duration and number of the dye soaks, the blend of herbs, and even the equipment used are carefully controlled.These herbs are applied directly to the fabric with the help of natural ingredients, so as to keep the medicinal value of the herbs intact.All kinds of shades of red, yellow, brown, orange and green, etc, can be prepared with the help of these herbs.



After mordanting the yarn when ready after above stated process, is boil at about 80° C. to 100° C. for 45 min-180 min in the solution of herbal dye of our desired color, until the color is fully absorbed. During boiling keep on rotating the yarn in herbal solution for even color penetration.

Preparing Dye Solution from the Extract of Herbs:
Dye is extracted from the herbs by soaking herbs in water (quantity of water about 15 to 20 times than wt of herbs) and boiled at 90° C. for 1.5 hrs-2 hrs. The solution is kept for overnight. It is strained through cloth to avoid unwanted dyes & bigger particles of herbs and other unwanted dust particles. Now the strained solution is ready as herbal dye solution. In preparing dye solution of turmeric the method is same as above but the temperature should be maintained at 60°C.The medicated cloth is allowed to cool and repeatedly washed to remove any loose particles and is always dried in shades.

5. Washing: Now the dyed yarn is washed in running water (river water or artificial) to remove unattached dye.

6. Color Fixation: Some time after Myrobalans treatment textile is also dipped in cold solution of required herbs.Now after giving a wash, the dyed yarn is kept for boiling in solution of “Dhavdi/Jajaku leaves” for 45 min-90 min. This step is used to fix the color of dye on yarn and increase the depth of color without using any synthetic chemicals. Further dyed yarn is washed and kept open in sun by hanging upon Bamboo stick for drying.

7. Finishing: The finishing process used after herbal dyeing is also organic and is given by sprinkling pure water on the cloth and then stretching under pressure, using hand rolls, aloe vera, castor oil etc.

Finally the dyed yarn is passed under finishing. In which the dyed yarn is kept in rice paste or sugar to give stiffness and shine.

Now the dyed yarn is ready. Each and every step of dyeing the silk and wool yarn is similar to cotton yarn. However; the care should be taken in case of animal fiber, not over boil the dyeing solution, as too much heating harms the quality of animal fibers.

8. Recycling Residue : The entire process is organic. It does not pollute the environment like synthetic dye. Solid and liquid waste is separated through the process of filtration and used for farming purposes - as a manure and for watering the fields and the waste is used as bio-manure and also to generate bio gas.

4.7. Uses/Application of Herbal Textiles

The most effective time to use herbal clothing is when the body is at rest such as during sleep or meditation because this is when the body is naturally healing and reestablishing balance. Skin is recognized as being the body’s largest organ. The skin can act as a barrier but also as a conduit for outside substances to enter the body. Many environmental toxins and chemicals in conventional clothing are assimilated into the body through the skin. Anything which can improve the skin’s natural ability to block and resist harmful chemicals and toxins from entering the body will be beneficial to health.
Keeping this in mind, herbal textile is often used in making bed coverings, undergarments, towels, meditation clothes, sleepwear, and other such garments that stay close to human skin so that all its benefits could be absorbed through the skin. The technology for making herbal clothing is also being utilized for making coir mats, mattresses, door mats and carpets. For coir mats, the fibers are first soaked in herbal dyes and then woven into coir mats.

The first showroom in Ahmedabad opened in 2012 and has organic cotton clothes, undergarments, Yoga apparels and Aura’s own SPA line
One of the major objectives of the colloquium was to find out about the awareness of Herbal Textiles. Do people know about herbal textiles and its benefits? In order to find out the same, a survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Since herbal textiles could be future of apparel industry, the appropriate samples for conducting the survey were students of National Institute of Fashion Technology from various centers. This would gove a better picture since the result would conclude the awareness about herbal textiles amongst the future of the industry.

Sample Selection: Students of a fashion college
Sample Size: 100
Randomly selected sample size for results: 25

Name…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Age:……………………………………………………………. Sex (M/F)………………………………………………………………………

1. How would you define sustainable fashion?
a) Whether the materials are sourced locally
b) Produced with a low Carbon Footprint
c) Fewer chemicals and water used
d) Don't know

2. Do you think if you knew more about the ethical issues in popular fashion brands this would push you to looking into buying from elsewhere
a) Yes
b) No If not. Why?...................................................................................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Have you heard of eco-friendly fashion?
a) Yes
b) No

4. Are you aware of ayurvedic textile?
a) Yes
b) No

5. If yes, are you aware of the benefits of herbal or ayurvedic wear to ones health?
a) Yes
b) No

6. From where did you learn about herbal wear?
a) Magazines
b) Internet
c) Newspaper
d) Friends
e) Others……………………………………………………………………………..

7. When looking at a buying a product is the price the most important thing you look at first?
a) Yes
b) No

8. Would you pay for eco fashion which also has medical benefits was cheaper?
a) Yes
b) No

9. Are you aware of any herbal wear brand?
a) Yes
b) No
If yes, what brands do you know……………………………………………………………………………………

10. Would you like to shift to eco fashion which will benefit your health by curing and preventing various medical conditions?
a) Yes
b) No

1. How would you define sustainable fashion? Whether the materials are sourced locally 3 11.5%
Produced with a low Carbon Footprint 8 30.8%
Fewer chemicals and water used 11 42.3%
Don't know 4 15.4%

2. Do you think if you knew more about the ethical issues in popular fashion brands this would push you to looking into buying from elsewhere Yes 17 65.4%
No 9 34.6%

3. Have you heard of eco-friendly fashion? Yes 25 96.2%
No 1 3.8%

4. Are you aware of ayurvedic/herbal textile? Yes 17 65.4%
No 9 34.6%
5. If yes, are you aware of the benefits of herbal or ayurvedic wear to ones health? Yes 10 41.7%
No 14 58.3%

6. From where did you learn about herbal wear? Magazine 2 9.1%
Internet 8 36.4%
Newpaper 1 4.5%
Friends 8 36.4%
Other 3 13.6%
7. When looking at buying a product is the price the most important thing you look at first? Yes 13 52%
No 12 48%

8. Would you pay for eco fashion which also has medical benefits if it is cheaper? Yes 21 84%
No 4 16%

1. Herbs used in Ayurvastra are known to cure allergies having anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory properties. Ayurvastra is extra smooth and good for transpiradon that helps in recovering various diseases. It may help treat a broad range of diseases such as skin infecdons, diabetes, eczema, psoriasis, hypertension, high blood pressure, asthma, arthrids, rheumadsm, and insomnia. . It can also relieve general body aches, stimulate weight loss, and strengthen the immune system. Ayurvastra can fiarther be used as an energy booster, mood enhancer, for overall well-being, calming, and blood purificadon and cooling.
2. Herbal dyes do not pollute like synthedc dye. Dye effiuent during herbal dyeing can irrigate agriculture (used as bio manure and compost), including human food crops and used to generate biogas.
3. The cloth is bleached with cow's urine, which has high medicinal value.
4. The dyeing gum too is herbal. Dyes are cerdfied organic by Control Union / SKAL. 5. The wide array of unique, naturally occurring colors cannot be duplicated with synthedc dyes, thus new shades can be developed. The cloth does not lose its effect even after constant use.
6. Use of herbal dyes improves the aesthedc quality of the cotton fabrics in the niost eco-friendly way. 7. A simple synthedc fabric will not degrade for at least 200 years whilst Ayurvastra naturally breaks down without damaging the environment. 8. Using plant derivadves for dyes promotes agriculture and provides income for farming families. Ayurvastra is a way to revitalize and increase the market for their handloom industries and to create a niche for their ecofriendly handloom fabrics. 9. Some of the environmentally conscious industries engaged in producing herbal texdles, make organically recycled textile paper bags by sdtching the leftover organic and herbal dyed fabrics which can counter the growing menace of plasdc bag polludon.
10. The Ayurvastra reinforces the importance of sustaining the planet for future generadons and for the well being of the current generadon using age old pracdces, which do not add up to global warming but helps in minimising

1. Natural Fabrics and dyes are poor subsdtutes for synthedc colors, in terms of range and tonal variadons.
2. It is very important to follow the care instrucdons during washing Ayurvastra. Use of organic soap recommended for washing Ayurvastra cloth. These should be washed separately with bleach-free detergent. For machine wash, gende cycle is recommended. The doth should be ironed with a warm iron; steam ironing is ideal; should be ironed to shape and dried in shade.
3. The process is very complex, manual and time consuming. The yam or fabric has to be dipped in medicinal extracts and herbal dyes using pot-boil system with special gumming process, then dried, mercerized and weaved sdtched or knitted in to different texdle materials.
4. Not all dresses are applied for same auments. The colour of the Ayurvastra is gained from the medicinal preparadon only and no other colourants are used. So we cannot give all colours for all diseases.
1. There is increasing demand for herbal textüe around the globe. Their affordabüity favours Ayurvastra. The lower cost producdon keeps the price of these texdles low. For example if a kilo of chemical dye average costs Rs.3500 per kg while this herbal dye can have by just Rs.l50 a küo. An Ayurvastra sari therefore is priced above Rs.300 as compared to silk sari going up to Rs. 15000.
2. The spread of Ayurvastra and Ayurveda into other cultures and regions of the world express the growing interest in more tradidonal and natural healthcare systems that are based upon restoring balance and health through natural methods rather than through Western medicines.
3. Globally, as many countries have been enforcing a ban on texdles that have been colored using chemical dyes, this had been a body blow to the handloom industry. At the same dme, textües dyed using natural vegetable dyes, espedaüy medicinal plants, have been commanding a huge market due to their obvious advantages.
4. Bulk producdon can be a possibility through innovadve techniques.

5. Capadty of dyeing evenly in length of over 1000mtrs of same shade through innovadve controlled machine reduces the requirement of Sun, running water etc. which is a must in any such natural process. 6. In 2005 a clinical evaluadon is conducted at the Govemment ayurveda college, Trivandrum under the supervision of the health department, Kerala on coir and textüe materials. The study proved to be very posidve in terms of medicinal properdes. Again in 2006 a study has been conducted on Therapeudc value of texdle materials alone and this too found to be posidve.
7. As Ayurvastra is environment friendly the huge impact it can have in the texdle industry is beyond explanadon. These not only prevent the diseases but also perk up the immune system in hviman body thus can be worn -by any and all as a general health product. It gives us the leverage to market this monopoly product with ease and the benefits.
8. It can be expected that vision of spreading this unique technology and thereby opening up a new arena of entrepreneurship, job orientadon and economical stabüity will be welcomed by the sodety as a whole.
9. Based upon the successful resiüts of this clinical trial, the Kerala State Govemment has inidated a more in depth and expanded study into the possible effecdveness of ayurvastra in other diseases including some cancers.^
10. A strong Ayurvastra market will hdp secure the livelihoods of local Indian ' farmers, weavers, and tribes. Ayurvastra producdon also encourages culdvadon and conservadon of medicinal plant biodiversity. It plays important role for women empowerment organizadon and advocate for the poor.
1. Some people claim that there is a side effect on children, as high levels of formaldehyde has toxic effects on chüdren.'-' But dll date not a single report of allergic reacdons to Ayurvastra has been registered.'
2. Although Ayurveda is herbal and non-cosmedc and has shown great results so far, it would be wrong to expect a mirade. In fact, unlüce andretroviral remedies, they would not show quick results. Apart from that, since they use a number of herbs, they may not also go along with the antiretroviral therapy. It is therefore; better, to go for proper consultadon, before opting for Ayurvedic medicinal methods.
3. Due to lack of avaüability of predse technical knowledge on the extracting and dyeing technique, it has not commerdally succeeded like the synthedc dyes.
Ayurvastra believes in restoring the balance within the body‟s system and strengthen the immune system. The various herbs used have well proven antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Various emergNatural extract impregnated wellness garments are hoping to tackle various diseases like hypertension, heart ailments, arthritis, asthma and diabetes with the herbal dyed bed linens, mattresses, healing herbal blankets, sun white towels, comforting apparels, aprons, night wears and so on. As the waste generated during the process also can be efficiently used as fertilizers, wellness fabric is purely a green technology that definitely soothes our souls. ing brands like „Ayurvastra‟, „Ayurganic‟ etc are developing herbal textiles can resist and fight against diseases.

Scope of Ayurvastra is endless and it is the way to keep people healthy. Ayurvastra principle is used to maintain good health and adopt a healthy way of life. Ayurvastra has been receiving increased awareness from many parts of the world. National government ministries and state government with the India consider Ayurvastra as a way to revitalize and increase the market for their handloom industries and to create a niche for their eco-friendly handloom fabrics.
The concept of dyes that are natural and improve the wearer's health is fascinating. Ayurvastra, life sustaining, eco friendly clothing is another feather in the ayurveda's cap. These are truly chemical- free, naturally dyed apparel featuring organic cotton and colors made from medicinally rich botanicals and herbs from India. Beautiful apparel with an exceptional hand and style can be produced with this. Allopathic medicine treats the symptoms whereas ayurveda the underlying causes. Ayurveda has proven a boon. Even Harvard and Yale universities are teaching this andent but modern health system their medical schools. It is time for the Indian government and textile industries to wake up and give urgent encouragement to support predous heritage of India.

i. Herbal Antimicrobial Finish for Cotton Fabric by Dr.G.Bagyiilakshmi, Ms.Kokilavani. Department of Textiles and Clothing, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore. ii. Antimicrobial activity of some natural dyes By : Kiyni Singh, Astha Jain, Shikha Panwar, Deepti Gupta, .S.K. Khare Dept. of Textile and Chemistry, IITD. iii. Natural dyes & its application by M.L. Gukajani & Gupta. iv.
v. vi. vii. viii. India today magazine, 2004 edition ix.
x. http:// xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. xviii. Application of Herbal Extracts for Antimicrobial Property By: R. V. Adivarekar, N. Kanoongo, M. Nerurkar & N. Khurana Source: The Journal of Textile Association xix. Herbal textiles: Green business, green earth!!! By :Deepak Kumar', Abhishek Srivastava^, Raghav Vidyarthi', Dharmendra Gupta'* & Abhishek Kumar^

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Quality Textile International

...Quality Management for Organizational Excellence Name University of Phoenix MGT 449 Quality Management for Organizational Excellence “Quality Textiles International is an organization that weaves fabric and prepares the required sheet lengths as desired by customers. They have received recent complaints the fabric weight, measured in ounces per square inch, is not meeting customer requirements, which are very close to the control limits. Quality Textiles International’s quality assurance department checks the fabric weight on a regular basis and knows their process for fabric weight has a mean of 2.73 oz/in2 and a standard deviation of 0.31” (University of Phoenix, n.d., para. 1). 1.0 Histogram A graphical representation, which shows a visual impression and illustration of the data is known as a histogram. The plotted data and the values are arranged by the histogram in a regular manner like a graph. A histogram is quite easy to use and understand and by using a histogram representing difficult and lengthy calculations can be summarized very easily and accurately. A histogram is quite easy to read as well and requires little time to understand the histogram. 2.0 When should a person use a Histogram? When a person is uncertain what to do with a large set of measurements offered in a table, a person can use a histogram to categorize and show the data in a more user friendly layout. A histogram will make it simple to see wherever the bulk of values......

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