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The Effect of Plagiarism

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Presented in this chapter is foreign and local literature and studies which are relevant to the present undertaking. Literature and studies cited enables the researcher to have a better understanding and a wider perspective of this investigation.

Adversity Quotient (AQ) and its nature

Resilience refers to the ability to cope or to give a successful response to high risk or adversity as measured by the four CO2RE scales of the adversity quotient. It is an outcome of both individual characteristics and environmental causes. Resilience is viewed by the individual from the inside as he or she responds to the outside or external influences and events, viz. Adversity. Richard Davidson, director of the Laboratory for Effective Neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin, conducted a landmark series of brain imaging studies that tested two groups of people: one identified as highly resilient to life’s ups and downs, the other easily upset by them. Davidson tracked their brain function as they performed stressful tasks, such as writing about the most upsetting experience in their lives or performing difficult math problems under time pressure (Goleman, 1997). Resilient people have a remarkably rapid recovery from stress. A study of store managers at a large American retail chain store found that the managers who were most tense, beleaguered, or overwhelmed by job pressures ran stores with the worst performance, as measured four ways: by net profits, sales per square foot, sales per employee, and per dollar of inventory investment. And those who stayed most composed under the same pressures had the best per store sales records. Davidson said that the resilient people had already started to inhibit the distress during the stressful encounter. He also considers these people as optimistic and...

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