Premium Essay

The Election Campaign Is More Important Than Long Term Factors


Submitted By caitlinssmithy
Words 1213
Pages 5
‘The election campaign is more important than long-term factors in shaping voting behaviour.’ Discuss.
There are many different factors which effect voting behaviour, both long and short term, and in this essay I will be discussing whether I believe the more short-term election campaign, or long term factors have more influence on the way people vote.
The region in which you live has a huge impact as to the way you are predicted to vote. In the north, especially in industrial areas, you would be much more likely to vote labour. This is because in these industrial areas there are incredibly high numbers of working class people who work in factories and mines for example and labour has many more policies put in place to help people who are of a lower class. An example of these policies is lower taxes which means working class people will have more money than they would otherwise have should the Tories be in power. In post war 2/3 of the working class population in Britain voted labour, and 4/5 of middle class voting Torie. ‘Class is the basis of British politics, all else is embellishment.’ -Pelzer (1967). This would suggest that 50 years ago many people believed that partisan alignment was purely based on class. This would suggest that purely based on partisan alignment, long term factors are more important in shaping voting behaviour.
Ethnicity is also a factor in shaping voting behaviour. 80% of people from black and Asian origins living in the UK have voted labour since 1974. This is probably because Labour are much more pro-immigration than all of the other main three parties in the UK. Furthermore, ethnicity also has a link to social class. A large majority of people from a different ethnic background tend to live in much poorer areas in the UK, therefore would much more likely to vote for labour based on their policies to help the working class. However in

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Short and Long Term Factors

...In the 2010 general elections the Conservative Party gained the most votes but not the majority to form a government, therefore a coalition was formed between the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democrats Party. I will be discussing two short term factors and two long term factors in my essay. The short term factors which I will be discussing are; the influence of the media and the election campaigns. The long term factors I will be discussing are; social class and the location of where the person lives. I believe that the influence on the media is the most important factor because the media influence so much of our lives nowadays and it is so easy to access all parts of the media through our phone. Therefore when a major newspaper is bias towards one they get more media coverage and the therefore it sways people’s opinions as all the positives about that political party are shown. Firstly, the influence of the media. The media nowadays comes in all different forms for example; newspapers, magazines, television and radio. The media is where people can form their opinions on the ability of political leaders and whether the government is doing a good job or not. The media determines what people see and what people hear, if they want to cover something up then they have the ability to do so as they decide what goes in to the public eye. In the dominant ideology model of voting behaviour its argued that the mass media has traditionally been supportive of the conservative party...

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Government and Politics

...democracy: A direct democracy is where the people often get consulted by the government on political issues. The public often get to be involved in the decision making process, which usually happens through referendums. The people therefor get a say in the decision making process instead of just leaving it to representatives. People may also take the initiative to propose change to political issues. Switzerland is known for its frequent use of referendums. Liberal democracy: A liberal democracy is where everyone is treated equally under the rule of law and that the minority is not supressed by the tyranny of the majority. The universal suffrage is important because it states that everyone ha the right to vote under one person one vote. The government is hold accountable by the people through regular elections. The government cannot exclude a party just because that does not agree on the same policies. Everyone also have the right to freedom of speech and free media. Everyone can say their opinions without it having any consequences. Also the media are allowed to prints whatever news or opinions it might have even if they are controversial. Britain is an example on a liberal democracy. Magna Carta also maintains equal all rights...

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

'Too Long, Too Expensive and Too Dominated by the Style over Substance.' Evaluate This View of the U.S. Presidential Nomination Process. (30 Marks)

...Media - US politics pack quotes -Image of Conventions, no policy discussion. -*Need popular policies for the vote* - Trump/Obama style > substance (previous “public figure). Success in polls. 'Too long, too expensive and too dominated by the style over substance.' Evaluate this view of the U.S. Presidential Nomination Process. (30 marks) The presidential nomination process begins with the electoral systems of primaries and caucuses. These require voters to choose who they think should represent their chosen party in the presidential election. Firstly, invisible primaries are the period between when a candidate announces their bid for public office and when the actual primaries themselves take place. It is said to be a very important in the election process as candidates acquire suitable funding and recognition and combine together to form a strong pre-campaign. This is important, as gaining these factors can put a stronghold in the polls before the primaries take place (e.g. businessman Donald Trump’s “successes” in the polls so far during 2015.) After candidates have gone through the “money primary” (invisible primary) stage, the next process is the actual nomination of candidates through primaries and sometimes caucuses (A primary, however, is a state-held election which involves the selection of a party’s candidate for the presidential battle for the White House, it requires ordinary voters and chooses delegates committed to vote for that candidate at...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The 2015 Presidential Election in Nigeria

...10 Things to Note About Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Election Share 0 0 0 0 [pic] Jide Akintunde 1. President Jonathan’s statesmanship and Nigeria’s propensity to surprise the world: It is the nature of politics and governance: one major event often defines the outcome of an election or public perception of a regime. Therefore, the most remarkable outcome of Nigeria’s 2015 presidential election is that President Goodluck Jonathan conceded defeat to General Muhammadu Buhari in a very timely fashion. This good sportsmanship of President Jonathan immediately conferred statesmanship on him. His presidency will be remembered for nothing better or worse because what he delivered is what was mostly important to Nigeria, Nigerians and the world: peaceful outcome of the election. That the one who fostered electoral best practice became its major victim is an irony; but it is not a cruel irony. It is what has earned President Jonathan greatness. If he had been the beneficiary of his efforts which made the elections that held during his presidency far more credible than all the previous elections in the history of independent Nigeria, the positive shift he has now given Nigerian elections would not have been very obvious, significant and pace-setting. Indeed, we could not have missed the sacrifice of President Jonathan in this election. On national television stations, we saw the President wait on his feet for a fruitless over 30 minutes for INEC’s card readers to accredit him, his wife and...

Words: 2961 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Too Early to Tell

...swing states in a dead heat in the polls. This election has been portrayed to be an important election for our generation that would shape the future of our country, which is how both Obama and Romney pitched this election. This allowed the race to turn into an ideological battle between two main ideas of government. One that argued for less government and privatization and the other that argued for the fundamental need for government in order to provide foundation for our society to work. While this war of ideology waged on there was another war that was being waged, the all out money war that took place this election. This was the first presidential election after the infamous Supreme Court ruling on citizens united vs. The Federal election Commission, which paved the way for Super-Pacs and unlimited corporate and union donations. This ruling was thought to have powerful ramifications on future elections and the 2012 presidential election. After the election it remains somewhat unclear what effects Citizen United had on the presidential election and what future impacts it will have. Citizens United did not hurt Obama substantially in the election because of his demographics and organizational advantage; however, citizens united could have a significant negative affect on future state and federal elections. Citizens United did not hurt Obama because it allowed him to seize a demographic advantage in the election. In this election Obama’s key advantage was minorities. According...

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ict Failures in Gotv for Us Presedential Elections

...Presidential Elections: A Tale of Two Solutions. Xxxxxxxxxxxxx (for module ISM106) December 13, 2012 Contents. 1.0 Background and Objectives………………………………………………..3 2.0 Literature Search and Methodology………………………………………4 3.0 GOTV - The Problem Domain…………………………………………….5 4.0 Timetable……………………………………………………………………7 5.0 References…………………………………………………………………..8 “Good judgment comes from experience, but a lot of that comes from bad judgment”. Will Rogers, American Humorist (1879-1935). 1.0 Background and Objectives. Getting out the vote (GOTV) is a very important activity in an election campaign. Within a typical polling precinct, campaign fieldworkers identify and confirm voters who pledge to vote for their candidate. A list of these voters is carefully compiled for each precinct, with up-to-date contact information and whether assistance is needed in getting voters to the polling station being crucial. On Election Day, campaign workers at the polling stations monitor the voters on the list and record which have voted and which have not. Great effort is then expended on contacting the “laggards” and getting them out to vote. Periodically during the day, voter turnout data is sent, through aggregation points, to campaign HQ where it updates the big picture and allows the co-ordination and refocusing of further GOTV efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of ICT by the Romney campaign, in its Project...

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Campaign Finnance Reform

...The Effect of Campaign Finnacne on Democracy Daniel Sykes Student ID 250719824 Every election cycle, huge sums of money are spent in the promotion for campaigns to elect or re-elect candidates for public office. These contributions play a vital role in the success of election campaigns. Sources of campaign donations range from big businesses and trade unions to PACs (political action committees) such as the NRA. These groups donate to candidates in the assumption and hopes that the candidate will pursue a discourse and perhaps implement legislation that benefits the donating group. When we refer to “campaign finance”, we are of course referring to funds that are used to promote and advertise, hire advisers, pay for travel expenses, administration fees and other costs associated with running a campaign. The Presidential Election of 2008 generated one billion US dollars in campaign contributions and finance1, with this figure on the rise, many have spoken out against the propensity of election victories to be seemingly “bought” by the party who generated the most funds2. In this essay I will be discussing whether or not big money in campaign finance is a threat to democracy. It is important to consider the history of campaign finance reform and how it evolved over time, for this gives us a better perspective when reviewing our modern situation to see if democracy has lost its way. Before the 19th century, the majority...

Words: 2551 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Campaign Contributions

...evolution of federal campaign finance regulations, beginning with the Tillman Act in 1907, undercuts dramatic proclamations that Citizens United indicates a privileged where corporate interests trump the public interest and politicians do the will of the highest bidder. Corporations in the early twentieth century not only faced scattered and weak enforcement of the Tillman Act's contribution ban and thus no great deterrent to violating the ban, but also exploited glaring legal loopholes that allowed them to bankroll their favored campaigns with relative ease. Even after the enactment of independent corporate expenditure restrictions, corporations faced minimal barriers to political spending on television or in other national media. Until the FEC's creation in 1974, the ban on independent corporate spending on elections was not rigorously enforced. The relevant time frame for evaluating the decision's practical consequences is, at the very longest, the period after Congress substantially amended FECA in 1974. Campaign contributions as emphasized here discusses the ways in which contributions are made to influence new or incumbent candidates to support a particular agenda based on factors that impact the candidate personally, such as the raising of significant funds to help a candidate be re-elected, or environmental issues to even social issues are of concern. Since the last decade, millions upon millions of dollars have been spent in state judicial elections, primarily by contributors...

Words: 4484 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay


...nominating B. Organization at the National Level 1. convention 2. chairperson C. State and Local Organization 1. election, caucuses 2. wards Prereading and Vocabulary 2 1. should cut back on expensive government programs Sample definition: Conservatives believe in cutting costs and government programs. 2. came to vote Sample definition: The electorate is the group of people who are allowed to vote. 3. voted at the polling place, elementary school Sample definition: A precinct is a small area from which all the residents report to vote at one location. 4. wards 5. bipartisan 6. nominate 7. Liberals 8. resign CHAPTER 5 Section 1 Reading Comprehension 3 1. Answers for rankings will vary. Historical basis: The two-party system is rooted in the beginnings of the U.S., when the ratification of the Constitution gave rise to the first two parties. Tradition: Most Americans accept the idea of a two-party system simply because there has always been one. Electoral system: Since only one winner per office comes out of each election, voters have only two viable choices—the candidate of the party holding office or the candidate with the best chance of replacing the current officeholder. Voters tend to think of a vote for a minor party candidate as a wasted vote. Republicans and Democrats work together in a bipartisan way to write election laws to make it hard for a minor party or independent candidate to win elective office. Ideological consensus:...

Words: 24569 - Pages: 99

Premium Essay

Presidential Elections and Voters

...Presidential Elections and Voters In order for one to become president of the United States, he or she must gain the votes from the public. There are various ways of getting votes. Nominees go through months of campaigning to get the votes necessary to win the state. Some believe that the public makes the decision for president long before the campaigns even start, and others believe that the campaigns are necessary to gain votes for a president. A campaign in itself is not necessary to influence the public's decision. The focus is not whether the campaign has the influential power to change people's opinion, but the focus is on the actual individual who is voting. The individual has the power to choose whether to let the campaign influence his or her opinion or to make the decision before the campaign. There are both cases when the individual makes a decision for president before the campaign starts and when the individual makes a decision for president because of the influence of the campaign. Campaigns do matter in a democratic society and they are important to a certain extent for those who actually follow the campaigns, but they are not as important for everyone. Not anyone can just run for president. There are certain qualifications that a person must have to become president. He or she must prove the nation that he or she is able to lead a nation. The, "…qualities of the candidate are extremely important influences on how people vote" (Fiorina and Peterson 302). Campaigns are...

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Marketing Political

...Assistant Professor of Marketing David J. Huff Clinical Assistant Professor of Supply Chain and Information Systems Johannes Baumgartner Professor of Marketing Head of the Department of Marketing *Signatures are on file in the Graduate School iii ABSTRACT Political marketing sits at the nexus of two disciplines, political science and marketing, but is not entirely accepted by either. The present research looks at the origin, development, and evolution of political marketing and examines how the adoption of a political marketing orientation is impacting the practice of political campaigns. The role of political marketing in actually changing voters’ preferences is also examined, showing that grassroots marketing efforts seem to have the greatest effect, especially with undecided voters. Finally, voter segments are derived for the last five presidential elections in the United States (1988-2004) using latent class analysis (LCA). The interpretation and implications of these segments are discussed and several avenues for future research are suggested. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... vi...

Words: 34057 - Pages: 137

Premium Essay


...ONLINE PAPERS Election Violence in the Philippines Patrick Patino & Djorina Velasco [i] About Us Core Themes Activities FES Dialogue on Publications Globalization Online Materials FES International Policy Analysis Unit The 1986 “People Power” Revolution that caused the fall of the Marcos dictatorship was an inspiration to pro-democracy forces the world over. Televised images of human chains blocking military tanks became powerful symbols of peaceful resistance against brute force. However, “People Power” and the restoration of formal democratic institutions mask the real state of Philippine democracy. Indeed, fraud and turmoil have been part and parcel of every election after 1986. “Guns, gold and goons” continue to cast a dark shadow on what is supposed to be a “free and fair” exercise. This paper focuses on the practice and prevalence of election-related violence in the Philippines. Electoral violence here takes many forms: killings; abductions; terrorism; physical attacks on rallies, homes, offices and vehicles of candidates and supporters; and any other acts that result in deaths, physical injuries and/or damages to properties. For the purposes of this paper, election-related violence will also refer to intimidation, coercion and non-physical forms of harassment. These are not strictly incidents of violence per se. However, Philippine election laws include these as election offences since they curtail voters’ decision-making and are preliminary acts to violence. The...

Words: 6767 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay


...respectively. Obama was elected to the Illinois state senate in 1996 and served there for eight years. In 2004, he was elected by a record majority to the U.S. Senate from Illinois and, in February 2007, announced his candidacy for President. After winning a closely-fought contest against New York Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton for the Democratic nomination, Obama handily defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona, the Republican nominee for President, in the general election. When President Obama took office, he faced very significant challenges. The economy was officially in a recession, and the outgoing administration of George W. Bush had begun to implement a controversial "bail-out" package to try to help struggling financial institutions. In foreign affairs, the United States still had troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, and warfare had broken out between Israel and Hamas in the Gaza Strip, illustrating the ongoing instability of the Middle East. During his first term, President Obama was able to work with Congress to improve the U.S. economy, pass health-care reform, and withdraw U.S. troops from Iraq. Still the President spent significant time and political effort negotiating, for the most part unsuccessfully, with Congressional Republicans about taxes, budgets, and the deficit. After winning...

Words: 8904 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Assessment of Aquino Economic Policies

...Assessment of Aquino Administration’s policies and achievements The Aquino Administration at the mid of its term: assessment of its policies and achievements in key areas. When Benigno (Noynoy) Aquino was elected in May 2010, it was a huge wave of hope that swept him in a landslide victory into the office of the Philippine President: * hope that he would bring back honesty as guiding principle into the actions and decisions of this office – as it had been the case during the presidency of his revered mother Cory Aquino 1986 – 1992, whose passing away in summer 2009 had plummeted the nation into deep nostalgic mood and initiated the request of the Liberal Party for her son as presidential candidate in the 2010 elections; * hope that the lawlessness, high levels of violence, corruption, human rights violations and impunity would finally find an end; * hope that the hardened poverty of more than 25% of the fast growing population would finally be reduced – following his campaign slogan: “no corruption, no poverty any more”; * hope that he would be able to bring peace to the country which was suffering for more than 40 years from fighting with the Mindanao based Muslim Rebellion and the armed campaign of Maoist in many rural provinces all over the country.   Three years later, in the mid of his single six-years term, it is still the hope of the majority of the population which is upholding his high popularity. What has been done, what has been achieved...

Words: 4751 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Mass Medias Affect on Voting Trends

...Running Head: Mass Media in Elections Mass Media’s Affect on Voting Trends Arthur Gibford California State University California In today’s world, the news media reaches and affects every person in the United States. The question now is does mass media such as newspapers, television, and the internet affect the voting trends of the voters? The ownership of the media (Djankov, Nenova, McLiesh, & Shleifer, 2003), targeting specific demographics (Clinton & Lapinski, 2004), the implications of the internet (DiMaggio, Hargittai, Neuman, & Robinson, 2003) and how candidates use media (Aarts & Semetko, 2003) are all important aspects in determining whether a potential bias exists (Eveland & Shah, 2003) on the part of the news media. It is hypothesized that when the mass media displays certain biases leaning towards one party over the other, the populace tends to vote in the direction of the media. The following five scholarly literature reviews will attempt to demonstrate and support the hypothesis. According to Eveland and Shah (Eveland & Shah, 2003, p. 101)there is “a large percentage of the public (that) believes that the news media are biased, and the majority of these individuals consider the direction of bias to be against their own viewpoint”. This drives the question this paper attempts to answer. This article looks at media’s credibility and integrity in the eyes of individual people. The author’s give several hypothesis to provide multiple...

Words: 2848 - Pages: 12