Premium Essay

The First Programming Languages Predate the Modern Computer.

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By justinoaks
Words 1105
Pages 5
The first programming languages predate the modern computer.

During a nine-month period in 1842-1843, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea about Charles Babbage's newest proposed machine, the Analytical Engine. With the article she appended a set of notes which specified in complete detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the Analytical Engine, recognized by some historians as the world's first computer program.[1]

Herman Hollerith realized that he could encode information on punch cards when he observed that train conductors encode the appearance of the ticket holders on the train tickets using the position of punched holes on the tickets. Hollerith then encoded the 1890 census data on punch cards.

The first computer codes were specialized for their applications. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerical calculations were based on decimal numbers. Eventually it was realized that logic could be represented with numbers, not only with words. For example, Alonzo Church was able to express the lambda calculus in a formulaic way. The Turing machine was an abstraction of the operation of a tape-marking machine, for example, in use at the telephone companies. Turing machines set the basis for storage of programs as data in the von Neumann architecture of computers by representing a machine through a finite number. However, unlike the lambda calculus, Turing's code does not serve well as a basis for higher-level languages—its principal use is in rigorous analyses of algorithmic complexity.

Like many "firsts" in history, the first modern programming language is hard to identify. From the start, the restrictions of the hardware defined the language. Punch cards allowed 80 columns, but some of the columns had to be used for a sorting number on each card. FORTRAN included some keywords which were the...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Computer Since

...بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Computer Science Made by: Ahad Mohammad Aljebreen Directed by: Dr. Maram Computer science Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Still other fields focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. History The earliest......

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

My It Report

... AT ASHPOT MICROSYSTEMS LIMITED, 142 MARKET ROAD ABA. BY ELEANYA IFEANYICHI FAVOUR MOUAU/BSC/10/11/2222 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (BSc) DEGREE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE. DECEMBER 2013 DECLARATION I ELEANYA IFEANYICHI FAVOUR with the matriculation number MOUAU/BSc/10/11/2222, hereby declare that I underwent six months of industrial training at ASHPOT MICROSYSTEMS LIMITED, 142 market road Aba and that this report is written by me to the best of practical knowledge acquired during the course of the training program. DEDICATION This report is dedicated to God almighty for his grace upon my life and for seeing me through in the course of my industrial training, and to my wonderful family for their tireless support, love, and advice up to this point of academic pursuit. CERTIFICATION We the undersigned hereby certified that ELEANYA IFEANYICHI FAVOUR with the registration number MOUAU/BSC/10/2222, has duly completed her six months Industrial Training at Ashpot Microsystem Limited Aba, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Degree in Computer Science. Mr. Psalms Kalu Industry based supervisor SIWES Coordinator Signature Head of......

Words: 1843 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Fluidity of Computer Science

...The Fluidity of Computer Science. Gender Norms & Racial Bias in the Study of the Modern "Computer Science" Computer science or computing science designates the scientific and mathematical approach in computing. A computer scientist is a scientist who specialises in the theory of computation and the design of computers. Its subfields can be divided into practical techniques for its implementation and application in computer systems and purely theoretical areas. Some, such as computational complexity theory, which studies fundamental properties of computational problems, are highly abstract, while others, such as computer graphics, emphasize real-world applications. Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. For example, programming language theory studies approaches to description of computations, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming languages and complex systems, and human-computer interaction focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, computation, and with practical techniques for their implementation and application. History The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since......

Words: 2298 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...Computer science From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Computer science or computing science (abbreviated CS) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.[1][2] Computer scientists invent algorithmic processes that create, describe, and transform information and formulate suitable abstractions to model complex systems. Computer science has many sub-fields; some, such as computational complexity theory, study the fundamental properties of computational problems, while others, such as computer graphics, emphasize the computation of specific results. Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. For example, programming language theory studies approaches to describe computations, while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems, and human-computer interaction focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. The general public sometimes confuses computer science with careers that deal with computers (such as information technology), or think that it relates to their own experience of computers, which typically involves activities such as gaming, web-browsing, and word-processing. However, the focus of computer science is more on understanding the properties of the programs used to......

Words: 5655 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

History of Computers

...HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER ARTICLE WRITTEN BY: ADEBOWALE ONIFADE ELECTRICAL ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN NIGERIA REGION 8 HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER ABSTRACT This paper takes a keen look at the history of computer technology with a view to encouraging computer or electrical electronic engineering students to embrace and learn the history of their profession and its technologies. Reedy (1984) quoted Aldous Huxley thus: “that men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.” This paper therefore emphasizes the need to study history of the computer because a proper study and understanding of the evolution of computers will undoubtedly help to greatly improve on computer technologies. INTRODUCTION The word ‘computer’ is an old word that has changed its meaning several times in the last few centuries. Originating from the Latin, by the mid-17th century it meant ‘someone who computes’. The American Heritage Dictionary (1980) gives its first computer definition as “a person who computes.” The computer remained associated with human activity until about the middle of the 20th century when it became applied to “a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data” as Webster’s Dictionary (1980) defines it. Today, the word computer refers to computing devices, whether or not they are electronic, programmable, or capable of ‘storing and retrieving’......

Words: 5089 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Sql Lab 4

...MET CS 669 Database Design and Implementation for Business SQL Lab 4 Instructions: Procedural......

Words: 6758 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Effects of E-Communication on Cooperate Organization

...Title: EFFECTS OF E-COMMUNICATION ON CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Electronic communication otherwise known as E-Communication is a type of communication carried out using electronic media. Such communications allow transmission of message or information using computer systems, fax machine, e-mail, tele and/or video conferencing and satellite network. People can easily share conversation, picture(s), image(s), sound, graphics, maps, interactive software and many other things. Due to electronic technology, jobs, working locations and cultures are changing and therefore people can easily get access to worldwide communication without any physical movement. Experts have defined electronic communication as the transmission of information using advanced techniques such as computer modems, facsimile machines, voice mail, electronic mail, teleconferencing, video cassettes, and private television networks.” 1.1 Background of the Study Communication is said to be the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. It could be between two or more persons, human and machines or any other communicable entity. Group communication can be carried out through various means such as smoke signals and drums which was common in ancient Africa, America and parts of Asian, the fixed semaphore in ancient Europe and electronic means which is most prominent, popular and recent. This research details on the effects of......

Words: 8745 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay


... microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2861-2 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at Preface In recent years there have been significant advances in the development of high performance personal computer and networks. There is now an identifiable trend in industry toward downsizing that is replacing expensive mainframe computers with more cost-effective networks of personal computer that achieve the same or even better results. This trend has given rise to the architecture of the Client/Server Computing. The term Client/Server was first used in the 1980s in reference to personal computers on a network. The actual Client/Server model started gaining acceptance in the late 1980s. The term Client/Server is used to describe a computing model for the development of computerized systems. This model is based on the distribution of functions between two types of independent and autonomous entities: Server and Client. A Client is any process that request specific services from server processes. A Server is process that provides requested services for Clients. Or in other words, we can say “A client is defined as a requester of services......

Words: 79055 - Pages: 317

Premium Essay

Online Gaming Addiction

...The Art of Computer Game Design by Chris Crawford Preface to the Electronic Version: This text was originally composed by computer game designer Chris Crawford in 1982. When searching for literature on the nature of gaming and its relationship to narrative in 1997, Prof. Sue Peabody learned of The Art of Computer Game Design, which was then long out of print. Prof. Peabody requested Mr. Crawford's permission to publish an electronic version of the text on the World Wide Web so that it would be available to her students and to others interested in game design. Washington State University Vancouver generously made resources available to hire graphic artist Donna Loper to produce this electronic version. WSUV currently houses and maintains the site. Correspondence regarding this site should be addressed to Prof. Sue Peabody, Department of History, Washington State University Vancouver, If you are interested in more recent writings by Chris Crawford, see the Reflections interview at the end of The Art of Computer Game Design; the Virtools Swap-meet interview with Chris Crawford; and Chris Crawford's webpage, Erasmatazz. A PDF version of this text is available HERE. To download Adobe Reader, follow THIS link. Table of Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • Acknowledgement Preface Chapter 1 - What is a Game? Chapter 2 - Why Do People Play Games? Chapter 3 - A Taxonomy of Computer Games Chapter 4 - The Computer as a Game Technology Chapter 5 - The Game......

Words: 46205 - Pages: 185

Premium Essay

Computer Book project, a site for Linux education and advocacy devoted to helping users of legacy operating systems migrate into the future. You may contact the project at This book is also available in printed form, published by No Starch Press and may be purchased wherever fine books are sold. No Starch Press also offers this book in electronic formats for most popular e-readers: Release History Version 13.07 09.12 09.11 09.10 Date July 6, 2013 December 14, 2009 November 19, 2009 October 3, 2009 Description Second Internet Edition. First Internet Edition. Fourth draft with almost all reviewer feedback incorporated and edited through chapter 37. Third draft with revised table formatting, partial application of reviewers feedback and edited through chapter 18. Second draft incorporating the first editing pass. Completed first draft. 09.08 09.07 August 12, 2009 July 18, 2009 Table of Contents Introduction....................................................................................................xvi Why Use The Command Line?.....................................................................................xvi What This Book Is...

Words: 100185 - Pages: 401

Premium Essay


...Application Servers for E-Business Table of Contents Application Servers for E-Business - 2 Preface - 4 Chapter 1 - Introduction - 5 Chapter 2 - A Survey of Web Technologies - 22 Chapter 3 - Java - 44 Chapter 4 - CORBA - 65 Chapter 5 - Application Servers - 82 Chapter 6 - Design Issues for Enterprise Deployment of Application Servers - 114 Chapter 7 - Tying It All Together - 137 References - 160 For More Information - 163 page 1 Application Servers for E-Business Application Servers for E-Business Lisa M. Lindgren Auerbach Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lindgren, Lisa. Application servers for e-business / Lisa M. Lindgren. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-0827-5 (alk. paper) 1. Electronic commerce. 2. Application software—Development. I. Title. HF5548.32 .L557 2001 658′.0553–dc21 00-050245 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system,...

Words: 98260 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

Effects of Technology on Education

...development. In 1990, computers and other forms of technology served a minimal role in the classroom. Today, many if not most college students attend class with a laptop. I am writing about some of the biggest advantages technology gave to education. Technology has made research much easier. Before online Encyclopedias, Google Scholar, JSTOR, and other online research tools were available, students were forced to spend numerous hours in the library. With the new tools, students can conduct research faster in the comfort of their homes. With Google and other search engines, students can find relevant information faster and more efficiently. Also, there is no more need for intensive memorization as information is more readily available. New also technology allows for a faster, more efficient, and more interactive classroom experience. With Powerpoint presentations and projectors, there is no need for blackboards and whiteboards. With clickers, students can take quizzes during the classroom. These developments also help improve tutoring services. Online tutoring programs are becoming available. One-on-one in-home tutoring programs are also being aided these developments. Tutors can bring laptops to sessions allowing them to look up information, and show examples to the student more easily. Wi-fi technology allows students to study in more comfort and a more ergonomic setting. New mathematical software such as Maple and Mathematica allows students to make a computer algebra......

Words: 11323 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Cloud Computin

...Cloud Computing: A Taxonomy of Platform and Infrastructure-level Offerings David Hilley College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology April 2009 Cloud Computing: A Taxonomy of Platform and Infrastructure-level Offerings David Hilley 1 Introduction Cloud computing is a buzzword and umbrella term applied to several nascent trends in the turbulent landscape of information technology. Computing in the “cloud” alludes to ubiquitous and inexhaustible on-demand IT resources accessible through the Internet. Practically every new Internet-based service from Gmail [1] to Amazon Web Services [2] to Microsoft Online Services [3] to even Facebook [4] have been labeled “cloud” offerings, either officially or externally. Although cloud computing has garnered significant interest, factors such as unclear terminology, non-existent product “paper launches”, and opportunistic marketing have led to a significant lack of clarity surrounding discussions of cloud computing technology and products. The need for clarity is well-recognized within the industry [5] and by industry observers [6]. Perhaps more importantly, due to the relative infancy of the industry, currently-available product offerings are not standardized. Neither providers nor potential consumers really know what a “good” cloud computing product offering should look like and what classes of products are appropriate. Consequently, products are not easily comparable. The scope of various product offerings differ and......

Words: 19454 - Pages: 78

Free Essay


...Ways to Improve Your Programs and Designs “This is an enlightening book on many aspects of C++: both the regions of the language you seldom visit, and the familiar ones you THOUGHT you understood. Only by understanding deeply how the C++ compiler interprets your code can you hope to write robust software using this language. This book is an invaluable resource for gaining that level of understanding. After reading this book, I feel like I've been through a code review with a master C++ programmer, and picked up many of his most valuable insights.” — Fred Wild, Vice President of Technology, Advantage Software Technologies “This book includes a great collection of important techniques for writing programs that use C++ well. It explains how to design and implement the ideas, and what hidden pitfalls lurk in some obvious alternative designs. It also includes clear explanations of features recently added to C++. Anyone who wants to use these new features will want a copy of this book close at hand for ready reference.” — Christopher J. Van Wyk, Professor, Mathematics and Computer Science, Drew University “Industrial strength C++ at its best. The perfect companion to those who have read Effective C++.” — Eric Nagler, C++ Instructor and Author, University of California Santa Cruz Extension “More Effective C++ is a thorough and valuable follow-up to Scott's first book, Effective C++. I believe that every professional C++ developer should read and commit to memory the tips in both......

Words: 43056 - Pages: 173

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Bulk orders: some organisations buy a number of copies of our books. If you are interested in doing this, we would be pleased to discuss a discount. Please contact Hannah Grace-Williams on email or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment Knowledge management and knowledge management technology ANTONIE BOTHA DERRICK KOURIE AND RETHA SNYMAN Chandos Publishing Oxford · England Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited TBAC Business Centre Avenue 4 Station Lane Witney Oxford OX28 4BN UK Tel: +44 (0) 1993 848726 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 884448 Email: First published in Great Britain in 2008 ISBN: 978 1 84334 355 4 (paperback) 978 1 84334 356 1 (hardback) 1 84334 355 X (paperback) 1 84334 356 8 (hardback) © A. Botha, D. Kourie and R. Snyman, 2008 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. All...

Words: 69553 - Pages: 279