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To What Extent Was the Kulturkampf a Political Misjudgement by Bismarck?

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To what extent was the Kulturkampf a political misjudgement by Bismarck? [30]
The Kulturkampf was launched by Bismarck – President of Prussia – as an attack on the Catholic Centre Party to weaken its political influence and the Catholic community as a whole. It aimed to sway the loyalties of the Catholics away from the Pope and more to the side of the Prussian Kaiser and the German state.
The Kulturkampf simply failed due to the fact that Bismarck had miscalculated the extent to which Catholics in Germany were loyal to the Pope. This fact became explicit when the Kulturkampf – through its policies – actually worked to increase support for the Centre Party. This was completely not in favour with Bismarck’s desired outcome of weakening the Party. This Catholic bond transpired to be much stickier than first thought. The’ victimisation’ of Catholics in Germany by Bismarck united them in contempt for the latter instead of weakening them as first desired by Bismarck and was the reason why he reversed the regressive laws put in place to weaken the Centre Party. He realised that he had misjudged the entire situation. It also transpired that Bismarck had pulled the short straw as he had chosen a tough and resilient enemy in the German Catholics. He had effectively consolidated support and sympathy for Catholics in Germany and this was also a primary reason as to why the Kulturkampf failed. Bismarck simply did not know who his biggest enemy was. Also, Protestants’ refusal of Bismarck’s call for a crusade against Catholicism also spread sympathy for the Catholics and their plight in this period. This also showed that Bismarck had seriously miscalculated his moves. He did not expect the Protestants to support the Catholics, possibly due to religious differences. Bismarck did not know fully the affairs of the environment he was manoeuvring in.
Another way in which Bismarck

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