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What Should Be Stone Container’s Long-Term Financial Strategy

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I. Barriers of changing waste behaviour
Most people know the current environmental problems, but only a few of them would participate in the recycling program continuingly and keep changing of their waste behaviour. So, what are their barriers of changing waste behaviour? According to the study of Tucker and Speirs about behavioural change in household waste management (Tucker & Speirs, 2010), many surveys result provided that “inconvenience factors” like effort involved, insufficient of storage space and time consuming were the main reasons household not to participate in recycle. Many households claimed recycling activities are time consuming, they did not willing to spend extra time to separate the recycled items from waste and taking them to the collection containers, many of working people engaged their in work and gathering with friends and family members rather than enrolling recycling activities during the rest time. Generally, insufficient of storage space is a main reason that discourage people to recycle, people who lived in small flats might not have space to store theirs recycled items. Apart from the above inconvenience factors, there are other factors that discourage them to recycle. Many people did not believe that their waste behaviour causing negative effect on environment, although they know that they may not change their 27 behaviour (Davidson et al, 2012).

Furthermore, many people believe that individual bebavioural change could not solve the environmental problems, and such attitude causes to the failure of all zero waste or recycling measures. Conversely, many young people create many of unnecessary waste, such as buying new products or appliances not because those products are out of function, they replace the old model appliance because they think it is socially need rather than actual need (Crocker, 2012).

II. Changing Waste Behaviour
In fact, many factors may influence human recycling behaviour which lead to better and more effective recycling programs, some of previous research on this topic has led to the discovery of many different explanatory variables. Hornik et al (1995) reviewed approximately 70 of these studies and found four recurring classes or categories of variables that were best used to determine recycling behaviour:, they are Internal Facilitators (IF), External Facilitators (EF), Internal Motivators (or Incentives) (IM), and External Motivators (or Incentives) (EM). These four main classes of variables are critical factors that can influence pro-environmental attitudes and action.

Internal Motivators are psychological factors that lead individuals to be self-motivated in continuing a certain act or task (Do Valle et al 2004).

External Motivators are psychological factors that motivate individuals in continuing an act through things they cannot control (Hornik et al 1995, Werner and Makela 1998, Bratt 1999).

Internal Facilitators are factors that provide individuals with the knowledge and mental capacity to complete a task properly.

External Facilitators can be characteristics of the surrounding physical environment that allow for the completion of a task and also barriers that can discourage individuals from doing a task. (Hornik J., J. Cherian, M. Madansky, and C. Narayana. 1995. Determinants of recycling behavior: a synthesis of research results. The Journal of Socioeconomics 24:105-127.)

Corraliza and Berenguer (2000) examined and have the result in the relationship between how the 4 categories affect human recycling behaviors. The different categories of variable factors do interact with each other and all types of variables factors must be taken into account when trying to determine what influences an individual’s recycling behavior.

Besides, there is another theory, The Theory of Planned Behavior (TOPB) was a main structural component to Do Valle et al’s combined behavioral model and it is also widely used in many other research studies on environmental psychology and behavior. TOPB allows for better prediction of pro-environmental behavior. TOPB can find a link between the different factors affecting recycling behavior, unlike in Hornik et al’s (1995) proposed model. TOPB finds direct and indirect relationships between the variables: attitude towards act, subjective norm

The TOPB, combined with models about internal motivations, values, and knowledge, contributed to Do Valle et al’s combined model. This resulting model has a complex web where there are many paths to actual recycling behavior.

Werner and Makela Study
Werner and Makela (1998) studied human motivations that influenced recycling behavior. Their study revealed that the more knowledge and personal satisfaction people receive from recycling, the more likely they are to do it on a long term basis.
Besides, the study claims that making a task mandatory does not necessarily change behavior; rather, the best way to get people to do something is to make the task a fun and positive experience.

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