Premium Essay

Work Measurement

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rashed038
Words 7767
Pages 32
ch4ch4
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Global teams provide diversity while eliminating conflicts and miscommunication.
True False 2. A ‘House of Quality' is achieved when no department in a single location has more than 15% rejects.
True False 3. Concurrent Engineering is another term for sequential development.
True False 4. One of the main advantages of standardization is that it increases the potential variety of products.
True False 5. A disadvantage of standardization is the possibility of standardizing designs too early, which may make it difficult to modify in the future.
True False 6. Reducing consumer choices makes service more efficient.
True False 7. Modular design increases costs of purchasing and controlling inventory compared to non-modular.
True False 8. Product failures can be easier to remedy with modular design.
True False 9. One motivation for an organization to redesign its product or service is to avoid the alternative of downsizing the organization.
True False 10. A major benefit of Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the increased productivity of designers.
True False 11. Most of the time what is called product or service design is actually a redesign of an existing product or service.
True False 12. A service blueprint is quite similar to an architectural drawing.
True False 13. The process of dismantling and inspecting a competitor's product to discover product improvement is called benchmarking.
True False 14. To save money, it is essential that designers revise the production capabilities to meet the requirements of the new products.
True False 15. Many US manufacturers are now shifting their focus from products to both product and process improvements.
True…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Measurement

...Definitions are commonly used in technical documents to help audience members who are unfamiliar with the terminology in a technical field. In this conference, we look at definitions in terms of their audience. 1. Select a term commonly used in your major or field of study/work. For example, if you are a computer science major or work in information technology, you might select the term "kernel" related to an operating system. 2. Find a definition of the term on a credible website and post the definition or a link to the definition in your response. 3. Evaluate the definition in terms of its effectiveness for the audience. Give us your reasons for why the definition is effectiveness or not. This term is introduced to accounting students on their first introduction to accounting classes and it is also mentioned on the major headline news such as the Enron and WorldCom financial fraud cases. This term, although its main audience is people in the accounting field, has become very effective due to the major financial fraud cases such as Enron, WorldCom, Bernard Madoff and others. The main audience for this term are individuals who are related to the accounting field. Learning that an organization has been cooking the books instantly portrays that a financial fraud has occurred. Also, this term has become a part of the English language due to the major financial fraud cases such as Enron, WorldCom, and Bernard Madoff. This term is effective in its way that it......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Poverty Measurement

...measuring welfare with consumption would be more appropriate than using income, as income is a small component and would be an overestimate. There is plenty of data which can be analysed at household levels. However, poverty is an individual phenomenon where individuals are situated within households. After assuming some measurements between income and consumption, data at the household level can be changed to an individual level by using empirical tools which are ‘equivalence of scales’. Since this approach portrays well-being with income or consumption it may not be suitable as the world is more complex. Human interaction and social behaviour varies significantly which means there are many critiques to this approach. This approach is strongly linked to utility, and utility on its own may not be enough to measure welfare. Overall the monetary approach poses some restrictions and limitations to understanding poverty. Income alone cannot be used as a measure in the real world, social relations are not included and there are many different types of welfare not being considered. These negative aspects make the monetary approaches of understanding poverty quite misleading. Work by Amartya Sen (1992) states that welfare is not limited to obtaining utility, even though it is very important there are other aspects that also have important parts. Another critique is that according to microeconomics, people always have different preferences. Another is that utility maximisation is......

Words: 1497 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Introduction When a procedure, a model, an approach, a case study, or other research is undertaken, generally some measure of the system's performance is presented and perhaps analyzed. A large number of different types of performance measures have been used to characterize systems, particularly production, distribution, and inventory systems. Such a large number of available performance measures makes performance measure selection difficult. Generally, performance measurement research focuses on analyzing performance measurement systems that are already in use, categorizing performance measures and then studying the measures within a category, and building rules of thumb or frameworks by which performance measurement systems can be developed for various types of systems. Beamon (1996) presents a number of characteristics that are found in effective performance measurement systems, and can therefore be used in evaluation of these measurement systems. These characteristics include: inclusiveness (measurement of all pertinent aspects), universality (allow for comparison under various operating conditions), measurability (data required are measurable), and consistency (measures consistent with organization goals). Besides analyzing the measures based on their effectiveness, benchmarking is another important method that is used in performance measure evaluation. Benchmarking can be useful in that it can serve as a means of identifying improvement opportunities. Camp (1989)......

Words: 2747 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Measurement

...Vershire also has some issues on the performance measurement report and evaluation system. Besides the inefficient way to measure manufacturing efficiency, performances of plant managers are measured based on the metric that they cannot directly control, i.e. sales. Therefore the related compensation packages and promotions mislead and lack sufficient incentives to motivate plant managers. As illustrated before, it is inappropriate to treat a plant as a profit center, rather than an expense center. Due to the manufacturing nature, plants have fully control on costs and should be motivated to lower the cost to make contributions to the revenue. Monthly performance evaluation report and supporting report for a plant showing both sales and costs in Exhibit 2 and 3 are submitted by each plant and reviewed by corporate management. Items that failed to meet the budgeted targets require explanations from plant managers, no matter it is cost-related or sales-related. Moreover, sales report on plant basis is confusing by itself since products are sold on district basis. The sales department had sole responsibility for the price and delivery schedules, which are not identical in each order because of contingencies such as traffic, weather, and sick staff. Plant managers have no way to explain the detailed decision making process of sales department to provide a sufficient explanation to sales failures without asking sales department. Furthermore, second-hand information tends to be......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Linda Tate MGT/437 April 21, 2014 Michael Koma Performance Measurement Performance measurement is an essential part of the company; it provides a stage for managers and supervisors, as well as, the performance of its employees. It helps them determine whether or not employees are meeting the company’s expectations. Performance measurement methods differ according to the work surroundings, such as, the company, and the occupation of the employee. It can determine an employee’s employment status, and his or her compensation, as well as, their opportunity for advancement. Because of this performance management should consist of methods that use fair and correct assessments of the employee’s performance. To help employer’s measure employee’s performance, they must establish performance standards, which define what employees need to meet or exceed the company’s expectations (Ruth Mayhew, 2014). This paper will compare and contrast three performance measurements for the working environment of the company, and then the importance of performance measurements within a project. Graphic Rating Scales This is the first performance measurement; it is perfect for production work environments, like fast food restaurants. A list of job duties and performance standards is listed on a scale rating from 1 to 5, which rates the employee’s performance. This method requires preparation and can be completed quickly; this is superb for managers who...

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Penny Myers MGT 437 April 18, 2011 Performance Measurement Successful companies invest time, money, and resources in projects with the goal of earning a return on investment. The project manager ensures projects stay on schedule and within budget and performance management gives the project manager visibility to ensure they are operating within the agreed upon time and cost constraints and that the project is performing according to plan. Performance measurement is important because it is the process an organization uses to establish parameters to reach desired results (Schied, 2010). Measuring project performance allows the project manager to identify cost and schedule problems and take action to remedy problems quickly. Measuring project performance also provides the organization with a picture of how healthy the project is and can help establish improvement initiatives. When managing a project, triple constraints of budget, time, and performance are important measures. The budget is managed by controlling resources according to the financial plan of the project. Time keeps the team on schedule and allows meeting of deadlines. Performance measurements should be created by project and be based on the scope, goals, and objectives of the stakeholders (Schied, 2010). Measurements are specific to each project but three measurements that could be used to measure performance include speed, accuracy, and volume. Speed......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...In this paper the subject to compare and contrast will be of three performance measurements, which can be used by the project manager during a project. Performance measurement is a numeric description of the work during a project and the results once the project is complete (Office of Financial Management, 2009). The performance measures provide the project manager and the team about progress in meeting the goals and objectives of the project. Measuring performance allows budget decisions, better management, and accountability for the project manager. The three performance measures, which will be addressed, are quality, key milestones, and target costs. Quality Quality is measured by the percentage of what is produced or received, which meets the specification of the project the first time, without any reworking. The measurement of quality entails assessing the effectiveness of the management of quality and determining problem areas, opportunities, savings, and action priorities (Performance management, 2011). Costs indicate the quality of the project. Prevention costs are costs planned and incurred before the project is started. As the project progresses, other costs such as appraisal, failure, internal, and external failure are other types of quality-related costs (Performance management, 2011). These costs are indicators to the project manager alerting him or her of quality suffering because of complaints, waste, rework, and repairs relating to the project. ......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Robert Campbell MGT/437 March 14, 2011 Sunil Mehta Performance Measurement According to NY Government (n.d.) website, “Strategic, performance measurement-based management systems allow an organization to align its business activities to its strategy, and to monitor performance toward strategic goals over time” (para. 1). Each measurement should be objective, easy to understand, controllable by minimizing outside influences, timely, accurate, cost-effective, useful, motivating, and trackable (NY Government, n.d.). The use of performance measurement is important because the stock market’s volatility has shown that financial measurement is not the only measurement. By using measurement techniques companies can compare themselves to established norms. In this discussion there will be a look at three different types of performance measurement systems, what they do and how they are used. These systems identified are the balanced scorecard, performance dashboards, and the economic value added. The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management measurement style widely used throughout the business world to bring its business activities in line with the vision and strategy of the organization (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 1998-2010). According to the Balanced Scorecard Institute (1998-2010) the implementation increases focus on strategy and results, increases organizational performance by measuring what is important, and aligns......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Experimental Measurement

...Article Astronomy December 2010 Vol.55 No.35: 4010–4017 doi: 10.1007/s11434-010-4197-x SPECIAL TOPICS: Experimental measurement of growth patterns on fossil corals: Secular variation in ancient Earth-Sun distances ZHANG WeiJia1,3,4*, LI ZhengBin2,3 & LEI Yang1 1 2 Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 3 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems & Networks, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 4 Committee of Yuanpei Honors Program, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received June 3, 2010; accepted July 22, 2010 In recent years, much attention has been given to the increase in the Earth-Sun distance, with the modern rate reported as 5–15 m/cy on the basis of astronomical measurements. However, traditional methods cannot measure the ancient leaving rates, so a myriad of research attempting to provide explanations were met with unmatched magnitudes. In this paper we consider that the growth patterns on fossils could reflect the ancient Earth-Sun relationships. Through mechanical analysis of both the Earth-Sun and Earth-Moon systems, these patterns confirmed an increase in the Earth-Sun distance. With a large number of well-preserved specimens and new technology available, both the modern and ancient leaving rates could be measured with high precision, and it was found that the Earth has been leaving the Sun...

Words: 9003 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Analysis of Measurement

...Analysis of Measurement to Improve Quality Care NUR 716 September 12, 2015 Analysis of Measurement to Improve Quality Care In today’s dynamic health care environment, it is essential to recruit nurses to organizations that provide them with adequate resources and support, in order to retain them in the organization (vanWyngeeren & Stuart, n.d.). A hospital-wide problem at the facility in which I am employed is the ability to retain nurses. According to our human resources department, our facility had a 30% turnover rate, for fiscal year 2014. Five percent of this has been involuntary, with the remaining 25% being voluntary. In order to calculate the turnover rate, which is done on a yearly basis, we take the number of employees who have left the facility voluntarily or involuntary and divide this number by the total number of employees. A turnover rate of 30% reflects negatively on our organization and our ability to provide competent and safe nursing care. The impact of a high turnover rate is revealed in workflow inefficiencies such as delays in delivering patient care, unhappy staff, and unhappy patients. All of these things lead to a decrease in quality of care, a decrease in our ability to keep our patients safe, and, ultimately, a decrease in patient satisfaction scores. When patient satisfaction scores are affected, the hospital is at risk of being unable to receive reimbursement from the United States government. A high turnover rate is also a financial......

Words: 1077 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Measurement Theory

...2- Measurement Theory Definition Measurement is being defined by many researchers. According to Campbell it is the assignment of numerals to represent properties of material systems other than numbers. A similar definition was given by Stevens who states measurement as the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules. Whatever the definitions given by all the researchers, they all bring about to the same meaning and understanding. Based on my understanding, measurement is the process of observing, recording and calculating the observations that are collected as part of a research effort which is usually represented by units. These units possess values and are often numerical. Importance Everyone uses measurement without even noticing it sometimes. In studying measurement theory, I realised that measurement involve in many of our daily activities without us even noticing it sometimes. Some examples include measuring our heights and weights, measuring the nearest and shortest distance to get to class, measuring the time taken to complete an assignment and many more. Therefore, it can be said that measurement theory is definitely important and useful for everyone. Understanding the importance of measurement theory is crucial to address issues in business, accounting, social and economics. Importance of measurement in Accounting Why is measurement theory important? Well, it is important for three simple reasons. It is important to make decisions, assess......

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Physiological Measurements

...Danielle Fuller Unit 335 CA Physiological measurements OUTCOME 1: Describe current legislation, national guidelines, organisational policies and protocols affecting work practice. When taking physiological measurements you have to take into account of the standard precautions. Bullet pointed below are some of the legalisations that relate to taking physiological measurements. Confidentiality * It is important to think about confidentiality when taking a patients physiological measurements because by law patients notes and details have to be kept private. Health & Safety Act 1974 * It is important to have knowledge of the health & safety at work act 1974, because this outlines your responsibilities as an employee, some of these include, correct use of work items provided by your employer, for example physiological measurement tools. Consent * Consents is a patient’s voluntary agreement for a health care worker to provide care. It is extremely important to have a patients consent before taking physiological measurements because a competent adult has a right under common law to grant or withhold consent. OUTCOME 2: Explain the principles of blood pressure to include: • blood pressure maintenance • differentiation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure • normal limits of blood pressure • conditions of high or low blood pressure What is a blood pressure? Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). The reading of a blood......

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Productivity Measurement

...Productivity measurement Productivity is a measure of output from a production process per unit of input. Productivity is a measure of the effective use of resources, usually expressed as the ratio of output to input. Productivity is the value of outputs produced (Goods & Services) divided y the value of input resources. It is the quantitative relationship between what we produced and the resources used. So in shortly we can say: Productivity = [pic] In general sense productivity is an economic measure of efficiency that summarizes the value of outputs relative to the value of inputs used to create them. In economic sense, productivity is a measure of production output per unit of production input. This refers, to the ratio of output and input in the production process. Importance of Productivity 1. Productivity is an important device for comparison of performance for various organizations. 2. Productivity increases the rate of low cost per unit and results in lower price. 3. Education, Research and Development, technology are positively correlated to productivity 4. reduction of poverty 5. It helps companies in measuring their strength and weakness. 6. it helps to know the contribution of different input factor used in conversion process 7. it is an indicator of how well the factors the production are utilized 8. it is an indicator of competitive position of an organization 9. it partially determines the......

Words: 3061 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Performance Measurement

...Introduction The topic of contrast and comparison contained within this paper consists of the evaluation of three individual performance measurements that exist in management. The individual performance measurements are broken down in order to better understand the inner workings of such measurements goals. Therefore the end result will be measured by how important performance management actually is. In the world of business there are many cliché’s about how performance measurements are implemented and what they actually do such as “if your company doesn’t measure results then you can’t tell success from failure.” http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Home/tabid/36/Default.aspx The key focus on strategic objectives should always articulate precisely what the organization wants to accomplish which is the key to finding accurate, true, strategic measurements. The strategic performance measures will allow the organization to monitor the implementation and effectiveness of the operational efficiency. The best performance measures will provide a way to monitor and see if that strategy is actually working. Focusing on the importance of the employee’s contribution to the success of the organization is another important measure that can be added along with providing a common language for the communication of everyone. Performance measurement is so vital in the structure of an organization because it is an ongoing and constant reporting and monitoring of accomplishments. ......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Measurement

...MEASUREMENT: Measurement is the heart of scientific discipline. It is the process of assigning numbers to objects or observations, the level of measurement being a function of the rules under which the numbers are assigned. According to Zikmund, “Measurement is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way”. In our daily life we are said to measure when we use some yardsticks to determine weight, height or some other features of a physical object. We also measure when we judge how well we like a song, intelligence, achievement, attitude, perception regarding quality. We, thus, measure physical object as well as abstract concepts. Measurement is a relatively complex & demanding task, especially so when it concerns qualitative or abstract phenomena. So, technically speaking, measurement is a process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence. It is a collection of quantitative data. TYPES OF MEASUREMENT: 1) Nominal measurement: All qualitative measurements are nominal, regardless of whether the categories differ from one another only in names. Nominal measurements represent the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only. In nominal level of measurement, the categories differ from one another only in names. In other words, one category of a......

Words: 4319 - Pages: 18