Free Essay

Works Cited

In: English and Literature

Submitted By caralane323
Words 717
Pages 3
Sally Sunshine
Research Proposal
Section 1 – Summary of the Argument
In my research paper, I will argue the case for the abolition of capital punishment.
Outside of the United States, there are only three industrialized democracies that still use the death penalty as part of their justice system (Japan, Singapore, and South Korea). The global movement toward peace can never be led by a country that continues to sanction killing. First, I intend to give an overview of capital punishment, including its history, Supreme Court decisions, and the general controversy. Next, I will present my case by establishing the most relevant points in my argument, including statistics that contradict capital punishment as a crime deterrent, evidence that shows the inconsistency in how defendants are sentenced to death row, and finally evidence of mistaken executions.
For my counterargument section, I will acknowledge those who support the death penalty by highlighting their cogent points. The primary counterargument in favor of the death penalty rests on giving the families of victims a sense of closure and justice. This counterargument will be refuted using evidence gathered primarily through national studies and statistics. Finally, I will conclude by summarizing key points in the argument, by offering possible alternatives to the death penalty, and be reasserting the case to federally abolish capital punishment once and for all.Sunshine 2
I do need help with a few questions and concerns I have for the paper. Am I correct in thinking that the primary reason people support the death penalty is retribution (having a punishment that fits the crime)? Could it be something else? Is there another counterargument that I’m missing? A second concern I have is about the costs related to the death penalty. I’m concerned that I won’t get this section right because there are good financial arguments on both sides of the death penalty debate. My final concern is that the cities in America with extremely high murder rates (Chicago and Detroit) also happen to be in states that don’t have a death penalty. I am concerned that this may work against me.Sunshine 3
Section 2 – Outline
I. Introduction
a. Death penalty definition
b. Death penalty overview (incl. list of states currently supporting death penalty)
c. THESIS: The death penalty should be abolished in California because there are too many irrevocable mistaken executions, there is no consistency in sentencing hearings, and, most importantly, there is no evidence that it actually deters crime.
II. History of the controversy
i. High profile public cases ii. The moratorium on capital punishment after Furman v. Georgia (1972) iii. The reactivation of capital punishment after Gregg v. Georgia (1976) iv. The ten most frequently argued reasons for and against capital punishment
III. Support #1: Poor deterrence of crime
a. Background on use of capital punishment as a crime deterrent
b. U.S. Department of Corrections statistics on national murder rates.
c. Comparisons of murder rates in capital punishment states vs. non-capital punishment states
IV. Support #2: Mistaken executions
a. History of the Innocence Project
b. High profile overturned capital punishment cases
V. Support #3: Inconsistency in sentencing hearings
a. Demographic statistics on capital punishment convictions.Sunshine 4
i. Evidence on income level of death penalty defendants ii. Evidence on race/ethnicity of death penalty defendants iii. Evidence on attorney quality of death penalty defendants
VI. Counterarguments
a. Overview of the top arguments in favor of capital punishment
i. Retribution ii. Deterrence of crime iii. High costs to imprison inmates for life
b. Refutation of counterargument #1: Retribution
i. Retribution as a violation of the church and state separation ii. Retribution through capital punishment violates the rehabilitation system’s first principle which is to rehabilitate the criminal
c. Refutation of counterargument #2: Crime deterrence
i. National Research Council report (2012) ii. Fluctuating murder rates in capital punishment states
d. Refutation of counterargument #3: High imprisonment costs
i. Judge Richard Dieter’s testimony to the Colorado House of
Representatives’ Judiciary Committee (2007). ii. Trial costs of capital punishment cases vs. non-capital punishment cases
VII. Conclusion
a. Global response to capital punishment
b. Alternatives to the death penalty
c. Capital punishment sends the wrong message to citizensSunshine 5
Section 3 – Sources
(See the sources worksheet and copies of the first page of each source attached to this proposal.)

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Work Cited Ender's Game

...Work Cited: "Adolf Hitler and Nazi Biographies." The Holocaust, Crimes, Heroes and Villains. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://www.auschwitz.dk/id4.htm>. "Report: Girls Who Admitted To Drawing Swastikas In Maple Syrup Expelled From School « CBS Los Angeles." CBS Los Angeles. N.p., 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. <http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2012/04/10/report-girls-who-admitted-to-drawing-swastikas-in-maple-syrup-expelled-from-school/>. "Ruthless Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/ruthless.html>. "THE DAILY STAR :: News :: Middle East :: HRW tracks ruthless killings in Syria." THE DAILY STAR :: Breaking News, Lebanon News, Middle East News & World News. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. <http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Apr-10/169715-hrw-tracks-ruthless-killings-in-syria.ashx#axzz1s9xLTIIs>. Alvarez, Lizette. "U.S. Opens Inquiry in Killing of Trayvon Martin - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/us/justice-department-opens-inquiry-in-killing-of-trayvon-martin.html>. Bigham, Shannon I.. "The Sociopath Next Door: The Ruthless Versus the Rest of Us -- book review." Book reviews -- Curled Up With A Good Book. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.curledup.com/sociopat.htm>. KGW Staff. "Sex offender accused of......

Words: 400 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mla Works Cited Guide (Teacher)

...MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. Basic Rules • Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. • Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. • Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. • Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. • List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009 • For every entry, you must......

Words: 4806 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Works Cited

...Sarah Miyashita English II PAP Huston 8th May 9th, 2013 The Effects of Ocean Pollution on Animals The planet that we live on is made up of a vast majority of water, consisting of five major oceans of the world: The Pacific, The Atlantic, The Indian Ocean, The Southern Ocean, and also the Arctic, making up approximately 71% of the earth’s surface. The largest amount of oil entered into the ocean due to human activity is 363 million gallons, from industrial waste and automobiles. The pollution and littering of the ocean has become a major problem in these times affecting the natural habitat of many animal species. The government and citizens of the country need to engage in actions that will reduce or hopefully banish the amount of contamination affecting all ocean ecosystems. Ocean pollution is a misfortune that could be, without difficulty, preventable if people simply took the time to dispose of waste and trash appropriately. Once an oil spill occurs along a coastline, it will affect the wildlife population living around it for many years to come and leave a lasting impact. Many animals meet their end whenever the slick oil trickles down their fur, feathers, or scales, all while decreasing their surface area so they are no longer sheathed from the cold water ("Ocean Planet"). The animals might also consume the oil or waste, thus becoming ill and eventually unable to produce offspring properly, later affecting their population even more. Since the 1970s, many laws...

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ska Work Cited

...Annotative Bibliography- Evolution of Ska Paul Latty Western Michigan University Heathcott, JH. (2003). Urban spaces and working-class expressions across the black Atlantic: tracing the routes of ska. Retrieved from http://rhr.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/2003/87/183.pdf (Heathcott, 2003) The first wave of ska was the main focus of this article the first wave erupted in the early 1960s out of the energetic dance hall culture of urban Jamaica among working-class youth cobbling together old island traditions and new forms of expression from arrange of materials found in American, British, and Jamaican popular culture. I was introduced to the real definition of Rude Boy they said they were a suit and tie hooligan bent on turf protection and the defiance of adult authority. This matched what I had in mind when I thought of the rude boys I know today. I learned that many artists associated with the global reggae explosion of the 1970s, such as Bob Marley, Bunny Livingstone, Toots Hibbert, and Lee “Scratch” Perry, got their start as young Rude Boy instrumentalists in ska bands. By the late 1960s, Marley and other stars began to slow down the tempo of ska, launching experiments with the genre that would result in rocksteady and reggae music. Before reading this I had always thought that reggae and rocksteady came before the upbeat ska music was formed. This article gave me a lot of good information about the first wave of Ska and how Ska came to be in the first......

Words: 2034 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Why College Education Is Important Work Cited Pages

...Lesson: Learning at Ashworth CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Welcome! Learning Objectives Accessing the Student Portal Ashworth College Student Handbook The Ashworth Website The Structure of Programs Your Technology Choices 1 1 4 4 5 11 14 22 STUDY SKILLS Introduction The Importance of Time Management A Place to Study An Approach to Your Studies All about Learning Styles The Art of Taking Notes 26 26 26 30 32 33 44 EXAMINATIONS AND OTHER ASSESSMENTS Introduction Saving Your Written Work Types of Assessments Prepare for Online Exams Take Online Exams Deal with Test-Taking Anxiety Strategies for Multiple-Choice Exams Strategies for Essay Questions 49 49 49 50 52 53 53 54 55 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SKILLS Introduction Summary 59 59 62 CHECK YOUR LEARNING ANSWERS 67 LEARNING AT ASHWORTH iii INTRODUCTION Welcome! Welcome to Ashworth College! And welcome to your very first Ashworth lesson: Learning at Ashworth. Why are we starting you with this lesson? First—and most importantly—we want to make sure you have the foundation you need to be successful with your studies. The most basic foundation for success is knowledge of both what and how to study. Most people think “studying” involves reading pages from a textbook or lesson. That’s only partially true. The word study is a verb—that means it’s a process. Studying does involve reading. However, successful studying involves much more than that. It involves active engagement with the material...

Words: 15465 - Pages: 62

Free Essay

Academic Work

...dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating and plagiarism. Plagiarism includes copying the work of others word for word outside of properly cited direct quotations. This means that regardless of the citation of a source, one may not use another person’s words outside of a direct quotation. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating and plagiarism. Plagiarism includes copying the work of others word for word outside of properly cited direct quotations. This means that regardless of the citation of a source, one may not use another person’s words outside of a direct quotation. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating and plagiarism. Plagiarism includes copying the work of others word for word outside of properly cited direct quotations. This means that regardless of the citation of a source, one may not use another person’s words outside of a direct quotation. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating and plagiarism. Plagiarism includes copying the work of others word for word outside of properly cited direct quotations. This means that regardless of the citation of a source, one may not use another person’s words outside of a direct quotation. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating and plagiarism. Plagiarism includes copying the work of others word for word outside of properly cited direct quotations. This means that regardless of the citation of a source, one may not......

Words: 7645 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Doc Fornabd

...well as the reference or works cited page. The citation has a hanging indent. APA Typically used in the social sciences (i.e.: Psychology, Sociology, Social Work) “works cited” page to cite sources at the end of the work All information used in the paper must be in the reference page or works cited. Any information that is not your own needs to be cited Both use parenthetical citations within the body of the paper. (Bird, 2010) or (Bird 22) “references” page to cite sources at the end of the work Citations are listed alphabetically on the references or works cited page When information is cited and the author’s name is not listed, place the author’s last name and the year the material was published. {Writing centers are awesome (Bird, 2010). } Quotes are integrated smoothly and with transitions. (For a handout on transitions, visit the UWC!) Quotes 40 words or more are indented one tab (or 5 spaces) Works cited is cited last name, first name (Bird, Big) When information is cited and the author’s name is listed within the sentence, place the page number found at the end. {According to Big Bird, writing centers are awesome” (22). } When information is cited and the author’s name is not listed, place the author’s last name and the page number at the end. {Writing centers are awesome (Bird 22).} Quotes 4 lines or longer are blocked, meaning indented 2 tabs over Created 03/2011 Works cited is last name,......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Moerisa

...MLA Works Cited Pages Works Cited pages are an important part of academic writing, because they alert readers to where they can find the sources used to develop their writing. Most student writers are familiar with the basic rules for creating a Works Cited page from their composition courses. Capitalizing Words The first word, last word, and all words with the exception of the following should be capitalized in your Works Cited: Articles (a, an, the), prepositions (in, by, after, of, on, etc.), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, to, nor, or, so, yet), and sometimes to. See the example below Page and Lines Do not write out the words page or lines when you give page numbers or line numbers. For example, you don't need to write: Pages 3-7. All you need to write is 3-7. See the example below. City of Publication (1) If you have multiple cities of publication, always choose the city that is the most recognizable to your reader. For example, if you have a choice between Advance and New York, choose New York. You do not need to add "City" when you use New York. (2) Do not put the state. If you only have one choice for city of publication, you have to use it. See the example below: Example: Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought. 9th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2008. Titles of Long and Short Form Works 1) Titles of books, novels, anthologies, plays, novellas, and other longer works......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Note Doucment

...examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Purdue OWL Staff Last Edited: 2013-06-19 11:05:19 Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Basic in-text citation rules In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. General Guidelines •The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. •Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Role of It

...---------------------------- Indicative Assessment Requirements for the Module;- An individual work based on the role of information system (constituting 40% of the total module mark) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Maximum Word Limit and Assessment weighting for each aspect within the assessment: Individual assignment (3000 words absolute maximum); The marks for the assignment will be based on: * Effective research and understanding of the theory 35% * Application of knowledge 35% * Structure and presentation 20% * References (range & relevance) 10% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Description of Assessment Requirements Students are required to produce an assessment of the role that Information system plays in organisations in their pursuit of gaining competitive advantage. Through addressing the set requirements of the assignment, students are expected to demonstrate course concepts and ideas studied in the course. In addition, students ought to demonstrate their analytical skills, and communicate using management terms or language. The assignment requires students to provide both theoretical and practical knowledge, and therefore requires adequate research work.......

Words: 2028 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Test 2 Review

...Test 2 Review References and Works Cited Pages • References and works cited pages are both bibliographies, are both listed in alphabetical order, and are each used in a style guide for a different discipline (APA used references; Turabian uses works cited). • If you only cite 1 source in your paper, be sure to label your bibliography page accordingly (i.e., reference or work cited instead of references or works cited). • You must only include the sources that you actually cited in your references or works cited page. If you read other materials while writing your paper, but you did not actually cite them, you may want to include them on a separate page; since they are not actually cited, they must not appear on the works cited or reference page. • You must list all sources that you cited in your paper, including dictionary and encyclopedia entries. • Attention to detail in a works cited or references page is important because it can help you to avoid plagiarism, it demonstrates academic integrity, and it helps your reader to find and use the same sources that you did. • Regardless of whether you use a references or works cited page, your entries must be listed in alphabetical order based on the first word of the entry (usually the author’s last name, but sometimes a piece may not have an author, so you will have to use a different piece of information. Check the Prentice Hall Reference Guide for more information. Summaries,......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Business

...one, by Friedman, is an online periodical.... [tags: Business, Ethics] :: 4 Works Cited 2005 words (5.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Alahmad and Murphy on Business Ethics - The first two journal articles that were compared and contrasted were Ala Alahmad’s 2010 article on To Be Ethical or Not to Be: An International Code of Ethics for Leadership and Patrick Murphy’s 2009 article on The Relevance of Responsibility to Ethical Business Decisions. Some key findings of Alahmad’s writings were that ethics and leadership were closely tied together; they were found to be derivatives of one another. He mentioned that ethics is an individual thought process of making good or poor decisions.... [tags: Business Ethics] :: 4 Works Cited 970 words (2.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Ethical Perspectives on Business Ethics - The determination of this paper is to compare and contrast the various interpretations of 4 separate authors in respects to ethics and social responsibility as they apply to business. The four articles to be reviewed are; “The Social Responsibilities of Business is to Increase its Profits” by Milton Friedman, “The Relevance of Responsibility to Ethical Business Decisions” by Patrick E. Murphy, “What is ‘business ethics’” by Peter F. Drucker and “To Be Ethical Not To Be: An International Code of Ethics for Leadership” by Ala’ Alahmad.... [tags: Business Ethics ] :: 4 Works Cited 2326 words (6.6 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Emerging Business Ethics......

Words: 3552 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Paper

... Creating a Bibliography or Works Cited You can also create Bibliographies/Works Cited pages instantly using the information you have included in your Citations List. 1. Place your cursor where you would like your Bibliography or Works Cited page to begin. 2. Click on the References tab at the top of the screen. 3. Click on “Bibliography” in the Citations & Bibliography section of the ribbon. 4. Choose from either the built-in Bibliography or Works Cited pages, or click on Insert Bibliography at the bottom of the menu to title and format your citations on your own. Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology 1021 Dulaney Valley Road Baltimore, Maryland 21204 Phone: 410-337-6066 E-mail: ctlt@goucher.edu For Macs– Word 2008 Creating a List of Citations 1. Open the Citation Toolbox by clicking on “View” --> “Citations”. 2. Choose a Citation Style from the dropdown menu at the top of the Citations Toolbox. 2. Double-click on the citation from the Citations List in the Citations Toolbox. For Windows– Word 2007 Creating a List of Citations 1. Click on the References tab at the top of the screen. 2. Click on “Manage Sources” in the Citations & Bibliography section of the ribbon. 3. The Source Manager dialogue box will appear. This is where you will create and manage your citations. 4. Click the New… button in the center of the dialogue box. Creating a Bibliography or Works Cited You can also create Bibliographies/Works Cited pages instantly using the......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Managing Across Culture”: How a Manager Should Manage a Team of Staff from Different Cultural Backgrounds

...has proven that cultural integration in the work place is becoming in today’s global economy, working with people from different cultures is becoming a standard. It brings various productivity and improved performance but great challenges, misunderstandings and conflicts might be introduced in an organization if not properly managed. The key to successful business lies in the managers’ ability to motivate their staff and to achieve this, an understanding of what drives their staff is necessary. Reactions and interpretations of managers’ actions and decisions by staff could be astonishing especially when people from very different cultures work together. Hence the need for organisations to train their managers to become inter-culturally competent in order to ensure their staff continues to be motivated and productive has become pertinent. The main issues to be discussed in this report are: * How culture influences working styles * Different management styles * The importance of training managers to become inter-culturally competent HOW CULTURE INFLUENCES WORKING STYLES According to Hofsted (1980; cited in Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan, 2009, p.11), managers’ approach to quality and the need for change is greatly associated with cultural factors which he grouped into four main parts: power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity. Looking at masculinity from Wacker and Sprague (1998; cited in Alessandra Vecchi &Louis Brennan,......

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Philippine Catholic

...:: 8 Works Cited 1497 words (4.3 pages) $19.95 [preview] The Homosexuality Debate: Conference of United States Religious Leaders and Ministers - ... Courage is a religious program created to help “develop an interior life of chastity and move beyond the confines of the homosexual identity to a more complete identity in Christ” (Catholic). Along with everyone else, the call of a life with Christ includes persons with a homosexual inclination. Moore: One could ask how the Courage program can help homosexual persons. If it is a program headed by clergy members or lay people who do not share their inclination, one might wonder how it is possible for homosexual members to get the help they need.... [tags: Catholic Church, Religion, Homosexualism] :: 19 Works Cited 2080 words (5.9 pages) $39.95 [preview] The True Versions - ... Instead, he attempts to restore his dignity as a man, and gain power from the wicked Mephistopheles and Lucifer. As Ornstein reminds us, denying God’s salvation and one’s sins is the most profound sin listed under the values of Catholicism (1384). In both versions, Faustus provokes an equestrian’s folly, when he sells him a horse but warns him not to ride the horse into water. In the B-text version, “the horse-courser rides his mount ‘into the water,’ [and] finds… ‘Nothing under [him] but a little straw,’ and becomes submerged, with much ‘ado to escape drowning” (Stevenson 409).... [tags: religion, catholic, Copernican theory] :: 8 Works......

Words: 9141 - Pages: 37