the assumption of cardinalist and ordinalist approach

  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Leadership Approach Leadership can be characterized by three variables that help to understand leadership effectiveness. These variables are, 1) characteristics of a leader, 2) characteristics of followers, and 3) characteristics of the situation. Classifying the different leadership theories are done according to the emphasis of the variable. There are several major approaches to studying leadership. Some examples are the trait approach, behavior approach, power

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  • Consumer Behavior from a Cardinalist and Ordinalist Approach

    first approach is the Marginal Utility or Cardinalist Approach. The second is the Ordinalist Approach. Or the Indifference curve analysis. We discuss these two approaches separately. Cardinal Utility This was developed by Alfred Marshall who introduced an imaginary unit called the util as a means of measuring utility. 1 util = 1 unit of money. Cardinalist Utility has the following characteristics: It is additive in that, cardinal numbers could be used to measure utility. Each

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  • Leadership Approach

    approach, and the integrative approach. The following review will discuss the behavior approach. The behavior approach is the idea of looking further into what the manager performs daily. “The behavior approach began in the early 1950s after many researchers became discouraged with the trait approach and began to pay close attention to what mangers actually do on the job” (Yukl, 2010). Within the behavior approach there are two categories of information that is analyzed. Researchers are

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  • Stylistic Approach

    Hallie Thompson Professor Birt English 200 2 May 2012 Stylistic Approach Among Readers and Writers. Authors use a certain stylistic approach when writing their piece of work. The use of style in literature helps readers understand how language can suggest moods, images, and meanings throughout the story. Without a stylistic approach readers would have to dig deeper and create their own thoughts and feelings throughout a story, without having any sense of significance. When authors

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  • Leader Approach

    Leadership Approach Paper Zahíra Martínez LDR/531 May 28, 2012 Ben MC Collum Leadership Approach Paper During the reading of the paper the reader will be learning about the Behavioral Theory found as a result of study about leadership it has produced a multitude of perspectives and theories. The Behavioral Theory in one of few theories that can be found on the studies of leadership. Each theory has its pro and cons where not everyone can concord with the same opinion to each theory

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  • Leadership Approach

    , situational approach, and integrative approach. The one leadership approach that best matches my leadership style is the power-influence approach. According to University of Phoenix Organizational Behavior (2011), Power is important not only to influencing subordinates, but also for influencing peers, superiors, and people outside the organization, clients, and suppliers. The strength of power-influence approach is the ability to influence leaders and others into thinking a certain

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  • Assumption

    irrelevant or a waste. At the end of the day it is the responsibility of management to in sure that things are efficient and that resources I used accordingly perhaps if workers and management focused on soley and exactly what was needed for the company the assumption that management needs more information may be looked at from a different angle. Assumptions 2: managers need the information they want This assumption basically says that management information system designers Ask managers what

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  • Project Approach

    PROJECT APPROACH This section describes the nature of solution that can be established through the project and/or the scheme of conveying that solution. This approach identifies the setting, solution and commitment to which the project will be delivered. The content of project approach are Measured Options also known as (Options Considered), chosen options, Objectives and Practically HRIS is a system used by human resources departments to track employees and information about them. A HRIS

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  • Leadership Approach

    the amount and type of power possessed by the leader. This approach examines how power is acquired, lost and maintained (Walonick, Ph.D., 1993). Yukl (2010 stated, “Power-influence research examines influence processes between leaders and other people” (p. 14). Like most research on traits and behavior, some of the power-influence research takes a leader-centered perspective with an implied assumption that causality is moving where leaders act and followers react. This research explains

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  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Happiness R. Brown University of Phoenix LDR/531 Organizational Leadership Brenda Talsma October 22, 2012 An important aspect to any organization or team is leadership and the impact it can have on the success and completion of projects, goals and objectives. Leaders have many different styles in their approach of the leadership role. Some qualities needed to perform successful leadership roles include: respect, confidence, loyalty and obedience. The

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  • Relationship Between Accounting Assumption, Principles, and Theories

    The objective of this individual assignment is to understand the relationship between accounting assumption, principles and how does they assist in financial reporting. It is also to understand what types of accounting theory that relevant with the accounting principles. Going concern assumption is one of accounting assumptions which is about financial activities of a business are assumed to be in operation for long period of time. This assumption is allows a business to operate in long

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  • Nonviolent Approach

    Nonviolent Method Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 and was a great figure when it comes to the issue of the non – violent persistence or civil disobedience. He was born in Porbander in Western India. Ghandi made a huge change to the India and their society during his life; his actions and famous method of nonviolent approach against the British instead of violent one. He believed that method would bring and provoke less negative reaction in the British at that time. Like Mohatma

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  • Adlerian Approach

    Adlerian Approach with Abby Sylvia Montalvo Walden University Adlerian Approach with Abby The therapeutic approach in the case profile of a client named Abby after an assessment is given, and a summary is developed based on the information collected is the Adlerian approach. According to the COUN 6722 study notes, Abby is a 57 year-old African American women who came into the office seeking counseling. Abby works part-time as a free-lance editor. Abby has a bachelor’s

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  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Sandra C. Williams LDR/531 November 29, 2012 Michael Bates Leadership Approach Leadership requires directing and motivating others toward a common goal. Influence plays a major part in leadership to guide the individual, group, or organization to share in the success of a leader’s ideas and plans. A particular situation determines how much power and influence is needed by a leader. More influence is needed to make changes in strategy when strong resistance to

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  • Assumption

    “Don’t run. By the silence it renders its solitude. Please don’t run” Peter plead, as Tom ran across the narrow hall, and sheltered himself, along with peter, in a dim room. Peter, a smart young boy with a cautious behavior, never really enjoyed adventure, however; he never really enjoyed being oblivious either, and Tom, a dimwitted little boy with a personality of a potato, always enjoyed dragging Peter along with him on his crazy schemes. “I told you, everything will be fine!” Whispered Tom

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  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Paper LDR/531 February 25, 2013 Leadership Approach A leader has the ability to lead and influence a group of people to follow in his or her direction to achieve organizational goals or in other words, getting people to want to do what you want them to do rather than just getting them to do what you want them to. The purpose of this paper is to explore the situational leadership theory as an approach to studying leadership and discuss

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  • Leadership Approach

    influence approach to ensure strong leaders and the power of influencing the general public they serve. The strength of the Power Influence Approach is also its weakness. The guideline of “leaders act and followers react” (Yukl, para. 56, 2010) will help leadership be established and hold the ultimate level of power which is a strength. The followers who are natural leaders will not react as expected. Eliminating this weakness requires the leaders to know who their followers are and recognize

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  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Research on leadership has been occurring for centuries and has continued to evolve over the course of time. So much research is available that it is necessary to categorize it to emphasize potential relationships that tie them together. According to Yuki, "common practice is to limit the focus to one type of leader characteristic, namely traits, behavior, or power" (Yuki, 2010, p. 13). Focusing on the trait approach, a

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  • Managerial Approach

    employee questions during live events. In total, 10,000 employees attended the communication sessions. Webcast replays, transcripts and written summaries of all major employee events are posted on HP’s Intranet for employees to access. Each meeting in 2007 reached an average of 4,500 managers and 15,000 employees. Senior managers also hold similar events across regions. Currently, every quarter, HP CEO holds an all-manager and all-employee meeting where she provides an update on company

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  • Conservative Approach

    future difficulties. A conservative working capital policy may prove best to keep risk low. In a conservative plan, a company will typically match its business assets and liabilities in order to make sure the company will have the money to pay creditors. This approach involves the use of long-term debt and equity to finance all long-term fixed assets and permanent assets, in addition to some part of temporary current assets. To reduce risk, a business must also retain additional assets for the

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  • Semco's Approach

    Semco’s approach to management. Semco’s approach of management is pretty unique and is guided by three important values and concepts: employee participation, profit sharing and transparency. There is no formal organizational chart and there is only four official title and three management layers in this system. The corporate layer also called counselors is composed of five managers who apply a supervisory leadership system where all company’s strategic information is shared to employees and

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  • Cardinal Utility Analysis/Approach

    Cardinal Utility Analysis/Approach: Definition and Explanation: Human wants are unlimited and they are of different intensity. The means at the disposal of a man are not only scarce but they have alternative uses. As a result of scarcity of recourses, the consumer cannot satisfy all his wants. He has to choose as to which want is to be satisfied first and which afterward if the recourses permit. The consumer is confronted in making a choice. For example, a man is thirsty. He goes to the

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  • Scorecard Approach

    IV. How can you utilize the scorecard approach/es in allocating operational risk capital? Operational risk is hard to quantify because it is the risk resulting to personnel or organizational error, technological inadequacies or failure in processes which also include external factors. Operational risk scorecards show the operational risk profile of a company through the use of scores. Through the scorecard approach, the bank will use scorecards to modify the amounts of the initial level

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  • Interpersonal Approach

    According to Goldberg and Goldberg (2013), psychoanalysis during the first part of the twenty century focused on the facet of intrapersonal methodology. This approach to therapy provided treatment to an individual that did not include his or family members or any associations that family members or any other individuals will have in the occurrence of the problem. Psychotherapy were more focused on getting the client to “explore their unconscious fantasy world” (Goldberg and Goldberg, 2013, p

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  • Behaviourist Approach

    1A) two assumption of the behaviourist Approach (4marks) : One assumption of the behaviourist approach is that behaviour can be explained by classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning through positive and negative association. You can learn to become phobic therefore SD aims to replace the negative association with a positive one. Making the patient overcome the phobia. Replacing fear response with relaxation. This was studied by Ivan Pavlov using dogs. Before conditioning

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  • Cardinalist Approach

    Theory OF Consumer Behavior There are two main approaches to the theory of consumer behaviour to demand. The first approach is the Marginal Utility or Cardinalist Approach. The second is the Ordinalist Approach. 1. CARDINAL UTILITY ANALYSIS Human wants are unlimited and they are of different intensity. The means at the disposal of a man are not only scarce but they have alternative uses. As a result of scarcity of resources, the consumer cannot satisfy all his wants. He has to choose as to

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  • Ordinalist and Cardinalist Theories

    overestimates the numbers in work since it counts twice anyone with two jobs and hence the percentage of persons unemployed is underestimated. 7 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT (Definitions and Measurement) • The other way of measuring U is through Labour Force Surveys. • Most countries now use the ILO approach. • The ILO classifies all people aged 16 and over : – as in employment or – as ILO unemployed, or – as economically inactive. 8 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT (Definitions and

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  • Bureacratic Approach

    BUREACRATIC APPROACH: Bureaucracy is a way to manage the business operations. It is used to describe a wide range of behaviors, attitudes and decisions. In a bureaucratic organizational structure, authority is generally centered at the top, and information generally flows from the top down. This usually encourages a company culture focused on rules and standards, where operational processes are rigidly controlled with best-practices methodologies and close supervision. NESTLE Nestle

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  • Applied Assumption of Risk

    implied assumption of risk. The trial court denied the motion, holding that being cut by the blade of another skater is not an inherent risk of figure skating. See Id. at 5. The Court of Appeal reversed. The court reasoned that skating is analogous to skiing, and that case law dealing with skiing “uniformly hold that one skier assumes the risk or collision with another.” Id. at 6. Consequently, the court held that the plaintiff assumed the risk of injury by another skater, including the risk

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  • Situational Approach

    Situational Approach A. Because the group is at a low developmental stage (D1), they will need a high directive and supportive leader (S2). It is important at first for the leader to build a relationship and trust among the staff, and he/she will need to be clear about the tasks that need to be completed. The leader needs to have a positive attitude and encourage the group through struggles so that the subordinates become more motivated and confident in their work. By the end of training

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  • Calveta Approach

    3. Why haven’t other food service providers copied Calveta’s approach? The reason why haven’t other food service providers copied Calveta’s approach this is because Calveta use differentiation focus approach for their business and this approach make other food service difficult to copy their operation. First reason is because most of the competitors might have not started as a traditional family company. As we know Calveta Dining Services was built on Antonio Calveta’s passion for food and

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  • Structural Approach

    model has its own approach using different ways in conceptualizing a problem and developing treatment plans that support the goals stated for therapy. In addition, theory-based treatment plans are the source for goal development and treatment options by identifying the presenting problem and social influences.[2] Both these models use similar approaches and define goals with various therapeutic processes that begin with the building of therapist and client relationship. In addition, diversity and

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  • Strategic Approach

    Strategic HR Approach The well-being of their employees is a primary concern for a company because they are the one that make the company alive. Hence, it’s vital for the company to ascertain that the needs of the employees are provided. The following circumstances are means into how the employee’s need occur and the procedures to guide the employees. Often, companies need to deviate from the norms to guide an employee. Medical Bills An employee who already stayed in the company for many

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  • Loan Assumption

    . In this agreement, we would take over the mortgage payments, homeowner’s insurance, property taxes and maintenance and in return we would receive exclusive rights to buy the house for the balance of the loan at any point during its life. Since entering into this agreement, the mortgage has gone up and we have encountered problems with communication and access to the loan account. After researching the topic extensively, we came to the conclusion that although the contract may be one-sided and

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  • Developmental Approach

    Paul B. Baltes’s Life-Span Developmental Approach 1. Development is lifelong. Development is a lifelong process of change. Each period of the life span is affected by what happened before and will affect what is to come. Each period has unique characteristics and value. No period is more or less important than any other. 2. Development is multidimensional. It occurs along multiple interacting dimensions—biological, psychological, and social—each of which may develop at varying rates

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  • Leadership Approach

    Leadership Approach Paper Any Body LDR531 Organizational Leadership August 15, 1999 Professor X Leadership Approach Paper The definition of leadership is debatable among leaders and followers in countless regards. According to Yuki (2010), the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives is the definition of leadership. Likewise

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  • Contemporary Approach

    August 2005, more schools were included through the passage of Act No. 35 (Louisiana Department of Education, 2007). This Act was passed in a special session of the Louisiana Legislature in November 2005, and as a result the Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) assumed control of 107 additional failing New Orleans schools. The RSD now had control over most of the New Orleans’ 128 public schools (The State of Public Education, June 2007; National Approach or Flawed Approach

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  • Biological Approach

    Essay plan: ‘Discuss the biological approach to psychopathology’. PARAGRAPH 1- A01: Intro- explain the biological approach including key assumptions. • Biological approach regards abnormality as an illness or disease. • Assumes all mental disorders are related to some change in the body. • Mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of the brain. • Seen people with psychological abnormality as ‘patients’ who are ‘ill’ and require ‘treatment’ to ‘cure’ them of

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  • Behavioural Approach

    Discuss the behavioural approach to explaining psychological abnormalities (12 marks) The behavioural approach focuses on the behaviour of an individual in order to explain psychological problems. Behaviourists claim that abnormal behaviour is learned through experiences in the same way as most other behaviour through classical and operant conditioning. Behaviourists believe the concept of classical conditioning can be used to explain the development of many abnormal behaviours, including

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  • Rational Approach

    Rational Approach Grant Bowden BUSI 610 Liberty University Abstract This paper begins with a concise introduction on the rational approach. From there the paper moves into defining the rational approach as it relates to decision-making. Next, the paper makes mention of Benjamin Franklin utilizing “pros” and “cons” in his decision making process”. Following this, there is a quick mention on uncertainty as it relates to financial risk as well as a brief mention of a step-based

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  • Study Approach

    TITLE: Study Approach: PAMANTANSAN NG LUNSOD NG MAYNILA CS THIRD YEAR BIOLOGY STUDENTS A. Background of the Study BS Biology students have the burden of memorizing technical/scientific terms, different defining characteristics of representative species from different phyla, long and confusing life cycles of different organisms and such. Many have failed in recalling key details and important information during examinations and majority of that is because of the technicality of the

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  • Psychology Approach

    | | |This is the first of a block of four Qualitative Methods Lectures and Workshops. Out of this block as a | | |whole you will produce your second report. Qualitative Methods is a very different approach to those you| | |have learnt so far. It is not statistical, emphasising rather the use of interviews, discourse analysis,| | |focus groups, diary studies and observational techniques

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  • Behaviourist Approach

    The Behaviourist Approach 1a) Outline two assumptions of the Behaviourist Approach (4 marks) One assumption of the Behaviourist Approach is that they believe the environment influences behaviour. An example of this behaviour would be social learning theory were it is believed that we learn through observing and imitating models such as parents this is known as environmental determinism. Another assumption of the Behaviourist Approach is that they believe scientific methods should be used

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  • Behaviorist Approach

    Behaviourist approach The behavioural approach is based on the concept of explaining behaviour through observation, and the belief that our environment is what causes us to behave differently. Behaviourists explain behaviour in terms of the stimuli that elicit it and the events that caused the person to learn to respond to the stimulus that way. Behaviourists use two processes to explain how people learn: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In classical conditioning, people

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  • Organistional Approach

    , organizing, or culture. The emerging perspectives ask if communication is a part or necessary process of social construction. The underlying message is that organizational communication can be explained through these three perspectives and that the organization can be successful in its endeavors if it employs what is argued by the approaches. The afore-mentioned approaches: functional approach, meaning centered approach, and emerging perspectives are vital in solving any company's communication

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  • Project Approach

    The project approach Katz, Lilian G. Scholastic Early Childhood Today12.6 (Mar 1998): 43-44. Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers by selecting the Enter button Abstract (summary) TranslateAbstract Engaging children in active investigations of topics that have personal meaning for them can enhance a curriculum and a child's desire to learn. Projects are ways to help children answer their own questions and learn more about the world. Full Text * TranslateFull text

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  • Psychoanalytical Approach

    and delinquent behaviour. The psychoanalytical approach also says that defence mechanism can lead a person to commit crimes, for example: Denial can make a person so ignore the acts they are committing or neglect to accept the severity of them. Displacement is when a person takes their anger and frustration out on something or someone else than the person/thing that is making them feel like that which can mean attacking a stranger on the street. This theory also says that maternal deprivation

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  • The Basic Assumption of Assumtpions

    . Liebowitz / Expert Systems with Applications 20 (2001) 1±6 therefore may take a different form from one person to another. Typically, many organizations will need to use a dual strategy to uncovering and sharing these types of knowledge. A codi®cation approach will be needed to formalize and document the knowledge in a knowledge repository. A personalization approach is also used to encourage informal communications to hopefully uncover tacit knowledge and transfer it from one individual to

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  • Cardinalist

    ( y ) it can produce at least yt units of output and (4.8) shows that it costs less than x t . This contradicts the assumption that xt is a cost-minimizing bundle. Notes The algebraic approach to cost minimization is further developed in Varian (1982b). Exercises 4.1. Prove rigorously that profit maximization implies cost minimization. 4.2. Use the Kuhn-Tucker theorem to derive conditions for cost minimization that are valid even if the optimal solution involves a boundary solution

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  • Assumption of Risk

    In the Dillworth v. Gambardella, 776 F. Supp. 170 (D. Vt. 1991) is a case where the Plaintiff sues a skier that feel and thereby knocking down the plaintiff who feel and injured his back. The jury came back with a defendant verdict and the plaintiff files a motion for a new trial on the grounds that the court made an error in instructing the jury as to the Vermont Sports Injury Statute and its relation to the doctrine of assumption of risk and the applications to this case. The appellate

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