Background of the Study
Globalization has undeniably affected the people, the businesses and the entire world. Globalization is simply defined as the process by which the different states, markets, technologies and firms become integrated and interconnected (Baur, 2011; van Tulder, 2001). Evidently, globalization has become an important facet of the twenty-first century. One of the more specific effects of globalization is the increased levels of trade and foreign direct investments worldwide. Furthermore, globalization has also facilitated the interdependence of the different economies throughout the entire world (Baur, 2011; Betsill & Correll, 2001). In addition to what has been previously mentioned, globalization has also influenced the development of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) as a response to the recent increases in private investment (Teegen, 2003). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) consist of citizens’ groups that are organized on a local, national or international level (Bendell, 2000; van Tulder, 2001). There are generally, three types of NGOs, these are: (1) advocacy NGOs who are primarily tasked with the promotion of the governments or in international for the groups who do not have the capacity to do so; (2) operational NGOs, which primarily deals with the provision of goods and services to the clients who are in need; and lastly, (3) hybrid NGOs or those who perform both tasks previously mentioned (Ghauri, 2003; Vormedal, 2008). It is in this regard that NGOs are popularly known as those groups which are organized based on a certain issue (Ghauri, 2003; van Tulder, 2001). Most of the common objectives behind the establishment of the NGOs are the protection of human rights and that of the environment (Baur, 2011; Betsill & Correll, 2001; Teegen, 2003). To support the said goals, NGOs are also given the task of...