Free Essay

A Look at Classical Conditioning

In: Science

Submitted By wlkrofnyte
Words 2041
Pages 9
A Look at Classical Conditioning | Aaron P. Dean | | A Clockwork Orange |

Outline I. A brief overview of “A Clockwork Orange” (A.C.O.) A. General Information and Plot Synopsis B. Alex DeLarge C. Thesis Statement II. Classical Conditioning D. What is Classical Conditioning? i. The Pavlovian Method a. The Basic Components * Defined Theories b. Specific examples in A.C.O. ii. John Watson’s Approach c. Emotional Conditioning * Key Elements iii. Specific examples in A.C.O. E. Tying It All Together iv. Ethical Concerns v. In the Modern Era III. Conclusion

A Brief Overview of “A Clockwork Orange”
General Information and Plot Synopsis
A Clockwork Orange is a book written in 1962 by Anthony Burgess. However the film adaptation, made by Stanley Kubrick, was not made until 1971 and it is of this to which I will be writing. This film stars a very young Malcolm McDowell who plays the role of Alex DeLarge. Alex is a boy in his mid-to-late teens [15 or 16, I believe] who lives in a quasi-futuristic version of England. This land is controlled by a totalitarian style government, and plagued by adolescent street gangs who engage in what is affectionately referred to as ‘The Ultraviolence’ which mainly consists of vandalism, assault, drug use, theft, rape, and murder. Alex, the leader of one such gang, breaks into a rich woman’s home in order to rob it, and winds up assaulting her rather badly in the process. Just after Alex knocks the woman out, he hears police sirens and attempts to escape, but he is incapacitated by one of his gang-mates when he blind sides him with a full bottle of ‘milk-plus’ [milk with an illicit substance added] and is arrested (Sparknotes, 2004) (Kubrick, 1971).
At the police station, Alex finds out that the woman he knocked out has died and that he is now being charged with murder, and is sentenced to fourteen years of incarceration. A couple of years later, in order to get an early release, Alex volunteers to undergo an experimental procedure called the Ludovico technique; [described below] a supposed ‘miracle cure’ for violent behavior. The technique seems to work, so Alex is released the very next day. However, his next few days are wracked with torment as many of the people he had wronged take the opportunity to get revenge. Due to the technique used on Alex, he is completely unable to defend himself against their assaults so he gets beaten, drugged and tortured which leads to him severely injuring himself when he attempts suicide in order to escape the anguish (Sparknotes, 2004) (Kubrick, 1971).

Alex DeLarge
Alex DeLarge is a sociopath who is very much like the pet snake he keeps in the drawer under his bed. A sociopath is defined as “a person with a psychopathic personality whose behavior is antisocial, often criminal, and who lacks a sense of moral responsibility or social conscience” (Dictionary.com), and this describes Alex quite well. He is cold, calculating, and sadistic but with a noticeable undertone of playfulness and hedonism. All of these things, combined with a certain fluidity of his mannerisms, give the impression that he is every inch the social predator that he aspires to be…one without conscience or remorse. In addition to this, he also has a more refined side as he likes to dress fashionably; enjoys the arts, especially music; and is a fan of the classical composers; specifically Ludwig Van Beethoven. I feel that this adds to his predatory nature because it gives him a sense of superiority over those he views as ‘less cultured’. It is these very qualities that are responsible for his downfall, at the hands of his gang-mates, and his volunteering for the Ludovico technique (Pearson, 2008) (Sparknotes, 2004) (Kubrick, 1971).
Thesis Statement
Classical Conditioning was used by the government, in A Clockwork Orange, as a form of behavioral therapy in an attempt to ‘cure’ Alex’s unruly behavior. However, while they were able to stop him from committing those heinous crimes again; it was at the cost of his mental, physical, and emotional freedom.

Classical Conditioning
What is Classical Conditioning? Classical conditioning is “a method of learning [a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude] through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another” (Pearson, 2008), and was discovered, not intentionally, by Ivan Pavlov while he was doing research on the digestive process. Through various scientific trials, Pavlov was able to identify the three basic components required for classical conditioning to occur; the first is the organism [or subject] to be conditioned. Second is the unconditioned stimulus which is anything that provokes an unconditioned response [a specific response learned without any prior learning on the part of the subject]. Third is the neutral stimulus which is “a stimulus that normally does not elicit an overt response (apart from focusing attention) in the observed organism”, however if it is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus transitions into a conditioned stimulus and will provoke a conditioned response which is a learned behavior brought on by the conditioned stimulus that is similar to, or the same as, the one invoked by the unconditioned stimulus due to the association of the two in the organism’s mind (Pearson, 2008).
Specific Example
The point in ‘A Clockwork Orange’ where this is done is the scene when Alex undergoes the Ludovico technique; a fictional form of aversion therapy. In this scene, Alex [the subject] is administered a drug called Experimental Serum #114 [unconditioned aversive stimulus] that at some point will induce debilitating nausea, is strapped into a chair, and forced to watch violent films [neutral stimulus] while his eyes are held open. The effects of #114 slowly build as Alex is watching the films causing his mind to link the violence he sees with the growing nausea that he feels. To make matters worse, they used Beethoven’s 9th symphony to help make the conditioning more effective, but little did the doctors’ know how powerful of a choice they had made considering that was Alex’s favorite musical piece. The result of this experiment was whenever Alex was faced with any violent or sexual act, his or anyone else’s; he would be overcome with nausea so strong that it bordered on agony (Kubrick, 1971); effectively leaving him defenseless in several situations. In addition to this, Alex also learned to exhibit the same conditioned response whenever he heard Beethoven’s 9th; a psychological phenomenon called Higher-order conditioning. This is when multiple conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals and this occurred when Alex’s mind linked the music to the violence which was linked to the nausea (Pearson, 2008).
Emotional Conditioning Emotional conditioning is a subset of classical conditioning where the conditioned stimulus elicits a specific emotional response in an organism; such as fear. Most of the time, conditioned emotional responses develop naturally, but the interesting thing about emotional conditioning is that it is somewhat held in check by a factor known as biological predisposition. Biological predisposition is a theory that states that it is harder for a creature to develop a fear of something that it does not have a genetic propensity for (Pearson, 2008). For example, it is easier for people to develop a fear of snakes than it is for them to suddenly fear pillows; however this concept is not absolute. Given the right set of circumstances, anyone can suddenly develop a fear of anything; such as an individual getting mugged by a person wearing a red ski mask and thereafter, if it is traumatic enough for them, the victim is now afraid of red ski masks as it remind that person of the event.
2nd Specific Example
When Alex realized that Beethoven’s 9th symphony could also induce that same nausea; it sent him into a panic. He could not bear the thought of experiencing that horrible feeling in connection with something he considered to be beautiful. He begged and pleaded for the doctors to turn the music off, but they refused. This shows that the doctors either did not consider the possibility of generalization [the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus] (Pearson, 2008) or were not concerned with it, because they proceeded without delay. Due to their callousness, Alex became averse to the piece due to the nausea he would experience from his higher-order conditioning.
Tying it All Together What was done in A Clockwork Orange is illegal today however as human beings, I feel that we are obligated to be mindful of the ethical concerns regarding any use of classical conditioning. I could say so many things about this, but I feel that the quote from the movie, spoken by the Priest, says it best “Choice! The boy has no real choice, has he? Self-interest, the fear of physical pain drove him to that grotesque act of self-abasement. Its insincerity was clearly to be seen. He ceases to be a wrong doer; he ceases also to be a creature capable of moral choice. (Kubrick, 1971).” I find the very idea of stripping someone of their right to make their own choices to be deplorable, regardless of the outcome. Not doing something because you have to and not doing something because you choose to are two very different things. What happens if the prohibitive conditioning were to undergo extinction [the weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response] (Pearson, 2008)? Wouldn’t Alex be more likely to resume his evil ways out of anger and resentment?
I would also like to touch on more modern examples of classical conditioning. The most blatant and effective usage, in the modern era, can be found in television commercials by those who employ such devices as a musical tone [bell ring – Taco Bell], a catch phrase [I’m Lovin’ it! – McDonalds], a mascot [the Marlboro man], or a catchy jingle [Hilltop – Coca Cola]. Whenever most people, in the U.S., are exposed to these stimuli; they immediately think of whatever it is linked to and, as can be the case with jingles, they can stay in your mind for quite some time (Pearson, 2008). The reason that this is done is simple; the more you think about a company’s product, the more likely you are to purchase it. While most uses of classical conditioning are not directly harmful, the blatant disregard of any potential consequence, on the part of many companies, requires us to keep a more watchful eye. For example, each of the three companies that I referred to, in this paragraph, use their advertising in conjunction with products that have ingredients that are both addictive and harmful [nicotine, HFCS, ect.].

Conclusion Classical conditioning is a powerful tool that can bring many benefits to a lot of people, but if it is not used responsibly it can cause more harm than good. In any situation that involves this technique, no matter how great or small, we need to let our ethical compass’ be our guide. There is a very fine line between showing people the right thing to do and forcing them to do it, and it is one that can be easily be crossed if we do not temper our good intentions with wisdom. Think about it this way, if you were the one with the power to influence the behavior of others; how easy do you think would it be to transition from the role of shepherd to that of ‘big brother’?

Bibliography
Dictionary.com. (2012). Sociopath. (Dictionary.com, LLC) Retrieved July 19th, 2012, from Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sociopath
Kubrick, S. (Producer), Kubrick, S. (Writer), & Kubrick, S. (Director). (1971). A Clockwork Orange [Motion Picture]. United Kingdom: Warner Bros. Retrieved July 13th, 2012, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0066921/
Pearson. (2008). Mastering the World of Psycholody. In E. G. Samuel E. Wood, Mastering the World of Psycholody (3rd ed., pp. 146 - 154). Pearson Education Inc. Retrieved July 19th, 2012
Sparknotes. (2004, July 10). A Clockwork Orange. (S. Editors, Editor, & Sparknotes LLC) Retrieved July 20th, 2012, from Sparknotes.com: http://www.sparknotes.com/film/clockworkorange/citing.html

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Use of Classical Conditioning in Advertising

...The Use of Classical Conditioning in Advertising IT Carlow Consumer Insights Y3 12/10/2012 April Brophy Introduction Classical conditioning in advertising has been used by firms who sell products to get consumers to purchase from them instead of their competition. (CALVIN BIERLEY, 1985) This essay will briefly explain what classical conditioning is. It will examine the problems with experiments on classical conditioning in advertising and briefly look at two experiments which try to overcome these problems in testing classical conditioning in advertising. The first experiment will look at the effects of background features in advertising by Gerald J.Gorn. The second experiment will investigate whether consumer attitudes towards a product can be conditioned and it will examine weather classically conditioned attitudes can be stronger with larger numbers of trials. The essay will then look at what advertisers need to remember when using classical conditioning and then give examples of companies that use classical conditioning in their advertising campaigns. Classical Conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov by accident while he was researching the digestive system of dogs where he presented food to the dog. Pavlov noticed that the dog would start to salivate when he just walked into the room even without food in his hand. Pavlov’s main belief was that learning occurred through association. The dog associated Pavlov with the food and would then salivate. It......

Words: 2556 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

How Phobias Are Developed

...have been observed through various studies. A gentleman named Ivan Pavlov discovered. Ivan worked with dogs studying their behavior to certain things such as how the dogs reacted towards food. His studies became known as Classical Conditioning. Another gentleman did a similar study that involved cats. Edward Thorndike found that cats were able to learn by accidently opening a latch from within a cage to reach food. The cats learned and repeated the motion over and over. Both gentleman conducted studies in the 1800’s. His studies became know as operant conditioning. Although classical conditioning and operant conditioning are important concepts, it is important to understand how they differ. The first study of behavior being presented is Classical conditioning. “Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal.” (McCloud, 2008). Classical conditioning can be best described as an involuntary behavior. Classical conditioning involves three different stages; before conditioning, during conditioning, and after conditioning. Unconditioned stimulus is know in the stage of before conditioning and involves a response that has not been...

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Psy457

...veloped by the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is the first type of learning wherein an organism responds to an environmental stimulus. Pavlov established the laws of classical conditioning when he studied dogs deprived of food and their response (salivation) to Pavlov's assistant as he walks into the room. A. Key Concepts In classical conditioning, the stimulus (S) triggers the response (R) of an organism. With the exposure of the organism to the stimulus, reflex results. Reflex is the involuntary behavior which comes from within. One of the most common reflexes seen to us is the blinking of the eye whenever air is blown into it or a foreign object approaches it. The concept of reflex, no conscious control, is incorporated in classical conditioning. Pavlov developed a model for classical conditioning so we can have a better understanding of it. Generally, there are four consecutive concepts under this model, which include: The Unconditioned Stimulus (US) triggers the Unconditioned Response (UR) This means that without learning, a stimulus can elicit a reflex. Reflex is called the unconditioned response because as what we mentioned, it is involuntary and we do not need to learn it for the event to occur. The Neutral Stimulus (NS) is a stimulus that does not elicit the Unconditioned Response (UR) This means that when this stimulus is presented to the organism, it would not execute the same response he showed when it......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning.

...Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The unconditioned stimulus triggers the unconditioned response. This means that without learning a stimulus can produce any reflex. The Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not affect the unconditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is then paired with the neutral stimulus and presented to the organism. This transforms into a conditioned stimulus. This means that the previous neutral stimulus is presented to the organism it causes an unconditioned response. Whereas operant conditioning is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence. In operant conditioning there is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement that are both used to increase good behavior. There are also negative reinforcers and negative punishment to decrease bad behavior. These types of learning are part of our everyday lives and many times we fail to notice. Here are some of the examples of classical and operant conditioning that are used in the media. Many ads and commercials......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Effects of Music in Advertising on Choice Behavior: a Classical Conditioning Approach

...Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach, Journal of Marketing 46:1 (1982:Winter) p.94 Summary of Gorn, Gerald J., The effects of Music in Advertising on Choice Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach, Journal of Marketing 46:1 (1982:Winter) p.94 The research conducted by Gerald J. Gorn is connected with Consumer Behavior through the general topic of learning: how do consumers’ behavior can be influenced by experience. In this case experience can be assimilated with music during advertising or more generally sensory features, which leads us more in depth of the Behavioral Learning Theories that emphasizes the learning process that occurs as consumers are facing external events. Its is to say do these external factors such as music during advertising influence the attention and the process of information, or do they directly takes part of the forming attitude process. Then we can especially focus on the Classical conditioning approach and effects on attitude (if there is) as Gerald J. Gorn does in his research. But before explaining the theory, on which the research is based, let focus on its objectives. As explained earlier, the purpose of the two experiments are to demonstrate if there is a scientific connection between the sensory features added to information in an advertisement and the attitude(s) and preference(s) shaped toward the attitude object (and attitude advertisement). Using the classical approach,......

Words: 1297 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Psy 390 Imdividual Assignment Week 4

...Classical Conditioning PSY/390 Classical Conditioning Of the several types of learning the first to be studied and discovered within the behaviorist tradition was classical conditioning. Ivan Pavlov was the major theorist in developing classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. The techniques of classical conditioning have been found useful in the treatment of phobias or anxiety problems. Some teachers have found that applying classical conditioning in the class setting helps to creating a positive classroom environment this in turn helps students overcome anxiety or fear (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). Theory “Pavlov was studying the digestive system of dogs and became intrigued with his observation that dogs deprived of food began to salivate when one of his assistants walked into the room. He began to investigate this phenomenon and established the laws of classical conditioning. Skinner renamed this type of learning respondent conditioning since in this type of learning, one is responding to an environmental antecedent” (Huitt & Hummel, 1997, p. 1). “The ingredients necessary to bring about Pavlovian or classical conditioning include (1) an unconditioned stimulus (US), which elicits a natural and......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Psychology of Learning

...named Eva and her animosity towards cheese. Yes, I said cheese. We are going to look through different learning perspectives on how her informal learning experience has brought her to this behavior. We will look at each of these perspectives and how they may have led her to this path of a cheeseless existence. I will answer the questions of how does one get to this point. Who can go their whole life without cheese? How does the smell of one tasty, bold, flavorful food bring behaviors such as mouthwatering hunger to one and mouthwatering, I think I am going to vomit to another. How do we acquire such different behaviors than others toward the same thing? Psychology of Learning Through life, we pick up feelings toward certain things, negative or positive emotions. We pick up negative or positive behaviors along the way. Some may be behaviors we wish we did not have, some we may even wish we could discontinue. There are behaviors and feelings we are not even sure where or when we picked them up. I am going to give you an example of behavior one woman picked up at a young age and, still to this day in her 50's cannot escape it. I will go over her informal learning experience through a series of different learning perspectives and, see if we can figure out how this behavior began. The behavior we will take a look at as an example will be that of a woman named Eva and her animosity towards......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Conditioning

...All three types of learning are part of behaviourism and look at measurable behaviour, rather than on cognitive and biological processes. Classical conditioning was the first learning theory, introduces in the 1900s followed by operant conditioning in the 1940s and the social learning theory after that. Classical conditioning examines how a response is associated with a stimulus to cause conditioning looking at reflex / involuntary behaviours; operant conditioning involves learning through consequences – punishments and rewards in order to reinforce or decrease the occurrence of behaviour looking at deliberate / voluntary behaviour. Social learning theory accepts the role of reinforcement and rewards, and so incorporates operant conditioning within its theory. All three theories use controlled lab experiments with careful controls and manipulation of the independent variable. This is because they all investigate observable behaviour, which can be tested experimentally. Classical and operant conditioning use animals where as the social learning theory uses humans as role models and subjects. Operant conditioning has been used in therapy – for example token economy – and classical conditioning in aversion therapy where an undesirable behaviour is removed by associating it with an aversive stimulus. Therefore both kinds of conditioning have practical applications and are useful. Social learning theory is also useful – it has helped to highlight the need to take care......

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Introduction to Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response. In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process. The Unconditioned Stimulus The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry...

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Phobias & Addictions

...humans possess that are triggered by subconscious fears they may have about something directly or indirectly related to their particular phobia. Phobias are more operant conditions rather than classical conditions; meaning they are more dictated because of environment or other factors surrounding oneself than occurring without any sort of studied behavior. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. Addiction is both a physiological and psychological disorder where individuals become dependent upon one thing or another. Phobias can be developed through classical as well as operant conditioning. There are distinct factors that play a role in distinguishing between classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning plays an important role in the development of certain phobias. This type of conditioning means that certain sounds or circumstances can trigger or elicit certain emotion and/or make a person react in a particular fashion over a period of time and thru trial and error. A phobia can be triggered or made prevalent in the conscious mind because of an idiosyncrasy assisted by one of the five senses. Many circumstances can factor in to addiction. Addiction can be dangerous as well as beneficial in certain cases. Operant conditioning is when a behavior is produced by its environment rather than evoked or induced by its environment. Addictions can be developed through operant conditions by the environment that one......

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addictions Paper‏

...social researchers. The two most prominent forms of learning styles are labeled as Classical and Operant Conditioning. Both Styles allow individuals to perform experiments in which we find out what works, why it works, and the possible changes and outcomes that may be applied as a result. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that already leads to a response is replaced by a different stimulus. In operant conditioning a behavior is picked out and either reinforced or punished to make it more or less common. In laymen’s terms it acts to modify or replace the stimulus that leads to a given response, and the other to modify or refine a response (Psychology 5e, 2010). Classical Conditioning is a technique used in the change and adaption of a specific behavior. It is the naturally occurring stimulus that is paired with a defined response. A neutral stimulus is then paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. The goal is to have the neutral stimulus evoke the response without the need of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two functions become the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. The classical conditioning model of behaviorism is based upon the psychological mechanism of association. Classical conditioning functions through conditioning trials. This is where an unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus to achieve the desired effect. Operant Conditioning is a different technique involved in behavior modification. This technique is......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...In order to fully comprehend classical and operant conditioning , first we need to understand what exactly behaviourism is and what it focuses on. This essay will outline behaviourism and look at the explanations for how we learn, these include classical and operant conditioning. Both learning methods have several practical applications used to treat people, these will also be discussed. Behaviourist’s believe that when you are born your mind is blank and behaviorism focuses on learning based on the concept that all actions are acquired through conditioning processes. John Watson who was considered “the father of behavioursim”, argued that conditioning occurred through interaction with the environment and our responses to the environmental stimuli shape our behaviours. Conditioning can be separated into two types, classical and operant. Classical Conditioning is defined as the conditioning of reflexes so that they occur in response to new situations. It was first discovered by Ivan Pavlov when he was working on dogs, studying their digestive systems. He noted that the dogs produced saliva when a bell(auditory stimulus) and food (unconditioned stimulus) were presented together. Eventually the bell alone(conditioned stimulus) would come to evoke the salivating response(conditioned response) . The link between the saliva and the bell is defined as conditioned stimulus and response because the dogs were conditioned to associate the bell with receiving the food. However if......

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Phobias & Addictions Paper

...Xonepro Xonepro PSY/300 PSY/300 Phobias & Addictions Week 2 Individual Assignment Phobias & Addictions Week 2 Individual Assignment Explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning. In doing some research on the topic of classical conditioning, I have come to learn that it is a way of training so to speak, where a conditioned response is learned through conditioning the individual, be it animal or human. Basically, one learns that if you do this one action, another will follow in response; a reaction to one’s action. This reaction can be either a reward or a punishment. For instance, you train a dog to do a trick such as, shake hands or roll over. You do this while holding a treat to entice the animal to do said trick. Once the trick is done, the pet then reaps the reward. After doing this many times, the pet then knows that if it does this trick, it will get a treat. Now in the case of classical conditioned phobias in humans, perhaps one of the most common is the fear of spiders, also known as arachnophobia. This is more of a natural happening as one perhaps is bitten or is woken at night with a spider crawling on them. We are told that spiders bite and they are poisonous which creates a natural fear of them and the way they look does not help either. I think even more interesting than people fearing them are the people that do not fear spiders. Another phobia would be that of glossophobia, which is the fear of public speaking or......

Words: 1163 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Behaviorism

...learning theories which guide our instruction as teachers, students, and how it has affected the understanding of learning. After this summary one will understand what behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories look like and how the understanding of these theories are applied to learning. The summary of behaviorism and how it has affected the understanding of learning When one thinks of the word behaviorism the root word behavior presents itself. According to Webster (2010) behavior is the way a person carries, acts, or presents oneself. Add ism to the word and it becomes a doctrine and/or theory. As a result, behaviorism is the theory that the way one presents oneself can be changed. Teachers may identify with the word behaviorism as the word behavior management. This an issue that one has found to be the most probing question of teachers…what type of behavior management system should one implement in the classroom? Behaviorism is the use of extrinsic reward that results in a response, effect, and or behavior change. In behaviorism everything is a result of extrinsic. This theory pushes for some type of learning behavior change for the learner. Connectivism, classical conditioning, contagious conditioning, operant conditioning, and self regulation are the...

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pavlovian Thery

...Classical conditioning shapes many of society's common, everyday tasks. Whether we know it or not, many actions we do numerous times a day are a direct result of classical conditioning. To better understand why we act the way we do in society, classical conditioning must be defined and described. Classical conditioning is defined as: a process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. Discovered by Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a form of learning. Pavlov revealed this trait when experimenting with dog's amounts of saliva in response to meat. He started noticing that after many repetitions, the dogs were salivating before the meat was even introduced. Pavlov concluded that some other stimulus that was repetitively associated with the meat was triggering the salivation. This simple concept describes how many actions are carried out in society today. Many times classical conditioning is not something that is purposefully done, but rather an incidental outcome. Conditioning may take a variable amount of time to occur. For example, humans are not born associating red with stop. As we grow, and ride in cars, we begin to consciously or subconsciously figure out that when a stoplight is red-you stop. Stop signs are red, stoplights are red, and brake lights are red. All of these things symbolize stopping. Yes, when you turn sixteen and you get......

Words: 3796 - Pages: 16