Free Essay

Any Given Sunday - a Sociological Analysis

In: Social Issues

Submitted By harrytgoat
Words 5135
Pages 21
Abstract
This paper explores the movie “Any Given Sunday” and attempts to discuss the movie in detail by focusing on character examples of the personal functions of sport such as feelings of belongingness and social identification, the socially acceptable outlet for hostile and aggressive feelings, and the role sport plays as a cultural element to bring meaning to life. Additional attention will be given to aspects of extra-sport character behavior and a determination of whether or not such behaviors support sport stereotypes and/or deviant characteristics. Through internet research, library study, and the use of periodical articles found in the ProQuest databases, I intend to apply the functionalist model of society to show that the fictional football team “The Miami Sharks” highlighted in the movie supports stability and equilibrium in the community of Miami based on common interests and convictions. The world of professional sports, especially professional football, is a world that most will only see on the television or through movies. “Any Given Sunday,” by Oliver Stone, is one such movie. It highlights a portion of a season for the fictional team The Miami Sharks with the interpersonal struggles on and off the field experienced by the characters related to the team. This paper explores the movie “Any Given Sunday” and attempts to discuss the movie in detail by focusing on the socially acceptable outlet for hostile and aggressive feelings, masculinity and gender roles, religion in sport, race in sports, character examples of the personal functions of sport such as feelings of belongingness and social identification, and the role sport plays as a cultural element to bring meaning to life. Additional attention will be given to aspects of extra-sport character behavior and a determination of whether or not such behaviors support sport stereotypes and/or deviant characteristics. I intend to apply the functionalist model of society to show that “The Miami Sharks” highlighted in the movie supports stability and equilibrium in the community of Miami based on common interests and convictions. The movie begins with scenes from a game between the Sharks and the Minnesota Americans. Violent images of men attempting to dominate one another fill the screen. Players are struggling to physically best one another through the use of physical contact as well as verbal taunting. At the end of one of these exchanges, Jack “Cap” Rooney, lays hostage to anger and pain on the grass. Several interactions take place both on the sidelines as well as on the field extolling the need for violent behavior to protect the quarterback from further injury. Cap tells his right tackle, “Madman,” to “hold him, rip out his eyes, but don’t let him mess with me!” Madman replies with adoration, “Cap, I’ll keep him off you even if I gotta bite off his thumb.” Those images of ripping a man’s eyes out or biting off his thumb would be considered completely out of place in almost any situation, but on the football field that type of reference to violence and aggression is common. Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, the parents, coaches, or spectators, aggression and sport just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. Athletes do have to be aggressive to a point, so that the team can form a strategy to win. There is also a limit to aggression when it turns into violence. People might say that it's not aggression or violence, it's just adrenaline pumping. Adrenaline isn't even similar to violence. Adrenaline may resemble aggression, but certainly nothing that would be truly harmful to anyone else. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another person, according to Webster’s. Intimidation usually does not cause physical harm, but often is designed to produce psychological consequences, enabling one person to physically over power or dominate another. Other's might argue that it's skill, and not in the least way violent. Although we really can't give a straight and to the point answer to the question “Is aggression an Instinct?” We can say that in man, as in other animals, there exists a physiological mechanism when stimulated it raises both subjective feelings of anger and leads to physical changes, which relate to fighting. This is easily set off, and like other emotional responses, it is very stereotyped, and instinctive. Just like one aggressive person is like a very angry person; they resemble one another at the psychological level, (Toch, H. 1992. p. 180). High levels of aggression and attempts at intimidation generate a tremendous amount of action. This might be a factor to why contact sports are so popular. Consequently, the popularity of contact sports leads many to view them as a socially acceptable outlet for hostile and aggressive feelings. Sports are not the only area where men use physical force to achieve their goals, by any means. “Specifically, they are more likely to use brawn and physical force, particularly in the sample of movies. On television, about one in ten men (11%), compared to 7 percent of the women, uses physical force. In the movies, on the other hand, more than half of the men (53%), compared to 19 percent of the women, use physical force. Moreover, in the movies men (38%) use physical force to achieve their goals” (Signorelli, N. 1997, p. 18). On the very next play, quarterback Jack “Cap” Rooney gets hit hard by three defenders and ends up lying motionless on the grass. He cannot move and is having difficulty breathing. When the medical staff, Dr. Mandrake and Dr. Powers, reaches him he is in excruciating pain. Dr. Mandrake runs him through a battery of on the field tests, “Straighten your legs. Wiggle your toes. Alright, Cap, they cut to commercial. You can get up now.” When Cap states that he cannot move, Mandrake dryly retorts “Do I gotta get you a stretcher now? You that old?” Cap shakes it off and is pulled up by two trainers, “Dammit! I’m walkin’ outta here!” This is a direct example of our society’s view of masculinity. Football is the peak masculine sport in the U.S. It is a sport where the definition of excellence is premised on strength, where there is a readiness to injure an opponent and where men have a considerable advantage over women. All of these features are heavily promoted by the mass media. The amount of pain a player can inflict and withstand is valued as a measure of 'manliness.’ It is this process which makes football a vehicle for masculine identification. The qualities of a good football player, which include physical strength, the capacity to be violent and the ability to play in pain reflect and reinforce a culturally valued form of masculinity. Cap is determined to maintain his pride even though he is obviously hurt quite badly. He will continue to “play hurt” for the betterment of the team as long as his body will hold out. This type of behavior is rooted in worldly asceticism, “the idea that suffering and the endurance of pain has a spiritual purpose, that goodness is linked with self-denial and a disdain for self-indulgence, and that spiritual redemption is achieved only through self-control and self-discipline,” (Coakley, J. 2009. p. 522). Though Cap may not be looking for spiritual redemption, these qualities define a base upon which much of the culture’s idea of masculinity is built. This can readily lead to deviant overconformity, “supranormal ideas, traits, and actions that indicate and uncritical acceptance of norms and a failure to recognize any limits to following norms,” (Coakley, J. 2009. p. 159). Coaches at all levels promote deviant overconformity to one extent or another because it makes players easier to control and causes them to put the needs of the team above their own. Even the great Vince Lombardi extolled the virtue of the byproducts of deviant overconformity when he said, “…Any man’s finest hour – his greatest fulfillment to all he holds dear – is that moment when he has worked his heart out in a good cause and lies exhausted on the field of battle – victorious.” Overconformity has permeated contact sports and that deviance is now interwoven into the fabric of that sub-culture. In the world of sports deviance is viewed differently on the playing field than if it were seen in the streets of a city or small town. In Jay J. Coakley’s Sport in Society, Coakley states, “actions accepted in sports may be deviant in other spheres of society, and actions accepted in society may be deviant in sports” (p. 154). Athletes are allowed and even encouraged to behave in ways that are prohibited or defined as criminal in other settings. “For example, athletes do in contact sports would be classified as felony assault if it occurred on the streets” (Coakley, J. 2009. p. 154). To better understand this, most sociologists like to use the Constructionist Approach rather than the Absolutist approach. Coakley illustrates that the Constructionist Approach states: “deviance occurs when ideas, traits, and actions fall outside the socially determined boundaries that people in a social world generally use to determine what is acceptable and unacceptable in a society or social world,” (p. 158-159). When one uses this approach they see that most behaviors fall into a normal range of acceptability in connection with any particular norm. Coakley also states “Deviance occurs when behaviors fall outside this range of what is acceptable on either side of a normally accepted range of behavior”. With this in mind it can be seen in Coakley’s work that deviance can come from underconformity, which basically is a behavior that goes against accepted rules or set behaviors by a lack of knowledge for that rule (negative deviance); or by overconformity which basically is a behavior that follows accepted rules so close that it interferes with the well being of that person and those around him or her (positive deviance). With these ideas or guide lines for studying deviance in sports, sociologists are now able to understand what deviance actually is in sports and how it affects those people both directly and indirectly related to sports. In today’s society a person can turn on the television and see athletic games viewed worldwide. In these games deviant acts are seen all the time, but deviance on the playing field is viewed as part of the American way. For example, football players and soccer players are expected to be physically rough on the field because their sports are considered high contact sports. Another example is baseball teams who use the spitball or corked bats to gain a small advantage over their opposing team. These are prime examples of positive deviance, but this is not what society is worried about. Society is worried about the deviance that is being committed by athletes off the field which gains large media coverage such as, deviance in the form of athletes being arrested for bar fighting, sexual assaults, driving while under the influence, using or dealing street drugs, and being involved in criminal acts. In today’s society we see more and more athletes pushing the limits when it comes to deviance off the field. Many athletes believe that since they are celebrities to the American public that certain rules do not apply to them. As a society, we want the athletes that we elevate to stardom to support the same ideals that we, in general, do. It is an example of Functionalist Perspective as we all wish to identify with the achievements on a member of the group and see their success as our own. “Functionalists also typically assume that most members of a society share a consensus regarding their core beliefs and values,” (Hughes, M., 2002). Therefore, they believe that the athlete must have the same beliefs and values that they do. As a result, when a professional athlete fails to live up to the values that have been placed upon him by society, we lurch violently from them being heroes to being an instant villain (Wilson, M. 2009). After the 2nd string quarterback Cherubini leaves the game injured, the camera cuts to the owner’s box and to Christina Pagniacci, the Team President. She is desperately trying to figure out how to bolster her team and, thus, their season. Christina is an anomaly in professional football since the culture of American sport perpetuates ideologies which systematically oppress women. This movie highlights the gender-based biases against women in elevated positions amongst management and ownership amongst professional sports teams. Christina grew up learning the game and watching her father lead the team with Tony D’Amato, the head coach. However, she continues to meet resistance from people due to her gender. The issue of gender, and gender equality in particular, has been at the center of public consciousness and debate for much of the 20th century. The increasing recognition of the importance of addressing gender in any attempt to make sense of the world in which we live has been reflected in the numerous books on the subject that have appeared, both in the academic and public spheres, in recent years. Alongside the traditional factors of class and race, gender is now widely accepted as one of the master statuses that define our place in society. Whether we are male or female, masculine or feminine, shapes every facet of our lives, from the jobs we occupy, our positions within our communities, how we dress and behave in social situations, and even our individual attitudes and beliefs. Many men feel that they are superior in the realm of sport simply because they are men. In a study done by Michael Messner, it was shown that most of the men in the study felt superior to women in sports, even in sports where they have never had experience. In fact some would play left handed with a patch over their eye, “just to make it fair” (p. 161-162). The gender gap is very clear in the movie when Christina comes into the locker room after a win to congratulate quarterback Willie Beaman on the team’s victory. The mood in the locker room is exuberant and jaunty. Men are in various states of undress with some being completely nude when she walks in. Though she is nonplussed by the indecency of most of the men, the mood in the locker room quickly shifts when she comes in. She walks up to Beaman, who is wearing only a jockstrap, and tells him he looked great out there. She knows the language, the needed comments, and the culture. Christina is obviously well versed in the world of professional football and has very specific ideas on what the “road ahead” looks like for the team. However, Tony D’Amato views things very differently. And, though he does not specifically mention her gender, he continually makes reference to how her father used to run things. The tension between D’Amato and Pagniacci is thinly veiled until the final game of the season when she bursts into the locker room at half time and starts barking orders to D’Amato about what quarterback would start the second half. He grabs her by the arm, leads her to another room, and begins to scream at her. His frustration and attempts at a dominant gender position culminate with him throwing a chair. It is at this point that the new starting quarterback, Willie Beaman, comes in the room and informs Ms. Pagniacci “I’m sorry ma’am, but coach already told me I was playing.” Though this defused the situation, it served to only bolster D’Amato’s dominance in the situation and the relationship. Christina Pagniacci is played by a very beautiful woman in the movie. However, all the scenes of desirable femininity show cheerleaders, prostitutes, and women that are more enamored with the fame of the football players than anything else. And in a study conducted in 1996, Nancy Signorelli found that while the number of positive female role-models in various media had increased significantly, there remained an overwhelming emphasis upon physical appearance and romantic relationships as the defining characteristics of women (p. 15). These depictions not only reflect the gender stereotypes of the creators and distributors of these messages but send a very clear message to their audience on what it means to be male or female; studies have found, for example, that those who watch a lot of television are more likely to adhere to traditional and stereotyped gender views than those who do not (Signorelli, N. 1997, p. 32). However, again, we cannot discount the role played by the individual in this; another study conducted at the same time as Signorelli’s found that most children are actually very much aware of the stereotypic nature of the messages they receive in the media and many, though not all, choose to either accept, reject or reinterpret those messages based on their own individual values and desires (Lake, S. 1997). Furthermore, the increasing number of movies, books and televisions shows depicting non-traditional forms of, or blurred-distinctions between, masculine and feminine roles, testifies to the capacity of individual producers, creators and artists to challenge and redefine our notions of gender (Brandt, 2000. p. 267). So, though the movie highlighted a talented and capable female in a typically male dominated position, it still put her “in her place” when it came to crucial time sensitive decisions regarding the team. I found it surprising to see the religious overtones in the movie. After showing the players and the coach engaging in a tremendous amount of negative deviance (drug use, alcohol abuse, womanizing, and extreme amounts of foul language), they had a Catholic Priest speak with the team and then lead them in a team prayer. Both religion and sports are major elements of culture in America. Religion is generally seen as a substantial guiding force in people’s lives, while sport is viewed as a less important recreational pursuit. While you would never expect to see “In Shaq We Trust” on a coin, or hear “Griese Bless America” being sung at a patriotic event, many Americans treat religion and sports with similar reverence. As a significant component of human society, sport has been the cause of violence between groups of people, just as religion has also had the same effect. In modern times, many people point to the Israel/Palestinian conflict or the violence in Northern Ireland as a situation of substantial religious violence. News reports also tell us about riots following sports events. Conversely, sports and religion share the ability to unify a group of people. Just as religions can unite individuals of different races who originate from nations all over the world, so to can sports bring a diverse group of people together. Sports can unite people, provide them with strong feelings of group unity, and provide them with an identity to rally behind. Fans of sports teams come from different socioeconomic groups, live in geographically separated areas, and work in varied blue-collar and white-collar occupations (Coakley, J. 2009. Pg. 519-521). Religion has numerous historical connections to sport, such as in ancient Greece, where athletic competition was a key element of major religious events. Each Greek city state paid homage to a patron god, and Greek athletes called upon this god in the fierce physical contests of the day. The original Olympic games, which were held in ancient Greece, were filled with references to Greek religion. The games themselves were named for Mount Olympus, the mountain home of the Greek gods. This connection between ancient Greek religion and sport lives on in the modern world; Nike, the name used by an American sports equipment manufacturer, is one of the names used by Athena, the Greek goddess of victory. Even today, sport and religion are much intertwined. Religion and sports are compared easily by conflict theorists (those who believe that the elements of a society work against one another in pursuit of supremacy). Religion and sports can both be used similarly by the economically and socially powerful to suppress the working public. Many of the world’s religions teach renunciation of material goods, denial of personal physical pleasures, and intense focus on morality and spiritual salvation. The conflict theorists’ evaluation of religion indicates that its primary purpose is to make the public content with their decreased level of material possessions and more submissive to the authority of powerful leaders (Coakley, J. p. 517). Sport, when viewed from this same perspective, has a very similar effect. Being spectators of large sporting events takes the public’s minds off of the drudgery that marks their day-to-day lives. Sports also shows them the importance of following rules, and like religion, sport makes the common person more likely to accept the judgments of people with power and influence (Coakley, J. p. 519). Religion and sport are a pair that will not soon be separated. One of the touchiest subjects covered by the movie what that of race relations in sport. Jamie Foxx’s character, Willie Beaman, does not treat the matter with kid gloves. He attacks it with a full frontal assault during his TV interview with commentator Jack Rose. He said that the coach in Houston, “The coach didn’t dig the idea of a black QB. He didn’t think our brains were bigger than the tip of his d*ck.” He then went on to talk statistics, “70% of the players in this league are black. How many black coaches are there? Not enough. How many black owners are there? None.” Though this is a fictional interview in a movie, it strikes a chord amongst many people of all races. Racial disparity is still prevalent in the NFL. However, great strides have been made to rectify these monumental differences. By “In 1998 65% of all professional football players were black,” (Siegel, D., ch.4 , t. 1). By 2008, 8 of the top 10 highest paid players in the NFL were black, (Tunstall, S). So, participation has been a playing field leveled. With the addition of Serena and Venus Williams as part owners of the Miami Dolphins (Street and Smith, 2009), people of color are being represented in the rank and file of ownership amongst the NFL. However, the majority of coaches (26 of 32) and all owners are still white, so the NFL has room to improve. In the initial game of the movie after the second string quarterback, Tyler Cherubini, gets injured, 3rd string quarterback Willie Beaman gets put in to play. He is very much an individual on the team and not part of the whole. His fellow team mates have no trust or confidence in him as he is basically an outsider. Beaman is completely overwhelmed by the entire event and vomits in the huddle. This does nothing to bolster the confidence of his team mates. His team mates doubt his ability and his dedication to the team. Due to this, his lineman block for him but not up to their best ability, allowing him to get pummeled by the defense repeatedly. Beaman wants to be considered as a vital and viable member of the team. His desire to be part of the team supports a functionalist perspective. "Functionalism is a form of structural theory based on the assumption that all social worlds are organized around shared values and need to be preserved or tweaked here and there to improve efficiency and social integration" (Coakley, J., 2009, p. 567). Team concept supports functionalism due to the singular focus, the shared value of the players – the team. Why? According to Hunt,” because the object of attachment acquires meanings and significance beyond that of simple involvement or importance” (p. 439). People are looking to be a part of something far beyond themselves. A brief search of Google will return more than 24 million entries for “part of something bigger.” Wanting to be part of a bigger organism and what it supports, namely norms, customs, traditions and institutions, allows for greater solidarity and social cohesion, (Coakley, J. 2009). Being an accepted member of a successful professional sport enterprise is a way to find that. Studies show that “strong identification with a specific sports team provides a buffer from feelings of depression and alienation, and at the same time, fosters feelings of belongingness and self worth. In effect, sports team identification replaces more traditional family and community-based attachments to the larger social structure” (Branscombe, N. 1991. p. 115). Beaman works hard to gain the confidence of his fellow players. It is only after he shows that he is more interested in the success of the team than he is in his own success and individual triumph that the other players begin to sacrifice themselves to make Beaman, and the team, more successful. Once he has become part of the “family” of the team, they begin to follow his leadership and rejoice with him in victory. Also, Luther “Shark” Lavay, the middle linebacker laments the pending end of his career because foot ball is “all [he’s] ever known. I don’t know how to do anything else.” With that, he talks about how he’ll lose the connection to the team that has benefitted him so much. He refers to them as a family. He bases his identity first on being a Shark, then on anything else. The functionalist model of society applies to “Any Given Sunday” in that “The Miami Sharks” highlighted in the movie support stability and equilibrium in the community of Miami based on common interests and convictions. Because of this, Christina Pagniacci throughout the film makes mention of trying to get a new stadium for her team. She works with the Mayor of Miami in trying to convince him of the benefit to the community. She knows that the city draws large revenues off the Sharks’ games and is now trying to leverage that to get a stadium. The team does a lot for the community, to include a $250,000 check to the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) Program – a program that supports anti-drug education for school aged children – that was presented to Mayor Tyrone Smalls. To which Mayor Smalls responded, “The city of Miami would like to thank Christina Pagniacci, you are a great Miamian! You have done as much as anyone to eliminate drugs and crime from our city streets and your Sharks have provided wonderful role models for our inner-city youth to look up to.” In this case, the city has provided for the team – a fan base which equates to revenue. And, the team has given the city many intangibles – role models, identity with the team, and financial support for programs. Christina is having a difficult time convincing the Mayor that the new stadium is a priority, so she looks at other options. She is able to strike an initial deal with a developer in Los Angeles that would allow her a great deal of control over revenues. Though she mentioned that her father viewed one of the key players in the deal as a “thief in a tuxedo,” she continued to explore the deal. She is pleased with what she finds because that will allow her to leverage the Mayor to allow her to keep the team in Miami, in a new stadium of course. The new stadium would bring about immense change in the city – thereby violating the status quo and not supporting a functionalist perspective. But, it would allow the team to stay in Miami. Which would ensure, “that all social worlds are organized around shared values and need to be preserved or tweaked here and there to improve efficiency and social integration" (Coakley, J., 2009, p. 567). What is good for Miami is good for the Sharks and vice versa. In conclusion, the movie “Any Given Sunday” shows a variety of sociologically concerning issues from socially acceptable outlet for hostile and aggressive feelings, masculinity and gender roles, religion in sport, race in sports, character examples of the personal functions of sport such as feelings of belongingness to social identification, and the role sport plays as a cultural element to bring meaning to life. Additionally it supports the functionalist model of society by showing that “The Miami Sharks” highlighted in the movie support stability and equilibrium in the community of Miami based on common interests and convictions.

References :
Brandt, S. (2000). American Culture X: Identity, Homosexuality, and the Search for a New American Hero. In R. West & F. Lay (Eds.), Subverting masculinity : hegemonic and alternative versions of masculinity in contemporary culture. Atlanta, Ga.: Rodopi.
Branscombe, N. (1991). “The Positive Social and Self Concept Consequences of Sports Team Identification.” Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Vol. 15, No. 2, 115-127 (1991)
Coakley, J (2009). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hughes, M. (2002). Sociology: The Core. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from: highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/007240535x/student_view0/chapter1/chapter_summary.html
Lake, S., Snell and Associates. (1997). “Reflections of Girls in the Media: National Survey of Kids on Television and Gender Roles. Summary of Survey Findings” [Electronic Version]. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.kff.org
Lindsey, L. L., & Christy, S. (1997). Gender Roles: a Sociological Perspective (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Lobmeyer, H. (1992), “Commercialism as a Dominant Factor in the American Sports Scene: Sources, Developments, Perspectives,” International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol. 27, No. 4, 309-326 (1992)
Messner, M (1992). Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press.
Shank, M. D., Beasley, F. M. (1998, December). Fan or fanatic: Refining a measure of sports involvement. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21(4), 435-444. Retrieved November 8, 2009 from ProQuest on the World Wide Web: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=36217512&Fmt=4&clientId=74379&RQT=309& VName=PQD
Siegel, Donald. Sport: In Search of the American Dream: Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.science.smith.edu/exer_sci/ESS200/
Signorelli, N. (1997). “Reflections of Girls in the Media: A study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads” [Electronic Version]. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from: http://www.kff.org

Toch, H. (1992). Violent Men; an Inquiry into the Psychology of Violence. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Tunstall, Scott. Examining 2008’s Highest Paid NFL Players, May 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from: http://insidetheiggles.com/2009/05/05/examining-2008s-highest-paid-nfl- players/ violence. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/violence

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Sunday

...Sunday in the Park The text ”Sunday in the Park” mainly deals with the concerns of marriage, the individual roles of the partners in the relationship, and how you can be together for a long time, without noticing that some of the vital values are missing, from the person you love. I believe the characters in this text are victims of this very thing, where the mother realizes that her husband can't defend her in the way that she wants him to. She probably married him to feel safe and secure in a way, possibly financially since you have no knowledge of her actually having a job herself. In the park however, she wants her husband, Morton, to stand up for her and her son, even though she isn't a supporter of violence and knows that it'll end up with Morton getting hurt quite badly if he does stand up for them. As a result, she takes on the role of the family “guardian” since her husband proves too weak for it. You can see that in this last bit of the story: “But her voice stopped him. She was shocked to hear it, thin and cold and penetrating with contempt. “Indeed?” she heard herself say. “You and who else?” (P. 2, lines 139-141)” This shows how she basically mimics the menacing man in the park, who she more or less must see as a “real man,” compared to husband at least. Those two men seem like a clash between two social standings/classes, Morton being a rather smart middle class guy and the other man probably working class with a not-so-long education. I say this......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Poem Analysis: Those Winter Sundays

...Robert Hayden 1913-1980 Those winter Sundays Sundays too my father got up early And put his clothes on in the blueblack cold, Then with cracked hands that ached From labor in the weekday weather made Banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. When the rooms were warm, he’d call, And slowly I would rise and dress, Fearing the chronic angers of that house, Speaking indifferently to him, Who had driven out the cold And polished my good shoes as well. What did I know, what did I know Of love’s austere and lonely offices? Poem “Those Winter Sundays” is wrote by Robert Hayden, generally seen as a crafted lyric on a universal theme---paternal love, describing a past day and showing a present reverence for author’s father. The title “Those Wither Sundays” emphasizes the time background. It is Sundays, not Tuesdays or Fridays. Sundays are days at home, days completely belongs to ourselves, days that we see our families the most. Hayden recalls the past and realizes how much he had to thank his father. It was a normal Sunday in winter when the author was a little boy; his father got up early, made the fire with his “cracked hands”, woke him up and polished shoes for him. The theme is presented directly and explicitly through every rich physical detail. The poem doesn’t use a masculine pronoun; it sounds more like a woman’s. Through the choice of the gender of voice, I can see the speaker is a soft and sensitive......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Bloody Sunday

...Introduction 1.1. Bloody Sunday Sunday the 27th of January 1972 became known as the Bloody Sunday. This Sunday represents a very important point in the history of the partition of Ireland and the relationship between England and Northern Ireland. 14 people had been shot and another 13 wounded by British soldiers during a protest in the northern Irish city Derry for civil rights and against the British occupation policy on this very Sunday. The Events that took place on Bloody Sunday had been the initial phase for the conflict in Northern Ireland to escalate. As a result, the conflict got worse. Shortly after the declaration of the happenings in Derry, an enraged crowd of northern Irish citizens occupied the British Embassy in Dublin and burned it down. To simplify the enormous amount of the subject matter “Ireland”, in the following lesson, there is going to be a didactical cutback. To begin with, the students are supposed to get to know some basic facts about the divided Ireland. In this one lesson, it is not about representing the topic in all of its details. To a greater degree, it is about approaching the topic particularly with regard to war and peace. The children shall know, what happened on Bloody Sunday and they should be able to classify the events into the historical-cultural background.1 1.2. The Song “Sunday, Bloody Sunday by U2” One of the most famous Bands in the World, U2, was founded in 1983. The Single “Sunday, Bloody Sunday” is the reason for the......

Words: 3627 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Sociological Imagination

...THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION C. WRIGHT MILLS NEW YORK Oxford University Press 1959 Appendix On Intellectual Craftsmanship TO THE INDIVIDUAL social scientist who feels himself a part of the classic tradition, social science is the practice of a craft. A man at work on problems of substance, he is among those who are quickly made impatient and weary by elaborate discussions of method-and-theory-in-general; so much of it interrupts his proper studies. It is much better, he believes, to have one account by a working student of how he is going about his work than a dozen 'codifications of procedure' by specialists who as often as not have never done much work of consequence. Only by conversations in which experienced thinkers exchange information about their actual ways of working can a useful sense of method and theory be imparted to the beginning student. I feel it useful, therefore, to report in some detail how I go about my craft. This is necessarily a personal statement, but it is written with the hope that others, especially those beginning independent work, will make it less personal by the facts of their own experience. 1 It is best to begin, I think, by reminding you, the beginning student, that the most admirable thinkers within the scholarly community you have chosen to join do not split their work from their lives. They seem to take both too seriously to allow such dissociation, and they want to use each for the enrichment of the other. Of course, such......

Words: 12935 - Pages: 52

Free Essay

The Given

...of a new child which always brought a sense of what-could-we-have-done. This was especially troubling for the Nurturers, like Father, who felt they had failed somehow. But it happened very rarely. "Well," Father said, "I'm going to keep trying. I may ask the committee for permission to bring him here at night, if you don't mind. You know what the night-crew Nurturers are like. I think this little guy needs something extra." "Of course," Mother said, and Jonas and Lily nodded. They had heard Father complain about the night crew before. It was a lesser job, night-crew nurturing, assigned to those who lacked the interest or skills or insight for the more vital jobs of the daytime hours. Most of the people on the night crew had not even been given spouses because they lacked, somehow, the essential capacity to connect to others, which was required for the creation of a family unit. 第 5 页 共 102 页 http://www.en8848.com.cn/ 原版英语阅读网 "Maybe we could even keep him," Lily suggested sweetly, trying to look innocent. The look was fake, Jonas knew; they all knew. "Lily," Mother reminded her, smiling, "you know the rules." Two children- one male, one female- to each family unit. It was written very clearly in the rules. Lily giggled. "Well," she said, "I thought maybe just this once." Next, Mother, who held a prominent position at the Department of Justice, talked about her feelings. Today a repeat offender had been brought before her, someone who had broken the rules before. Someone......

Words: 45052 - Pages: 181

Free Essay

Sociological Reflections on High School: a Media Analysis of Glee

...Sociological Reflections on High School: a media analysis of Glee The following is a paper I wrote for a sociology class and I have been thinking alot about group dynamics and fitting in and the difference a close knit group of friends can make in one person's life...more on that topic to come. The minority to be analyzed is the subordinate group in the high school environment. More specifically: how can membership in a subordinate group perceived as “bottom of the rung”, enhance the cohesiveness of that socially subordinate group in the adolescent environment, and how does the subgroup attempt to overcome the negative perception imposed on them? The hypothesis being that members of a social group with specific goals, perceived as subordinate and influenced by the social superiority of their peers will bond as a result of common social maltreatment as well as common goals. The results of this study can provide an understanding of the realistic ability for high school aged children to develop healthy relationships despite their subordinate status within their social environment and whether this idea is accurately represented in the media. Literature Review             In addressing the concrete definition and study of cohesion, Moody and White explain the ongoing issue of cohesion this way:                                     “Although questions about social cohesion lie at the core                                     of our discipline, definitions are often vague...

Words: 1315 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sociological Theories

...Sociological Theories A sociological theory is a set of ideas that provides an explanation for human society.  Theories are selective in terms of their priorities and perspectives and the data they define as significant. As a result they provide a particular and partial view of reality. Sociological theories can be grouped together according to a variety of criteria. The most important of these is the distinction between Structural and Social action theories.   Structural or macro perspectives analyses the way society as a whole fits together. Structural theory sees society as a system of relationships that creates the structure of the society in which we live. It is this structure that determines our lives and characters. Structured sets of social relationships are the 'reality' that lie below the appearance of 'the free individual' of western individualism. Structuralism focuses on the particular set of 'structural laws' that apply in any one society.   Despite their differences, both functionalism and Marxism use a model of how society as a whole works. Many functionalists base their model of society around the assumption of basic needs and go to explain how different parts of society help to meet those needs. Marxists, on the other hand, see society as resting upon an economic base or infrastructure, with a superstructure above it. They see society as divided into social classes which have the potential to be in conflict with each other.    However, the main......

Words: 9486 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

The Sociological Interpretation

...act the way they do. It has also instigated many moral questions and the causality of our actions. When thinking about sociology and the sociological imagination applied to it, it is not uncommon to think about yourself and your own place in the world. The sociological imagination is the ability to look at yourself and your own issues and connect them to the larger social problems or issues while being able to recognize the difference between the two and how you yourself can affect it. My own sociological imagination has been shaped by the effects of society and I have came to realize its’ repercussions to myself and the way it has both hurt and helped my subconscious view of my surroundings has a Caucasian, American, and middle class person. When I was born I was endowed certain attributes that coincided with my culture and socialization. These attributes at birth can be considered part of my ascribed statuses among society. As I grew up I acquired more status’s threw the addition of family members, hobbies, and sports. These acquired statuses are considered achieved statuses because you have to earn them; they are not given to you. For me, ascribed statuses are those such as a son, grandson, or nephew. Where as most ascribed statuses are easy to point out as your relationship with a relative, as not much else can just be given to you without your effort besides perhaps, the financial situation of your parents or the races they are apart of. My achieved......

Words: 2383 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Any Given Sunday

...Abstract I will talk about the movie Any Given Sunday in which Oliver Stone directed. I will talk about how Oliver Stone portrayed war on the screen onto the gridiron and into the world of professional football world. I will talk about how in the movie the owner Christina Pagniacci played by Cameron Diaz, does not see the players as people but as meat. How the business part makes her not feel for her employee's health or mental capacity and only looking at what they can do for me now. Any Given Sunday When I sat down and watched Any Given Sunday director Oliver Stone really brought out the realism in the football world. In the sport of football you have people eyes glued to the game either by television or in person. You have men and woman young or old watching this sport as a gladiator going at each other like there is no tomorrow. Oliver Stone also shows all the sides in how the game has changed from a true sport into a cut throat business. Where players and the doctors don’t care whether they may be permanently injured as long as they can make extra money in the process. Which the move shows the team doctor Harvey Mandrake played by James Woods clearing defensive end Luther 'Shark' Lavay played by Lawrence Taylor to play. Dr. Harvey knows that if he gets hit or is hit could kill him or be brain dead from all the concussions he has received in his career. He does not mind taking that risk because the only thing he needs is to get his tackles in order for him......

Words: 2082 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Sunday in the Park

...Sunday in the Park – analysis ”Sunday in the Park” is a short story revolving around an incident in a park, where two men almost get in a fight. One of the men is called Morton, and he is described as being very pale with glasses and a very pinched, lean face. He is the father of a three-year-old boy, so we can assume that he is comparatively young, although his behaviour seems more likely to belong to an older man. He is a professor at a university in the city, and the narrator in the story, who he is married to, seems to see a connection between his paleness and his job (p. 97 l. 11-12). According to her, he is extremely cooped up in the very factory-like, grey university. He seems to like The Times Magazine, which we can quickly associate with him being a professor. If we read a little between the lines, and observe the way he talks, some of his personal characteristics is that he is unobtrusive, reserved and much more verbal than physical. One sentence in the story almost sums up his entire personality; “He put his Times down carefully on his lap and turned his fine, lean face toward the man, smiling the shy, apologetic smile he might have offered a student in pointing out an error in his thinking. When he spoke to the man, it was with his usual reasonableness” (p. 98 l. 13-17). All of these words describe a person very opposite of the other man in the story, namely “the big man”. He has no name, and we only have the description of him given by the mother, so it can...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Delivery Analysis of Any Given Sunday Speech

...In the climax of the movie Any Given Sunday, Coach Tony D’Amato (portrayed by Al Pacino) gives a riveting speech right before his team takes the field for their biggest football game of the year. The coach delivers the speech to his players as they all watch on one knee, eager to take the field. We, the television audience, watch from a distance, through cameras that pan around the room and give us the feeling of being part of the team as well. We also get the added effect of music that speeds up and slows down as the pace of the speech alters. The different shots of players and their reactions to the speech also help to subconsciously alter the way we feel. If we see a player with his head down in tears, we will feel pity. However, the use of different cameras to show the rising confidence throughout the locker room gets us, the audience, on board with the coaches message and we sometimes are even ready to take the field with the team. These effects dramatically enhance the impact the speech has on us viewers, and is an added dimension that cannot be created through live speaking. Coach D’Amato’s physical appearance parallels his message even before he starts to speak. His messy hair and open shirt with glasses hanging down portray a sense of tenacity and an obvious chip on the coach’s shoulder. He grasps his coaching papers in his hands, shuffling them, pacing around the room. His mannerisms show anxiety, nervousness; he is truly speaking unscripted and from......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

A Critical Analysis of Derek Walcott’s “a Lesson for This Sunday”

...Derek Walcott’s “A Lesson for this Sunday” is a steady buildup from a masculine persona lazily remarking a summer’s day; however it quickly turns to a source of annoyance as the cries of children shatter the reflective mirror of paradise leaving him introspective and critical of their actions as they destroy a part of nature. The poem in itself is melodic, not with a particular rhyme scheme however but with the way Walcott wove his words. The poem elicits a theme of deep introspection, contemplation, death and philosophy of human nature. “A Lesson for this Sunday”, aside from being the title is a window of opportunity to view the poem at face, but a second read foreshadows the end conclusion. The first stanza follows in painting a picture of a lazy and beautiful summer day, specifically a Sunday that the persona is enjoying “In scansion gentler than my hammock swings”. He uses derivatives of the word idle in the first and last lines of the stanza “The growing idleness of summer grass”, “Since I lie idling from the thought in things,” along with the lack of punctuation emphasizes just how easy going and relaxed it is. However, the tone shifts immediately as the reader encounters the second stanza, “Until I hear the cries Of two small children hunting yellow wings.” The persona is disturbed, shaken, pulled from his meditative mood by the sounds of these children chasing a butterfly. He states “Who break my Sabbath with the thought of sin.” They have ruined his day of rest, and...

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Any Any Anay Any Any

...economy. The rules cap personal loans allocation to 20 times the amount of savings and a repayment period of 48 months. The rules also limit the installments of loans to 50 percent of a person’s gross salary. These rules have made the bank predict the revenue in the retail banking section to reduce by 10 to 15 percent (Arabian Publishing, 2011). The slow recovery of the global economy economies against the effects of the global economic crisis may negatively affect the shares prices of the bank in the future. Chart showing the performance of Abu Dhabi commercial bank share prices from November to September 2011. [pic]Retrieved from Bloomberg (2011)> http://www.sharewadi.com/uae-company-details.php?company_ticker=ADCB Market analysis Mean stock price The average price per share is calculated through the determination of the cost of acquiring shares and the number of shares purchased. This average per share price is very important because it determines the break-even point of a share or the point at which an investor neither makes a loss nor a profit from the shares (Helfert, 2001). The means shares prices of the Abu Dhabi commercial bank were 2.78 United Arab Emirates dirhams in the year 2011 up from 1.75 Dirham’s in the year 2009 (Bloomberg, 2011). This shows that the value of the shares of Abu Dhabi commercial bank have been increasing through these years. The rise of the average share prices means that the break-even point of the shares......

Words: 2657 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Review and Analysis of Monopoly in a Given Market

...development relies on four key approaches: self-focus, need finding, network creation and utilization, and middle ground. Their trial-and-error marketing is related to several theoretical constructs from the management, marketing and entrepreneurship literature. The paper provides a set of propositions and managerial implications. Keywords: Trial-and-error marketing, technology firms, effectuation, improvisation, qualitative methodology   * A Review and Analysis of Literature on Netnography Research    by Hanna Stockinger, Michael Bartl, Vijai Kumar Kannan  Abstract: Netnography is a qualitative research method that explores digital tribes and consumer behavior by means of ethnographic research conducted online. Considering the growing contributions in this research area, this study aims to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the existing body of academic literature on netnography. This study involves a systematic content, citation, and bibliographic analysis as well as author patterns of 116 articles. The analysis shows an exponential increase of publications over time. Whereas research was primarily driven by a single author in the beginning netnography is now starting to gain the attention of a growing number of authors. Since the terms introduction in 1997 this study provides a first systematic review of literature on netnography research. Keywords: Netnography, Online Community, Marketing Research, Literature Review, Open Innovation, Social Media......

Words: 3174 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Any Given Sunday

...Janet Salguero Aaron Hillyard Writing 121 Video Essay 13, March, 2014 Essay # 2– “Any Given Sunday” Football has always been one of America’s favorite past time sport, a sport that has been around for 145 years and a game that is a religion to some individuals. “No guts, No Glory!” I remember my high school couch always scream out into the stands and the team cheering that same chant into the battle field. Football is a very intense and dangerous sport that young men play to hold the glorious title of “Winner,” seizing the opportunity to show off all their incredible football skills. In the movie, “Any Given Sunday” there is a famous scene were Al Pacino the head couch, gives a common but important inspirational speech to get his team all riled up and ready for battle. Giving the opposing team a run for their money and fight for every last inch they need to get to be victorious in the game. In every great sports movie there is always that locker room scene that gets the team pumped up for the win or lose game, with inspirational heart pumping background music. Making you feel like you are right there in the locker room, living in the moment and thinking it’s all or nothing at that very instance. The head coach reaching into each individual player’s soul and heart giving them that push to leave everything on that field to give everything they have, like it was a life or death situation. How many times have you seen that famous locker room scene and how does it......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3