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APUSH Study Guide 8
A weak Confederacy and the Constitution, 1776-1790


The federal Constitution represented a moderately conservative reaction against the democratilizing effects of the Revolution and the Articles of Confederation.

The American Revolution was not a radical transformation like the French or Russian revolutions, but it produced political innovations and some social change in the direction of greater equality and democracy.

The American Revolution did not overturn the social order, but it did produce substantial changes in social customs, political institutions, and ideas about society and government. Among the changes were the separation of church and state in some places, the abolition of slavery in the North, written political constitutions, and a shift in political power from the eastern seaboard toward the frontier.

The first weak government, the Articles of Confederation, was unable to exercise real authority, although it did successfully deal with the western lands issue. The Confederation’s weakness in handling foreign policy, commerce and the Shays Rebellion spurred the movement to alter the Articles. Instead of revising the Articles, the well-off delegates to the Constitutional Convention created a charter for a whole new government. In a series of compromises, the convention produced a plan that provided for a vigorous central government, a strong executive, the protection for property, while still upholding republican principles and states’ rights.

The Federalists met strong opposition from Anti-Federalists, especially in Virginia and New York, but through effective organization and argument, they succeeded in getting the Constitution ratified. By establishing the new national government, the Federalists checked the Revolutionary values of the popular republican government.


Society of Cincinnati
Separation of church and state
Congregational church Anglican church Protestant Episcopal church
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Abigail Adams Elizabeth “Mumbet” Freeman
‘civic virtue’
‘republican motherhood’
State capitals moved westward
Roger Morris
Articles of Confederation
Western land issues
Mutiny of the Pennsylvania troops, 1783
Land Ordinance of 1785
Lord Sheffield
Allen brothers of Vermont
North African pirates
Shays’ Rebellion
Annapolis Convention, 1786
Alexander Hamilton
James Madison
Dey of Algiers
Gouverneur Morris
New Jersey (small-state) Plan
Benjamin Franklin
“Great Compromise”
Electoral College
“Three-Fifths Compromise”
Slave-trade compromise
Federalists Anti-Federalists
Ratification of Pennsylvania
Ratification of New Hampshire
Ratification of Virginia
Ratification of New York
John Jay
The Federalist

Past APUSH essay questions from this area of study:

1. What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution were firmly grounded in the political and religious experience of America’s colonial and revolutionary periods? (FRQ, 1984)

2. From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. (DBQ, 1985, Mr. D has the documents)

3. Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective form of government with respect to any TWO of the following: (FRQ, 1996)

Foreign relations Economic conditions Western lands

APUSH Study Guide 9
Testing our new Government, 1789-1800


Led by Washington and Hamilton, the first administration under the Constitution overcame various difficulties and firmly established the political and economic foundations of the new federal government.

The cabinet debate over Hamilton’s financial measures expanded into a wider political conflict between Hamiltonian Federalists and Republicans.

The French Revolution created a severe ideological and political division over foreign policy between Federalists and Republicans. The foreign policy crisis coincided with domestic political divisions that culminated in the bitter election of 1800, but in the end power passed peacefully from Federalists to Republicans.

The fledgling government faced considerable difficulties and skepticism about its durability, especially since traditional political theory had held that large scale republics were bound to fail. But President Washington brought credibility to the new government, while his cabinet, led by Alexander Hamilton, strengthened its political and economic foundations.

The government’s first achievements were the Bill of Rights and Hamilton’s financial system. Through effective leadership, Hamilton carried out his program of funding the national debt, assuming the state debts, imposing customs and excise taxes, and establishing a Bank of the United States.

The bank was the most controversial part of Hamilton’s program because it raised basic constitutional issues. Opposition to the bank from Jefferson and his followers reflected more fundamental political disagreements about republicanism, economics, federal power, and foreign policy. As the French Revolution evolved from moderation to radicalism, it intensified the ideological divisions between the pro-French Jeffersonians and the pro-British Hamiltonians.

Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation angered Republicans, who wanted America to aid Revolutionary France. Washington’s policy was sorely tested by the British, who routinely violated American neutrality. In order to avoid war, Washington enforced the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty, further outraging the Republicans and France.

After the humiliating XYZ Affair, the United States came to the brink of war with France, but Adams sacrificed popularity and divided his party by negotiating peace. These foreign policy disagreements embittered domestic politics: Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, to which Jefferson and Madison responded with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.


George Washington
Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Henry Knox
Bill of Rights
Judiciary Act 1789
National Debt issues
State debt issues
District of Columbia
Tariff of 1789
Excise tax
Bank of the United States
‘strict construction of the Constitution’
‘loose construction of the Constitution’ ‘necessary and proper’ ‘implied powers’
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
States’ Rights
Two-party system National Political Parties
Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans Hamiltonian Federalists
French Revolution
Louis XVI
Reign of Terror
Franco-American alliance of 1778
Neutrality Proclamation (1793) Isolationist traditions
Northern frontier posts
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Treaty of Greenville (1795)
Jay’s Treaty (1794)
‘two-term tradition’
Washington’s Farewell Address
John Adams
Jefferson as vice president 12th Amendment
“High Federalists”
XYZ Affair
Department of the Navy/United States Marine Corps
American privateers and men-of-war
War-hawk faction
Napoleon Bonaparte
Convention of 1800
Path to Louisiana Purchase
Alien Acts
Sedition Acts
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Past APUSH essay questions from this area of study:

1. The debate over the Alien and Sedition Act of 1798 revealed bitter controversies on a number of issues. Discuss the issues involved and explain why these controversies developed. (DBQ, 1977—Mr. D has the documents)

2. Between 1783 and 1800 the new government of the United States faced the same political, economic, and constitutional issues that troubled the British government’s relations with the colonies prior to Revolution. Assess the validity of this generalization. (FRQ, 1980)

3. The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of this statement. (FRQ, 1991)

4. Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790s. (FRQ, 1994)

5. Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775-1800. (FRQ, 1997)

APUSH Study Guide 10
Successes and Failures of Jeffersonian Democracy, 1800-1812


Jefferson’s effective, pragmatic policies strengthened the principles of two-party republican government, even though the “Jeffersonian” revolution caused sharp partisan battles between Federalists and Republicans over particular issues.

Despite his intentions, Jefferson became deeply entangled in the foreign policy conflicts of the Napoleonic era, leading to the highly unpopular embargo

James Madison fell into an international trap, set by Napoleon, which Jefferson had avoided. Western War Hawks’ enthusiasm for a war with Britain was matched by New Englanders’ hostility.

The ideological conflicts of the early Republic culminated in the bitter election of 1800 between Adams and Jefferson. The fierce rhetoric of the campaign, the peaceful “Revolution of 1800” demonstrated that the infant Republic could transfer power from one part to another. The election of 1800 also signaled the permanent decline of the conservative Federalist Party, which proved unable to adjust to the democratic future of American politics.

Jefferson, the political theorist, came to Washington determined to implement his Republican principles of limited and frugal government, strict construction, and antimilitarist foreign policy. But Jefferson, the practical politician had to compromise many of these goals, thereby moderating the Republican-Federalist ideological conflict.

The sharpest political conflicts occurred over the judiciary, where John Marshall worked effectively to enshrine the principles of judicial review and a strong federal government. Against his will, Jefferson also enhanced federal power through his war against the Barbary pirates and, especially, his dramatic purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon. The Louisiana Purchase was Jefferson’s greatest success, increasing national unity and cementing the Republican Party’s future to the West.

Nevertheless, Jefferson became increasingly entangled in the great European conflict between Napoleon France and Britain, which violated both American freedom of trade and freedom of the seas. Jefferson attempted to avoid war through the embargo policy, which prevented war but stirred great political hostility, especially in New England.

Jefferson’s successor, James Madison, soon fell into Napoleon’s trap, and western War Hawks stirred the United States into a divisive war with Britain in 1812. The nation went to war totally unprepared, bitterly divided, and devoid of any coherent strategy.


John Adam’s “jackasses”
“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”
New naturalization law of 1802
Albert Gallatin
‘deathbed’ Judiciary Act (1801)
‘midnight judges’
Chief Justice John Marshall
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Samuel Chase
North African Barbary States Peace Treaty of Tripoli (1805)
James Monroe James R. Livingston
Toussaint L’Ouverture Yellow Fever “Damn sugar, damn coffee, damn colonies!”
Ceding of Louisiana
Meriwether Lewis William Clark Sacajawea
Zebulon Pike
Burr/Hamilton duel
Burr’s treason trial
Battle of Trafalgar Horatio Lord Nelson
Battle of Austerlitz
U.S.S Chesapeake
Embargo Act (1807)
Non-Intercourse Act (March 1809)
Macon’s Bill No. 2
War Hawks Henry Clay
Tecumseh and the Prophet
William Henry Harrison Tippecanoe (1811) Battle of the Thames (1813)
Andrew Jackson Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814)
Declaration of War June 1812

Past APUSH essay questions from this area of study:

1. With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? In writing your answer, use the documents and your knowledge of the period, 1801-1817. (DBQ, 1998—Mr. D has the documents)

APUSH Study Guide 11
The Real War for Independence and the Rise in Nationalism, 1812-1824


American effort in the War of 1812 was plagued by poor strategy, political divisions, and increasingly aggressive British power. Nevertheless, the United States escaped with a stalemated peace settlement, and soon turned its isolationist back to the Atlantic European world.

The aftermath of the War of 1812 produced a strong surge of American nationalism that was reflected in economics, law and foreign policy. The rising nationalistic spirit and sense of unity was, however, threatened by the first sectional dispute over slavery.

Americans began the War of 1812 with high hopes of conquering Canada. But their strategy and efforts were badly flawed, and before long British and Canadian forces had thrown the U.S. on the defensive. The Americans fared somewhat better in the naval warfare, but by 1814, the British had burned Washington and were threatening New Orleans. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in a stalemate that solved none of the original issues. But Americans counted the war as a success and increasingly turned away from European affairs and toward isolationism

Despite some secessionist talk by New Englanders at the Hartford Convention, the ironic outcome of the divisive war was a strong surge of American nationalism and unity. Political conflict virtually disappeared during the “Era of Good Feelings” under President Madison. A fervent new nationalism appeared in diverse areas of culture, economics and foreign policy.

The Era of Good Feelings was soon threatened by the Panic of 1819, caused largely by excessive land speculation and unstable banks. An even more serious threat came from the first major sectional dispute over slavery, which postponed by, but not really resolved, the Missouri Compromise (1820).

Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court further enhanced its role as the major force upholding a powerful national government and conservative defense of property rights. Marshall’s rulings partially checked the general movement towards states’ rights and popular democracy.

Nationalism also led to a more assertive American foreign policy. Andrew Jackson’s military adventures in Spanish Florida resulted in the cessions of that territory to the U.S. American fears of European intervention in Latin America encouraged Monroe and J.Q. Adams to lay down the Monroe Doctrine.


Oliver Hazard Perry Battle of Lake Erie
General Harrison Battle of the Thames (1813)
Burning of Washington
Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key
Gen. Andrew Jackson Battle of New Orleans
Treaty of Ghent
Hartford Convention
Rush-Bagot agreement (1817)
Nationalism Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper
Tariff of 1815
Henry Clay
The American System
Era of Good Feelings
Erie Canal
James Monroe
Panic of 1819 wildcat banks
Cumberland Road Ohio fever
Land Act (1820)
Tallmadge Amendment
“peculiar institution”
Missouri Compromise (1820) 36o 30’
John Marshall
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) “the power to tax involves the power to destroy”
Cohens v. Virginia (1821) right of the Supreme Court to review decision of state Sup. Courts
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Congressional control of interstate commerce
Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Constitution forbids state law impairing contracts
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Protection of contracts against state encroachments
Daniel Webster
John Quincy Adams—Secretary of State
Treaty of 1818 49th Parallel
Jackson and Florida
Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Russo-American Treaty (1824) 54o 40’

Past APUSH essay questions from this area of study:

1. The Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824) marked the appearance of issues that transformed American politics in the next twenty years. Assess the validity of this generalization. (FRQ, 1975)

2. Early United States foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats from Europe. Assess the validity of this generalization with references to United States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from 1789 to 1825. (FRQ, 1983)

3. With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? In answering your question, use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1801-1817. (DBQ, 1998—Mr. D has the documents)

APUSH Study Guide 12
Rise of Democracy for the Masses, 1824-1840

Historian’s view:

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., from The Age of Jackson (1945)—

“During the Bank War, laboring men began slowly to turn to Jackson as their leader, and his party as their party…. This conversion of the working classes to the hard-money policy injected new strength and determination into the hard-money party…. From it would come the impetus to carry through the second stage in the national struggle of Jacksonian democracy.”

Lee Benson, from The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case (1961)—Jacksonian democracy as a product of ethnic and cultural conflict.

“A composition portrait of their [Whigs’ and Democrats’] social and economic backgrounds reveals striking similarities. Their most significant difference is that several Democratic leaders claimed Dutch or German ancestry, while the Whigs invariable claimed British ancestry (mostly by way of New England).”


The election to the presidency of the frontier aristocrat and common person’s hero, Andrew Jackson signaled the end of the older elitist political leadership represented by John Quincy Adams. A new spirit of mass democracy and popular involvement swept through American society, bringing new energy as well as conflict and corruption to public life.

Jackson successfully mobilized the techniques of the New Democracy and presidential power to win a series of dramatic political battles against his enemies. But by the late 1830s, his Whig opponents had learned to use the same popular political weapons against the Democrats, signaling the emergence of the second American party system.

Amidst the whirl of democratic politics, issues of tariffs, financial instability, Indian policy, and possible expansion in Texas indicated that difficult sectional and economic problems were festering beneath the surface and not being very successfully addressed.

Beginning in the 1820s, a powerful movement celebrating the common person and promoting the “New Democracy” transformed the earlier elitist character of American politics. The controversial election, also known as the corrupt bargain, of the Yankee sophisticate John Quincy Adams in 1824 angered the followers of Andrew Jackson.

Jackson’s sweeping presidential victory in 1828 represented the political triumph of the New Democracy, including the spoils-rich political machines that thrived in the new environment. Jackson’s simple, popular ideas and rough-hewn style reinforced the growing belief that any ordinary person could hold political office. The Tariff of Abominations and the nullification crisis with South Carolina revealed a growing sectionalism and anxiety about slavery that ran up against Jackson’s fierce nationalism.

Jackson exercised the powers of the presidency against his opponent, particularly Calhoun and Clay. He made the Bank of the United States a symbol of evil financial power and killed it after a bitter political fight. Destroying the bank reinforced Jackson’s hostility to concentrated and elite-dominated financial power, but also let the United States without any effective financial system.

Jackson’s presidency also focused on issues of westward expansion. Pursuing paths of “civilization”, Native Americans of the Southeast engaged in extensive agricultural and educational development. But pressure from white settlers and from state governments proved overwhelming, and Jackson finally supported the forced removal of all southern Indians to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears.

In Texas, American settlers successfully rebelled against Mexico and declared their independence. Jackson recognized the Texas Republic, but, because of the slavery controversy, he refused its application for annexation to the United States.

Jackson’s political foes soon formed themselves into the Whig Party, but in 1836 they lost to his handpicked successor, Martin Van Buren. Jackson’s ill-considered economic policies came to undermine the unfortunate Van Buren, as the country plunged into a serious depression following the Panic of 1837. The Whigs used these economic troubles and the political hoopla of the new mass democratic process to elect their own hero in 1840, following the path of making a western aristocrat into a democratic symbol.

The Whig victory signaled the emergence of a new two-party system, in which the two parties’ genuine philosophical differences and somewhat different constituencies proved less important than their widespread popularity and shared roots in the new American democratic spirit.


Mass Democracy—the new two-party system
Corrupt Bargain (1824)
12th Amendment
J.Q. Adams’ administration
Andrew Jackson—1828
Andrew Jackson—President
Spoils system
Tricky Tariff Tariff of Abominations
Denmark Vessey (1822)
Tariff of 1832
Compromise Bill (1832) Compromise Tariff (1833) Force Bill
Trial of Tears
Five Civilized Tribes
John Marshall
Bank War
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)—impact on Bank War?
Biddle’s Panic
“pet banks” Specie Circular
Whigs—birth of
Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren
Panic of 1837—causes, results Whig policy, Van Buren’s policy
Texas and Mexico
Lone Star Rebellion
“log cabin and hard-cider” Election of 1840
“New” two-party system—similarities, platforms, leaders

Past APUSH essay questions from this area of study:

1. “The decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s was more a reformation of national policy that had been in effect since the 1790s than a change of policy.” Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to the moral, political, constitutional, and practical concerns that shaped national Indian policy between 1789 and the mid-1830s. (DBQ, 1980—Mr. D has the documents)

2. Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In light of the following documents and your knowledge of the 1820s and 1830s to what extent do you agree with Jacksonians’ view of themselves? (DBQ, 1990—Mr. D has the documents)

3. Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840. (FRQ, 1996)

Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral politics Second Great Awakening Westward Movement

4. How did TWO of the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840? (FRQ, 1999)

Major political personalities States’ Rights Economic issues

5. The Jackson period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man.” To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response. (FRQ 2001)

Economic development Politics Reform movements

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...10-12 million slaves were transported to the Americas during the slave trade. 76% of slaves arrived from 1701-1810. Half went to Dutch, French, or British plantations in the Caribbean, a third to Portuguese Brazil, and a tenth to Spanish America. About 5% went to the North American British colonies. With the exception of the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763, a world war between the French and their allies versus the British and their allies), the slave trade continued to become more important to the colonies up to the Revolution. There were twice as many male African slaves as female; most slaves were young, between 15 and 30, in order to use them for labor and represented nearly every West African ethnic group. All western European nations participated in the slave trade, shipping slaves from coastal outposts and, later, through independent American and European traders. Many slave traders lived permanently in coastal outposts and married local women, reinforcing commercial ties through family relations. Many slaves resented African involvement in the slave trade. Most Africans were enslaved through warfare. As the demand for slaves increased, slave raids pressed deeper into the continent. Captives would wait in dungeons or pens called “barracoons”, separated from family and people of the same ethnic group to discourage rebellion, before being branded with the mark of their buyer. The “Middle Passage” referred to the middle part of the trade triangle from England to Africa to...

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...1. United States foreign policy is the way in which it defines its interactions with foreign nations and sets standards for its corporation’s organizations, and individual citizens’ interactions. It aims to assure defense and security of America. It protects and projects national interests of America worldwide. The foreign policy is shaped national interest and covers a wide range of economic, political, ideological, military, and humanitarian concerns. However, U.S. foreign policy heavily relies on being in good relations with other countries. The U.S. has a history of maintaining a realist ideology when it comes to getting into relationships with other countries. With an imperialistic view as such, they have had a hard time maintaining good relations with countries in terms of foreign policy. 2. Woodrow Wilson believed that the United States had a right and responsibility to control its neighbors. He tried to preach Gospel of Democracy to legitimate its imperialism. Specifically Latin America was viewed as inferior to that of the U.S. They preached this in order to shape the terminology on dealing with conflict, capture the terms of the debate, and to shape the outcomes of the struggles that resulted. This led to multiple instances with military intervention in order to spread democracy to Latin America. Utilizing the notion of a “constitutional government” allowed for the Wilson administration to send more military assets to countries like Haiti, Nicaragua, Mexico, and stressed...

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...1. King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette deserved their execution because of their failures to meet people’s demands. By taking from others through taxes on the third estate left people barely capable of supporting themselves. Anyone in the third estate had to result to crime our just starve due to the fact that the tax took a lot of the money for their wages. Finally, he only favored first and second classes and relieved him from taxes while he should have been treating everyone equally. 2. Robespierre was a shrewd lawyer and politician that took charge of the Public Committee of Safety. Robespierre led the Reign of Terror and was the creator of the new policy that “liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads.” Through this policy he established a strong resentment towards those who went against the revolution within France. 3. The Reign of Terror was an event during the French Revolution from the years 1793-1794 where about 17,000 people were executed and over 300,000 people were executed of which were suspected to not support the French Revolution. However, many of these people were targeted because they were victims from a mistaken identity or falsely accused by their neighbors. About 15% of these people arrested were from 1st and second estate and 85% were from the 3rd estate. Of the people caught if they were arrested they would have suffered the poor conditions in prisons and most likely die, or they were executed by a guillotine. 4. Napoleons successful...

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...Spanish, English and French Colonial Outline Thesis: Throughout the early period of colonization in America, the three chief colonial powerhouses Spain, England, and France, tackled the issues of royal authority, sources of profit and trading rituals, as well as religious practice and toleration in shockingly different ways with few similarities. Background: As each of these world superpowers arrived in the new world during the 1500s, they were all looking to expand their empire and gain wealth. The Spanish came first and took the most action early. The French and English soon began to experiment in the Americas as well, although the French would only grasp a small portion of valuable land during their campaigns. Political Paragraph: Spanish, French, and English colonial empires had some clear similar political strategies in that this land was theirs for the taking, yet these similarities were shattered by the many other differences in their political policies. ● Spanish and French colonies both totally subservient to the crown, English had some degree of autonomy through salutary neglect. ● Spanish were extremely aggressive towards Indians, English were peaceful when it was good for them, brutal when it wasn't, and the French traded with the Indians and hired them to gather beaver fur under good relations. ● The English colonies grew much faster than the French and Spanish due to loose immigration policies and dedicated colonies. ● English colonies were populated...

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...Patrick Henry’s “Give me liberty or give me death” speech in 1775 along with Thomas Paine’s “Common sense” pamphlet in 1776 greatly influenced the ideas of American colonists when they began questioning their role in the empire of England. The declaration of resolves of the first continental congress in 1774 and the declaration of independence, devised in 1776 had the same effect on these American Colonists. About a year after the declaration, the articles of confederation were published as the first actual constitution, having it’s own effect on personal feelings of colonists. On one hand, the American colonists had a self government which could have influenced their mindset during the 17th through 18th century. On the other hand, a speech by Patrick Henry, a pamphlet by Thomas Paine, two different declarations, and the articles of confederation all lead up to questioning in terms of authority in the empire of England and are what truly caused the mindset of American colonists to change. In March 1775, at the third Virginia convention, held in St. John's Church in Richmond, Patrick Henry gave his iconic “give me liberty or give me death” speech to discuss the latest relations with Great Britain. During Henry’s speech, he states "There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged...

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