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Case Brazil

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kamiebao
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Brief Case
EC-Chicken cuts.
FACT :
Nguyên đơn : Brazil, Thái Lan
Bị đơn: Ủy Ban các Cộng Đồng Châu Âu ( Ủy Ban Châu Âu – EC )
Bên thứ 3 : Trung Quốc , Hoa Kỳ
Ngày 11 tháng 10 năm 2002, Brazil đã yêu cầu tham vấn với Cộng đồng châu Âu liên quan đến Quy định số 1223/2002 của Hội đồng EC (“quy định số 1223/2002”), ngày 8 tháng 07 năm 2002, mô tả sản phẩm thịt gà rút xương cắt miếng đông lạnh theo nhóm sản phẩm kết hợp mã CN 0207.14.10. Theo Brazil, mô tả này có đưa muối – thành phần không có - vào sản phẩm, và trong lộ trình cắt giảm thuế của Cộng đồng Châu Âu theo GATT 1994, sản phẩm nhập khẩu này chịu mức thuế cao hơn mức thuế của sản phẩm thịt muối (mã CN 0210). - T THẤY KO ỔN !!
− Các dữ kiện chính của vụ việc ? (Facts) − Vấn đề đặt ra cho cơ quan xét xử để giải quyết ? (Issues) − Cơ sở pháp lý để giải quyết ? (Law) − Kết luận của cơ quan giải quyết tranh chấp ? (Holdings) − Lập luận chính của cơ quan giải quyết tranh chấp để đưa đến kết luận ? (Reasoning
ISSUES :
- Brazil cho rằng hành động đó thể hiện sự đối xử thiếu thiện chí đối với thương mại của Brazil, không như lộ trình cắt giảm thuế của Cộng đồng Châu Âu, và vi phạm cam kết của Cộng đồng châu Âu theo các Điều II và XXVIII của GATT 1994.
- Brazil khiếu nại rằng biện pháp này của Cộng đồng châu Âu làm tổn hại, theo định nghĩa của Điều XXIII:1, đến lợi nhuận Brazil có thể thu được một cách trực tiếp hoặc gián tiếp theo quy định của GATT 1994.
- Trong vụ kiện, Thái Lan cho rằng các nhà xuất khẩu thịt gà của mình vào EC chịu mức đối xử ít thuận lợi hơn mức đối xử quy định tại Danh s ách các như ợng bộ của EC. Do đó, Thái Lan cho rằng EC vi phạm nghĩa vụ quy định tại điều II, khoản 1, mục a) và b) của Hiệp định GATT.
- Thái Lan cho rằng mặt hàng liên quan phải được liệt kê vào mục thuế 02.10, còn EC thì lại cho rằng liệt kê vào mục 02.07 mới chính xác.
LAW : Điều II:1 (a) và II:1 (b) của GATT 1994
HOLDINGS
Các kết luận của Ban hội thẩm : - Thứ nhất, các miếng thịt gà lóc xương và đông lạnh được tẩm một lượng muối tương đương 1,2 - 3% trọng lượng thịt phù hợp với mục 02.10 của Danh sách các nhượng bộ của EC.
- Thứ hai, các biện pháp của EC dẫn đến việc mức thuế đánh vào mặt hàng tranh chấp cao hơn mức thuế quy định tại mục 02.10. Từ đó có thể kết luận là EC đã vi phạm điều II.1 a) và b) của Hiệp định GATT 1994, làm ảnh hưởng tới các lợi ích của Thái Lan.
Tòa phúc thẩm của WTO đã chấp nhận phần lớn các khẳng định của Ban hội thẩm và cũng kết luận rằng EC vi phạm điều II.1a) và b) Hiệp định GATT 1994.
Theo đó mặc dù căn cứ vào những lập luận khác, Cơ quan Phúc thẩm vẫn coi những biện pháp của Cộng đồng châu Âu là không nhất quán với WTO. Tuy nhiên, Cơ quan Phúc thẩm không đồng ý với kết luận của Ban hội thẩm rằng hành động của Cộng đồng châu Âu, giữa năm 1996 và năm 2002, khi xếp sản phẩm thuộc diện điều tra vào danh mục sản phẩm thịt muối là “hành động hệ quả khi áp dụng thoả thuận giữa các bên liên quan đến cách diễn giải” tại Điều 31(3)(b) của Công ước Viên (Vienna Convention) về Luật áp dụng trong các Hiệp ước.
Tại cuộc họp ngày 27 tháng 09 năm 2005, Cơ quan Giải quyết Tranh chấp chấp nhận Báo cáo của Cơ quan Phúc thẩm và Báo cáo của Ban hội thẩm đã sửa đổi theo báo cáo của Cơ quan Phúc thẩm.
Tình trạng thực thi của các Bản báo cáo được thông qua
REASONING t cũng thấy chưa ổn !! Ban hội thẩm nhận thấy rằng biện pháp được sử dụng trong vụ kiện này không nhất quán với các nghĩa vụ của Cộng đồng châu Âu quy định tại các Điều II:1(a) và II:1(b) của GATT 1994, vì các sản phẩm thuộc diện điều tra thuộc phạm vi cam kết nhượng bộ mở cửa thị trường đề cập trong đề mục 02.10 trong khi biện pháp áp dụng trong vụ kiện dẫn đến việc áp thuế hải quan lên sản phẩm thuộc diện điều tra vượt quá các mức thuế trong cam kết nhượng bộ mở cửa thị trường đề cập ở đề mục 02.10, bằng cách phân loại sản phẩm thuộc diện điều tra theo cam kết nhượng bộ đề mục 02.07.

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