Free Essay

Chinese Essay

In:

Submitted By Pattlee
Words 906
Pages 4
Ancient Chinese Contributions

Ancient Chinese Contributions

Roland Moreland

Prof. Harry Stansbury

HUM111

15th November, 2011

Ancient Chinese Contributions

Introduction

Innovations and inventions have significantly shaped the world today (Sayre, 2012, pp. 213-214). There are several inventions and developments that may be thought to have come from the Western countries. However, many of the inventions have their origin in China. Just as, Frater (2007) argues, “everything that can be invented already has been invented in China”. This is a proof that China has been of significant help to put the world where it is today. Today’s world is based on technology and, most of it is from China.

(1) Identify eight to ten of these useful inventions or contributions

Several useful inventions or contributions come from China. One of the most significant and known to almost everyone is row planting, which was started in the 6th century BC (Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, 2005). As they made this invention, it was believed that plants in rows grew stronger and faster with less wind damage. Wind passed through the well developed lines without damaging the crops. Another invention was the compass done in 4th century BC (Frater, 2007). Although the first compass was facing the south, it helped as direct finder and a divination tool.

The seed drill was used in 2nd century BC to help the Chinese farmers to plant their seeds at a standardized depth, and cover them (Frater, 2007). This ensures that there is no waste as no seeds are left uncovered and planting is done at a fast rate. Additionally, the growth of the seeds was uniform as the depth is the same. Deep drilling was invented in the 1st century BC and helped in digging boreholes of depths up to 4800 feet (Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, 2005). “They employed cast iron drills to reach the natural gas they used as a fuel to evaporate water from brine to produce salt with the natural gas being carried via bamboo pipes to where it was needed” (Frater, 2007).

Porcelain is another invention from China. It was invented around 618 BC by use of white clay that was put under high temperatures in a kiln (Frater, 2007). The Chinese invented toilet paper as early as 589 BC, while most other parts used water, leaves or corn-cob to clean themselves after visiting the toilet. The “Romans used a sponge tied to the end of a stick” (Frater, 2007). The printing paper, which is in use even today was invented in 121 AD enabling the 1st printed book with “full page woodcuts” produced in 868 AD (Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, 2005).

Gunpowder and fireworks were invented in China although the first one was an accident as a cook found ingredients for black powder. Explosives were used for the first time in warfare by the Chinese in 1161 (Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, 2005). The Chinese used gunpowder to make multiple stage rockets, explosive mines and primitive flamethrowers. The first reed instrument made of a bamboo pipe came from China. Through then use of the musical instrument, they were able to use a five note degree in their music.

(2) Nominate four that you believe are the most ingenious or innovative

The most ingenious or innovative inventions of the ones mentioned above are gunpowder and fireworks, printing papers (Sayre, 2012, p. 226) porcelain and seed drill.

(3) Explain why you believe these four inventions or contributions are the most useful inventions or contributions from the ancient Chinese

Through the gunpowder and fireworks, many countries are able to go to war and protect themselves. A person feels secure when he has a gun with himself for protection whenever he faces danger. Printing papers are in use up to date, for they enable the production of books, which are the source of knowledge among other uses.

Porcelain has led to the invention of building bricks, and roofing tiles, which are used all over the world to provide shelter to people. The seed drill is the base of agriculture and has led to a number of inventions with many coming from China. It has led to the invention of ox-ploughs and farming tractors among other machinery that make large-scale farming extremely easy and fast.

(4) Identify one invention or contribution that you cannot live without and explain why.

The invention that led to the growth of agriculture is tremendously useful and not only me, but also, nobody can live without it. Agriculture is the backbone of many countries and through it; food is distributed even to the non-agricultural countries. People cannot live without food and no source of food in not a product of agriculture. The seed drill has led to other agricultural inventions that make it possible for the agricultural countries to provide sufficient food to supply to the non-agricultural countries.

References

Frater, J. (2007). 10 Great Ancient Chinese Inventions. Retrieved 1 November 2011 from http://listverse.com/2009/04/18/10-great-ancient-chinese-inventions/.

Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. (2005). “Great Chinese Inventions.” An Inventive History: How Chinese Thinkers and Tinkers Changed the World. Retrieved 1 November 2011 from http://www.minnesota-china.com/Education/emSciTech/inventions.htm.

Sayre, H. (2012). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity & Change, Volume I (2nd ed.). (2011 Custom Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

First Chinese Dynasties Essay

...There are many unique aspects in the first Chinese dynasties. These unique aspects include their use of bronze, the belief in dangerous spirits, and the record keeping of the first dynasties. An example of a unique feature of the first Chinese dynasties is the fact that the ancient Chinese people recorded history through dynasties. The earliest writing from China was from the Shang Dynasty. During this time, the Shang Dynasty was creating pottery that had engravings of a pictographic writing system. This system was used by priests to tell the future. The priest also engraved the questions they had on turtle shells and animals using sharp tools. The writing on the animal bones and turtle shells developed into the Chinese people’s current written language. The style in which they used to crave the symbols is now known as...

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Balzac And The Little Chinese Seamstress Essay

...In the book Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie, there were two forms of reeducation introduced: Communism Reeducation and Western Literature Reeducation. These two ways of reeducation differentiated extremely, bringing up two contradicting ways to achieve this: one by following the rules, the other cheating the rules. Communism reeducation does not have the intended effect on the boys, as it unsuccessfully changes the mindset of the boys due to the influence of Western Literature, causing them to take dangerous risks, feel jealous of others, and involve others with the ideas of Western Literature, which goes against Communism reeducation. One way how Communism reeducation unsuccessfully changes the mindset of the boys is acts of taking dangerous risks. One example of a dangerous risk the narrator and Lou took...

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay Summary “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior” by Amy Chua

...In her article “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,” Amy Chua asserted that children raised by Chinese mothers are more successful than children that are raised by Western mothers. Chau claimed that the strict and direct nature of the Chinese parenting style allows their children to have excellence in everything that they do. She noted there are many parenting studies that showed measurable differences between Western and Chinese immigrant mothers. In particular, she described one that consisted of 50 Western mothers and 48 Chinese immigrant mothers which revealed a majority of Western mothers believed that emphasizing academic success was not good for children, and that Chinese mothers consider the academic success of their children a direct consequence of their good parenting and that any failures were a result of parents not “doing their job” (Chau, A. 2011). Chua also stated that Chinese mothers spend ten times longer working with their children on academic activities compared to Western mothers, and noted that Western children are more likely to be involved in sports. According to the Chau, there are three differences between Western and Chinese views on parenting. First, Western parents are overly concerned about their child’s self-esteem and are constantly trying to comfort their children, whereas Chinese parents presume their children are strong enough to take criticism for anything less than perfection. Second, Western parents believe it is their responsibility...

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay Summary “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior” by Amy Chua

...In her article “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,” Amy Chua asserted that children raised by Chinese mothers are more successful than children that are raised by Western mothers. Chau claimed that the strict and direct nature of the Chinese parenting style allows their children to have excellence in everything that they do. She noted there are many parenting studies that showed measurable differences between Western and Chinese immigrant mothers. In particular, she described one that consisted of 50 Western mothers and 48 Chinese immigrant mothers which revealed a majority of Western mothers believed that emphasizing academic success was not good for children, and that Chinese mothers consider the academic success of their children a direct consequence of their good parenting and that any failures were a result of parents not “doing their job” (Chau, A. 2011). Chua also stated that Chinese mothers spend ten times longer working with their children on academic activities compared to Western mothers, and noted that Western children are more likely to be involved in sports. According to the Chau, there are three differences between Western and Chinese views on parenting. First, Western parents are overly concerned about their child’s self-esteem and are constantly trying to comfort their children, whereas Chinese parents presume their children are strong enough to take criticism for anything less than perfection. Second, Western parents believe it is their responsibility...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Chinese Essay

...《石壕吏》杜甫 賞析 《石壕吏》是杜甫的名篇,杜甫的一生經歷唐玄宗,唐肅宗,杜甫是被人稱為“詩聖”這就足以表明杜甫的寫的作品的優秀。杜甫也是我最崇拜的詩人之一。不僅是因為他的優秀,而是在他的身上有一種無以名之的精神在鼓舞著我,使我不斷進步,不斷接著杜甫的精神的接力棒!杜甫的風格沈鬱頓挫,這是詩家定論。 《石壕吏》講的是發生在安史之亂時期的故事。敘述了差人乘夜來捉人,連衰老的老婦人也被抓去服役的慘事。表現杜甫對安史之亂中人民遭受的苦難,表示深切的同情。杜甫的心是與受苦受難的勞苦大眾息息相通的。詩人抨擊石壕吏的兇暴和冷酷無情,並不就是對整個封建統治的揭露,但對於人們認識的封建統治的階級本質,的確會有啟發。這首詩也就是抒寫了杜甫憂國憂民的崇高感情。 這首詩主要是批判了像石壕吏的官吏,對人民的冷酷無情,兇暴。這種官吏就像禽獸一般,一點人性沒有,簡直是喪失了天性。這種像石壕吏一樣的官吏是對人民不負責任的,是對廣大人民群眾的冷漠。這種像石壕吏一樣的官吏,不應該當官,這是不公平,對人民的利益的忽視!我們當今社會不要這種對人民不負責任的,冷漠的,像石壕吏一樣的官吏。我們廣大人民群眾反抗這種官吏! 這首詩也批判了那時候的封建統治。對封建統治的不滿。是的,那時候的統治的確不理想。唐玄宗日益驕奢,不理政事。寵愛楊貴妃,終日飲酒作樂。他又用楊國忠,李林甫為相,朝政腐敗,預伏著危機。這樣導致了755年安祿山趁著朝政腐敗,內地兵力空虛,在範陽發動叛亂。安史之亂使得北方生產大受摧殘,田地荒蕪,人民流離失所,許多洲縣成為廢墟。唐朝從此從強盛轉向衰落。也就是這樣,才導致人民對統治不滿。安史之亂後期,又是不斷戰爭,使得人民又一次家破人亡,過不上太平日子。最後唐朝後期,統治者腐敗貪婪,大肆兼併土地,災荒年月照舊催收租稅。加之戰火連綿,農民無法生活下去。所以杜甫這種批判是合理的,是正確的,這不僅是對封建的統治不滿,也是對中國歷史上的封建不滿!要是我也會這樣的批評這種統治的。 《石壕吏》中還表現了當時家庭的貧窮,不富裕。母親出門還沒有像樣的衣服。讀完這首詩,我們應該更加珍惜現在的富裕生活,想想老前輩為我們創造的這麼好的生活環境。我們應該更加愛惜現在的生活,把握每一天!我們應該滿足,不應浮躁。 《石壕吏》這篇杜甫的名篇,之所以出名是因為作者把自己的真情實感融入進去,把自己的所見,所感都形象的表現出來。我們應該借鑒。更好的寫出作文。我們也應該更好的報效祖國!努力加油! 賞析 唐肅宗乾元二年(759)春,郭子儀等九節度使六十萬大軍包圍安慶緒於鄴城,由於指揮不統一,被史思明援兵打得全軍潰敗。唐王朝為補充兵力,便在洛陽以西至潼關一帶,強行抓人當兵,人民苦不堪言。這時,杜甫正由洛陽經過潼關,趕回華州任所。途中就其所見所聞,寫成了《三吏》《三別》,《石壕吏》是《三吏》中的一篇。全詩的主題是通過對“有吏夜捉人”的形象描繪,揭露官吏的橫暴,反映人民的苦難。 前四句可看作第一段。首句“暮投石壕村”,單刀直入,直敘其事。“暮”字、“投”字、“村”字都需玩味,不宜輕易放過。在封建社會裏,由於社會秩序混亂和旅途荒涼等原因,旅客們都“未晚先投宿”,更何況在兵禍連接的時代!而杜甫,卻於暮色蒼茫之時才匆匆忙忙地投奔到一個小村莊裏借宿,這種異乎尋常的情景就富於暗示性。可以設想,他或者是壓根兒不敢走大路;或者是附近的城鎮已蕩然一空,無處歇腳;或者……總之,寥寥五字,不僅點明了投宿的時間和地點,而且和盤托出了兵荒馬亂、雞犬不寧、一切脫出常軌的景象,為悲劇的演出提供了典型環境。浦起龍指出這首詩“起有...

Words: 2003 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Fed Up

...Cree playwright and novelist’s dazzling yet bitter truthful essay “what a certain visionary once said” are a hard one to compare and comment on. Though both highway’s and gore’s introductory and concluding paragraphs are effective and persuasive, both of them use a different vocabulary style. Firstly, Highway’s introduction is very descriptive which paints an image in our mind (readers).whereas gore’s introduction in “The Moment of Truth” is effective because of providing scientific data to prove we are in a crisis and about criticism of the former president of the united states Mr. George Bush’s irresponsiveness to the number of environmental issues. Highway’s introductory paragraph is catchier because he use a descriptive way of narration which he gained from his real life experiences on the beauties of his countryside’s landscapes. (2) Highway’s description of the landscapes of northern Canada paints a beautiful image in the reader’s mind. The words used to represent the beauty of the landscape. And also Al Gore’s introductory paragraph in “The moment of truth,” is also equally effective. He starts off with letting the readers about the big crisis we about experience. He makes it even more interesting by explaining the meaning of crisis in Chinese and the characters’ meaning. This makes the introductory paragraph more informative too. The whole reading “The moment of truth” is categorized based on the Chinese characters for crisis mentioned in the introductory paragraph...

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Literacy

...born in a non-English family. I started to learn English when I was in primary school in China. After that, I became gradually interested in this new language and, nowadays, my English level is continuing to improve. From my English learning experience, I have really learned many valuable things. First, it helps me realize not to give up halfway when facing difficulties. Also, it helps me know that I must take everything seriously. Thus, English actually has a significant effect on my life. Studying in the primary school was happy and easy for most of the pupils. For me, it was different. When I heard that I had to learn English in primary school, I was surprised and a little frightened. I was just a Chinese boy and I did not know the knowledge of reading and writing in Chinese very well. How could I learn a new foreign language? I still remember my first English class, and it was really a great challenge for me. In the class, the teacher taught us to say "Good morning" and "Good afternoon." At first, the teacher read the words slowly, and I knew how to pronounce them. Then the teacher asked us to read the sentences one by one, but I suddenly felt nervous and forgot how to read them. When it was my turn, I just read them ambiguously. After class, I felt ashamed, and I did not have confidence to learn English anymore. When I came home and told my mother what had happened,she encouraged me and told me that it was just a start. Everyone would make mistakes, and I would just need...

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Why Is It so Difficult to Be Understood

...| Why is it so difficult to be understood? | by | | Herman Jacobs | | Why is it so difficult to be understood? For this essay we were asked to place imagine ourselves as the main character of a short story and then answer a simple question about her motivation. The challenge is that the main character is a Japanese-American woman living more than 50 years ago. The story “Two Deserts” by Valerie Matsumoto tells of Emiko Oyama, a young mother who lives in California’s Imperial Valley. Emiko is married with one daughter. As the story unfolds, it becomes clear that Emiko was interned during World War Two. This is no doubt one of the two deserts referred to by the story’s title. Emiko also revelas in the story that she has never been to Tokyo, and therefore we assume that she has never been to Japan. Emiko’s relationship with new neighbors is the heart of the story. More to the point Emiko’s relationship with Roy, a retired man who is very pushy, is the story. Emiko suffers Roy and adapts her life to try and discourage him from bothering her, but does not confront him directly. At the end of the story Emiko kills a scorpion and this signals that she has overcome her fears and that Roy won’t bother her any longer. The question is, why doesn’t she confront Roy sooner or in a more direct manner? Can language, culture and gender explain this? One reason Emiko doesn’t confront Roy directly has to do with linguistics, Robin Lakoff wrote about “Women’s Language...

Words: 1252 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

I Like Stuff

...prizes awarded for the best essays and such awards could help to support your University Application as evidence of outstanding academic work and independent effort. How long and of what nature should my essay be? Your essay should be between 2,000 and 2,500 words (excluding notes and bibliography) and represent original and independent work. There may be a case for writing a slightly shorter essay if one of your universities requires a shorter sample essay. Supplying an accurate word count is in any case crucial. Your essay should aim to be quite a focused piece and be a work of analysis and interpretation rather than just description. You may need to seek advice on the planning, structuring and the title of your essay. Some modifications may be necessary for scientific submissions. Where will inspiration for my essay come from? Your essay may, or may not be, a further development of normal subject work (e.g. Physics Research and Analysis, English Phillimore, History Gibbon Prize etc); it may be on subjects which have no existing prizes; it may be on a subject which is not on the curriculum (e.g. Anthropology) or which is cross-curricular (e.g. English and History of Art); or it may have emerged from Cultural perspectives lessons, the Cultural Perspectives timed essay which you take at the end of this term, be inspired by Critical Thinking work or be a ‘further developed’ praebendum essay. You should state in a covering note how and why the essay came about. Of course,...

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Handbook for Referencing

...DEPARTMENT of LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION THE BUSINESS SCHOOL HANDBOOK FOR REFERENCING 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF REFERENCING There are three main reasons why accurate referencing is important: * it provides relevant background information, illustrations of ideas or theories, or evidence for an argument that you are making in your essay or report. Your ideas need to be based on prior reading, and referencing is a way of showing that you have done this and are familiar with the field. * it enables readers to find any source of information mentioned in the text, if they want to follow up on a point or examine a theory more closely. In other words, if you refer to someone's work in an essay or report, you have to give enough information to allow readers to find it for themselves, if they find it interesting or relevant. * it gives due credit to the person(s) from whom you acquired the information. Using those ideas and/or words as if they were your own, or without acknowledging where they came from, is equivalent to 'stealing' someone else's ideas and counts as an academic offence in Britain known as plagiarism. 2. FORMATTING STYLES: HARVARD REFERENCING There are many different formatting styles for referencing, and each journal uses a specific style. So in that sense, there is no single, correct way in which to format your references. Nevertheless, it is inappropriate...

Words: 3693 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Literature & Essay

...non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose. Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original imagination, such as polemical works as well as autobiography, and reflective essays as well as belles-lettres. Literature can be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. The concept of genre, which earlier was limited, has broadened over the centuries. A genre consists of artistic works which fall within a certain central theme, and examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others. Important historical periods in English literature include Old English, Middle English, theRenaissance, the 17th Century Shakespearean and Elizabethan times, the 18th CenturyRestoration, 19th Century Victorian, and 20th Century Modernism. Important political movements that have influenced literature include feminism, post-colonialism, psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, post-modernism, romanticism, and Marxism. ------------------------------------------------- Essays An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or byCharles Lamb. "Essay" in English derives from the French word for "to attempt," essayer.[citation needed] Thus, one can find open-ended,...

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Children of the Holocaust

...For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). Essays of Michel de Montaigne Essays are generally short pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary film making styles and which focuses more on the evolution of a theme or an idea. A photographic essay is an attempt to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs;...

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Essay Formats

...Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary film making styles and which focuses more on the evolution of a theme or an idea. A photographic essay is an attempt to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs; it may or may not have an accompanying text or captions. Contents...

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ssk12 Assisgnment

...my future business endeavour. I have found that after so long out of the education system it has been a difficult transition juggling study and work. The first units that were chosen for me in study period 2, I thought were difficult to understand having never written an essay before and without the knowledge or know how, I was not able to complete these units. SSK12 has given me a good understanding of what it takes at becoming a university student and in particular the skills on writing essays. As I have mentioned previously up until study period 2, I had never written an essay and did not fully comprehend how important the set out of a university essay was. Choosing an Essay Question was an important part of my learning in week 6 because this has now given me the beginning step in writing a university essay using the correct format. I am feeling a lot more confident when approaching the subject of essays as I now understand and have the knowledge on the procedure in completing an academic essay and what is required. I now know that by firstly choosing a question will then help you to with your thesis and this in turn will give you your main idea and sets the way in which to write your essay. During the time that I was employed by the government it was necessary for me to constantly refer to certain policies and procedures on a daily basis. I was able to use the marking text system to allow me easy reference by indicated the pages with tabs and then within the...

Words: 4682 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Online Shoping

...Example Writing Answers for the ieltshelpnow.com Academic Practice Tests Below you will find example writing answers for all the writing questions in the ieltshelpnow.com Academic Practice Tests. Some of these example essays were written by IELTS students and some were written by an IELTS examiner in order to give an example of a good answer. Please refer to the question papers while you are reading these answers so that you understand the question that is being answered. After each of the example answers, an IELTS examiner has written a short commentary analysing the good and bad points of the answer. We hope this will give you an insight into how the writing answers should be written for IELTS Academic module. Academic Writing Practice Test 1 Task 1 In this report I will describe a bar chart that shows the estimated world illiteracy rates by gender and region for the year 2000. First I will look at male illiteracy for the 6 areas shown. The lowest rates were in Developed Countries, Latin America/Caribbean and East Asia/Oceania with rates of 1% (approximately), 10% and 8% (approximately) respectively. The rates for the next three areas were much higher and quite similar to each other. Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States and South Asia had rates of approximately 31%, 29% and 34%. Female illiteracy was much higher relatively in each area except Latin America/Caribbean where it was only slightly higher. The lowest rates for female illiteracy were again Developed Countries,...

Words: 7312 - Pages: 30