Premium Essay

Coast Line Research Paper

Submitted By
Words 860
Pages 4

Coast line is one of the components, are recognized as unique features on the earth (Li et al., 2003). The coast line can be defined as the line of contact between land and a body of water (Alesheikh et al., 2004). Coastal line changes are mainly due to human factors and natural factors such as waves, tides, winds, periodic storms and sea-level change. Natural factors are a result of global warming. Many scientists consider global warming force climatic change as the most serious environmental threat facing the world today. This natural factor causes erosion and accretion of the costal line. Global mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of approximately 1.7 mm/year over the past 100 years (measured from tide gauge observations), …show more content…
Monitoring the evolution of the coastline is an important task in several applications such as cartography and the environmental management of the entire coastal zone (Alesheikh et al., 2004). Erosion can happen under any conditions, but its rate tends to increase when waves are powerful and water levels are high, for instance during storms or in high winds. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems GIS have become increasingly important tools for many applications, as these systems link information to precisely locations, and integrate information drawn from multiple sources (Shanti Pappu et al., 2010; Christoph Siart et al., 2008). These characteristics of water, vegetation and soil make the use of the images that contain visible and infrared bands widely used for coastline mapping. Examples of such images are: TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper) imagery (Moore, 2000). High resolution satellite images, notably LandSat images have been successfully employed to estimate the changes in many applications (Lo and Welch, 1977, Elshehaby A. R., et al., 2012). Coastline is one of the most …show more content…
The extraction of features such as shore line and buildings for change detection and mapping purposes presents many research challenges (Priestnalla G., et al., 2000, Thomas et al. 2003; Ibrahim F. et al. 2011). The main objective of this research is to study and analyze the changes of costal line and costal area of Red Sea coast of Ras Sudr district for developing and protecting it using remotely sensed data and GIS. Rapid urban development and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. (Manish K. T., et al., 2012). In order to meet urban development challenges a planner needs to have fairly accurate and up-to-date information. (Pathana S. K., et al.1993; Pathak, et al., 2009). Also, calls for the use of monitoring systems like remote sensing. Such systems along with spatial analysis techniques like digital image processing and geographical information system (Mahesh K., et al.,

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Environmental Policy Final Paper

...Iodine-131, Cesium-137, and Cesium-134, as well as lower levels of Tellurium, Uranium, and Strontium, which were concentrated closer to the surrounding area of the nuclear power plant. However, the impact that these radioactive materials will have upon the United States, in particular, has caused quite the national controversy. Despite heavy national acceptance of the occurrence of the disaster, two popular and opposing hypotheses have formed as a result of the Media’s lack of focus on recent analyses of the impending effects of Fukushima Disaster upon the U.S.: (1) the radioactive material that leaked as a result of the TEPCO nuclear power plant failure will not have a drastic, threatening effect on the United States, specifically the West Coast, due to the supposedly limited leak of radioactive material and more importantly the short half-lives of the radioactive isotopes released and the accepted likelihood that the Pacific Ocean dilutes the leaked radioactive material; as opposed to (2) the radiation leaked as a result of the tsunami will become a national crisis, contaminating...

Words: 4187 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Firm Researcch

...Assignment 1: Firm Research Name Institution Instructor Date A Line of business (LOB) is a term that is generally used to refer to products that are highly related and are meant for consumption by a particular group of customers. Therefore businesses in same line produce similar goods targeting the same consumer group. A small business is defined as one that is independently operated, not dominant in their field and whose main aim is to make profits. It also has less than 500 employees and annual receipts not exceeding $21.5 million depending on the type of product they produce. (Osborne, 2011) Therefore a small-business line of business (LOB) refers to an independently-owned business with less than 500 employees, annual receipts not of $21.5 million, not dominant in their field and dealing with related products targeting a particular group of customers. Examples of lines of businesses are education and training services, medical services, information and technology services etc. (Aaker, 2001) According to the U.S Small Business Administration (SBA), the small businesses preferred in this context falls under the HUBZone category. The HUBZone refers to Historically Underutilized Business Zones i.e. business located both in urban and rural communities but in underutilized business zones. The U.S Small Business Administration (SBA) gives special treatment to this types of businesses under the HUBZone program by ensuring they gain preferential access in regard to award of...

Words: 1240 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Qi Plan Part 1

...QI Plan Part I- Consumerism HCS/588 October 17, 2011 QI Plan Part I- Consumerism Healthcare organizations have a responsibility to its consumers and various stakeholders to ensure only the highest quality care is delivered. Quality measures such as performance measurement and quality improvement processes play a critical role in helping organizations achieve quality outcomes. This paper will contrast performance measurement and quality improvement processes. In addition, this paper will discuss a healthcare organization, Gulf Coast Medical Center, its mission and QI goals, and the role of the consumer and stakeholders in the QI process. Performance Measurement vs. Quality Improvement Processes Performance measures are an important element of the overall quality management of an organization. “Performance measures quantitatively tell us something important about our products, services, and the processes that produce them” (Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, n.d.). In the healthcare industry, performance measures are a tool used to help understand, manage, and improve what healthcare organizations do. Performance measures are composed of units of measure; a number to tell how much, a unit to give the number a meaning of what, each tying in to the overall target number. In contrast, quality improvement (QI) focuses on bridging the gap between current levels of quality and expected levels of quality. “QI uses...

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Peru Research Paper

...These types of altitude affect the forms of grass and vegetation that may live there. Some of these small shrub like plants is Tussock and Heaths. Both of these plants are small and bush like plants that can thrive with cold temperatures and little rain. Also like the jungle the Andes take up most of the western part of the country and split a direct line from the jungle to the coast. The mountains act like barrier from the coast almost like wall separating two yards. Because the mountains separate the Coast and the Jungle most of the rainfall that comes to the coast or desert get sucked up and dumped into the Andes Mountains. The Coast of Peru stretches from the northern part all down through to the southern part of Peru. Much of the coastal areas are dry and arid places almost like deserts. Because this region is almost like a desert the temperature of the coast ranges from seventy degrees fahrenheit to about one hundred and fifteen degrees.This area will only receive one to two inches year around. Many coastal parts on the other hand will get more rain because of storms and patterns that line the coast with water. Because the coast does not get much rain the variety of plants is not great. Some main plants that can thrive in these harsh areas are Lomas, Cacti, and Small shrub like bushes. Both of these plants are suitable for this habitat and can withstand the hard and unrich soil of the coastal land. The government of Peru is a Constitutional Republic. A Constitutional Republic...

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

China Sez

...operating in 120 countries. The People’s Republic of China has been considered as one of the world’s most successful in terms of SEZ development and contribution. China’s SEZs were introduced after Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms were implemented in China in 1979. These SEZs were designated as areas where market­driven capitalist policies are implemented to entice foreign businesses to invest in China. The policies include investment in new infrastructure like office buildings and banks and preferential tax exemptions for foreign firms who want to invest in China. Some the most well known SEZ cities are Shengzhen, Shanghai, and Beijing. From 1979 to the present, the number of SEZ cities grew quickly from the original five cities in the southeast coast to an astonishing 118 cities. Along with SEZ development in the past 30 years, China has achieved phenomenal economic growth, an unprecedented development “miracle” in human history. Since the institution of its reforms and Open Door policy in 1978, China’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing at an average annual rate of more than 9%. While China has seen definite economic growth since the introduction of SEZs,...

Words: 4369 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Continental Drift Essay

...moving, evolving ocean floor. The new theory is called plate tectonics. Early Theories Soon after the Atlantic Ocean had been mapped, about three hundred years ago, it was noticed that the opposite coasts had similar shapes, but it was not until the middle of the 19th century that accurate maps were published demonstrating that the two coasts could be fitted together quite closely. Some geologists then suggested that the fit of the coasts was not an accident--that the continents were once joined and had subsequently drifted apart. None of the suggestions were taken seriously. In 1912, however, the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener investigated the fit of the Atlantic coasts more carefully than had his predecessors and grouped all the continents together into one great land mass, which he called Pangaea. He supposed that the mass began to break apart about 200 million years ago. He also showed that some geological features on the opposite coasts could have fitted together, and that there were many striking similarities between the fossil plants and reptiles on the opposite coasts, particularly the coasts of Africa and South America. If the continents were pushed together, the geological, fossil, and other lines of evidence would join together accurately in the way that lines of print on a torn newspaper would...

Words: 1873 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic (including Western Hudson Bay) have reported seeing more bears near settlements during the open-water period in recent years. In a fifth ecologically similar population, no changes have yet been reported by Inuit hunters. These observations, interpreted as evidence of increasing population size, have resulted in increases in hunting quotas. However, long-term data on the population size and body condition of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay, as well as population and harvest data from Baffin Bay, make it clear that those two populations at least are more likely to be declining, not increasing. While the ecological details vary in the regions occupied by the five different populations discussed in this paper, analysis of passive-microwave satellite imagery beginning in the late 1970s indicates that the sea ice is breaking up at progressively earlier dates, so that bears must fast for longer periods during the open-water season. Thus, at least part of the explanation for the appearance of more bears near coastal communities and hunting camps is likely that they are searching for alternative food sources in years when their stored body fat depots may be depleted before freeze-up, when they can return to the sea ice to hunt seals again. We hypothesize that, if the climate continues...

Words: 12538 - Pages: 51

Free Essay

A Review of Swahili Archaeology

...African Archaeological Review, Vol 15, No. 3, 1998 A Review of Swahili Archaeology Felix A. Chami1 The Swahili people have been viewed as of Persian/Arabic or Cushitic-speaking origin. Scholars have used historical and archaeological data to support this hypothesis. However, linguistic and recent archaeological data suggest that the Swahili culture had its origin in the early first centuries AD. It was the early farming people who settled on the coast in the last centuries BC who first adopted iron technology and sailing techniques and founded the coastal settlements. The culture of the iron-using people spread to the rest of the coast of East Africa, its center changing from one place to another. Involvement in transoceanic trade from the early centuries AD contributed to the prosperity of the coastal communities as evidenced by coastal monuments. More than 1500 years of cultural continuity was offset by the arrival of European and Arab colonizers in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries AD. Le peuple Swahili a souvent ete considere comme un peuple dont la langue avait pour origine le Perse/Arabe ou le Cushite. Les chercheurs ont utilise des donees historiques et archeologiques afin de supporter cette hypothese. Cependant I'etude linguistique de cette langue, ainsi que de nouvelles decouvertes archeologiques suggerent que la culture Swahili trouve son origine au debut de l'ere chretienne. Ils furent les premiers fermiers a s'installer le long du littoral, fondant des...

Words: 8581 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

School Work

...Gasoline Problem In 2003 average gasoline prices in the city of phoenix was a $1.52 and peaked to $2.11 per gallon. On July 30 a pipeline rupture, due to slow repairs, reduced the supply of gasoline causing dramatic price increases. With only two sources of gasoline, one from west Texas and the other from the west coast, phoenix was forced to pay the increased prices from west coast suppliers. Resorting to the consumers determinants of supply, preference would have to become a big constituent to make consumers adopt other modes of transportation. ” In the short run, a gasoline price increase of 10 percent would reduce consumer demand by just 2 percent, according to these studies. This suggests that gasoline prices in Phoenix would have had to increase by a large amount to reduce the quantity of consumers’ purchases by 30 percent, the amount of lost supply. Extrapolating from above, prices would have to increase by 150 percent. Phoenix prices did increase substantially – by 40 percent – but remained far below a 150 percent price increase, because Phoenix gas stations had succeeded in obtaining some additional gasoline supplies from the West Coast (Gasoline, 2012).” The law of demand states that price increase causes consumers to buy less which affects the determinants. The affect on the consumers normal good required them to find other substitute goods. Mode of transportation was changed to bikes, buses, carpool or even walking. The availability of the product...

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Businee Plan

...Type | Marketing Plan | Subject | Business | Level | Master | Number of pages/words | 3 pages / 825 words | Paper instructions Please write 3 pages more for this paper please add under the headings where information is missing and proof read/ add academic references as appropriate  1. Check this instructions from client: “Please see below the break down: Assessment Question:Marketing planWorking in your group and based on your business environment market research (Assignment 1) decide on a strategy for the segmentation of your selected target market/s as well as a positioning of the business in respect to previously identified SWOT analysis elements and competitors strengths and weaknesses. Following that, you will decide on a number of marketing activities (describe in details what these are) designed to launch (remember that this is a new business) and further promote your business. The budget available to you, for the chosen activities, is $60,000 and you will present these in a table format with clear indication of type, starting date, duration and cost for each of these (pricing of activities should be researched with real figures inserted in your table).The following sections are expected: Title page Executive summary Table of contents 1.Introduction 2.Description and location of the business (from Assignment 1) 3.Environmental analysis (micro and macro) 4.SWOT table followed by a SWOT analysis with key elements listed and explained 5.Market segmentation...

Words: 1931 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Offshore Drilling

...Offshore Drilling – To Drill or Not to Drill The Effects of Drilling on the Environment and Business Lydia M. Wityk Strayer University Abstract This paper will explore the business of oil companies drilling off the coast line of the United States. It will explore the benefits from the business of oil companies to the detrimental effects of the oil spills from the offshore drilling. Should we continue to drill for oil off the coast with the possibility of additional spillage into the oceans. We know that oil spills damage the environment, and the social and economic welfare of the residents in the area. At the same time the oil companies can positively affect the economy and the United State’s welfare. In comparing both sides of the argument I will look at the past and current oil companies to determine if they acted morally in their everyday business practice. At this post-BP disaster era, the United States is questioning whether we should continue to drill and expand our drilling. I will utilize the consequentialist theory to determine what would be the best next step for the U.S. to take. Using the current information gathered on BP’s business practice and the effects of the oil spill, I will weigh the ratio of good to bad to determine my opinion on whether to drill or not to drill. Off Shore Drilling – To Drill or Not to Drill The Effects of Drilling on the Environment and Business The United States has been offshore drilling for oil since...

Words: 3209 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Challenges Facing the Fashion Industry in Ghana

...CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The environment in which the fashion industry operates the world over has become turbulent, unpredictable and therefore, difficult to exert managerial control. Cultures around the world are constantly influencing each other; hence, the world’s cultures are changing fashion constantly. Also, social, economic, political and legal factors keep changing than before. Competition in the fashion industry is so rife such that the survival of fashion organizations cannot be guaranteed (Stuart, 1995). During the last decade, the developments of new technologies all over the world and growing globalization of countries economies have produced the fastest changes ever. The fashion industry in Ghana, especially, the clothing sub sector (which is the focus of this study) has not been without the effect of economic, political, social, cultural and legal pressures brought to bear on all organizations. In recent years, protectionism has given way to globalization. With that change, Ghanaian clothing sector of the fashion industry has had to compete with imports from low wage countries. Retailers, unencumbered by protectionism, have also seized on the opportunity, often choosing to go directly to offshore manufacturers. As retailers become larger and more globally connected, they continue to build global brands marketed around the world. In doing so, they eliminate many Ghanaian clothing companies from their supply chain. The result has been major market...

Words: 6584 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Economic Freedom and Living Standards

...Economic Freedom and Living Standards April 24, 2008 Research Paper Sweden, Ivory Coast, India, North Korea, Singapore, and Brazil April 24, 2008 Research Paper: Sweden, Ivory Coast, India, North Korea, Singapore, and Brazil A country with a free economy have a higher standard of living than countries with poor economies. The standard of living can be determined by the overall economic standing, policy or reforms, political, social, and cultural conditions that a country displays. These factors can be measured in different ways such as the GDP, population, history, and various sources. In this paper, I will examine the economic structure of six countries and emphasize factors that contribute to the standard of living. Sweden Sweden is the world's 27th freest economy. According to the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom (IEF), it has an economy that is 70.4% free. Services, industry, and agriculture account for 59.8%, 38%, and 2.8% of GDP (World Factbook). It relies heavily on international trade, accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Main exports include paper products, machinery and transport equipment, and chemicals. The population is 9 million with a GDP of about $308.9 billion. Citizens are provided with a broad spectrum of public services and social welfare benefits that guarantee a minimum living standard and all residents are covered by national health insurance (Soldenberg). It is known to have one of the highest living standards in the world. Factors...

Words: 4356 - Pages: 18

Free Essay


...University Carbondale Ken-ichi Shinoda National Science Museum, Tokyo Julie Farnum Montclair State University Robert Corruccini Southern Illinois University Carbondale Hirokatsu Watanabe Terra Information Engineering Company Follow this and additional works at: © 2004 by The Wenner‐Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Published in Current Anthropology, Vol. 45, No. 3 ( June 2004) at 10.1086/382249 Recommended Citation Shimada, Izumi; Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Farnum, Julie; Corruccini, Robert; and Watanabe, Hirokatsu, "An Integrated Analysis of PreHispanic Mortuary Practices: A Middle Sicán Case Study" (2004). Publications. Paper 8. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Department of Anthropology at OpenSIUC. It has been accepted for inclusion in Publications by an authorized administrator of OpenSIUC. For more information, please contact C u r r e n t A n t h r o p o l o g y Volume 45, Number 3, June 2004 2004 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved 0011-3204/2004/4503-0004$3.00 An Integrated Analysis of PreHispanic Mortuary Practices A Middle Sican Case Study1 ´ by Izumi Shimada, Ken-ichi Shinoda, Julie Farnum, Robert Corruccini, and Hirokatsu Watanabe Recent debate has raised serious questions about the viability of the social and ideological reconstruction of prehistoric culture on...

Words: 32806 - Pages: 132

Premium Essay

San Andreas Earthquake

...The article “What Will Really Happen When San Andreas Unleashes the Big One?” is an informative text of the earthquake set to greatly impact California possibly in the next 30 years. The movie San Andreas paints a very unrealistic picture for what the “Big One” will actually look like. There will probably be no huge tsunamis or split-up cities but there will be many roads and power lines split up and a lot of blowback after all of the earthquakes because much of the minimum water supply will be gone. Scientists are working with everyone to prepare California for the “Big One.’ All in all, this earthquake could cause a whole lot of damage and even though we cannot yet predict it, hopefully Californians will be prepared. One thing this article...

Words: 367 - Pages: 2