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Communication in Our Lives

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6e
FIFTH

EDITION

COMMUNICATION in Our Lives
LINEBERGER DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF HUMANITIES CAROLINE H. AND THOMAS S. ROYSTER DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF GRADUATE EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL

Australia . Brazil . C anada . M exico . Singap ore . Spain . Uniited Kingdom . United States

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This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.

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Communication in Our Lives, Sixth Edition Julia T. Wood Senior Publisher: Lyn Uhl Executive Editor: Monica Eckman Senior Development Editor: Greer Lleuad Assistant Editor: Rebekah Matthews Editorial Assistant: Colin Solan Media Editor: Jessica Badiner Marketing Manager: Jason Sakos Marketing Coordinator: Gurpreet Saran Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Tami Strang Senior Content Project Manager: Michael Lepera Art Director: Linda Helcher Senior Print Buyer: Justin Palmeiro Senior Rights Acquisition Specialist, Text: Katie Huha Production Service: Elm Street Publishing Services Text Designer: Brenda Grannan, Grannan Graphic Design Cover Designer: Grannan Graphic Design Cover Image: Swirls II © Eric Waugh Compositor: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd.

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2010932556 ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90940-8 ISBN-10: 0-495-90940-8

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Brief Contents
Preface xix About the Author xxvii Introduction xxviii

PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION
1 The World of Communication 1 2 Perception and Communication 27 3 Communication and Personal Identity 49 4 5 6 Listening Effectively 73 97 122

The Verbal Dimension of Communication

The Nonverbal Dimension of Communication

7 Communication and Culture 146

PART II: INTERPERSONAL AND GROUP COMMUNICATION
AND

MEDIA LITERACY

8 Foundations of Interpersonal Communication 172 9 Communication in Personal Relationships 199 10 Foundations of Group and Team Communication 225 11 Effective Communication in Task Groups and Teams 249 12 Communication in Organizations 273 13 Media and Media Literacy 294

PART III: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION
14 Planning Public Speaking 320 15 Researching and Developing Support for Public Speeches 16 Organizing and Presenting Public Speeches 369 17 Informative Speaking 401 342

18 Persuasive Speaking 421

iii
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BRIEF CONTENTS

Closing: Pulling Ideas Together

449

Appendix A: Annotated Sample Speeches 453 Appendix B: Interviewing 467 Glossary Reference Index 518 483 493

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Contents
Preface xix About the Author xxvii Introduction xxviii

PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION
1 THE WORLD OF COMMUNICATION 1
Why Study Communication? 2 Defining Communication 3 Values of Communication
Personal Values 4 5 6 Relationship Values Professional Values Cultural Values 7

4

Models of Communication
Linear Models 8 9 10 Interactive Models

8

Transactional Models

The Breadth of the Communication Field
Intrapersonal Communication Group Communication Mass and Social Media Public Communication 13 14 15 16 11 Interpersonal Communication 12 Organizational Communication 13

11

Intercultural Communication

Unifying Themes in the Field
Symbolic Activities Meaning 17 18 Critical Thinking 17

17

Ethics and Communication

19

Careers in Communication
Research Education 20 21

20

v
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CONTENTS

Media Production, Analysis, and Criticism Training and Consulting 22 22 Human Relations and Management

21

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 24

23
25

Case Study: A Model Speech of Self-Introduction

2 PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION 27
Human Perception
Selection 28 30 33 Organization Interpretation

28

Influences on Perception
Physiology Culture 37 39 40 Social Roles 36

36

Cognitive Abilities

Enhancing Communication Competence
Guidelines for Enhancing Competence

42
42 43

Perceptions, Communication, and Abstraction

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 46

45
48

Case Study: College Success

3 COMMUNICATION AND PERSONAL IDENTITY
What Is the Self? 50 The Self Arises in Communication with Others The Self Is Multidimensional The Self Is a Process 58 57

49
50

We Internalize and Act from Social Perspectives

58 62

Social Perspectives on the Self Are Constructed and Changeable

Enhancing the Self

64
64 64

Make a Strong Commitment to Improve Yourself Gain Knowledge as a Basis for Personal Change Set Realistic Goals 65 66 67 Accept That You Are in Process

Create a Supportive Context for Change

Beyond the Classroom 69 Chapter Summary 69
Case Study: Parental Teachings 71

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CONTENTS

vii

4 LISTENING EFFECTIVELY
The Listening Process
Being Mindful 76

73
75
76 77 78

Physically Receiving Messages Interpreting Communication Responding 78 Remembering 78

Selecting and Organizing Material

Obstacles to Effective Listening 79
External Obstacles Internal Obstacles 79 80

Forms of Nonlistening
Pseudolistening 83 84 Monopolizing 83 Selective Listening Defensive Listening Ambushing 85 Literal Listening 85

83

85

Adapting Listening to Communication Goals
Informational and Critical Listening 86 Relational Listening 88 91 Other Purposes of Listening

85

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 92

91
94

Case Study: Family Hour

5 THE VERBAL DIMENSION OF COMMUNICATION 97
Symbols and Meaning
Symbols Are Arbitrary Symbols Are Abstract

98
98 100 101

Symbols Are Ambiguous

Principles of Verbal Communication
Interpretation Creates Meaning Punctuation Affects Meaning 102 104 Communication is Rule Guided 102

102

Symbolic Abilities 105
Symbols Define Symbols Evaluate 106 107 109 109 111

Symbols Organize Perceptions Symbols Allow Self-reflection

Symbols Allow Hypothetical Thought

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CONTENTS

Enhancing Effectiveness in Verbal Communication
Engage in Dual Perspective 112 113 Own Your Feelings and Thoughts Strive for Accuracy and Clarity

112

Respect What Others Say About Their Feelings and Ideas 115

115

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 118

118
120

Case Study: The Roommates

6 THE NONVERBAL DIMENSION OF COMMUNICATION 122
Principles of Nonverbal Communication 123
123 125 Similar to and Different from Verbal Communication Supplements or Replaces Verbal Communication Regulates Interaction 126 126 128 Establishes Relationship-Level Meanings Reflects Cultural Values

Types of Nonverbal Communication
Kinesics Haptics Artifacts Proxemics Chronemics Silence 138 129 131 131 132 134 135 136

129

Physical Appearance

Environmental Factors Paralanguage 137

Improving Nonverbal Communication

139
139 139

Monitor Your Nonverbal Communication

Interpret Others’ Nonverbal Communication Tentatively

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 141

141
143

Case Study: Nonverbal Cues

7 COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE 146
Understanding Culture
Cultures Are Systems

147
147 148

Multiple Social Communities in a Single Culture

Communication’s Relationship to Culture and Social Communities
Communication Expresses and Sustains Cultures 153 157 Cultures Consist of Material and Nonmaterial Components 154 Cultures Are Shaped by Historical and Geographic Forces

153

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We Learn Culture in the Process of Communicating Cultures Are Dynamic 160

159

Improving Communication Between Cultures and Social Communities
Resist the Ethnocentric Bias 163 163 Recognize That Responding to Diversity Is a Process

162

Beyond the Classroom 167 Chapter Summary 167
Case Study: The Job Interview 169

PART II: INTERPERSONAL AND GROUP COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA
LITERACY 8 FOUNDATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 172
Self-Disclosure 173
174 175 Self-Disclosure and Personal Growth Self-Disclosure and Closeness

Communication to Build Supportive Climates 176
Levels of Confirmation and Disconfirmation 177

Defensive and Supportive Climates 179
Evaluation Versus Description 179 Certainty Versus Provisionalism Strategy Versus Spontaneity Neutrality Versus Empathy Superiority Versus Equality 181 182 183 183 180

Control Versus Problem Orientation

Conflict in Relationships

184
185 186 187

Conflict May Be Overt or Covert 184 Conflict May Be Managed Well or Poorly Conflict Reflects and Expresses Cultures and Social Communities Conflict May Be Good for Individuals and Relationships

Guidelines for Creating and Sustaining Healthy Climates 187
Actively Use Communication to Shape Climates Accept and Confirm Others Accept and Confirm Yourself 189 189 192 192 187

Self-Disclose When Appropriate Respect Diversity in Relationships

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 194

193

Case Study: Dan and Charlotte 195

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CONTENTS

9 COMMUNICATION IN PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 199
Defining Personal Relationships
Uniqueness Commitment 200 200 201 202 202

200

Relationship Rules Affected by Contexts Relational Dialectics

The Evolutionary Course of Personal Relationships
Friendships 206 Romantic Relationships 208

205

Challenges in Personal Relationships
Dealing with Distance 216

215
215 216 218

Adapting to Diverse Communication Styles Creating Equitable Romantic Relationships Negotiating Safer Sex 220

Resisting Violence and Abuse Between Intimates

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 221

221
223

Case Study: Wedding Bells?

10 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP AND TEAM COMMUNICATION 225
What Are Groups and Teams? 226 Potential Limitations and Strengths of Groups 228
Potential Limitations of Groups Potential Strengths of Groups 228 230

Features of Small Groups
Cohesion Group Size 232 233 235

232

Power Structure 233 Interaction Patterns Group Norms 236

Cultural Influences on Group Decision Making
Individualism Equality 238 238 238 237 Assertiveness 237 Progress, Change, and Speed Risk and Uncertainty Informality 239

237

Communication in Small Groups
Forms of Group Communication

239
239

Beyond the Classroom

244

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Chapter Summary 244
Case Study: The Class Gift 246

11 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN TASK GROUPS AND TEAMS 249
Task Groups 250
250 251 251 253 252 253 Project Teams Focus Groups

Brainstorming Groups Advisory Groups

Quality Improvement Teams Decision-Making Groups

Leadership Communication
Leadership, Not Leader Styles of Leadership 255 254

254

Decision-Making Methods
Consensus Voting 259 260 260 Compromise Authority Rule 258

258

Organizing Group Discussion
Stage One: Define the Problem Stage Two: Analyze the Issues Stage Three: Establish Criteria

261
261 263 263

Stage Four: Generate Solutions 264 Stage Five: Evaluate Solutions 264 Stage Six: Choose and Implement the Best Decision 265 265 Stage Seven: Develop an Action Plan to Monitor the Solution

Understanding and Managing Conflict in Groups
Types of Conflict 266

266

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 269
Case Study: Teamwork

268
271

12 COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS 273
Key Features of Organizational Communication
Structure 275 275 276 Communication Networks

274

Links to External Environments

Organizational Culture
Vocabulary Stories 278 277

277

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CONTENTS

Rites and Rituals Structures 283

280

Guidelines for Communicating in Organizations
Adapt to Diverse Needs, Situations, and People Expect to Move In and Out of Teams 287 289 Manage Personal Relationships on the Job

286

286

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 291

290
293

Case Study: Ed Misses the Banquet

13 MEDIA AND MEDIA LITERACY 294
The Nature and Scope of Media Understanding How Media Work
Understanding Mass Media Understanding Social Media 297 302

295
295

Defining Mass Media and Social Media

297

Developing Media Literacy
Access to Media 309 Analyze Media 311

308
309

Understand the Influence of Media

Critically Evaluate Media Messages Respond Actively 314

312

Beyond the Classroom Chapter Summary 316

316
318

Case Study: Social Media and Future Employers

PART III: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION
14 PLANNING PUBLIC SPEAKING 320
Public Speaking as Enlarged Conversation Choosing and Refining a Topic 324
Choosing Your Topic 324 326 330 Defining Your General and Specific Purposes in Speaking Developing a Thesis Statement

322

Analyzing Your Audience 331
Demographic Audience Analysis Situational Audience Analysis 332 334

Chapter Summary 337
Case Study: A Model Speech of Introduction 339

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xiii

15 RESEARCHING AND DEVELOPING SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC SPEECHES 342
Conducting Research
Personal Knowledge Interviews Surveys 346 347

343
344 346

Library and Online Research

Using Evidence to Support Ideas 350
Statistics Examples Quotations Visual Aids 351 352 354 357

Comparisons 353

Chapter Summary 363
Case Study: Understanding Hurricanes 365

16 ORGANIZING AND PRESENTING PUBLIC SPEECHES
Organizing Speeches
Outlining Speeches The Working Outline

369

370
371 371 373 382

Organizing the Body of a Speech Designing the Introduction Crafting the Conclusion Building in Transitions 386 385

Communication Apprehension: Natural and Often Helpful 387
Causes of Communication Apprehension Reducing Communication Apprehension 388 389

Presenting Public Speeches 390
Oral Style Practice 390 391 395 Styles of Delivery

Chapter Summary 397
Case Study: Analyzing Delivery: Speech of Self-Introduction 399

17 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 401
The Nature of Informative Speaking 402
403 Informative Speaking in Everyday Life 402 Comparing Informative and Persuasive Speaking

Guidelines for Effective Informative Speaking
Provide Listeners with a Clear Thesis Statement Connect with Listeners’ Values and Experiences

405
405 405

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CONTENTS

Motivate Listeners to Want Information Build Credibility with Listeners Adapt to Diverse Listeners 407 407

406

Organize So Listeners Can Follow Easily Involve Listeners 412

408 410

Design Your Speech to Enhance Learning and Retention

Use Effective and Ethical Supporting Materials Chapter Summary 416
Case Study: Informative Speech: Anytown USA

414
419

18 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING 421
Understanding Persuasive Speaking The Three Pillars of Persuasion
Ethos Pathos Logos 424 425 427 427

422

424

The Toulmin Model

Building Credibility 429
Understanding Credibility Types of Credibility 430 430 Developing Credibility 429

Enhancing Credibility 432 Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact
The Motivated Sequence Pattern 433 435 One-Sided and Two-Sided Presentations

432

Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches
Create Common Ground with Listeners Adapt to Listeners 440 440 Avoid Fallacious Reasoning 439

438

Chapter Summary 444
Case Study: Persuasive Speech: No Child Left Behind: Addressing the School Dropout Rate among Latinos 446

CLOSING: PULLING IDEAS TOGETHER APPENDIX A

449

ANNOTATED SAMPLE SPEECHES 453
453

Be Your Own Story: Transcript of 2004 Wellesley Commencement Address 453
Toni Morrison

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xv

Martin Luther King, Jr. Remembrance Speech: Transcript of 2010 Speech
Barack Obama 457

457

“The Dun Dun Drum” 464
Joshua Valentine 464

APPENDIX B

INTERVIEWING 467
467

Understanding Communication in Interviews 467
Types and Purposes of Interviews The Structure of Interviews Styles of Interviewing 471 473 470

Forms of Questions in Interviews

Challenges When Communicating in Interviews 475
Preparing to Interview Effectively 476 Managing Illegal Questions in Interviews 478

Chapter Summary 479 Communication in Our Lives Online 480

GLOSSARY

483

REFERENCE 493 INDEX 518

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List of Boxes
SHARPEN YOUR SKILL
Communication and Health U.S. Demographics in the Twenty-First Century Thinking Critically about Language and Social Groups Expectations and Perceptions More Complexity, More Categories I’m Right; You’re Wrong Failure on the Way to Success Uppers, Downers, and Vultures Who Listens? Between a Rock and a Hard Place Code Talkers Lost in Translation Blaxicans Language Shapes Our Realities Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Clashes Dress for Success Environmental Racism Life on the Color Line Cybercommunities Proverbs Express Cultural Values What’s in a Name? Attitudes Toward Differences Are Learned Guidelines for Communicating with People Who Have Disabilities The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Responding to Anger in the Workplace Mixed Matches How Do I Love Thee? 6 8 20 30 33 35 65 68 75 87 99 102 107 108 125 133 136 149 153 154 156 166 178 188 191 212 213

xvi
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LIST OF BOXES

xvii

Einstein’s Mistakes Five Bases of Power Speeding Along Virtual Groups Honest Abe’s Leadership Lessons Empowering Leadership Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Blogging to Improve Communication with the Community Language in Left Field Organizations and Ethics—Or Lack Thereof Keeping Track of Employees Tomorrow’s Organizations Employee Mistreatment in Culturally Diverse Organizations Generations Online Burkas and BlackBerrys Video Résumés Everyware Is Everywhere Do u txt whl drvng? The Digital Divide Puffery: The Very Best of Its Kind! Responding Actively The First Amendment: Freedom of Religion, Speech, and Press Connecting Yourself with Your Topic What Do People Think About . . .? Evaluating Online Sources for Speeches The Typical American Family I Have a Dream Avoiding Plagiarism Making PowerPoint Work for You Creating a Sense of Time Gaining Listeners’ Attention I’d Rather Lose Than Have to Give a Speech Goodwill and Credibility

230 236 239 241 255 258 259 276 279 284 285 287 288 296 297 305 306 307 310 313 315 321 325 331 344 354 355 356 359 379 384 388 430

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LIST OF BOXES

Research in Action A
“Half and Half” “I” versus “We” in IMs Grieve with me; let me grieve alone Sex and Second Life What counts as evidence? Motivating Smokers to Quit 51 110 204 304 349 436

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Preface hen I was an undergraduate student, I fell in love with the field of communication. In my first communication course I discovered that communication was more central to my life than anything else I could study. That feeling grew stronger with each communication course I took during my undergraduate and graduate studies. I wrote Communication in Our Lives to share with students my love of communication and my belief that it is critically important in our everyday lives. Because I want this book to engage students, I’ve tried to make it as interesting and substantive as communication itself. I use a conversational style of writing and weave into all chapters examples, reflections from students, and applications that invite students to engage material personally. Because I want this book to help students develop their competence as communicators, I emphasize concrete skills and hands-on applications.

W

DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION IN OUR LIVES
Communication in Our Lives has three distinct conceptual emphases. In addition, it includes a number of pedagogical features designed to highlight the relevance of communication to students’ everyday lives and experiences. Some of these features have been retained from the fifth edition, and some, as well as additional content, are new to this sixth edition.

Conceptual Emphases
Three conceptual goals guided my writing of this book: (a) to emphasize theories and research developed by scholars of communication, (b) to integrate coverage of social diversity as it relates to communication, and (c) to respond to student and faculty feedback about previous editions.
Emphasis on Communication Theory, Research, and Skills Communication

in Our Lives highlights theories, research, and skills developed by scholars of communication. For example, Chapter 9 provides coverage of relational dialectics, a theory primarily developed by Leslie Baxter, a professor of communication at the University of Iowa. Chapter 13 relies on recent research by scholars of social media to sharpen understanding of how various digital technologies are making our lives ever more connected. Chapters 14 through 18 draw on communication scholars’ research principles of effective public communication. For instance, Clella Jaffe (2007) has identified the wave pattern as a way of organizing speeches that is more common in ethnic groups with strong oral xix Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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PREFACE

traditions, and James McCroskey and Jason Teven (1999) have shown that speakers who demonstrate good will toward listeners tend to have higher credibility than those who don’t. I emphasize the work of communication scholars both because their research is valuable and because I want students to appreciate the intellectual richness of the communication field. Although I emphasize the work of communication scholars, I don’t ignore relevant research conducted by scholars in fields such as sociology, psychology, and anthropology. Thus, this book draws on research and theories in these and other related disciplines.
Integrated Attention to Social Diversity I have woven discussion of social

diversity into the basic framework of this book. I do not do this to be “politically correct” or to advance a liberal social agenda. Instead, I aim to provide integrated attention to social diversity because it is one of the most significant features of contemporary life in the United States. Our culture includes people of different ethnicities, ages, genders, physical and mental abilities, sexual orientations, economic classes, and religious and spiritual commitments. Communication in Our Lives encourages students to appreciate social diversity as a fact of cultural life that has profound implications for our communication with others. Because social diversity affects our communication in all contexts, I weave discussion of diverse cultures and communication practices into all chapters of this book. For example, in Chapter 10 I note how cultural values affect communication in groups and teams. In discussing personal identity in Chapter 3, I point out how social views of race, economic class, gender, and sexual orientation affect self-concept. In addition to weaving social diversity into all chapters, Chapter 7 is devoted exclusively to communication and culture. This chapter provides a sustained and focused exploration of the reciprocal relationship between culture and communication.
Evolution in Response to Student and Faculty Feedback Like communi-

cation, books are dynamic—they evolve and change over time. This edition of Communication in Our Lives attempts to retain the strengths of previous editions while also incorporating feedback from students and faculty. Before beginning work on this edition, I read feedback from hundreds of faculty members and students who used previous editions. Their suggestions and comments led me to make a number of changes in this new edition. The most significant change in this edition is increased emphasis on active learning. I’ve taught college students for many years, and I’ve become convinced that real learning occurs only if students actively engage and work with course content. Active learning happens when students do something with ideas in a book— they apply theories to their communication experiences; they use new concepts to analyze relationships in their families and work places; they think about how a discussion in a textbook illuminates their own lives. Inserted into the margins of each chapter are questions that prompt students to connect material to their lives. I invite students to analyze, reflect, apply or otherwise actively engage the ideas they’ve read. In preparing this edition of Communication in Our Lives, I kept in mind the frequent complaint from instructors that each new edition of a textbook gets longer because authors add new material without taking out other material.

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PREFACE

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I resisted this tendency. I have streamlined all chapters by deleting dated material and references and tightening prose. I also reduced the number of features in chapters so that pages are less “busy” than in the previous edition. Because many faculty assign speeches in the first weeks of a term, and to lay a foundation for the public communication chapters that constitute Part 3, I weave speech activities into early chapters of the book. For instance, Chapter 1 includes a Sharpen Your Skill activity that invites students to prepare and present a short speech of introduction. By completing public speaking activities in early chapters, students gain valuable speaking experience and they appreciate connections between public speaking and other forms of communication. I have also further integrated Speech Builder Express™ 3.0 and Speech Studio™ into Chapters 14–18, which focus on public speaking. Wherever appropriate within these chapters, I mention the program’s speech outlining and development resources. Additionally, at the end of these chapters, I suggest specific activities designed to help students make use of this online tool. Speech Builder Express and Speech Studio are described further in the section on student resources. In recent years, ethical—and unethical—actions have gained renewed prominence in cultural life, and this edition of the book reflects that. Communication instructors know that they need to teach students to recognize ethical issues in communication that occurs in personal relationships, the work place, or public speaking. To underline the ethical dimension of communication, this edition calls attention to ethical issues and choices in communication. In addition to identifying ethical aspects of communication in each chapter, I include one question at the end of each chapter, flagged with an icon, that focuses on ethics. This edition of Communication in Our Lives also reflects changes in scholarship and modes of interaction. Those familiar with the fifth edition of this book will notice that the current edition includes more than 150 new references. Finally, this edition includes amplified attention to social media—cells, iPods, BlackBerrys, and so forth—that are increasingly part of our everyday lives.

Pedagogical Features
In addition to the conceptually distinctive aspects of this book and its thorough integration of and emphasis on social diversity, several other features are designed to make it interesting and valuable to students. First, I adopt a conversational style of writing rather than the more distant and formal style often used by textbook authors. I share with students some of my experiences in communicating with others, and I invite them to think with me about important issues and difficult challenges surrounding communication in our everyday lives. The accessible, informal writing style encourages students to personally engage the ideas I present. A second feature of this book is student commentaries. Every chapter is enriched by reflections written by students in my classes and other classes around the country that adopted previous editions of this book. The questions, thoughts, and concerns expressed by diverse students invite readers to reflect on their own experiences as communicators. I welcome ideas from students around the country, so students in your class may wish to send their insights to me for inclusion in future editions of this book.

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Communication in Our Lives also includes pedagogical features that promote learning and skill development. At the end of each chapter I provide two Sharpen Your Skill exercises to encourage students to apply concepts and develop skills discussed in the text. Many of these exercises end with a prompt to the book’s online resources, which offer additional opportunities for skill application. Each chapter also includes Communication Highlights, which call attention to interesting communication research and examples of communication issues in everyday life. New to this edition of the book are two features. The first, Beyond the Classroom, appears at the end of chapters in Parts I and II. This feature offers suggestions for taking the material in the chapter beyond the classroom in three ways: considering the chapter’s relevance in the workplace, probing ethical issues raised in the chapter, and connecting chapter material to civic and social engagement with the broader world. The second new feature, Research in Our Lives, appears in selected chapters. Each Research in Our Lives feature highlights communication research that is particularly relevant to issues and contexts of students’ lives. The purpose of this feature is to show students that communication research really does make a difference in the “real world.” Case studies are another feature that encourages students to engage ideas actively. These brief scenarios and speeches appear at the end of each chapter to bring to life the ideas and principles presented. Rather than using generic case studies, I wrote the ones used in this book so that they would directly reflect chapter content and provide students with representative examples of communication theories and skills—this edition features a new case study on groups and teams for Chapter 10. In addition to their presentation in the book, the case studies are featured on the CourseMate for Communication in Our Lives as short interactive video activities that include questions for discussion and analysis. (See the section on student resources for details about CourseMate.) With the multimedia enactments of the scenarios, instructors and students can analyze not only verbal messages but also nonverbal communication. Appendix A provides a collection of annotated speeches for student analysis. Each chapter concludes with the Communication in Our Lives Online section, which provides both an introduction to the text’s many online resources and the print version of the text’s learning aids—a list of key concepts with corresponding page numbers, the Sharpen Your Skills exercises, and then a series of For Further Reflection and Discussion questions that encourage students to reflect on and discuss the chapter’s material. Each set of these questions includes at least one question that focused on ethics. Finally, as I discussed earlier, at the very end of each chapter in Part 3, Public Communication, I suggest a related Speech Builder Express or Speech Studio activity.

RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS
Katrina Bodey, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and I have written an Instructor’s Resource Manual that describes approaches to teaching the basic course, provides a wealth of class-tested exercises including new teaching resources for the public speaking segment of your course, and provides suggested journal topics and sample test items.

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The PowerLecture CD-ROM contains an electronic version of the Instructor’s Resource Manual, ExamView® Computerized Testing, predesigned Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations, and JoinIn® classroom quizzing. The PowerPoint presentations contain text, images, and videos of the case studies and can be used as is or customized to suit your course needs. The Teaching Assistant’s Guide to the Basic Course by Katherine G. Hendrix is also available to adopters of this text. Designed specifically for the new communication teacher and based on leading teacher-training programs in communication, this guide includes general teaching and course management topics and specific strategies, such as giving performance feedback, managing sensitive class discussions, and conducting mock interviews. Wadsworth Cengage Learning’s extensive video library includes the Student Speeches for Critique and Analysis and Communication Scenarios for Critique and Analysis, which include sample student speeches and the interpersonal and group communication scenarios featured as case studies in this text. These videos provide realistic examples of communication that allow students and teachers to identify specific communication principles, skills, and practices, and to analyze how they work in actual interaction. With the TeamUP Technology Training and Support, you can get trained, get connected, and get the support you need for seamless integration of technology resources into your course. This unparalleled technology service and training program provides robust online resources, peer-to-peer instruction, personalized training, and a customizable program you can count on. Visit http://www.cengage.com/teamup/training/ to sign up for online seminars, first days of class services, technical support, or personalized, face-to-face training. Our online or onsite trainings are frequently led by one of our Lead Teachers, faculty members who are experts in using Wadsworth Cengage Learning technology and can provide best practices and teaching tips. With Cengage’s Flex-Text Customization Program, you can create a text as unique as your course: quickly, simply, and affordably. As part of our flex-text program you can add your personal touch to Communication in Our Lives with a course-specific cover and up to 32 pages of your own content, at no additional cost. I encourage you to contact your local Cengage Learning representative or http://www.cengage.com/highered/ for more information, user names and passwords, examination copies, or a demonstration of these ancillary products. Available to qualified adopters.

RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS
If you want your students to have access to the online resources for Communication in Our Lives, please be sure to order them for your course. These resources can be bundled with every new copy of the text or ordered separately. If you do not order them, your students will not have access to these online resources. Contact your local Wadsworth Cengage Learning sales representative for more details. The student companion workbook, co-authored by Miri Pardo, St. John Fisher College, and me, is available online through CourseMate for

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PREFACE

Communication in Our Lives and provides practical exercises and inventories that guide students in applying concepts and developing skills discussed in the book. It includes chapter outlines, class-tested activities, and self-tests. The Speech Communication CourseMate brings course concepts to life with online interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools like the interactive eBook, Audio Study Tools, flashcards, chapter notepads, Communication Highlight Activities and Sharpen Your Skills Activities that support the printed textbook. Watch comprehension soar as your class works with the printed textbook and the textbook-specific website. The Speech Communication CourseMate for Communication In Our Lives goes beyond the book to deliver what you need! The Communication in Our Lives book companion website features study aids such as chapter outlines, flash cards and other resources for mastering glossary terms, and chapter quizzes that help students check their understanding of key concepts. Also included are student resources such as an interactive version of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and speech preparation worksheets. The Communication in Our Lives interactive video activities feature videos of the sample speeches and interpersonal and group communication scenarios featured in the book’s case studies. This multimedia tool allows students to evaluate the speeches and scenarios, compare their evaluation with mine, and, if requested, submit their response electronically to their instructor. The end-of-chapter activities in Part 3, Public Communication, can be completed with Speech Builder Express 3.0 organization and outlining program. This interactive web-based tool coaches students through the speech organization and outlining process. By completing interactive sessions, students can prepare and save their outlines—including a plan for visual aids and a works cited section—formatted according to the principles presented in the text. Text models reinforce students’ interactive practice. Practice and present with Speech StudioTM. With Speech Studio, you can upload video files of practice speeches or final performances, comment on your peer’s speeches, and review your grades and instructor feedback. Speech Studio’s flexibility lends itself to use in traditional, hybrid, and online courses. It allows instructors to: save valuable in-class time by conducting practice sessions and peer review work virtually; combine the ease of a course management tool with a convenient way to capture, grade, and review videos of live, in-class performances; simulate an in-class experience for online courses. If you order the online resources packaged with the text, your students will have access to InfoTrac College Edition with InfoMarks. This virtual library’s more than 18 million reliable, full-length articles from 5,000 academic and popular periodicals and retrieve results almost instantly. They also have access to InfoMarks—stable URLs that can be linked to articles, journals, and searches to save valuable time when doing research—and to the InfoWrite online resource center, where students can access grammar help, critical-thinking guidelines, guides to writing research papers, and much more. The Audio Study Tools for Communication in Our Lives provides a fun and easy way for students to review chapter content whenever and wherever. For each

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chapter of the text, students will have access to the audio of the case study for that chapter, learning objectives, and a chapter summary. Students can purchase the eAudio for Communication in Our Lives through CengageBrain and download files to their computers, iPods, or other MP3 players. Many Cengage Learning texts are available through CengageBrain, our textbook rental program or also available as an eBook where you can buy by the chapter. Keep CengageBrain in mind for your next Cengage Learning purchase. Visit http://cengagebrain.com for details. A Guide to the Basic Course for ESL Students by Esther Yook of Mary Washington College is an aid for non-native speakers. This guide includes strategies for accent management and overcoming speech apprehension, in addition to helpful web addresses and answers to frequently asked questions. Finally, The Art and Strategy of Service Learning Presentations by Rick Isaacson and Jeff Saperstein is an invaluable resource for students in the basic course that integrates or will soon integrate a service learning component. This handbook provides guidelines for connecting service learning work with classroom concepts and advice for working effectively with agencies and organizations. It also provides model forms and reports and a directory of online resources.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
All books reflect the efforts of many people, and Communication in Our Lives is no exception. A number of people have helped this book evolve from an early vision to the final form you hold in your hands. My greatest debt is to my editor, Monica Eckman, and my development editor, Rebekah Matthews. From start to finish, they have been active partners in the project. This book reflects their many insights and their generous collaboration. Other people at Wadsworth Cengage Learning have been remarkable in their creativity, attention to detail, and unflagging insistence on quality. I am in debt to Elm Street Publishing Services, for thoughtful copyediting. Thanks also to Michael Lepera, senior content project manager; Eric Arima, service and production manager; Brenda Grannan, text designer; Jaime Jankowski, photo researcher; Linda Helcher, art director; Mandy Groszko, image rights acquisition specialist; Katie Huha, senior text rights acquisition specialist; Sarah D’Stair, text permissions researcher; Justin Palmeiro, senior print buyer; Jessica Badiner, media editor; Colin Solan, editorial assistant; and Tami Strang, senior marketing manager. I am also grateful to the people who reviewed previous editions of this book, who have been most generous in offering suggestions for improving the book. Reviewers who worked with me in developing this edition, and to whom I am especially grateful, are Theresa Albury, Miami Dade College; Martha Antolik, Wright State University; Emily Bermes, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne; Christine Hirsch, State University of New York at Oswego; Scott McLean, Arizona Western College; Randall Mueller, Gateway Technical College; Kim Parker, Collin County Community College; John Parrish, Tarrant County College; Trudi Peterson, Monmouth College; Janice Stuckey, Jefferson State Community College; and Esin C. Turk, Mississippi Valley State University.

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I could not have written this book without the undergraduate students in my classes. They allow me to experiment with new approaches to teaching communication and help me refine ideas and activities that appear in this book. Invariably, my students teach me at least as much as I teach them, and for that I am deeply grateful. I also thank my friends who are sources of personal support, insight, challenges, and experience—all of which find their way into what I write. Finally, and always, I acknowledge the support and love of my partner Robbie (Robert) Cox. Like everything else I do, this book has benefited from his presence in my life. Being married to him for 36 years has enriched my appreciation of the possibilities for love, growth, kindness, understanding, and magic between people. In addition to being the great love of my life, Robbie is my most demanding critic and my greatest fan. Both his criticism and support have shaped the final form of this book. Julia T. Wood Chapel Hill, NC

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About the Author

J

ulia T. Wood is the Lineberger Distinguished Professor of Humanities, the Caroline H. and Thomas S. Royster Distinguished Professor of Graduate Education, and a professor of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Since completing her Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State University) at age 24, she has taught classes, conducted research, and written extensively about communication in personal relationships and about gender, communication, and culture. In addition to publishing more than 70 articles and chapters, she has authored or co-authored 17 books and edited or co-edited 9 others. The recipient of 12 awards for outstanding teaching and 14 awards for distinguished scholarship, Professor Wood divides her professional energies among research, writing, and teaching. Professor Wood lives with her partner, Robert (Robbie) Cox, who is also a professor of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina and who is on the Board of Directors of the national Sierra Club. Completing their family is their dog, Cassidy. When not writing and teaching, Professor Wood enjoys traveling, legal consulting, and spending time talking with students, friends, and family.

For Carolyn
For so many reasons

Robbie Cox

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Introduction
FOCUS QUESTIONS
• A friend comes to you with a problem, and you want to show that you support him. • A group you belong to is working on recycling programs for the campus, and you’re frustrated by the group’s inefficiency. You want to make meetings more productive. • At the end of the term, the person you’ve been seeing will graduate and take a job in a city 1,000 miles away, and you wonder how to stay connected across the distance. • You met an interesting person on FaceBook. At first, you enjoyed interacting with him, but lately he’s been sending you IMs incessantly, and you feel he’s intrusive. • The major project in one of your courses is an oral research report, so your grade depends on your public speaking ability. Situations like these illustrate the importance of communication in our lives. Unlike some of the subjects you study, communication is relevant to every aspect xxviii Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

PhotoLibrary

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of your life. We communicate with ourselves when we work through ideas, psych ourselves up to meet challenges, and rehearse ways to approach someone about a difficult issue. We communicate with others to build and sustain personal relationships, to perform our jobs and advance our careers, to connect with friends and meet new people online, and to participate in social and civic activities. Every facet of life involves communication. Although we communicate all the time, we don’t always communicate effectively. People who have inadequate communication knowledge and skills are hampered in their efforts to achieve personal, professional, and social goals. On the other hand, people who communicate well have a keen advantage in accomplishing their objectives. This suggests that learning about communication and learning how to communicate are keys to effective living. Communication in Our Lives is designed to help you understand how communication works in your personal, professional, and social life. To open the book, I’ll introduce myself and describe the basic approach and special features of Communication in Our Lives.

INTRODUCTION TO THE AUTHOR
As an undergraduate, I enrolled in a course much like the one you’re taking now. In that course, I began a love affair with the field of communication that has endured for more than 40 years. Today I am still in love with the field—more than ever, in fact. I see communication as the basis of cultural life and as a primary tool for personal, social, and professional satisfaction and growth. This makes communication one of the most dynamic and important areas of study in higher education. It is a field that is both theoretically rich and pragmatically useful. I know of no discipline that offers more valuable insights, skills, and knowledge than communication. Because communication is central to our lives, I feel fortunate to teach communication courses and conduct research on human interaction. Working with students allows me to help them improve their communication skills and thus their effectiveness in many arenas. Research and writing continually enlarge my understanding of communication and let me share what I learn with others like you. Because you will be reading this book, you should know something about the person who wrote it. I am a middle-aged, middle-class, Caucasian heterosexual woman. For 36 years, I have been married to Robert (Robbie) Cox, who is also a communication scholar. As is true for all of us, who I am affects what I know and how I think, act, interact, and write. My race, gender, social-economic class, and sexual orientation have given me certain kinds of insight and obscured others. As a woman, I understand discrimination based on sex because I’ve experienced it personally. I do not have personal knowledge of racial discrimination because Western culture confers privilege on European Americans. Being middle class has shielded me from personal experience with hunger, poverty, and class bias; and my heterosexuality has spared me from being an object of homophobic prejudice. Who you are also influences your experiences and knowledge and your ways of communicating.

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INTRODUCTION

COMMUNICATI in Your Life

ON

How does your identity enable and limit what you know?

Although identity limits our personal knowledge and experiences, it doesn’t completely prevent insight into people and situations different from our own. From conversations with others and from reading, we can gain some understanding of people and circumstances different from our own. What we learn by studying and interacting with people of diverse cultural heritages expands our appreciation of the richness and complexity of humanity. In addition, learning about and forming relationships with people different from ourselves enlarges our personal repertoire of communication skills and our appreciation of the range of ways to communicate.

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK
To provide a context for your reading, let me share my vision of this book. The aim of Communication in Our Lives is to introduce you to many forms and functions of communication in modern life. The title reflects my belief that communication is an important part of our everyday lives. Each chapter focuses on a specific kind of communication or context of interaction.

Coverage
Because communication is a continuous part of life, we need to understand how it works—or doesn’t—in a range of situations. Therefore, this book covers a broad spectrum of communication encounters, including communication with yourself, interaction with friends and romantic partners, work in groups and teams, interaction in organizations, mass and social media, interaction between people with diverse cultural backgrounds, and public speaking. The breadth of communication issues and skills presented in this book can be adapted to the interests and preferences of individual classes and instructors.

Students
Communication in Our Lives is written for anyone interested in human communication. If you are a communication major, this book and the course it accompanies will provide you with a firm foundation for more advanced study. If you are majoring in another discipline, this book and the course you are taking will give you a sound basic understanding of communication and opportunities to strengthen your skills as a communicator. Learning should be a joy, not a chore. I’ve written this book in an informal, personal style; for instance, I refer to myself as I rather than the author, and I use contractions (can’t and you’re instead of the more formal cannot and you are), as we do in normal conversation. To heighten interest, I punctuate chapters with concrete examples and insights from students at my university and other campuses around the country.

Theory and Practice
Years ago, renowned scholar Kurt Lewin said, “There is nothing so practical as a good theory.” His words remain true today. In this book, I’ve blended theory and practice so that each draws on and enriches the other. Effective practice is

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theoretically informed: It is based on knowledge of how and why the communication process works and what is likely to result from different kinds of communication. At the same time, effective theories have pragmatic value: They help us understand experiences and events in our everyday lives. Each chapter in this book is informed by the theories and research generated by scholars of communication. Thus, the perspectives and skills recommended reflect current knowledge of effective communication practices.

FEATURES
Ten key features accent this book:

Integrated Attention to Cultural Diversity
Diversity is woven into the fabric of this book. The world and the United States have always been culturally diverse. Awareness of diversity is integral to how we communicate and think about communication; it is not an afterthought. I integrate cultural diversity into the text in several ways. First, each chapter includes research on diverse people and highlights our commonalities and differences. For example, Chapter 9, on personal relationships, identifies general differences in women’s and men’s communication and provides clues about how the sexes can translate each other’s language. Other chapters trace the impact of ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, and other facets of identity on self-concept and communication practices. You’ll also notice that the photos I chose for this book include people of different races, ages, religions, and so forth. Likewise, each chapter includes examples drawn from a range of people, walks of life, and orientations, and the case studies feature diverse people. In addition to incorporating diversity into the book as a whole, in Chapter 7 I focus exclusively on communication and culture. There you will learn about cultures and social communities (distinct groups within a single society) and the ways cultural values and norms shape how we view and practice communication. Just as important, Chapter 7 will heighten your awareness of the power of communication to shape and change cultures. In addition, it will enhance your ability to participate effectively in a culturally diverse world. To talk about social groups is to risk stereotyping. For instance, a substantial amount of research shows that women, in general, are more emotionally expressive than men, in general. A good deal of research also reports that blacks, in general, speak with greater animation and force than whites, in general. Yet, not all women are emotionally expressive, not all men are emotionally inexpressive, not all blacks communicate forcefully, and not all whites communicate blandly. Throughout this book, I try to provide you with reliable information on social groups while avoiding stereotyping. I rely on qualifying terms, such as most and in general, to remind us that there are exceptions to generalizations.

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INTRODUCTION

Student Commentaries
Communication in Our Lives also features commentaries from students. In my classes, students teach me and each other by sharing their insights, experiences, and questions. Because I learn so much from students, I’ve included reflections written by students at my university and other campuses. As you read the student commentaries, you’ll probably identify with some, disagree with others, and be puzzled by still others. Whether you agree, disagree, or are perplexed, I think you’ll find that the student commentaries valuably expand the text by adding to the voices and views it represents. In the students’ words, you will find much insight and much to spark thought and discussion in your classes and elsewhere. You may have insights about material covered in this book. If so, I invite you to send me your commentaries so that I might include them in the next edition of this book.

Communication in Your Life
Each chapter includes “Communication in Your Life” features, which invite you to connect what you are reading about to your own experiences as a communicator. When you encounter these features, pause in your reading to apply ideas in the text to your own life. The first “Communication in Your Life” feature appeared on page xxxii of this introduction.

Communication Highlights
“Communication Highlights” call your attention to especially interesting findings from communication research and news reports involving communication in everyday life. The “Communication Highlights” offer springboards for class discussions.

Experiencing Communication in Our Lives
Following each chapter is a case study, “Experiencing Communication in Our Lives.” With each one, I invite you to think about how principles and skills we discuss in that chapter show up in everyday life. I ask a few questions about the case study that allow you to apply what you have learned in a chapter to analyzing real-life communication and developing strategies for improving interaction. You can access videos that depict each case study via the Online Resources for Communication in Our Lives.

Beyond the Classroom
Following chapters in Parts I and II is a “Beyond the Classroom” feature. It asks you to take the material in the chapter and extend it in three ways: asking how it applies to the workplace, how it involves ethical issues and choices, and how it applies to civic and social life. By thinking through these three issues for each chapter, you will actively engage the material and understand it more deeply.

Sharpen Your Skill
At the end of each chapter you will find two “Sharpen Your Skill” exercises. These bring to life the concepts we discuss by showing you how material in the text pertains to your daily life. They invite you to apply communication

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principles and skills as you interact with others. Some of the “Sharpen Your Skill” features suggest ways to practice particular communication skills. Others encourage you to notice how a specific communication principle or theory shows up in your interactions. If you do the “Sharpen Your Skill” exercises, you will increase your insight into communication in general and your own communication in particular.

Critical Thinking
Communication in Our Lives strongly emphasizes critical thinking. Competent communication demands critical thinking: distinguishing logical arguments from illogical ones, drawing sound conclusions from evidence, and applying concepts from one context to a different context. Each chapter calls attention to critical thinking by pointing out specific topics and issues that require critical thought.

Ethics
Because ethical issues are entwined with all forms of communication, I’ve integrated ethics into all chapters. As you read the chapter, you’ll notice that I point out particular ethical questions and considerations. Also, I’ve included one question focused on ethics at the end of each chapter and an ethical extension is part of each Beyond the Classroom feature.

Research in Our Lives
A final feature, “Research in Action,” appears in selected chapters. This feature is an attempt to answer a question that students often raise: How does research affect the “real world?” To show you that research conducted by communication scholars has important impact on real life I offer in-depth descriptions of particular research studies that are relevant to issues in today’s world and your own life. I hope you enjoy reading this book as much as I’ve enjoyed writing it. I also hope that this book and the class it accompanies will help you develop the skills needed for communication in your life. If so, then both of us will have spent our time well.

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Closing: Pulling Ideas Together s I reflect on all that we’ve explored in this book, I find a central theme unifies the many topics we’ve discussed. The theme is that communication is an intricate tapestry woven from the threads of self, others, perceptions, relationships, contexts, culture, climate, listening, and verbal and nonverbal messages. Each thread has its own distinct character, and yet each thread is also woven into the complex, ever-changing tapestry of human communication. We’ve taken time to discuss each thread in its own right and then explored how it blends with other threads in particular communication situations. Sometimes a particular thread stands out boldly, as individual threads sometimes do in woven fabric. For instance, the thread of delivery is quite prominent in public speaking, and the thread of listening is less visible. Yet, as we learned, to be effective, speakers must understand and adapt to their listeners because listeners decide how credible a speaker is and how effective public communication can be. Similarly, in personal relationships the thread of climate stands out as
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particularly important. Yet, the climate we create through our communication is also important in organizational communication and small group work. Thus, even when threads of communication are restrained in particular interactions, they are present and important. At other times, an individual thread blends so completely with other threads that we don’t perceive it as separate from the overall pattern of the tapestry. Organization, for example, is present in interaction between friends as they decide what to talk about and how to sequence the topics. Yet in friends’ conversation, the thread of organization is muted, and other threads, such as sensitive listening, stand out. Similarly, the thread of delivery is subdued in casual conversations, yet our communication with friends is affected by how we articulate our ideas—by vocal force, volume, pace, and other aspects of delivery. The many threads that make up the tapestry of communication vary in intensity and prominence from one point in the tapestry to another, yet all are part of the whole. To conclude our study of the communication tapestry, let’s review what we’ve discussed and what it means for us. The overall goal of this book is to increase your insight into the ways in which communication is an integral part of our everyday lives. We launched our journey in Chapter 1, which described the range of human communication and the modern academic field that bears its name. Chapter 2 allowed us to delve into the complicated process of perception so that we could understand how perception, thought, and communication interact. We learned that we seldom, if ever, perceive the full, raw reality around us. Instead, we perceive selectively, noticing only some things and overlooking others. The labels we use to name, classify, and evaluate our perceptions reverberate in our consciousness to shape what we perceive and what it means to us. In fact, most of the time, how we think, feel, and act are based less on objective realities in the external world than on how we label our selective perceptions of it. This is normal, yet it can cause us trouble if we forget that we are responding to our labels, not to the world itself. In Chapter 3 we explored the profound ways in which communication shapes personal identity and, in turn, the ways in which our identities shape how we communicate. Chapters 4 through 6 focused on primary forms of communication: listening, verbal communication, and nonverbal behavior. As we considered each topic, we examined ways to improve our personal effectiveness as communicators. Particularly important to our understanding of these topics is the realization that people differ in their styles of listening and their verbal and nonverbal communication. Awareness of these differences helps us understand others on their terms. The principles and skills we discussed in these chapters should serve you well throughout your life as you seek to interact effectively and sensitively with others in personal, social, and professional contexts. The elaborate and fascinating relationships between culture and communication were the focus of Chapter 7. There, we unmasked the subtle ways in which communication creates and sustains the beliefs, values, and practices that define cultures and social communities. Equally important, we saw that cultures shape the forms and content of communication by telling us what is and is not

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important and what are appropriate and inappropriate ways of interacting with others. Understanding differences between cultures and social communities allows us to appreciate the distinct character of each one and to enlarge our own repertoire of communication skills. The second part of the book extended the first seven chapters by weaving basic communication concepts and skills into interpersonal, group, organizational, and mass communication. In Chapters 8 and 9, we explored interpersonal communication in general and as it occurs in friendships and romantic relationships. The intimate bonds that grace our lives are communicative achievements because we create and sustain them largely through interaction and the meanings we assign to it. Communication is the lifeblood of intimacy. In dramatic forms, such as declarations of love and disclosure of secrets, and in everyday small talk, it is communication that continually breathes life and meaning into our relationships with others. We moved to quite a different context in Chapters 10 and 11, which examined communication in small groups. There, we learned what types of communication facilitate and hinder effective group discussion and what communication responsibilities accompany effective membership and leadership. We also studied the standard agenda for problem solving, which gives participants an effective method of organizing group discussion. Chapter 12 focused on organizational communication, with particular emphasis on how interaction among members of an organization creates an overall culture for the organization. In Chapter 13, we explored mass communication and social media, which permeate our lives. Here we focused on ways to develop critical skills that enhance your media literacy. Part III of this book concentrated on public speaking. From the early stages of planning presentations, to researching and developing evidence, and finally to

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organizing, outlining, and practicing, public speaking involves skills that most of us already have and use in other communication situations. As is true for all interactions, good public speaking centers on others; the values, interests, knowledge, and beliefs of listeners guide what speakers can and cannot wisely say and how they develop and present their ideas. Effective public speaking, like effective everyday conversation, is a genuine interaction between people in which the views and values of all participants should be taken into account. Whether we are talking to a friend, a co-worker on a task team, or an audience of 500, we rely on common basic ethical principles and communication skills. Among the most important is sensitivity to others and their perspectives. Another principle important in all communication situations is sensitive listening. When we listen mindfully to others, we gain insight into them and their perspectives so that we may communicate effectively with them. Clarity and responsibility are earmarks of effective verbal and nonverbal communication. To be clear in our messages and to understand those of others, we must recognize the ambiguity and abstractness of communication and must find ways to check with others to make sure we share meanings. Responsibility involves following ethical principles in our communication. In addition to respecting others and their positions, we should be careful to be accurate in making claims, whether in public speech or private conversation. Any evidence we use to support our ideas should be sound, and anything we say should be respectful of others and their differences. Whether we’re talking to one person in an intimate setting or to a thousand in a large auditorium, good communication is clear, responsible, and sensitive. Throughout Communication in Our Lives, we’ve seen that people differ in their communication and in the meanings they attach to words and actions. The cornucopia of cultures and social communities in our world gives rise to a fascinating range of communication styles. No single way of communicating is inherently superior to any other; the differences result from diverse cultural heritages and practices. Learning not to impose our own communication patterns and our culture’s judgments on others and being open to styles of interaction that differ from our own allow us to enlarge and enrich who we are individually and collectively. Curiosity, appreciation, and openness to unfamiliar ways of communicating are the lifeblood of a healthy pluralistic society in which each of us preserves our own distinct identity while remaining part of and engaged with a larger whole. If you have learned these principles and skills of human communication, then you have the foundation of effectiveness in personal, professional, and social settings. If you are committed to practicing and continually enlarging the principles and skills introduced in this book, then you can look forward to a life of personal growth, meaningful relationships, professional success, and social impact. What is more, you are on the threshold of a life filled with joy. I wish you all of that.

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Appendix A Annotated Sample Speeches

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Begins by showing her own challenges and weakness, which creates a connection with the audience. Honors her audience and the institution.

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Uses humor to identify with another part of the audience (i.e. guests of the graduates) Acknowledges another part of the audience (i.e. faculty and staff). Distinguishes her speech from common commencement speeches. Gets the audience’s attention by saying something startling and unexpected in the context (i.e. that the future is not certain or necessarily positive).

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Builds anticipation for the thesis as she continues to point out how her speech is different from other commencement speeches. Uses rich language to make her speech interesting and captivating.

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Again contrasts her speech with other commencement speeches. Begins to directly address her thesis: Individual action is necessarily and able to make change in the world. Encourages her audience to indirect action (i.e. to think for themselves).

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Uses specific cultural examples of the need for change.

Encourages her audience towards indirect action (i.e. to continue to learn and critique the world).

Uses a question to suggest that she understands her audience.

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Says something unexpected to get her audience’s attention.

Acknowledges her audience’s power and ability to accept her challenge.

Uses language that focuses on the individual to encourage her audience.

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Uses a metaphor (i.e. a novel).

Concludes with an encouraging and empowering phrase (appropriate for this type of speech). Thanks her audience.

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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. REMEMBRANCE SPEECH: TRANSCRIPT OF 2010 SPEECH
Barack Obama
Abstract:
President Obama honors Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life and activism while also encouraging Americans that his work is not finished and that individual people must work hard and persevere to end discrimination of all kinds and make our country and world more stable and safe. Address by BARACK OBAMA, 44th President of the United States, during his presidency at the Vermont Avenue Baptist Church in Washington, D.C., delivered on January 17, 2010. Barack Obama, Martin Luther King, Jr. Remembrance Speech, delivered 17 January 2010, Vermont Avenue Baptist Church, Washington, DC.

Full Text:

Good morning. Praise be to God. Let me begin by thanking the entire Vermont Avenue Baptist Church family for welcoming our family here today. It feels like a family. Thank you for making us feel that way. To Pastor Wheeler, first lady Wheeler, thank you so much for welcoming us here today. Congratulations on Jordan Denice—aka Cornelia.

Acknowledges and thanks audience and those who invited him.

Michelle and I have been blessed with a new nephew this year as well—Austin Uses humor to make Lucas Robinson. So maybe at the appropriate time we can make introductions. a connection. Now, if Jordan’s father is like me, then that will be in about 30 years. That is a great blessing. Michelle and Malia and Sasha and I are thrilled to be here today. And I know that sometimes you have to go through a little fuss to have me as a guest speaker. So let me apologize in advance for all the fuss. We gather here, on a Sabbath, during a time of profound difficulty for our nation and for our world. In such a time, it soothes the soul to seek out the Divine in a spirit of prayer; to seek solace among a community of believers. But we are not here just to ask the Lord for His blessing. We aren’t here just to interpret His Scripture. We’re also here to call on the memory of one of His noble servants, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Now, it’s fitting that we do so here, within the four walls of Vermont Avenue Baptist Church—here, in a church that rose like the phoenix from the ashes of the civil war; here in a church formed by freed slaves, whose founding pastor had worn the union blue; here in a church from whose pews congregants set out for marches and from whom choir anthems of freedom were heard; from whose sanctuary King himself would sermonize from time to time.
Identifies the purpose of the speech: to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Shows respect by honoring the history of the church at which he is speaking.

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One of those times was Thursday, December 6, 1956. Pastor, you said you were a little older than me, so were you around at that point? You were three years old—okay. I wasn’t born yet.
Provides background information to inform the audience and build credibility.

On Thursday, December 6, 1956. And before Dr. King had pointed us to the mountaintop, before he told us about his dream in front of the Lincoln Memorial, King came here, as a 27-year-old preacher, to speak on what he called “The Challenge of a New Age.” “The Challenge of a New Age.” It was a period of triumph, but also uncertainty, for Dr. King and his followers—because just weeks earlier, the Supreme Court had ordered the desegregation of Montgomery’s buses, a hard-wrought, hard-fought victory that would put an end to the 381-day historic boycott down in Montgomery, Alabama. And yet, as Dr. King rose to take that pulpit, the future still seemed daunting. It wasn’t clear what would come next for the movement that Dr. King led. It wasn’t clear how we were going to reach the Promised Land. Because segregation was still rife; lynchings still a fact. Yes, the Supreme Court had ruled not only on the Montgomery buses, but also on Brown v. Board of Education. And yet that ruling was defied throughout the South—by schools and by states; they ignored it with impunity. And here in the nation’s capital, the federal government had yet to fully align itself with the laws on its books and the ideals of its founding. So it’s not hard for us, then, to imagine that moment. We can imagine folks coming to this church, happy about the boycott being over. We can also imagine them, though, coming here concerned about their future, sometimes secondguessing strategy, maybe fighting off some creeping doubts, perhaps despairing about whether the movement in which they had placed so many of their hopes—a movement in which they believed so deeply—could actually deliver on its promise. So here we are, more than half a century later, once again facing the challenges of a new age. Here we are, once more marching toward an unknown future, what I call the Joshua generation to their Moses generation—the great inheritors of progress paid for with sweat and blood, and sometimes life itself. We’ve inherited the progress of unjust laws that are now overturned. We take for granted the progress of a ballot being available to anybody who wants to take the time to actually vote. We enjoy the fruits of prejudice and bigotry being lifted—slowly, sometimes in fits and starts, but irrevocably—from human hearts. It’s that progress that made it possible for me to be here today; for the good people of this country to elect an African American the 44th President of the United States of America.

Uses detailed imagery to help the audience imagine being at the church at a particular time.

Continued use of imagery.

Uses a transition to make a connection between the past and present.

Addresses a popular counter-argument.

Reverend Wheeler mentioned the inauguration, last year’s election. You know, on the heels of that victory over a year ago, there were some who suggested that somehow we had entered into a post-racial America, all those problems would be solved. There were those who argued that because I had spoke of a need for unity in this country that our nation was somehow

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entering into a period of post-partisanship. That didn’t work out so well. There was a hope shared by many that life would be better from the moment that I swore that oath. Of course, as we meet here today, one year later, we know the promise of that Thesis: the work Dr. moment has not yet been fully fulfilled. Because of an era of greed and irrespon- King began is not sibility that sowed the seeds of its own demise, because of persistent economic finished. troubles unaddressed through the generations, because of a banking crisis that brought the financial system to the brink of catastrophe, we are being tested—in our own lives and as a nation—as few have been tested before. Unemployment is at its highest level in more than a quarter of a century. Uses general Nowhere is it higher than the African American community. Poverty is on the statistical information rise. Home ownership is slipping. Beyond our shores, our sons and daughters are to support the thesis. fighting two wars. Closer to home, our Haitian brothers and sisters are in desperate need. Bruised, battered, many people are legitimately feeling doubt, even despair, about the future. Like those who came to this church on that Thursday in 1956, folks are wondering, where do we go from here? I understand those feelings. I understand the frustration and sometimes anger that so many folks feel as they struggle to stay afloat. I get letters from folks around the country every day; I read 10 a night out of the 40,000 that we receive. And there are stories of hardship and desperation, in some cases, pleading for help: I need a job. I’m about to lose my home. I don’t have health care—it’s about to cause my family to be bankrupt. Sometimes you get letters from children: My mama or my daddy have lost their jobs, is there something you can do to help? Ten letters like that a day we read.
Identifies with audience to create a connection. Uses and emotional appeal.

So, yes, we’re passing through a hard winter. It’s the hardest in some time. But Uses a metaphor to let’s always remember that, as a people, the American people, we’ve weathered advance his point. some hard winters before. This country was founded during some harsh winters. The fishermen, the laborers, the craftsmen who made camp at Valley Forge— they weathered a hard winter. The slaves and the freedmen who rode an underground railroad, seeking the light of justice under the cover of night—they weathered a hard winter. The seamstress whose feet were tired, the pastor whose (metaphor continues) voice echoes through the ages—they weathered some hard winters. It was for them, as it is for us, difficult, in the dead of winter, to sometimes see spring coming. They, too, sometimes felt their hopes deflate. And yet, each season, the frost melts, the cold recedes, the sun reappears. So it was for earlier generations and so it will be for us. What we need to do is to just ask what lessons we can learn from those earlier generations about how they sustained themselves during those hard winters, how they persevered and prevailed. Let us in this Joshua generation learn how that Moses generation overcame.
Uses more concrete language to suggest a solution to the problem addressed in the thesis.

Let me offer a few thoughts on this. First and foremost, they did so by remaining Continues to suggest firm in their resolve. Despite being threatened by sniper fire or planted bombs, specific actions for the by shoving and punching and spitting and angry stares, they adhered to that identified problem.

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sweet spirit of resistance, the principles of nonviolence that had accounted for their success.
Continues to suggest specific actions for the identified problem. Urges people to take action.

Second, they understood that as much as our government and our political parties had betrayed them in the past—as much as our nation itself had betrayed its own ideals—government, if aligned with the interests of its people, can be—and must be—a force for good. So they stayed on the Justice Department. They went into the courts. They pressured Congress, they pressured their President. They didn’t give up on this country. They didn’t give up on government. They didn’t somehow say government was the problem; they said, we’re going to change government, we’re going to make it better. Imperfect as it was, they continued to believe in the promise of democracy; in America’s constant ability to remake itself, to perfect this union. Third, our predecessors were never so consumed with theoretical debates that they couldn’t see progress when it came. Sometimes I get a little frustrated when folks just don’t want to see that even if we don’t get everything, we’re getting something. King understood that the desegregation of the Armed Forces didn’t end the civil rights movement, because black and white soldiers still couldn’t sit together at the same lunch counter when they came home. But he still insisted on the rightness of desegregating the Armed Forces. That was a good first step— even as he called for more. He didn’t suggest that somehow by the signing of the Civil Rights that somehow all discrimination would end. But he also didn’t think that we shouldn’t sign the Civil Rights Act because it hasn’t solved every problem. Let’s take a victory, he said, and then keep on marching. Forward steps, large and small, were recognized for what they were—which was progress. Fourth, at the core of King’s success was an appeal to conscience that touched hearts and opened minds, a commitment to universal ideals—of freedom, of justice, of equality—that spoke to all people, not just some people. For King understood that without broad support, any movement for civil rights could not be sustained. That’s why he marched with the white auto worker in Detroit. That’s why he linked arm with the Mexican farm worker in California, and united people of all colors in the noble quest for freedom. Of course, King overcame in other ways as well. He remained strategically focused on gaining ground—his eyes on the prize constantly—understanding that change would not be easy, understand that change wouldn’t come overnight, understanding that there would be setbacks and false starts along the way, but understanding, as he said in 1956, that “we can walk and never get weary, because we know there is a great camp meeting in the promised land of freedom and justice.” And it’s because the Moses generation overcame that the trials we face today are very different from the ones that tested us in previous generations. Even after the worst recession in generations, life in America is not even close to being as brutal as it was back then for so many. That’s the legacy of Dr. King and his movement. That’s our inheritance. Having said that, let there be no doubt the challenges of our new age are serious in their own right, and we must face them as squarely as they faced the challenges they saw.

Uses specific historical examples to encourage the audience towards action in the present.

Continues to suggest specific actions for the identified problem.

Effective use of a quotation. Summarizes the previous main points: to accomplish the task, people must persevere.

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APPENDIX A

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Uses general examples to encourage and bring a more positive tone. Uses repetition of a phrase (i.e. “I know it’s been a hard road we’ve traveled ...”) to emphasize and engage. Uses repetition again (e.g. “This will be a victory ...”).

I know it’s been a hard road we’ve traveled this year to rescue the economy, but the economy is growing again. The job losses have finally slowed, and around the country, there’s signs that businesses and families are beginning to rebound. We are making progress. I know it’s been a hard road that we’ve traveled to reach this point on health reform. I promise you I know. But under the legislation I will sign into law, insurance companies won’t be able to drop you when you get sick, and more than 30 million people—our fellow Americans will finally have insurance. More than 30 million men and women and children, mothers and fathers, won’t be worried about what might happen to them if they get sick. This will be a victory not for Democrats; this will be a victory for dignity and decency, for our common humanity. This will be a victory for the United States of America. Let’s work to change the political system, as imperfect as it is. I know people can feel down about the way things are going sometimes here in Washington. I know it’s tempting to give up on the political process. But we’ve put in place tougher rules on lobbying and ethics and transparency—tougher rules than any administration in history. It’s not enough, but it’s progress. Progress is possible. Don’t give up on voting. Don’t give up on advocacy. Don’t give up on activism. There are too many needs to be met, too much work to be done. Like Dr. King said, “We must accept finite disappointment but never lose infinite hope.” Let us broaden our coalition, building a confederation not of liberals or conservatives, not of red states or blue states, but of all Americans who are hurting today, and searching for a better tomorrow. The urgency of the hour demands that we make common cause with all of America’s workers—white, black, brown—all of whom are being hammered by this recession, all of whom are yearning for that spring to come. It demands that we reach out to those who’ve been left out in the cold even when the economy is good, even when we’re not in recession—the youth in the inner cities, the youth here in Washington, D.C., people in rural communities who haven’t seen prosperity reach them for a very long time. It demands that we fight discrimination, whatever form it may come. That means we fight discrimination against gays and lesbians, and we make common cause to reform our immigration system. And finally, we have to recognize, as Dr. King did, that progress can’t just come from without—it also has to come from within. And over the past year, for example, we’ve made meaningful improvements in the field of education. I’ve got a terrific Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan. He’s been working hard with states and working hard with the D.C. school district, and we’ve insisted on reform, and we’ve insisted on accountability. We we’re putting in more money and we’ve provided more Pell Grants and more tuition tax credits and simpler financial aid forms. We’ve done all that, but parents still need to parent. Kids still need to own up to their responsibilities. We still have to set high expectations for our young people. Folks can’t simply look to government for all the answers without also looking inside themselves, inside their own homes, for some of the answers.

Uses repetition again (“Don’t give up on ...”) Uses an effective quotation that supports his point.

Briefly returns to the metaphor (of winter and spring) used before.

Builds credibility by citing his own work towards the goals that he encourages his audience to work towards.

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Uses vivid, emotional language (i.e. “false prophets,” Biblical language for those who pretend to be messengers of God) that will appeal to his audience (i.e. church members).

Progress will only come if we’re willing to promote that ethic of hard work, a sense of responsibility, in our own lives. I’m not talking, by the way, just to the African American community. Sometimes when I say these things people assume, well, he’s just talking to black people about working hard. No, no, no, no. I’m talking to the American community. Because somewhere along the way, we, as a nation, began to lose touch with some of our core values. You know what I’m talking about. We became enraptured with the false prophets who prophesized an easy path to success, paved with credit cards and home equity loans and get-rich-quick schemes, and the most important thing was to be a celebrity; it doesn’t matter what you do, as long as you get on TV. That’s everybody. We forgot what made the bus boycott a success; what made the civil rights movement a success; what made the United States of America a success—that, in this country, there’s no substitute for hard work, no substitute for a job well done, no substitute for being responsible stewards of God’s blessings. What we’re called to do, then, is rebuild America from its foundation on up. To reinvest in the essentials that we’ve neglected for too long—like health care, like education, like a better energy policy, like basic infrastructure, like scientific research. Our generation is called to buckle down and get back to basics. We must do so not only for ourselves, but also for our children, and their children. For Jordan and for Austin. That’s a sacrifice that falls on us to make. It’s a much smaller sacrifice than the Moses generation had to make, but it’s still a sacrifice. Yes, it’s hard to transition to a clean energy economy. Sometimes it may be inconvenient, but it’s a sacrifice that we have to make. It’s hard to be fiscally responsible when we have all these human needs, and we’re inheriting enormous deficits and debt, but that’s a sacrifice that we’re going to have to make. You know, it’s easy, after a hard day’s work, to just put your kid in front of the TV set—you’re tired, don’t want to fuss with them—instead of reading to them, but that’s a sacrifice we must joyfully accept.

Personalizes his message by referring to specific individuals (i.e. his nephew and the pastor’s daughter, who were mentioned at the start of the speech). Connects with audience by acknowledging their circumstances. Continues to connect with the audience by acknowledging their challenges.

Sometimes it’s hard to be a good father and good mother. Sometimes it’s hard to be a good neighbor, or a good citizen, to give up time in service of others, to give something of ourselves to a cause that’s greater than ourselves—as Michelle and Suggests a way (i.e. faith) to meet the I are urging folks to do tomorrow to honor and celebrate Dr. King. But these are sacrifices that we are called to make. These are sacrifices that our faith calls us to difficult challenge he make. Our faith in the future. Our faith in America. Our faith in God. has asked of them And on his sermon all those years ago, Dr. King quoted a poet’s verse: Truth forever on the scaffold Wrong forever on the throne... And behind the dim unknown stands God Within the shadows keeping watch above his own. Even as Dr. King stood in this church, a victory in the past and uncertainty in the future, he trusted God. He trusted that God would make a way. A way for

Uses a quotation.

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prayers to be answered. A way for our union to be perfected. A way for the arc of the moral universe, no matter how long, to slowly bend towards truth and bend towards freedom, to bend towards justice. He had faith that God would make a way out of no way. You know, folks ask me sometimes why I look so calm. They say, all this stuff coming at you, how come you just seem calm? And I have a confession to make here. There are times where I’m not so calm. Reggie Love knows. My wife knows. There are times when progress seems too slow. There are times when the words that are spoken about me hurt. There are times when the barbs sting. There are times when it feels like all these efforts are for naught, and change is so painfully slow in coming, and I have to confront my own doubts. But let me tell you—during those times it’s faith that keeps me calm. It’s faith that gives me peace. The same faith that leads a single mother to work two jobs to put a roof over her head when she has doubts. The same faith that keeps an unemployed father to keep on submitting job applications even after he’s been rejected a hundred times. The same faith that says to a teacher even if the first nine children she’s teaching she can’t reach, that that 10th one she’s going to be able to reach. The same faith that breaks the silence of an earthquake’s wake with the sound of prayers and hymns sung by a Haitian community. A faith in things not seen, in better days ahead, in Him who holds the future in the hollow of His hand. A faith that lets us mount up on wings like eagles; lets us run and not be weary; lets us walk and not faint. So let us hold fast to that faith, as Joshua held fast to the faith of his fathers, and together, we shall overcome the challenges of a new age. Together, we shall seize Makes a Biblical the promise of this moment. Together, we shall make a way through winter, and reference to further emphasize the point we’re going to welcome the spring. Through God all things are possible.
(i.e. faith).

Shares personal information and makes himself vulnerable to relate to the audience.

May the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King continue to inspire us and ennoble our world and all who inhabit it. And may God bless the United States of America. Thank you very much, everybody. God bless you.
Thanks his audience.

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“The Dun Dun Drum”
Joshua Valentine
Josh gave this speech in an introductory public speaking class. The assignment was to give a four- to six-minute speech with visual aids. Students were also asked to create a preparation outline that indicated where in the speech the visual aids were to be displayed, that cited the sources of the visual aids, and that included a Works Cited section. As you watch Josh’s speech, consider the effectiveness of his use of photographs and audio to illustrate and clarify points.

Josh, a drummer, takes his topic from his interest in music. He catches his audience’s attention by asking them to imagine using a musical instrument to communicate language, something people in the United States don’t typically do. In the second main point of his introduction, he introduces his topic. He adapts his topic to his audience by using a familiar source, Webster’s Dictionary, to define what language is and then explain that although Americans don’t use music as language, other cultures do. He establishes his credibility by indicating that he is a musician and that he learned about his topic in a percussion workshop. In the last point of his introduction, Josh previews the two main points of his speech. Because his audience is unfamiliar with his topic, Josh uses his first main point to explain what the dun dun drum is, where it originated, and what it is used for.

Imagine that your friend comes up to you and asks you what you did this weekend, and instead of using words, your friend simply beats a drum. You’ve probably never had this type of encounter. However, there are many cultures in the world where music is used for customs that we’re really not accustomed to. Webster’s Dictionary defines language as “any system of symbols, sounds, or gestures used for the purpose of communication.” Here in America we don’t really have instrumental sounds that represent English words, but there are many cultures around the world where sounds do have meaning. I’ve been playing percussion since junior high. I first learned about the dun dun drum while attending a percussion workshop two years ago. So, today I’ll explain the origins of the dun dun drum, its uses as a linguistic tool, and its uses as a musical instrument. The dun dun drum, also known as the Nigerian talking drum, actually does talk in the Yoruba language. [Display photograph of dun dun drum downloaded and used with permission from http://media.dickinson. edu/gallery/Sect5.html.] The dun dun originated in the Oyo Empire of Yoruba-land during the fifteenth century A.D. for the purposes of communication, mainly for spiritual communication. As such, the Yoruba language is easily adaptable to the dun dun drum. Now, the Yoruba language is a tonal language, which basically means it uses three basic tones, or pitches, with glides between them—this is an essential part of how words are pronounced. Listen to this sound clip and see if you can examine the three different glides. [Play a sound clip downloaded for one-time use from the Internet.] I’ll play that again for you. If you have a sharp ear, you may also be able to pick out three glides that are essential to the pronunciation of the Yoruba language. Melody is the basis for the Yoruba language, since the same word pronounced with a different melody might mean something completely different.

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The Yoruba drum, the dun dun, functions mainly by using and changing the tension between two different skin heads. [Point out the straps on the PowerPoint slide.] By doing such, they can actually have a lot of control about how the dun dun operates and its use in communication. And, the dun dun was originally created for the purpose of communication. The Yoruba are people of southwestern Nigeria who have used the dun dun drum for communication throughout their history. [Show photo of carved drum downloaded from www.hamillgallery.com...YorubaDrum01. html.] It was originally, of course, created first for spiritual communication. Since its inception, the drum has mainly been used to create religious songs and hymns of praise, and these songs are still recited today among the modern Yoruba people. Here’s an example of a very intense spiritual worship song done on talking drums. [Play example downloaded for one-time use from http://www. world-beats.com/instruments/dundun.htm.] The Yoruba talking drum is also used heavily for day-to-day social communication. According to worldbeats.com, a master drummer can maintain a regular monologue while cracking jokes, saying hi to different people, even telling stories on the dun dun drum. Additionally, many dun dun drummers are known to say the names of friends and family on the dun dun drums as a sign of greeting and as a form of respect. So it’s used very heavily in those senses, and it’s very important—it’s a huge part of the Yoruba culture. And, additionally, the most obvious use of the dun dun drum, and its secondary use, really, is as a musical instrument. Now, we’ve already gone over the fact that the dun dun drum originally was used for spiritual communication. But since corporate worship in Yoruba is so prolific, people come together, and making music on the dun dun was born. That’s essentially an example of how it’s evolved. In fact, today, modern Yoruba people still use the dun dun for religious songs, although mainly for their musical purposes. Everyday speech on the Yoruba drum becomes rhythmic when it’s used. For example, the word kabo, which means “welcome” in the Yoruba language, is only a two-syllable word, so it’s really not that exotic—it’s not that interesting; it’s not that musical. According to Drum Talk Limited, a more common phrase that someone might speak on the Yoruba talking drum is, “Welcome, we are happy that you arrived safely,” because it’s more musical. It has more of that flair to it. And even when a word spoken, or a phrase spoken, with regular words wouldn’t be rhythmic, it is when the Yoruba people use the talking drum, because melody, as I said, is the basis of the talking drum.

By allowing his audience to see and hear a dun dun drum, Josh helps his audience better understand his topic. In particular, the audio clips let the audience hear what is complicated to explain in words alone. He kept a careful record of where he obtained his visual and audio aids so he could cite his sources accurately in his speech. Note that he downloaded copyrighted material according to the terms of use posted by the websites he accessed—he requested permission or agreed to use the material only for his speech in class. The visual aid Josh used for subpoint D of his first main point clarifies how the drum works. In his second main point, Josh explains how the drum is used to communicate. He continues to use his visual and audio aids to enhance and clarify the information in his speech. In subpoint B, he provides details that his audience can relate to: “saying hi,” “cracking jokes,” “telling stories.” Notice that he cites his sources simply but effectively. Here Josh uses a specific example to explain how the Yoruba “talk” with the dun dun drum.

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Here he adapts to his audience by explaining how the dun dun drum is used in a way that is familiar to people in the United States, as a musical instrument. Josh ends the body of his speech with an audio clip that reinforces his final subsubpoint, that the dun dun drum is now an international instrument. Josh begins his conclusion by reinforcing that the drum is used for both language and music. He then summarizes his main points. He ends his speech with an intriguing statement that encourages his audience to remember what he’s told them about a particular African drum.

The use of the Nigerian talking drum has spread far beyond Nigeria. In fact, next to the djembe drum, the dun dun is the most well-known and recognizable African drum used in America today. It’s also very versatile. According to Francis Awe, a renowned African American musician, the dun dun drum fares well in jazz, blues, R&B, rock and roll, reggae, classical, even choral music. Here’s one particular clip from renowned African American musician Francis Awe. [Play sample clip downloaded from http://www.nitade.com/html/cd1.html.] So, in conclusion, whether the dun dun drum is used in language or in song, it always has a very unusual and beautiful sound. Today I’ve talked about the origins of the dun dun drum. I’ve also talked about its linguistic uses, and its uses as a musical instrument. So next time you hear music as simple as someone beating a drum, you might think to yourself that maybe that drummer, maybe that musician, is communicating much more than you first think.

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Appendix B Interviewing
You’ve probably participated in a number of interviews during your life. Perhaps you were interviewed by committees that appoint students to leadership positions at your school or award scholarships to students. You may have had interviews with members of groups you sought to join. Probably you have interviewed for part-time or full-time jobs. You’ve probably been on the other side of the interviewing process, too; you may have interviewed people who were applying to join organizations to which you belong. You may have interviewed experts to gain information about a topic on which you were writing a paper or preparing a speech. Because interviews are common, learning to communicate effectively in interviews is important to your personal and professional success. An interview is a communication transaction that emphasizes questions and answers. In this appendix, we will discuss interviewing and identify ways you can enhance your effectiveness as both interviewer and interviewee. First, we will identify a range of purposes or types of interviews. Second, we will discuss the typical structure and style of interviews. Third, we will describe different kinds of questions interviewers use. Then, we will identify challenges that are part of interviewing. We will focus on hiring interviews because those are particularly important to many college students. Our discussion will provide tips for preparing to interview and for dealing with inappropriate or illegal questions.

UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION IN INTERVIEWS
Types and Purposes of Interviews
Communication scholars have identified distinct types of interviews. Each interview is defined by its primary purpose, although many interviews have multiple and sometimes conflicting purposes. For example, an interviewer may want to gain objective information for a speech yet may be biased about the topic that he or she wants to support. We’ll discuss 11 types of interviews.
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Information-Giving Interviews In the first type of interview, the interviewer

provides information to the interviewee. Doctors engage in information-giving interviews when they explain to patients how to prepare for procedures, take medicines, follow exercise programs, and observe symptoms. Academic advisers give students information about curricular requirements and administrative processes. Team leaders often inform new members of a work unit about expectations and operating procedures.
Information-Getting Interviews In this type of interview, the interviewer asks

questions to learn about the interviewee’s opinions, knowledge, attitudes, experience, and so forth. Public opinion polls, census taking, and research surveys are common examples of information-getting interviews. Physicians also use these to gain insight into patients’ medical histories and current conditions (Farnill, Hayes, & Todisco, 1997). Journalists devote a great deal of time to informationgetting interviews to obtain background material for stories they are writing and to learn about experts’ opinions on newsworthy topics.
Persuasive Interviews Interviews designed to influence attitudes or actions are persuasive interviews. We’re all familiar with the sales interview, in which a salesperson attempts to persuade a customer to buy a product or service. Persuasive interviews can sell more than products. They may also promote people (political candidates) and ideas (persuading an administrator to act on your team’s report, convincing a company to implement environmental regulations). Problem-Solving Interviews When people need to address a dilemma, they

may engage in problem-solving interviews. Perhaps you have met with a professor to discuss difficulties in a course. The two of you may have collaborated to identify ways to improve your note taking, study habits, and writing. Supervisors sometimes hold problem-solving interviews with employees to discover and resolve impediments to maximally effective work.
Counseling Interviews Like problem-solving interviews, counseling interviews focus on a problem. In counseling interviews, however, the problem is not mutual. A client has a problem, such as stress, depression, or compulsiveness, that she or he wants to overcome. The counselor attempts to help the client understand the problem more fully and collaborates with the client to develop strategies for coping with or overcoming the difficulty (Evans, Coman, & Goss, 1996). Counseling interviews also occur outside the therapeutic setting: We may seek counseling from attorneys to address (or avoid) legal problems, from accountants to get help with financial matters, and from religious leaders to deal with spiritual issues. Employment Interviews The purpose of employment interviews is to allow employers and job candidates to assess each other and decide whether there is a good fit between them. Typically, employment interviews include periods of information giving and information getting as well as persuasive efforts on the part of both participants. The prospective employer wants to convince the job candidate of the quality of the company, and the candidate wants to convince the prospective employer of the quality of his or her qualifications. Ideally,

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both participants gain enough information to make a sound judgment of the fit between the candidate and the job.
Complaint Interviews Complaint interviews allow people to register complaints about a product, service, or person. Many firms have departments whose sole purpose is to accept and respond to complaints. Of primary importance is showing the people who complain that they are heard and that they matter. The interviewer (company representative) attempts to gain information about the customer’s dissatisfaction: What was defective or disappointing about the product? Was service inadequate? What would it take to satisfy the customer now? The person conducting complaint interviews should call recurring complaints to the attention of those who can diagnose and solve underlying problems. Performance Reviews Most organizations require performance reviews, or performance appraisals, at regular intervals. By building performance appraisals into work life, organizations continually monitor employees’ performance and foster their professional growth. The performance review is an occasion on which a supervisor comments on a subordinate’s achievements and professional development, identifies any weaknesses or problems, and collaborates to develop goals for future performance. During the interview, subordinates should offer their perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses and participate actively in developing goals for professional development (Kikoski, 1998). Reprimand Interviews When a person’s work is unsatisfactory, a supervisor

may conduct a reprimand interview. The goals are to identify lapses in professional conduct, determine sources of problems, and establish a plan for improving future performance. Because reprimands tend to evoke defensiveness, developing a constructive, supportive climate for these interviews is especially important. Supervisors may foster a good climate by opening the interview with assurances that the goal is to solve a problem together, not to punish the subordinate. Supervisors should also invite subordinates to express their perceptions and feelings fully.
Stress Interviews Stress interviews are designed to create anxiety in respondents or interviewees. Stress interviews are unique in their deliberate intent to apply pressure. Frequently used communication techniques for inducing stress are rapid-fire questions, intentional misinterpretations and distortions of the interviewee’s responses, and hostile or skeptical nonverbal expressions. Why, you might ask, would anyone deliberately create a high-stress interview situation? Actually, stress interviews may be useful in several contexts. Attorneys may intentionally intimidate reluctant or hostile witnesses or people whose honesty is suspect. Similarly, prison administrators and police officers may communicate aggressively with people they think are withholding important information. This kind of interview also may be used in hiring people for high-stress jobs. By deliberately trying to rattle job candidates, interviewers can assess how well they manage and respond to stress. Exit Interviews In academic and professional life, exit interviews have

become increasingly popular. The goal of this type of interview is to gain

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information, insights, and perceptions about a place of work or education from a person who is leaving. While people are in a job or learning environment, they may be reluctant to mention dissatisfactions or to speak against those who have power over them. When people are leaving an organization or school, however, they can offer honest insights and perceptions with little fear of reprisal. Thus, exit interviews can be especially valuable in providing information about policies, personnel, and organizational culture.

The Structure of Interviews
To be effective, interviews should follow a structure that builds a good communication climate and allows the interviewer and the interviewee to deal with substantive matters. Experienced interviewers, even those without professional training, tend to organize interview communication into a three-stage sequence. Interviewees who understand the purpose of each stage in the sequence increase their ability to participate effectively.
The Opening Stage The initial stage of an interview tends to be brief and

aims to create an effective climate for interaction, clarify the purpose, and preview issues to be discussed (Wilson & Goodall, 1991). Typically, opening small talk encourages a friendly climate: • “I see you’re from Buffalo. Are the winters there still as harsh as they used to be?” • “It’s been 6 months since our last performance review. Any new developments in your life?” • “I noticed you got your B.A. from State University. I graduated from there, too. Did you ever take any courses with Doctor Barnette in anthropology?” After opening small talk, effective interviewers state the purpose of the interview and how they plan to accomplish that purpose: • “As you know, I’m on campus today to talk with liberal arts majors who are interested in joining Hodgeson Marketing. I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself and your background, and then I want to give you an opportunity to ask me anything you want about Hodgeson.” • “Pat, the reason I asked you to meet with me today is that there have been some complaints about your attitude from others on your work team. I know you are good at your job and have a fine history with the firm, so I want us to put our heads together to resolve this matter. Let’s begin with me telling you what I’ve heard, and then I’d like to hear your perceptions of what’s happening.”
The Substantive Stage The second stage of an interview, which generally consumes the bulk of time, deals with substance or content relevant to the purpose of the interview. For example, in reprimand interviews the substantive stage would zero in on identifying problem behaviors and devising solutions. In a hiring interview, the substantive stage might concentrate on the job candidate’s background, experience, and qualifications.

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Because the goal of the substantive stage is to exchange information, it takes careful planning and thought. Most interviewers prepare lists of topics or specific questions and use their notes to make sure they cover all the important topics. During the interview, they may also take notes of responses. Communication during this phase tends to progress from broad topic areas to increasingly specific questions within each topic. After introducing a topic, the interviewer may ask some initial general questions and then follow up with more detailed probes. Because the pattern of communication moves from broad to narrow, it has been called the funnel sequence (Cannell & Kahn, 1968; Moffatt, 1979). The interviewer may repeat the funnel sequence for each new topic area in an interview. During the substantive stage, an interviewer may invite the interviewee to take the lead in communication, either by posing questions or by volunteering perceptions and ideas in response to what has been covered thus far. To be an effective interviewee, you should be prepared with questions and topics that you want to introduce. This portrays you as someone who prepares and takes initiative. It is also important to monitor your nonverbal communication. Interviewers tend to be most impressed with interviewees whose paralanguage and kinesics convey enthusiasm, confidence, and an outgoing personality (Mino, 1996).
The Closing Stage Like the opening stage, the closing stage tends to be brief. Its purposes are to summarize what has been discussed, state what follow-up will occur, if any, and create good will in parting. Summarizing the content of the interview increases the likelihood that an accurate and complete record of the interview will survive. If the interviewer overlooks any topics, the interviewee may appropriately offer a reminder. Interviewees also may ask about follow-up if interviewers fail to mention this. Most interviews follow the three-step sequence we’ve discussed, but not all do. Some interviewers are ineffective because they are disorganized, unprepared, and inadequately trained in effective interviewing. They may ramble for 15 minutes or more and fail to provide any closing other than “Gee, our time is up.” In other instances, interviewers may deliberately violate the standard pattern to achieve their goals. For example, in stress interviews designed to test how well a person responds to pressure, the interviewer may skip opening comments and jump immediately into tough substantive questions. This allows the interviewer to assess how well the respondent copes with unexpected pressure.

Styles of Interviewing
Like other forms of communication, interviews have climates that may be more or less open, egalitarian, supportive, and cooperative. The climate between participants in interviews is influenced by aspects of communication that we discussed in Part I of this book—for instance, the degree of confirmation provided, cultivation of a defensive or supportive climate, and effective or ineffective listening. Formality and balance of power also affect the climate of an interview. Interviews may be more or less formal. In highly formal interviews, participants tend to stay within social and professional roles. The content of highly formal interviews tends to follow a standard format, often one that the interviewer

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has written to structure the interaction. Nonverbal communication provides further clues to formality: clothes, a formal meeting room, stilted postures, and a stiff handshake are all signs of formality. In contrast, informal interviews are more relaxed, personal, and flexible. The interviewer attempts to engage the interviewee as an individual, not just a person in a general role. Typically, informal interviews aren’t as rigidly structured as formal interviews. The interviewer may have a list of standard topics (either memorized or written down), but these provide only guidelines, not a straitjacket for communication. Informal interviews often include nonverbal cues such as smiling, relaxed postures, casual surroundings, and informal dress. Most interviews fall between the extremes of formality and informality. Also, interviews may become more or less formal as a result of communication between participants. A person who communicates in a stilted manner is likely to encourage formality in the other person. Conversely, a person who communicates casually promotes a relaxed style of response. Another influence on the communication climate in interviews is the balance of power between interviewer and interviewee. Power may be evenly balanced between participants or skewed toward the interviewer or the interviewee. Interviewees have the greatest power to direct communication in mirror interviews, in which the interviewer consistently reflects the interviewee’s comments to the interviewee. This may be done by restating verbatim what an interviewee says, paraphrasing an interviewee’s comments, or making limited inferences about an interviewee’s thoughts and feelings based on the communication. Skillful listening is essential for effectively using the mirror style (Banville, 1978). Consider this sample excerpt from a mirror interview: INTERVIEWER: Tell me about your studies. INTERVIEWEE: I’m a communication major. INTERVIEWER: So you’ve studied communication? INTERVIEWEE: Yes, especially organizational communication and leadership. INTERVIEWER: Then you’re particularly interested in leadership in organizations? INTERVIEWEE: Yes. I think communication is the heart of effective leadership, so majoring in communication prepares me to lead. INTERVIEWER: So you see communication as the heart of effective leadership? INTERVIEWEE: Well, I see leadership as motivating others and empowering them to achieve their goals. A person who knows how to communicate clearly, listen well, and establish rapport with others is most able to motivate them. In this exchange, the interviewer lets the interviewee lead. What the interviewee says is the basis for the interviewer’s subsequent questions and probes.

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Astute interviewees realize that mirror interviews give them significant opportunity to highlight their strengths and introduce topics they wish to discuss.
Distributive Interviews In distributive interviews, power is equally divided

(or distributed) between participants. Both ask and answer questions, listen and speak, and contribute to shaping the direction and content of communication. The distributive style of interviewing is generally used when participants are equal in professional or social standing. Distributive interviews may also be used between people with unequal power if the interviewer wants to create a relaxed exchange. Recruiters often use distributive styles to put job candidates at ease.
Authoritarian Interviews In authoritarian interviews, the interviewer exer-

cises primary control over interaction. The interviewer may avoid or quickly cut off discussion of any topics not on the list and may give the interviewee little or no opportunity to ask questions or initiate topics. Efficiency is the primary strength of the authoritarian style of interviewing: Many topics can be covered quickly. But the authoritarian style of interviewing can be frustrating to interviewees, and the interviewer may miss relevant information by failing to specifically seek it and by not giving the interviewee an opportunity to initiate topics. In stress interviews, which we discussed previously in this appendix, the interviewer has primary control, as in authoritarian interviews. Unlike authoritarian interviews, however, stress interviews are a deliberate attempt to create anxiety in the interviewee. Thus, the interviewer controls not only the pace and content of interaction but also the psychological agenda. Interviewees have even less control than in authoritarian interviews because stress interviews often rely on trick questions, surprise turns in topic, and unsettling responses to interviewees. If you find yourself in a stress interview, recognize that it is probably a deliberate attempt to test your ability to cope with pressure. Stay alert and flexible to deal with unpredictable communication from the interviewer.

Forms of Questions in Interviews
Most interviews follow a question–answer pattern in which each person speaks only briefly before the other person speaks. Consequently, skill in asking and responding to questions is central to effectiveness. Skillful interviewers understand that different kinds of questions shape responses, and effective interviewees recognize the opportunities and constraints of distinct forms of questions. We’ll consider eight of the most common types of questions and discuss the responses invited by each.
Open Questions Open questions are general queries that invite expansive responses: “What can you tell me about yourself?” “What is your work experience?” Because open questions are broad, they give interviewees opportunities to steer communication toward topics that interest or reflect well on them. Closed Questions Unlike open questions, closed questions do not invite

broad answers. Instead, they ask for a concrete, narrow reply, often in the form of “yes” or “no.” Closed questions often are used to follow up on general replies

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to open questions. “How many business courses have you taken?” “What was your position at the summer camp?” “Do you prefer working individually or on teams?” Closed questions call for short, direct answers, and an interviewer may interpret more broad responses negatively.
Mirror Questions Mirror questions paraphrase or reflect the previous communication. If an interviewee says, “I have worked in a lot of stressful jobs,” the interviewer might respond reflectively by saying, “So you can handle pressure, right?” At the content level of meaning, a mirror question seems pointless because it merely repeats what preceded it. At the relationship level of meaning, however, mirror questions say, “Elaborate; tell me more.” Thus, they represent opportunities to expand on ideas. Hypothetical Questions Hypothetical questions ask a person to speculate. Recruiters often pose hypothetical questions to see how well job candidates can think on their feet. A student of mine provided the following example of a hypothetical question she was asked in a job interview: “Assume you are supervising an employee who is consistently late to work and sometimes leaves early. What would you do?” My student responded that her first course of action would be to talk with the employee to determine the reason for her tardiness and early departures. Next, she said, she would work with the employee to eliminate the source or, if company policies allowed it, to rearrange the schedule to accommodate the employee’s circumstances. This response showed that the job candidate was collaborative and supportive—precisely the qualities the recruiter wanted to assess. Hypothetical questions are designed to find out how you grasp and approach complex situations (Gladwell, 2000). Probing Questions When we probe something, we go beneath its surface

to find out more about it. During interviews, probing questions go beneath the surface of a response to gather additional information and insight. Consider this example of several probing questions that follow an open question and a broad response: INTERVIEWER: Tell me about your work history. INTERVIEWEE: I’ve held 10 jobs while I’ve been attending college. INTERVIEWER: Why have you held so many different jobs instead of sticking with one of them? INTERVIEWEE: I kept switching in the hope of finding one that would be really interesting. INTERVIEWER: What makes a job interesting to you? INTERVIEWEE: It would have to be challenging and have enough variety not to bore me. INTERVIEWER: Are you easily bored? Note how the interviewer probes to learn more about the interviewee’s responses. Each probe seeks more details about the interviewee’s attitudes toward work.
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Leading Questions Leading questions predispose a certain response. For example, “You believe in teamwork, don’t you?” encourages “Yes” as a response, whereas “You don’t drink on a regular basis, do you?” encourages “No” as a response. Leading questions generally are not a good way to get candid responses because they suggest how you want a person to respond (Stewart & Cash, 1991). Leading questions can be useful, however, if an interviewer wants to test an interviewee’s commitment to an idea. An acquaintance of mine who recruits employees for sales positions that require a lot of travel often poses this leading question: “After a year or two of travel, the novelty wears off. I assume you expect a permanent location after a year or so with us, right?” Applicants who answer “yes” do not get job offers because travel is an ongoing part of the sales positions. Loaded Questions Loaded questions are worded to reflect the emotions or judgments of the person asking the question. The language in the question is laden with emotion and may cause an interviewee to respond emotionally. “How do you feel about slackers who expect to leave work at 5 p.m. every day?” In this question, the word slackers suggests the interviewer’s negative judgment of employees who expect to quit at 5 p.m. each day. An interviewee is likely to pick up on the bias in the question and reply, “I think an employee should work until the job is done, not until the clock strikes 5 p.m.” But this may not reflect the interviewee’s actual views, so the question isn’t effective in probing the interviewee’s attitudes. Another version of the loaded question involves baiting an interviewee. The classic example of a loaded question is, “When did you stop beating your dog?” The question presumes something (in this case, that the interviewee at some point did beat his or her dog) that hasn’t been established. This kind of loaded question is likely to foster defensiveness in an interviewee and to limit what an interviewer learns about the interviewee. Summary Questions A final kind of question is the summary question, which covers what has been discussed. Although summary questions often are phrased as statements, they function as questions. For example, “I believe we’ve covered everything” should be perceived as, “Do we need to discuss anything else?” “It seems we’ve agreed on expectations for your performance during the next quarter” should be perceived as, “Do you feel we have a common understanding of what’s expected of you?” Communication that summarizes topics in an interview provides an opportunity for participants to check whether they agree about what they’ve discussed and what will follow. What we’ve discussed gives us a foundation for discussing two important challenges for communicating in interviews.

CHALLENGES WHEN COMMUNICATING IN INTERVIEWS
Like all other kinds of interaction, interviewing presents challenges that require communication skills. We will discuss two specific challenges: preparing to be interviewed and dealing with illegal questions. We will use the hiring interview to illustrate these challenges, but the ideas we’ll discuss pertain to other kinds of interviews as well.
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APPENDIX B

Preparing to Interview Effectively
My students have often told me that they can’t prepare for interviews because they don’t know what the interviewer will ask. Even without knowing exactly what questions will arise, you can do a great deal to prepare yourself for a successful interview. First, prepare a résumé that is concise, accurate in content and style (proofread carefully!), and professional in appearance. Your résumé is your first chance to “advertise yourself” to potential employers (Krannich & Banis, 1990).
Conduct Research Every type of interview benefits from advance research, although the appropriate research varies according to the interview’s purpose. Before performance appraisals, both the supervisor and the subordinate should review any previous performance appraisals. In addition, both participants should think about what has happened since the last appraisal: Have goals that were set been met? Have there been notable achievements, such as development of new skills or receipt of awards? It’s also appropriate to talk with others to learn what is expected of employees at various stages in their careers. Research is critical for effective employment interviewing. To learn about an organization, you’ll want information about its products and services, selfimage, history, benefits, organizational culture, and so forth. If you know someone who works for the company, ask that person to share perceptions and information with you. If you aren’t personally acquainted with employees at the company, check for materials in your library or placement office or an online service. Standard references such as Moody’s Manuals and Standard & Poor’s Index provide information about the size, locations, salary levels, structure, employee benefits, and financial condition of many organizations. The Internet is an additional source of information. Many companies have web pages that allow you to learn such things as how the company thinks of itself, the image it wants to project, and its size and geographic scope. Because websites are updated regularly, visiting a company’s website is a good way to get the current information about a company that interests you. Research enhances your effectiveness in two ways. First, the information you gather provides a basis for questions that show you’ve done your homework and understand the company. Second, when you know something about a company’s or program’s priorities, image, and goals, you can adapt your communication to acknowledge the expectations and norms of the company. Engage in Person-Centered Communication In Chapter 2, we discussed

person-centered communication, in which one person recognizes and respects the perspective of another person. To prepare for an interview, ask yourself, “What would I want to know if I were interviewing me for this position?” Don’t ask what you want to tell the interviewer about yourself or what you think is most important about your record. Instead, take the perspective of the interviewer as you anticipate the interaction. You are not likely to know the interviewer personally, so you can’t realistically expect to understand him or her as a unique individual. What matters is to recognize that in the interview situation the recruiter is a representative of a particular company with distinct goals, history, expectations, and culture. If you

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have researched the company, you will be able to adapt your communication to the interviewer’s frame of reference. Person-centered communication also requires sensitivity to cultural differences. For instance, people who were raised in some Asian cultures tend to be modest about personal achievements and abilities. Viewed from a Western perspective, such modesty might be misinterpreted as lack of confidence (Kikoski, 1998; U.S. Department of Labor, 1992).
Practice Responding One of the most common complaints of employ-

ment recruiters is that candidates are unprepared for interviews (DeVito, 1994). Examples of appearing unprepared include not bringing a résumé to the interview, not knowing about the company, and not recalling specific information, such as names of former supervisors and dates of employment. Ability to recall specific information shows you are prepared and knowledgeable. Yet many people fumble when asked about specifics. Why? Because they assume they know about themselves—after all, it’s their life—so they don’t bother to review details and practice responses. You can avoid appearing unprepared by taking time before an interview to review your experiences and accomplishments and to remind yourself of key names, places, and dates. It’s also a good idea to practice responding aloud to questions. You want your communication to reflect what employers look for— attentiveness, positive attitude, preparation, clarity, and motivation (Anderson & Killenberg, 1998; Farnill et al., 1997; Peterson, 1997; Ramsay, Gallois, & Callan, 1997). Figure B.1 lists questions commonly asked during employment interviews.
Figure B.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Why did you decide to attend this school? Why did you choose __________ as your major? Tell me about yourself. Why are you interested in our company (firm)? How does your academic background pertain to this job? What do you consider your most serious weakness? What are your long-term professional goals? Which of the jobs you’ve held has been most satisfying to you? Why? What is the most difficult situation you have ever been in? How did you handle it? Who has been the biggest influence in your life? What are your hobbies? How do you spend spare time? How do you define success in sales (marketing, management, training, etc.)? Why should we hire you instead of another person? What kind of people do you prefer to work with? Why? Are you willing to travel? What do you expect your employer to do for you? What do you think of the president’s budget proposal (or another current national issue)? 18. Describe your closest friend. 19. How long would you expect to remain with our company? 20. Define teamwork. Give me an example of a team on which you worked.

Common Questions Asked in Employment Interviews

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Conducting research, engaging in person-centered communication, and practicing responses will not prepare you for everything that can happen in an interview. However, they will make you better prepared and more impressive than candidates who don’t follow the guidelines we’ve discussed.

Managing Illegal Questions in Interviews
Just a couple of years ago, a student who was completing a professional degree was asked this question by a job recruiter: “What methods of birth control do you use?” Fortunately, this student knew the question was discriminatory, so she refused to answer and reported the interviewer to the campus placement service. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federally created entity that monitors various kinds of discrimination in hiring decisions. In 1970, the EEOC issued initial guidelines pertinent to employment interviews, and these have been updated periodically. EEOC guidelines also apply to tests, application forms, and other devices used to screen job applicants. EEOC regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of criteria that are legally irrelevant to job qualifications. Because the EEOC is an arm of the federal government, it protects interviewees in all states from intrusive questions about race, ethnicity, marital status, age, sex, disability, and arrests. Individual states and institutions may impose additional limits on information about candidates that may be used in hiring decisions. For instance, my school has a policy against discrimination based on military service or sexual orientation. An illegal question reflects either an interviewer’s ignorance of the law or willful disregard of it. People who conduct interviews should review restrictions on questions in a good source such as Arthur Bell’s 1989 book The Complete Manager’s Guide to Interviewing. Whether interviewers intend to ask illegal questions or not, it’s important for interviewees to know what questions are not legally permissible in employment interviews. If you don’t understand the legal boundaries on questions, you cannot protect your rights.
Know the Law Respond Deliberately to Illegal Questions Knowing which questions are

out of bounds doesn’t tell us what to do if we are asked an inappropriate question. You may choose to respond if it doesn’t bother you. You also have the right to object and to point out to an interviewer that a question is inappropriate. If you don’t care about the job, this is a reasonable way to respond. But realize that even if you exercise your rights diplomatically, doing so may lessen an interviewer’s interest in hiring you. One effective way to respond to unlawful questions is to provide only information that may be sought legally. This strategy preserves a supportive climate in the interview by not directly reprimanding the interviewer. For instance, if an employer asks whether you are a native Chinese speaker, you might respond, “I am fluent in both English and Chinese.” If you are asked whether you belong to any political organizations, be wary because this is often an effort to determine

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Figure B.2

It’s legal to ask: 1. Are you a law-abiding person? 2. Do you have the physical strength to do this job? 3. Are you fluent in any languages other than English? 4. Could you provide proof that you are old enough to meet the age requirements for this job? 5. Your transcript shows you took a course in socialism. Did you find it valuable?

But illegal to ask: 1. Have you ever been convicted of a felony? 2. Are you physically disabled? 3. Are you a native speaker of English? 4. How old are you? 5. Are you a socialist? 6a. Would you be willing to live in a town without a temple/church/synagogue? 6b. Does your religion allow to work on Saturdays? 7. May I have a picture to put with your file? 8. Do you have (plan to have) children? 9. Are you married? 10. Do you have reliable child care? 11. Do you own a car or a house? 12. What is your political affiliation?

Legal and Illegal Questions

your religion or political affiliation. You might answer, “The only organizations to which I belong that are relevant to this job are the Training and Development Association and the National Communication Association.” If a diplomatic response, such as a partial answer, doesn’t satisfy the interviewer, it is appropriate for you to be more assertive. You might ask, “How does your question pertain to qualifications for this job?” This more direct response can be effective in protecting your rights without harming the climate. It is possible to be both assertive and cordial, and this is generally advisable. Figure B.2 lists some questions that can and cannot legally be asked by employment interviewers.

CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this appendix, we have gained insight into the structure and processes involved in interviewing. We have learned that most interviews follow a three-part sequence and that different styles and forms of questions are used to achieve different objectives in interview situations. In the second section of this appendix, we focused on three guidelines for effective communication when interviewing, especially in the context of job seeking. The first guideline is to prepare by researching the company and the interviewer, by reviewing your qualifications and experience, and by practicing dealing with questions, including difficult ones. A second guideline for effectiveness in interviews is to be person-centered in your communication. Adapting the content and style of your communication to the person with whom you are interacting is important. A final suggestion is to become familiar with legal issues relevant to interviewing. Whether you are an interviewer or an interviewee, you should know and abide by laws governing what can and cannot be asked in interviews.

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APPENDIX B

COMMUNICATION IN OUR LIVES ONLINE
The key concepts, For Further Reflection and Discussion questions, and Experiencing Communication in Our Lives case study that follow will help you review, reflect on, and extend the information and ideas presented in this chapter. These resources, and a diverse selection of additional study tools, are also available online at
KEY CONCEPTS

the Premium Website for Communication in Our Lives. Your Premium Website includes a student workbook, interactive video activities, a book companion website, Speech Builder Express, and InfoTrac College Edition. For more information or to access this book’s online resources, visit www.cengage.com/login.

authoritarian interview, 473 complaint interview, 469 counseling interview, 468 distributive interview, 473 employment interview, 468 exit interview, 469

funnel sequence, 471 information-getting interview, 468 information-giving interview, 468 interview, 467

mirror interview, 472 performance review, 469 persuasive interview, 468 problem-solving interview, 468 reprimand interview, 469 stress interview, 469

FOR FURTHER REFLECTION AND DISCUSSION

1. Arrange an information-seeking interview with a person in the field you hope to enter. Ask the person to tell you about the job—its advantages and disadvantages and the skills it requires. 2. Schedule an interview with a peer on a topic of mutual interest. During the interview, experiment with different forms of questions (i.e., open, closed, mirror, stress, hypothetical). How do the different types of questions affect the interviewee’s comfort and responses? 3. Think about the ethical issues in choosing how to respond to illegal questions if the questions are not personally offensive or Ethics bothersome. For instance, Christians might think they have nothing to lose by responding honestly to the question, “Can you work on Saturdays?” If only members of minority religions refuse to answer questions about religion, how effective are the legal protections provided by EEOC guidelines? If all Protestants answer questions about religion honestly, are members of other religions jeopardized? 4. Identify a company that is of interest to you for future employment. Visit the company’s

website and record what is presented there. How does information on the website help you prepare for an effective job interview? Compare what you find on the website with what is available in printed materials (i.e., brochures, annual reports, etc.) about the company. 5. If you would like tips for how to be effective in a virtual interview, use your Premium Website for Communication in Our Lives to access WebLink B.1. 6. Watch one television program that features interviews of newsmakers. Face the Nation, Meet the Press, and 60 Minutes are programs that feature news interviews. Also watch one television program that features interviews with celebrities or people in the limelight. The talk show of Oprah Winfrey is an example of this genre. Identify the form of each question posed (i.e., open, extended, closed) and the response it generates. Do the different kinds of interviews rely on distinct types of questions? Why? What do you conclude about how the style of question affects responses?

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EXPERIENCING COMMUNICATION IN OUR LIVES

CASE STUDY: Parental Teachings
A video of the following conversation is featured in your Appendix B Online Resources for Communication in Our Lives. Select “Tough Questions” to watch the video. Improve your own interviewing skills by reading, watching, and evaluating this speech. Elliott Miller is a second-semester senior who has double-majored in business and communication. Today, he is interviewing with Community Savings and Loan, which is recruiting managerial trainees. Elliott has dressed carefully. He is wearing his good suit, a light blue shirt, a conservative necktie, and wingtips. At 10 a.m. sharp, he knocks on the office door of Karen Bourne, the person with whom he will interview. She is in her mid-thirties and is dressed in a conservative navy blue suit. She opens the door and offers her hand to Elliott. BOURNE: Mr. Miller, I see you’re right on time. That’s a good start. (They shake hands.) MILLER: Thank you for inviting me to interview today. BOURNE: Sit down. (He sits in the chair in front of her desk; she sits behind the desk.) So, you’re about to finish college, are you? I remember that time in my own life—exciting and scary! MILLER: It’s definitely both for me. I’m particularly excited about the job here at Community Savings and Loan.

BOURNE: (smiles) Then there’s a mutual interest. We had a lot of applications, but we’re interviewing only eight of them. What I’d like to do is get a sense of your interests and tell you about our managerial trainee program here, so that we can see if the fit between us is as good as it looks on paper. Sound good to you? MILLER: Great. BOURNE: Let me start by telling you about a rather common problem we’ve had with our past managerial trainees. Many of them run into a problem—something they have trouble learning or doing right. That’s normal enough—we expect that. But a lot of the trainees seem to get derailed when that happens. Instead of finding another way to approach the problem, they get discouraged and give up. So I’m very interested in hearing what you’ve done when you’ve encountered problems or roadblocks in your life. istry course, and I just couldn’t seem to understand the material. I failed the first exam, even though I’d studied hard.

MILLER: Well, I can remember one time when I hit a real roadblock. I was taking an advanced chem-

BOURNE: Good example of a problem. What did you do? MILLER: I started going to all the tutorial sessions that grad assistants offer. That helped a little, but I still wasn’t getting the material the way I should. So, I organized a study team and offered to pay for pizzas so that the students who were on top of the class would have a reason to come.

work?

BOURNE: (nodding with admiration) That shows a lot of initiative and creativity. Did the study team MILLER: (smiling) It sure did. I wound up getting a B in the course, and so did several other members of the study team who had been in the same boat I was in early in the semester.

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BOURNE: So you don’t mind asking for help if you need it? MILLER: I’d rather do that than flounder, but I’m usually pretty able to operate independently. BOURNE: So you prefer working on your own to working with others? MILLER: That depends on the situation or project. If I have all that I need to do something on my own,
I’m comfortable working solo. But there are other cases in which I don’t have everything I need to do something well—maybe I don’t have experience in some aspect of the job or I don’t have a particular skill or I don’t understand some perspectives on the issues. In cases like that, I think teams are more effective than individuals.

BOURNE: Good. Banking management requires the ability to be self-initiating and also the ability to work with others. Let me ask another question. As I was looking over your transcript and résumé, I noticed that you changed your major several times. Does that indicate you have difficulty making a commitment and sticking with it? MILLER: I guess you could think that, but it really shows that I was willing to explore a lot of alternatives before making a firm commitment.

BOURNE: But don’t you think that you wasted a lot of time and courses getting to that commitment? MILLER: I don’t think so. I learned something in all of the courses I took. For instance, when I was a philosophy major, I learned about logical thinking and careful reasoning. That’s going to be useful to me in management. When I was majoring in English, I learned how to write well and how to read others’ writing critically. That’s going to serve me well in management too.

BOURNE: So what led you to your final decision to double-major in business and communication? That’s kind of an unusual combination. MILLER: It seems a very natural one to me. I wanted to learn about business because I want to be a manager in an organization. I need to know how organizations work, and I need to understand different management philosophies and styles. At the same time, managers work with people, and that means I have to have strong communication skills.

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Glossary abstract Removed from concrete reality. Symbols are abstract because they are inferences and generalizations derived from a total reality. acknowledgment The second of three levels of interpersonal confirmation. Acknowledgment communicates that you have heard and understand another’s feelings and thoughts. ad hominem argument Latin for “to the man,” an argument that attacks the integrity of the person instead of the person’s ideas. agenda setting Mass media’s ability to select and call to the public’s attention ideas, events, and people. ambiguous Subject to more than one interpretation. Symbols are ambiguous because their meanings vary from person to person and context to context. ambushing Listening carefully in order to attack a speaker. arbitrary Random; not determined by necessity. Symbols are arbitrary because there is no particular reason for any one symbol to stand for a certain referent. artifacts Personal objects we use to announce our identities and personalize our environments. assimilation The giving up of one’s own ways for those of another culture. attachment style Any of several patterns of attachment that result from particular parenting styles that teach children who they are, who others are, and how to approach relationships. attribution A causal account that explains why a thing happened or why someone acted a certain way. authoritarian interview An interviewing style in which the interviewer has and exerts greater power than the interviewee. authoritarian leadership A leadership style in which a leader provides direction, exerts authority, and confers rewards and punishments on group members. authority rule A group decision-making method in which some person or group with authority tells a group what to do, and the group ratifies the authority’s decision. bandwagon appeal The fallacious argument that because many people believe or act in a certain way, everyone should. belief An assumption about what is true, accurate, or factual. A belief may be false even though it is accepted as true. brainstorming A group problem-solving technique in which the free flow of ideas is encouraged without immediate criticism. chronemics A type of nonverbal communication concerned with how we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction. claim An assertion. A claim advanced in speaking requires grounds (evidence) and warrants (links between evidence and claims). climate communication One of three constructive forms of participation in group decision making. Climate communication focuses on creating and sustaining an open, engaged atmosphere for discussion. closeness in dialogue Interpersonal closeness created through communication. closeness in the doing Interpersonal closeness created by doing things with and for others. cognitive complexity The number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to create perceptions. cognitive restructuring A method of reducing communication apprehension that involves teaching people to revise how they think about speaking situations. cohesion Closeness among members of a group; esprit de corps. 483
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GLOSSARY

commitment A decision to remain with a relationship. One of three dimensions of enduring romantic relationships, commitment has more impact on relational continuity than does love alone. It is also an advanced stage in the process of escalation in romantic relationships. communication A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. communication apprehension Anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication encounters. Communication apprehension is common and can be constructive. communication network A set of formal and informal links between members of organizations. communication rules Shared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations. comparison A form of evidence that uses associations between two things that are similar in some important way. complaint interview An interview conducted for the purpose of allowing someone to register a complaint about a product, service, person, or company. compromise A method of group decision making in which members work out a solution that satisfies each person’s minimum criteria but does not necessarily fully satisfy all members. conflict Among people who depend on each other, the expression of different views, interests, and goals and the perception of these differences as incompatible or as opposed by the other. consensus A decision-making method in which all members of a group support a decision. constitutive rules Communication rules that define what communication means by specifying how certain communicative acts are to be counted. constructivism The theory that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures, called schemata. content level of meaning One of two levels of meaning in communication. The content level of meaning is the literal, or denotative, information in a message.

convergence The integration of mass media, computers, and telecommunications. counseling interview An interview in which one person with expertise helps another to understand a problem and develop strategies to overcome the difficulty or cope more effectively with it. covert conflict Conflict that is expressed indirectly. Covert conflict generally is more difficult than overt conflict to manage constructively. credibility The perception that a person is informed and trustworthy. Listeners confer it, or refuse to confer it, on speakers. criteria Standards that group members use to evaluate alternative solutions or decisions. Criteria should be established during stage three of the standard agenda. critical listening Attending to communication to analyze and evaluate the content of communication or the person speaking. critical thinking Examining ideas reflectively and carefully to decide what you should believe, think, or do. cultivation The cumulative process by which television fosters beliefs about social reality. cultivation theory The theory that television promotes an inaccurate worldview that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life. cultural calamity Adversity that brings about change in a culture; one of four ways cultures change. cultural relativism The idea that cultures vary in how they think, act, and behave as well as in what they believe and value; not the same as moral relativism. culture Beliefs, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people. deductive reasoning A form of reasoning in which a general premise followed by a specific claim establishes a conclusion. defensive listening Perceiving personal attacks, criticisms, or hostile undertones in communication where none are intended.

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democratic leadership A style of leadership that provides direction without imposing strict authority on a group. demographic audience analysis A form of audience analysis that seeks information about the general features of a group of listeners. derived credibility The expertise and trustworthiness that listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of how the speaker communicates during a presentation. diffusion The incorporation or integration of characteristics of one culture into another as a result of contact between the two. Diffusion is one of four ways cultures change. digital divide The gap between people and communities with access to media, especially social media, and people and communities with less or no access. direct definition Communication that explicitly tells us who we are by specifically labeling us and reacting to our behaviors. Direct definition usually occurs first in families and then in interaction with peers and others. distributive interview A style of interviewing in which roughly equal power is held by interviewer and interviewee. downer Someone who communicates negatively about a person and reflects negative appraisals of that person’s worth as an individual. dual perspective The ability to understand another person’s perspective, beliefs, thoughts, or feelings. dyadic processes The set of processes in relational deterioration in which established relationship patterns break down and partners discuss problems and alternative futures for the relationship. dynamic Evolving and changing over time. ego boundaries A person’s internal sense of where he or she stops and the rest of the world begins. egocentric communication An unconstructive form of group contribution that blocks others or calls attention to oneself. either–or logic The fallacy of suggesting or assuming that only two options or courses of action exist when in fact there may be more.

emotional intelligence The ability to recognize which feelings are appropriate in which situations and the ability to communicate those feelings effectively. empathy The ability to feel with another person or to feel what that person feels in a given situation. employment interview An interview in which employer and job candidate assess each other and decide whether there is a good fit between them. endorsement The third of three levels of interpersonal confirmation. Endorsement communicates acceptance of another’s thoughts and feelings; not the same as agreement. environmental factors Elements of settings that affect how we feel and act. Environmental factors are a type of nonverbal communication. ethnocentrism The tendency to regard ourselves and our way of life as superior to other people and other ways of life. ethos The perceived personal character of the speaker. evidence Material used to support claims. Types of evidence are statistics, examples, comparisons, and quotations. Visual aids may be used to represent evidence graphically. example A form of evidence; a single instance that makes a point, dramatizes an idea, or personalizes information. The four types of examples are undetailed, detailed, hypothetical, and anecdotal. exit interview An interview designed to gain information, insights, and perceptions about a place of work or education from a person who is leaving. explorational communication The stage in the escalation of romantic relationships in which two people explore various common interests and backgrounds that might provide a basis for further interaction. extemporaneous speaking A presentational style that includes preparation and practice but not memorization of words and nonverbal behaviors. fallacy An error in reasoning. feedback Response to a message; may be verbal, nonverbal, or both. In communication theory, the concept of feedback appeared first in interactive models of communication.

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formal outline A complete outline of a speech, including the parts of a speech, main points, supporting material, transitions, and citations for sources. funnel sequence A pattern of communication in interviews that moves from broad, general questions to progressively narrower, more probing questions. gatekeeper A person or group that decides which messages pass through the gates of media that control information flow to consumers. grave-dressing processes The set of processes in the deterioration of romantic relationships in which partners put the relationship to rest. grounds Evidence that supports claims in a speech. group Three or more people who interact over time, are interdependent, and follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal. The team is one type of group. groupthink The cessation of critical, independent thought on the part of a group’s members about ideas generated by the group. halo effect The tendency to assume that an expert in one area is also an expert in other unrelated areas. haptics Nonverbal communication that involves physical touch. hasty generalization A broad claim based on too few examples or insufficient evidence. hearing The physiological activity that occurs when sound waves hit our eardrums. Unlike listening, hearing is a passive process. high-context communication style The indirect and undetailed communication favored in collectivist cultures. hypothetical thought Cognitive awareness of experiences and ideas that are not part of the concrete, present situation. identification The recognition and enlargement of common ground between communicators. identity script A guide to action based on rules for living and identity. Initially communicated in families, identity scripts define our roles, how we are to play them, and basic elements in the plot of our lives.

impromptu speaking Public speaking that involves little preparation. Speakers think on their feet as they talk about ideas and positions with which they are familiar. indexing A technique of noting that statements reflect specific times and circumstances and may not apply to other times or circumstances. independence A relationship stage in which a person is characterized by unique needs, goals, experiences, and qualities that affect what he or she looks for in others and relationships. individualism A strongly held Western value that views each person as unique and important and recognizes individual activities and achievements. inductive reasoning A form of reasoning that begins with specific instances and forms general conclusions based on them. informational listening Listening to gain and understand information; tends to focus on the content level of meaning. information-getting interview An interview in which the interviewer asks questions to learn about the interviewee’s qualifications, background, experience, opinions, knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors. information-giving interview An interview in which the interviewer provides information to the interviewee. informative speech A presentation that aims to increase listeners’ knowledge, understanding, or abilities. initial credibility The expertise and trustworthiness that listeners attribute to a speaker before a presentation begins. Initial credibility is based on the speaker’s titles, positions, experiences, or achievements known to listeners before they hear the speech. inoculation “Immunization” of listeners to opposing ideas and arguments that they may later encounter. intensifying communication The stage in the escalation of romantic relationships that increases the depth of a relationship by increasing personal knowledge and allowing a couple to begin creating a private culture. Also called euphoria.

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interpersonal climate The overall feeling between people, shaped by communication. interpersonal communication Communication between people, usually in close relationships such as friendship and romance. interpretation The subjective process of evaluating and explaining perceptions. interview A communication transaction that emphasizes questions and answers. intrapersonal communication Communication with ourselves; self-talk. intrapsychic processes The first set of processes in the disintegration of romantic relationships; involves brooding about problems in the relationship and dissatisfactions with a partner. invention The creation of tools, ideas, and practices; one of four causes of culture change. investment Something put into a relationship that cannot be recovered should the relationship end. Investments, more than rewards and love, increase commitment. invitational communication The second stage in the escalation phase of romantic relationships, in which people signal that they are interested in interacting and respond to invitations from others. key word outline An abbreviated speaking outline that includes only key words for each point in a speech. The key words trigger the speaker’s memory of the full point. kinesics Body position and body motions, including those of the face. laissez-faire leadership From the French for “to allow to do,” this style of leadership is nondirective and sometimes leads to unproductive group work. listening A complex process that consists of being mindful, physically receiving messages, selecting and organizing information, interpreting, responding, and remembering. literal listening Listening only to the content level of meaning and ignoring the relational level of meaning. loaded language An extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and hence meanings.

logos Rational or logical proofs. low-context communication style The direct, precise, and detailed communication favored in individualistic cultures. mainstreaming The process by which mass communication stabilizes and homogenizes social perspectives; a concept in cultivation theory. manuscript speaking A presentational style that involves speaking from the complete manuscript of a speech. mass media Channels of mass communication, such as television and radio. meaning The significance we attach to phenomena such as words, actions, people, objects, and events. media literacy The ability to understand the influence of mass media and to access, analyze, evaluate, and respond to mass media in informed, critical ways. memorized speaking A presentational style in which a speech is memorized word for word in advance. metaphor An implicit comparison of two different things that have something in common. mindfulness From Zen Buddhism, being fully present in the moment; the first step of listening and the foundation of all other steps. mind map A holistic record of information on a topic. Mind mapping is a method that can be used to narrow speech topics or to keep track of information gathered during research. mind reading Assuming that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something. minimal encouragers Communication that, by expressing interest in hearing more, gently invites another person to elaborate. mirror interview A style of interviewing in which an interviewer’s questions reflect previous responses and comments of the interviewee. Mirror interviews allow interviewees substantial power. monopolizing Continually focusing communication on oneself instead of on the person who is talking.

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motivated sequence pattern A pattern for organizing persuasive speeches that consists of five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. multilingual Able to speak and think in more than one language. neutralization One of four responses to relational dialectics; involves balancing or finding a compromise between two dialectical poles. noise Anything that interferes with intended communication. nonverbal communication All forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors. norm An informal rule that guides how members of a group or culture think, feel, act, and interact. Norms define what is normal or appropriate in various situations. oral style The visual, vocal, and verbal aspects of the delivery of a public speech. organizational culture Ways of thinking, acting, and understanding work that are shared by members of an organization and that reflect an organization’s distinct identity. overt conflict Conflict expressed directly and in a straightforward manner. paralanguage Vocal communication that does not include actual words; for example, sounds, vocal qualities, accents, and inflection. paraphrasing A method of clarifying others’ meaning by restating their communication. participation A response to cultural diversity in which people incorporate some practices, customs, and traditions of other groups into their own lives. particular others One source of social perspectives that people use to define themselves and guide how they think, act, and feel. The perspectives of particular others are the viewpoints of people who are significant to the self. passion Intensely positive feelings and desires for another person. Passion is based on the rewards of involvement and is not equivalent to commitment. pathos Emotional proofs for claims.

perception The process of actively selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities. performance review An interview in which a supervisor comments on a subordinate’s achievements and professional development, identifies any weaknesses or problems, and collaborates with the subordinate to develop goals for future performance. Subordinates should offer perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses and participate actively in developing goals for professional development. Also known as a

performance appraisal. personal construct A bipolar mental yardstick that allows us to measure people and situations along specific dimensions of judgment. personal relationship A relationship defined by uniqueness, rules, relational dialectics, and commitment and affected by contexts. Personal relationships, unlike social ones, are irreplaceable. person-centered perception The ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual apart from social roles and generalizations. perspective of the generalized other The collection of rules, roles, and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live. persuasive interview An interview designed to influence attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. persuasive speech A presentation that aims to change listeners by prompting them to think, feel, or act differently. physical appearance Physical features of people and the values attached to those features; a type of nonverbal communication. policy A formal statement of an organizational practice. An organization’s policies reflect and uphold the overall culture of the organization. positive visualization A technique of reducing speaking anxiety; a person visualizes herself or himself communicating effectively in progressively challenging speaking situations. post hoc, ergo propter hoc Latin phrase meaning “After this, therefore because of this.” The fallacy of suggesting or assuming that because event B follows event A, event A has therefore caused event B.

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power The ability to influence others; a feature of small groups that affects participation. power over The ability to help or harm others. Power over others usually is communicated in ways that highlight the status and influence of the person using the power. power to The ability to empower others to reach their goals. People who use power to help others generally do not highlight their own status and influence. problem-solving interview An interview in which people collaborate to identify sources of a mutual problem and to develop ways to address or resolve it. procedural communication One of three constructive ways of participating in group decision making. Procedural communication orders ideas and coordinates the contributions of members. process Something that is ongoing and continuously in motion, the beginnings and endings of which are difficult to identify. Communication is a process. prototype A knowledge structure that defines the clearest or most representative example of some category. proxemics A type of nonverbal communication that includes space and how we use it. pseudolistening Pretending to listen. psychological responsibility The responsibility for remembering, planning, and coordinating domestic work and child care. In general, women assume the psychological responsibility for child care and housework even if both partners share in the actual tasks. puffery In advertising, superlative claims for a product that seem factual but are actually meaningless. punctuation Defining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes. qualifier A word or phrase that limits the scope of a claim. Common qualifiers are most, usually, and in general. quality improvement team A group in which people from different departments or areas in an organization collaborate to solve problems, meet needs, or increase the quality of work life. Also called a continuous quality improvement team.

quotation A form of evidence that uses exact citations of statements made by others. Also called testimony. rebuttal A response to listeners’ reservations about a claim made by a speaker. recognition The most basic kind of interpersonal confirmation; communicates awareness that another person exists and is present. red herring argument An argument that is irrelevant to the topic; an attempt to divert attention from something the arguer can’t or doesn’t want to address. reflected appraisal Our perceptions of others’ views of us. reframing One of four responses to relational dialectics. The reframing response transcends the apparent contradiction between two dialectical poles and reinterprets them as not in tension. regulative rules Communication rules that regulate interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things. relational culture A private world of rules, understandings, and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create to give meaning to their relationship; the nucleus of intimacy. relational dialectics Opposing forces or tensions that are normal parts of all relationships. The three relational dialectics are autonomy/connectedness, novelty/predictability, and openness/closedness. relational listening Listening to support another person or to understand another person’s feelings and perceptions; focuses on the relational level of meaning as much as on the content level of meaning. relationship level of meaning One of two levels of meaning in communication; expresses the relationship between communicators. reprimand interview An interview conducted by a supervisor with a subordinate to identify lapses in the subordinate’s professional conduct, determine sources of problems, and establish a plan for improving future performance. resistance A response to cultural diversity in which the cultural practices of others are attacked or the superiority of one’s own cultural traditions is proclaimed. resonance The extent to which media representations are congruent with personal experience.

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respect A response to cultural diversity in which one values others’ customs, traditions, and values, even if one does not actively incorporate them into one’s own life. resurrection processes The final set of processes in relationship deterioration, in which ex–partners begin to live independent of the former relationship. rite A dramatic, planned set of activities that brings together aspects of an organization’s culture in a single event. ritual A form of communication that occurs regularly and that members of an organization perceive as a familiar and routine part of organizational life. revising communication A stage in the escalation of romantic relationships that involves evaluating the relationship and working out any obstacles or problems before committing for the long term. Not all couples experience this stage. rules Patterned ways of behaving and interpreting behavior; all relationships develop rules. role The collection of responsibilities and behaviors associated with and expected of a specific position in an organization. schemata (singular: schema) Cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiences. Four types of schemata are prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts. script One of four cognitive schemata. A script defines an expected or appropriate sequence of action in a particular setting. segmentation One of four responses to relational dialectics. Segmentation responses meet one dialectical need while ignoring or not satisfying the contradictory dialectical need. selective listening Focusing on only selected parts of communication. We listen selectively when we screen out parts of a message that don’t interest us or with which we disagree and also when we rivet attention on parts of communication that do interest us or with which we agree. self A multidimensional process in which the individual forms and acts from social perspectives that arise and evolve in communication with himself or herself.

self-disclosure The sharing of personal information that others are unlikely to discover in other ways. self-fulfilling prophecy An expectation or judgment of ourselves brought about by our own actions. self-sabotage Self-talk that communicates that we’re no good, we can’t do something, we can’t change, and so forth. Undermines belief in ourselves and motivation to change and grow. self-serving bias The tendency to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific, external influences beyond our control. separation One of four responses to relational dialectics, in which friends or romantic partners assign one pole of a dialectic to certain spheres of activities or topics and the contradictory dialectical pole to distinct spheres of activities or topics. silence The lack of verbal communication or paralanguage. Silence is a type of nonverbal communication that can express powerful messages. simile A direct comparison that typically uses the words like or as to link two things. situational audience analysis A method of audience analysis that seeks information about specific listeners that relates directly to a topic, speaker, and occasion. skills training A method of reducing communication apprehension that assumes that anxiety is a result of lack of speaking skills and therefore can be reduced by learning skills. slippery slope The fallacy of suggesting or assuming that once a certain step is taken, other steps will inevitably follow that will lead to some unacceptable consequence. social climbing The attempt to increase personal status in a group by winning the approval of high-status members. social community A group of people who live within a dominant culture yet who also have common distinctive experiences and patterns of communicating.

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social comparison Comparing ourselves with others to form judgments of our own talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth. social media Electronic tools that allow people to connect and to interact actively. social support processes The set of processes in relational disintegration in which partners figure out how to inform outsiders that the relationship is ending and look to friends and family for support during the trauma of breaking up. specific purpose A behavioral objective or observable response that a speaker specifies as a gauge of effectiveness; reinforces a speaker’s more general speaking goals. speech to entertain A speech the primary goal of which is to amuse, interest, or engage listeners. speech to inform A speech the primary goal of which is to increase listeners’ understanding, awareness, or knowledge of some topic. speech to persuade A speech the primary goal of which is to change listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors or to motivate listeners to action. standard agenda A logical, seven-step method for making decisions. standpoint theory The theory that a culture includes a number of social groups that differently shape the knowledge, identities, and opportunities of members of those groups. static evaluation Assessments that suggest something is unchanging or static. “Bob is impatient” is a static evaluation. statistics A form of evidence that uses numbers to summarize a great many individual cases or to demonstrate relationships between phenomena. stonewalling Reliance on the exit response to conflict and refusal to discuss issues. Stonewalling is especially corrosive in relationships because it blocks the possibility of resolving conflicts. stereotype A predictive generalization about people and situations. stress interview A style of interviewing in which an interviewer deliberately attempts to create anxiety in the interviewee.

structure In an organization, the set of procedures, relationships, and practices that provides predictability for members so that they understand roles, procedures, and expectations and so that work gets done. survey research Research that involves asking a number of people about their opinions, preferences, actions, or beliefs relevant to a speaking topic. symbol An arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representation of a phenomenon. Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought. synergy A special kind of energy in groups that combines and goes beyond the energies, talents, and strengths of individual members. system A group of interrelated elements that affect one another. Communication is systemic. systematic desensitization A method of reducing communication apprehension that teaches people how to relax physiologically and then helps them practice feeling relaxed as they imagine themselves in progressively difficult communication situations. task communication One of three constructive forms of participation in group decision making; focuses on giving and analyzing information and ideas. team A special kind of group characterized by different and complementary resources of members and a strong sense of collective identity. All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. terminal credibility The cumulative expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of the speaker’s initial and derived credibility; may be greater or less than initial credibility, depending on how effectively a speaker communicates. thesis statement The main idea of an entire speech. It should capture the key message in a concise sentence that listeners can remember easily. tolerance A response to diversity in which one accepts differences even though one may not approve of or even understand them. totalizing Responding to people as if one aspect of them were the sum total of who they are.

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Toulmin model of reasoning A representation of effective reasoning that includes five components: claim, grounds (evidence), warrant (link between grounds and claim), qualifier, and rebuttal. transitions Words and sentences that connect ideas and main points in a speech so that listeners can follow a speaker. understanding A response to cultural diversity in which it is assumed that differences are rooted in cultural teachings and that no traditions, customs, and behaviors are intrinsically more valuable than others. upper Someone who communicates positively about a person and confirms with positive appraisals the person’s worth as an individual. uses and gratification theory The theory that people choose to attend to mass communication in order to fulfill personal needs and preferences. values Views of what is good, right, and important that are shared by members of a particular culture.

visual aids Presentation of evidence by such visual means as charts, graphs, photographs, and physical objects to reinforce ideas presented verbally or to provide information. voting A method of group decision making that requires the support of a certain number of group members. Some groups have simple majority rule, whereas others require two-thirds or three-fourths support. vulture The extreme form of a downer. Vultures attack a person’s self-concept and sense of selfworth; may be someone else or the person him- or herself. warrant A justification for grounds (evidence) and claims in persuasive speaking. working outline A sketch of main ideas and their relationships; used by and intended only for the speaker. Works Cited A list of sources used in preparing a speech.

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Index abstraction in communication, 42–45 in language, 116 process, 42–43, 43f of symbols, 101 Abu Ghraib, 284 abuse cycle of, 219f in romantic relationships, 218–219, 219f academic degree, 21 Academy Awards ceremonies, 325 accuracy, 115–117 acknowledgment, 177 action plan, 265 ad hominem arguments, 441–442, 444t Adler, Ron, 78–79 advertising, 313, 315 advice, 151 advisory groups, 252–253 AFLAC, 279 African Americans assertive style of, 152 bilingualism of, 166 civil rights movement of, 63, 161–162, 355 communal families of, 215 communication rules of, 103 connotation of, 108 language of, 158 listening style of, 82 in mainstream culture, 165 oral traditions of, 328 paralanguage of, 138 physical appearance for, 132 agape, 213, 213f age, 153, 157 at marriage, 160 perception and, 37 persuadability from, 332 of technology users, 296 agenda, in group discussion, 261–266, 262f agenda setting, 298–299 aggression, 190, 190t Alcoff, Linda, 19 Allstate Insurance, 102 ambiguity, of symbols, 100 ambushing, 85 American Demographics, 346 American Indians, 156, 158 American Sign Language (ASL), 75 Amos, Dan, 279 analogical organization, 380 Angelou, Maya, 167–168 Anger at Work (Weisinger), 191 anxiety. see communication apprehension anxious/ambivalent attachment style, 54 arbitrary, symbols as, 98–99 Aristotle, 11, 430 Aronson, Elliot, 34 Arrow Electronics, 279 Arthur Anderson, 284 artifacts, 132–134 Asian culture assertiveness in, 237 collectivism of, 237 conflict in, 186 decision-making in, 238 self-disclosure in, 193 ASL. see American Sign Language assertion, 190–191, 190t assertiveness, 152, 237, 238 assimilation, 164 assimilation-preservation dialectic, 51 attachment styles, 52–54, 53f attention, 29, 384 attributions, 33–35, 34t audience adapting to, 440 analysis of, 332–333 attitudes of, 437 capturing attention of, 384 connecting with, 405–406 demographic analysis of, 332–334 diverse, 407–408 expectations of, 437 for informative speaking, 405–408, 412–414 inoculation of, 438 involving, 412–414, 413t knowledge of, 438 motivating, 406–407 organizing for, 408–409 orientation of, 334–336 rhetorical questions for, 413 situational analysis of, 334–336 authoritarian leadership, 256 authority rule, decision-making by, 260 autoethnography, 51 autonomy, from intimates, 203 autonomy/connection, in personal relationships, 203 Bachen, Christine, 32 Baker, Ron, 135–136 bandwagon appeal, 442, 444t Baran, Stanley, 296 bar graphs, 357, 358f Baxter, Leslie, 18, 203 Beatles, 65 Beck, Aaron, 101 beliefs, 155 Beyer, Janice, 280 bias in group discussion, 263 mass media, 299 self-serving, 35, 45 Bibliographic Retrieval Service (BRS), 345 bilingualism, 165–166 BlackBerry, 297 blaming rites, 291 Blanchard, Ken, 258 “Blaxican,” 107 blogging, 276 body, of speech, 373–374 body image, 60 body language, 130–131 Bollier, David, 315 “Bosses and Buddies,” 289 bowing, 130, 150 Bowlby, John, 52–53 brainstorming electronic, 276 groups, 251–252, 252t, 264 Braithwaite, Dawn, 204 Bratton, Willilam J., 276 Brazil, 129 breast cancer, 5 Brookey, Robert, 304 Brooks, David, 239 Brown, Jane, 306 BRS. see Bibliographic Retrieval Service Buber, Martin, 12, 176 Burke, Kenneth, 439 Bush, George W., 132 calendars, 159 “can-do” culture, 13–14 Cannon, Kristopher, 304 Cantor, Joanne, 306 Cappella, Joseph, 438 careers, in communication, 20–23 Carlos, John, 258 Castle, Janessa, 216 cause–effect pattern, in public speaking, 381–382, 434t cell phones, 307 certainty, 180 chi, 135 children cognitive complexity of, 40 media consumption by, 300, 301, 308, 311, 315 racism in, 166 China, 125, 157. see also Asian culture Cho Seung-Hui, 294 chronemics, 136–137 civil rights movement, 63, 161–162, 355 claims, 427 classrooms, 135–136 climate communication, 239, 240t, 241. see also interpersonal communication Clinton, Bill, 353 closedness, 203 closeness. see also proxemics in dialogue, 192–193 self-disclosure and, 175–176 clothing by culture, 124 femininity in, 55 professional, 133 Clydesdale, Tim, 313 CMC. see computer-mediated communication code talkers, 99 coercive power, 236 cognitive abilities cognitive complexity, 40–41 person-centered perception, 41–42 cognitive complexity, 40–41, 333 cognitive restructuring, 389 cognitive schemata, 30–33 listening through, 77–78 cohesion, of small groups, 232 Cole, Tim, 54 collectivist culture, 150, 237 college students, 219 collegial stories, 280 colloquialisms, 87 colors, 133 colors of love, 213f commencement ceremonies, 282f commitment, 210 in groups, 231 personal relationships, 200–201 to self-change, 64 common ground, 439

518
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INDEX

519 task group methods for, 258–261 in task groups, 253 by voting, 259–260 decoding, 127 deductive reasoning, 427 defensive listening, 85 defensiveness, 179–180, 188 deference, 190, 190t defining, with symbols, 106 DeFrancisco, Victoria, 104 DeGeneres, Ellen, 299 delivery. see also public speaking checklist, 397–398 guidelines for, 393t practice, 395–396 styles of, 390–395 demand-withdraw pattern, 104–105, 105f democracy, 7, 161 democratic leadership, 257 demographics, 8, 332–334, 346 derived credibility, 341f, 430 description, 180 descriptive language, 180 deterioration processes, of romantic relationships, 212–215 diagrams, 357 dialectics, 51, 202–205 Dialog Information Retrieval Service (DIRS), 345 Dickson, Fran, 43 diffusion, 161 digital divide, 309, 310 digitalization, 295–296 direct definition, 50, 52 DIRS. see Dialog Information Retrieval Service disabilities, 178 disconfirmation, 177–179 discrimination gender, 60 perception of, 37, 38 personal identity and, 59–60 sexual orientation, 60, 63 dismissive attachment style, 53–54 Disney, Walt, 65 disruptive conflict, in groups, 267 distance, in romantic relationships, 5, 210, 216 distractions, 80 distributed power structure, 234 diversionary interrupting, 83–84 diversity, 8 of audience, 407–408 in organizational communication, 286–287 in relationships, 192–193 responses to, 163–166 doctors, 21 domestic abuse. see abuse Donald, David Herbert, 255 “downers,” 68 Downing, Joe, 359

communication. see also meaning abstraction in, 42–45 breadth of, 11–17 careers in, 20–23 competence in, 42–45 continuum of, 12f cultural change and, 161–162 defined, 3–4 degree in, 21–23 ethics and, 19–20 field of, 17–20, 19t group, 13 intercultural, 16–17 interpersonal, 12–13, 13f intrapersonal, 11–12 as intricate tapestry, 449–452 mass, 14–15 (see also mass media) models of, 8–11, 9f, 10f, 11f organizational, 13–14 perception and, 35 public, 15–16 (see also public speaking) rules, 102–104 symbolic activities, 17 (see also symbols) unifying themes of, 17–20 values, 4–7 (see also values) communication apprehension, 387 causes of, 388–389 personal account of, 388 reducing, 389–390 communication networks, 275 in organizational culture, 285–286 communication rules, 103, 104 comparative pattern, in public speaking, 380–381, 434t comparison of evidence, 353–354 in public speaking, 353–354 social, 54–55 comparison/contrast, 380 compromise, decision-making by, 260 computer-mediated communication (CMC), 216 conclusion, for public speaking, 385–386 concrete language, 116 confirmation, 176–179, 189–190 conflict components of, 185 constructive, 267–268 covert, 184 culture and social communities and, 186–187 defusing, 191 in groups, 266–268, 267t management of, 185 in personal relationships, 184–187 responses to, 185–187, 186f conformity, in groups, 229

connection with audience, 405–406 intimates, 203 Conrad, Charles, 275, 284 consensus, decision-making by, 258 Constitution, U.S., 321 constitutive rules, 103, 201 in organizational culture, 283 constructive conflict, 267–268 constructivism, 30 consulting, 22 content level of meaning, 4 context in communication style, 150 of culture, 159 of personal relationships, 202 for self-change, 67–68 contextual qualifications, 140 continuum of communication, 12f controlling communication, 182–183 convergence, of media, 296 conversational rerouting, 83 cookies, 315 Cornell International, 279 corporate stories, 278–279 “corrosive communication patterns,” 188 counterarguments, 438 covert conflict, 184 co-workers, 14 Cox, Robert, 136 creativity, in groups, 231 credibility, 384–385 developing, 430–431 enhancing, 432 from eye contact, 131 goodwill and, 430 in informative speaking, 407 for persuasive speaking, 405, 429–432 of research, 350–351 types of, 430 crime stories, in media, 299 criteria, in group discussion, 263–264 critical evaluation, in media literacy, 312–313 critical listening, 86–88 critical thinking, 18–19, 19t criticism, 68 listening to, 255 of media, 22 cross-cultural communication, 125. see also culture cultivation theory, 299–300 cultural calamity, 161, 162 cultural relativism, 163 culture. see also Asian culture; organizational culture; individual names of ethnic groups beliefs in, 155 “can-do,” 13–14 case study, 169–171 clothing by, 124

communication contexts of, 159 communication’s relationship to social communities and, 153–162 conflict and social communities and, 186–187 cultivation theory, 299–300 decision making influence of, 237–239 defined, 147 diffusion of, 161 diversity in, 8, 163–166, 192–193, 286–287, 407–408 as dynamic, 160–162 gender in, 63 historical forces and, 157–159 improving social communities’ communication with, 162–166 individualistic, 37, 150, 152 intercultural communication, 16–17 inventions from, 160–161 language and, 157, 161–162 listening and, 82 marriage and, 212 material and nonmaterial elements of, 154–155 nonverbal communication and, 122–123, 125, 128–130, 140 norms of, 156–157 oral traditions and, 328 perception effect of, 37–39 personal identity and, 58, 59–61 physical appearance and, 131–132 relational, 211–212, 213 sayings and, 153, 154 shaping of, 157–158 social communities within, 148–150, 150–151 as system, 147–148 understanding, 147–153 values of, 7, 128–129, 153–154, 156, 157, 159 cumulative, 300 cybercommunities, 153 cyberspace, 305 Dailey, René, 178 databases, 345, 345f date rape, 161 Davis, Dennis, 286 daylight, 135 debates, 7 decision-making by authority rule, 260 by compromise, 260 by consensus, 258 cultural influences on, 237–239 media literacy, 315

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Licensed to: iChapters User 520
Dr. Pepper, 102 dress. see clothing dual perspective, 112–113 Duck, Steve, 212 dyadic processes, in romantic relationships, 213–214 dysfunctional communication. see egocentric communication earned power, 235 eating disorders, 131 Edson, Belle, 156 education career in, 21 opportunity for, 56 effect–cause pattern, in public speaking, 381–382, 434t effort, in listening, 81–82 Egan, Gerald, 88 ego boundaries, 58 egocentric communication, 239, 240t, 241–242 either-or-logic, 443, 444t Ellen (television show), 299 Ellis, Albert, 67 E=mc2, 230 emotional display, 129 emotional intelligence, 259 emotionally expressive talk, 17, 150, 151, 212 emotion words, 110 empathy, 41, 112, 183 employee mistreatment, 288 empowerment, 258 Empowerment Takes More Than a Minute (Blanchard, Carlos and Randolph), 258 Encouraging the Heart: A Leader’s Guide to Recognizing and Rewarding Others (Kouzes and Posner), 258 endorsement, 179 Enron, 284 entertaining speeches, 327–328 Entrepreneurial Edge, 287 environmental distractions, 80 environmental factors, 135–136 environmental racism, 136 environments, external, 276 equality, 183, 238 equity, in romantic relationships, 216–217 ergo propter hoc, 442, 444t eros, 213 escalation, of romantic relationships, 208–211 ethics, 19–20, 284 ethnicity. see race ethnocentrism, 163, 180 ethos, 424–425, 424f, 424t, 425t. see also credibility euphoria, 210 evaluation critical, 312–313 in group discussion, 264–265
INDEX

negative, 179–180 static, 117 with symbols, 107–108 “everywhere,” 306 Everywhere: the Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing (Greenfield), 306 evidence, 349, 350 checklist for, 363 comparison, 353–354 examples, 352–353 hypothetical example, 353 for informative speaking, 404 for persuasive speaking, 404 public speaking, 350–361, 352t, 358f, 360t, 362f, 404 quotations, 354–357 statistics, 351, 352t testing, 362t visual aids, 357–361, 358f, 360t, 362f examples, 352–353 exit response, to conflict, 185 exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, 186f expectations, 30, 437 expert power, 236 explorational communication, 209 extemporaneous speaking, 392–393 external environments, 276 eye contact in Brazil, 129 credibility from, 131 in families, 135 as responsiveness, 126, 139 in romantic relationships, 127 in U.S., 82, 122, 123, 125, 129, 163 facework, 112 facial expressions, 125, 130 facts, 44–45 Facts on File, 346 factual questions, 262 faculty, 278 fallacies, 440–443, 444t families African Americans, 215 attachment styles of, 52–54 case studies, 48, 94–95 cultural values of, 156 direct definition in, 50, 52 eye contact in, 135 identity scripts in, 52 personal identity influence of, 50, 52–54 silence in, 138 single-parent, 202 as systems, 3 fast food, 161 fearful attachment style, 53 feedback, 9 feelings. see also emotional display ownership of, 113 sounds expressing, 137–138

Feldman, Clyde, 185 femininity in clothing, 55 communication norms of, 123, 127, 140, 165–166, 215, 278 culture and, 14, 63, 159 Internet, 304 in paralanguage, 138 in social communities, 151, 152 feng shui, 135 Filipinos, 237 Fine, Allison, 295 First Amendment, 321 flirting, 32 focus groups, 251 food, 17–18, 131, 161 Ford Foundation, 8 formal outline, in public speaking, 371–372, 372t, 373–376f Foss, Karen, 156 “four horsemen of the apocalypse,” 188 France, 349 Frazier, Patricia, 214 freedom, of speech, 19–20 Fresca, 102 friendly relations, 206 friendships. see also personal relationships stages of, 206–207, 206f at work, 289 Garmon, Cecile, 359 gatekeepers, of mass media, 298–299 gender. see also femininity; men; women abuse and, 218–219 assertiveness by, 238 conflict resolution by, 187 in culture, 63 differences by, 14, 17 discrimination, 60 listening style by, 77, 151–152 masculine language, 278 media and, 315 in organizational culture, 14 paralanguage for, 138 peers and, 55 personal identity by, 60 race and, 61 relationships and, 150–151 as social community, 150–151, 152 socioeconomic class and, 62 stereotypes of, 304 generalizations, 20 distortions from, 101 hasty, 442, 444t of “other,” 59–62 stereotypes as, 31 General Motors, 102 geographic location, 148 culture by, 157–158 Gere, Richard, 396

Gibb, Jack, 179 gift-giving, 125 Gitlin, Todd, 306 goals group, 228 listening, 85–91 for self-change, 65–66 Goleman, Daniel, 5, 259 goodwill, 430 Gottman, John, 188 Grafman, Jordan, 307 “grapevine,” 286 grave-dressing process, 214 Greenfield, Adam, 306 greetings, 130 grieving, 204 Groopman, Jerome, 32 grounds, 427 group discussion analyzing issues for, 263 choosing and implementing decisions in, 265 defining problems for, 261–263 developing action plan for solution monitoring in, 265 establishing criteria for, 263–264 evaluating solutions in, 264–265 generating solutions in, 264 standard agenda stages, 261–266, 262f Group Genius (Sawyer), 230 groups, 13. see also task groups case study in, 246–248 commitment in, 231 conflict in, 266–268, 267t conformity in, 229 creativity in, 231 decision making, cultural influences on, 237–239 defined, 226–227 forms of communication in, 239–243, 240t interaction patterns, 235–236, 235f limitations of, 228–229 norms of, 236–237 power structure, 234–236 regulative rules for, 227–228 resources of, 230 shared goals for, 228 size of, 233 small groups, 232–233, 239–243 strengths of, 230–232 virtual, 241 groupthink, 232 Guarino, Alan, 279 Guerrilla Girls, 314 Gutierrez, Emilio, 182 Guugu Timithirr, 108 “Half and Half” (Young), 51 Hall, Edward, 134 Hall, Edward T., 147

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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INDEX

521
Klein, Gerda Weisman, 325 Koreans, 157. see also Asian culture communication style of, 163 Kouzes, James, 258 Kuwait, 297 kvetching, 282 Kwanzaa, 133 labels, 42, 50, 57 laissez-faire leadership, 255–256 language, 51. see also American Sign Language (ASL); women abstraction in, 116 of African Americans, 158 body language, 130–131 code talkers, 99 concrete, 116 culture and, 157, 161–162 evaluation in, 107–108 expressive, 17, 150, 151, 212 hierarchical, 277–278 I-language, 113–114, 139–140 loaded, 108 masculine, 278 Navajo, 99 paralanguage, 137–138 perception and, 108 private, 222 qualified, 116–117 slang, 87 translation of, 102 you-language, 114, 139–140 Latinas/Latinos connotation of, 108 in mass media, 299 Laue, Max Von, 230 leaders of brainstorming groups, 252 vs leadership, 254–255 A Leader’s Guide to Recognizing and Rewarding Others (Kouzes and Posner), 258 leadership authoritarian, 256 democratic, 257 with emotional intelligence, 259 empowerment through, 258 laissez-faire, 255–256 leaders vs, 254–255 by Lincoln, 255 shared, 254–255 styles of, 255–256 Lee, Wen-Shu, 87 Leets, Laura, 54 legal system, 56 legitimate power, 236 Le Poire, Beth, 187 lesbians, domestic responsibilities with, 217–218. see also homosexuality Levi Strauss, 279 Levy, David, 306 library, 344–346

halo effect, 356, 443, 444t Hamilton, Cheryl, 360 handouts, 358 handshakes, 130, 178 Hanks, Tom, 299, 325 Hanukkah, 133 happiness, 5 haptics, 131 hasty generalizations, 442, 444t hate crimes, 164 hate speech, 440 health, 5, 6 hearing, 75 heart disease, 5 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 38 Henley, Nancy, 136 heterosexuality, 50 hierarchical language, 277–278 hierarchical power structure, 234–235 hierarchy, social, 38 high-context communication style, 150 Hill, Anita, 343 Hindus, 158 Hispanic, connotation of, 108 historical forces, culture and, 157–159 HIV/AIDS, 161, 220 Hoeken, Has, 349 holidays, 133, 159, 278 homosexuality, 50 discrimination against, 63 HIV/AIDS crisis and, 161 homophobia, 62 in mass media, 299 honesty, 189 Hong Kong, 129 hook, 312 Hornikx, Jos, 349 How Doctors Think (Groopman), 32 How to Stubbornly Refuse to Make Yourself Miserable About Anything—Yes, Anything (Ellis), 67 “Human Family” (Angelou), 167–168 human relations, 22 humor, 327, 328 hypothetical example, 353 hypothetical thought, 109, 111 idealization, in long-distance relationships, 210, 216 identification, 439 identity scripts, 52 ideological control, 301–302 ignoring, 138 “I Have a Dream” (King), 355, 378–379 I-language, 113–114, 139–140 Illouz, Eva, 32 immigrants, 16 impromptu speaking, 391–392 IMs. see instant messages independence, 208

indexes, 344–345 indexing, 117 India, 55 individualism, 63, 237 inductive reasoning, 427 Industrial Revolution, 148 infants, development of, 58 inferences, 44–45 informality, 239 informational listening, 86–88 informative speaking, 328–329 audience for, 405–408, 412–414 case study, 419 credibility in, 407 in everyday life, 402–403 evidence for, 404 guidelines for, 405–414 for learning and retention, 410–412 materials for, 414–415 organizing for, 408–410, 409t outlining, 417–418 persuasive speaking vs., 402–405, 403t thesis statement for, 405 types of, 402t InfoTrac, 345 Ingham, Harry, 174 initial credibility, 430 inoculation, of audience, 438 instant messages (IMs), 110 intelligence, emotional, 259 intensifying communication, 209–210 interaction nonverbal regulation of, 126 patterns, 235–236, 235f role-limited, 206 interactive models, of communication, 9–10, 10f intercultural communication, 16–17 internalization, of others’ perspectives, 58–62 Internet, 148, 305 control of, 315 digital divide, 309, 310 hate speech, 440 information reliability, from, 344 online research, 344–346, 345f privacy on, 285 romantic relationships through, 209 sexism on, 153, 304 social communities on, 153, 304 stereotypes on, 304 interpersonal communication, 12–13, 13f case study, 195–198 defensive and supportive climates in, 179–183 exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, 186f

guidelines for healthy climates, 187–189 interpersonal climate, 173 Johari Window, 174–175, 174f media continuum, 297f self-disclosure, 173–174 supportive climates of, 176–177 interpretation after listening, 78 of nonverbal communication, 139–140 perception, 33–35 of symbols, 102 interruptions, 81 diversionary, 83–84 interviews, 124, 346–347 intimate partner violence, 218–219, 219f intrapersonal communication, 11–12 Intrapersonal Communication (Vocate), 12 intrapsychic processes, of romantic relationships, 212–213 introduction, for public speaking, 25–26, 382–385 invention, 160–161 investment, in personal relationship, 201 invitational communication, 209 isolation, 5 Israel, 282 Italy, 129 “I–Thou” relationships, 12 Iwo Jima, 99 Jackson, Jesse, 164 Jagat Man Lama, 161 Japanese people, eye contact for, 122, 123, 125, 163, 164–165. see also Asian culture Jenkins, Henry, 303 Jet, 216 Jewish people, 158 job interview, 124 Johari Window, 174–175, 174f Jordan, Michael, 65 judgment, 88 justice, 56 Kaiser Foundation, 307 Katriel, Tamar, 282 Katz, Phyllis, 166 Keller, Helen, 97–98, 98f Kelly, George, 30 Kennedy, John F., 229, 354 key word outline, in public speaking, 373 kinara, 133 kinesics, 130–131 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 355, 378–379 kiturim, 282

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Licensed to: iChapters User 522
Life on the Color Line: The True Story of a White Boy Who Discovered He Was Black (Williams, G.), 149 life span, 160 lighting, 135 liking, 127 Lincoln, Abraham, 255 linear models, of communication, 8–9, 9f listening active, 78, 82, 140 adapting, to communication goals, 85–91 after conflict, 191 case study, 94–95 Chinese character for, 76f complexity of, 75 critical, 86–88 to criticism, 255 defensive, 85 defined, 75 to discriminate, 91 effective, 74 effort in, 81–82 gendered styles of, 77, 151–152 informational, 86–88 interpretation after, 78 literal, 85 noises, 14 nonlistening, 83–85 obstacles to, 79–83, 86 organization after, 77–78 physical reception for, 76–77 for pleasure, 91 professionally, 74–75 questions with, 86–87 relational, 88–90 remembering after, 78–79 responding after, 78 selective, 77, 84 with stereotypes, 77 styles of, 77, 82, 151–152 literal listening, 85 loaded language, 108 locus, 33, 34t logos, 424f, 427 loneliness, 29 long-distance relationships, 5, 210, 216 looking-glass self, 59 Los Angeles Police Department, 276 love colors of, 213f styles of, 213 low-context communication style, 150 loyalty response, to conflict, 186, 186f ludus, 213 Luft, Joseph, 174 Macy, R. H., 65 mainstream culture, 148–149, 165 mainstreaming, in mass media, 300
INDEX

management, 23, 253 mania, 213 manipulation, 181 manuscript speaking, 394–395 marriage, 5 age at, 160 communication patterns in, 188 “corrosive communication patterns,” 188 culture and, 212 grieving in, 204 interracial, 33, 202 perception in, 43 same-sex, 63 masculine language, 278 masculinity, 150 mass communication, 14–15 mass media agendas set by, 298–299 bias of, 299 defined, 295 gratification from, 297–298 ideological control in, 301–302 mainstreaming in, 300 media continuum, 297f romantic relationships in, 301 understanding, 297 values, 301 violence in, 300–301 worldviews cultivated by, 299–300 McCroskey, James, 387, 430 Mead, George Herbert, 4 meaning, 17–18 content level, 4 defined, 28 interpretation of, 102 punctuation and, 104–105 relationship-level, 4, 126–128 media. see also mass media; media literacy; social media access to, 309–311 conscious choice with, 314 continuum, 297f convergence of, 296 crime stories in, 299 criticism of, 22 gender and, 315 influence of, 56, 309 nature and scope of, 295–297, 297f production, 21–22 media literacy, 308 access to media, 309–311 active response with, 314–315 analyzing media, 311–312 components of, 308f critical evaluation in, 312–313 decision making, 315 melting pot, 164 memorized speaking, 395 men assertiveness of, 238 listening style of, 77 paralanguage of, 138

socialized role of, 63 menorah, 133 Merolla, Andy, 216 mesibot kiturim, 282 message complexity, 79–80 message overload, 79 Metts, Sandra, 32 Mexico, 102, 130 Microsoft, 279 military, 277–278 mindfulness, 76, 86, 88 mind map, 326, 327f, 361, 362f mind reading, 43–44 minimal encouragers, 89 minorities, 8 discrimination perception by, 37, 38 mistreatment of, 288 values of, 278 misunderstandings, 115 Mitchell, William, 279 mnemonic devices, 87 models of communication interactive, 9–10, 10f linear, 8–9, 9f transactional, 10–11, 11f Molloy, Jennifer, 322 Momentum: Igniting Social Change in the Connected Age (Fine), 295 Mondale, Walter, 335 monopolizing, 83–84 Monroe, Alan, 433–434 mothers, 202 Mother Teresa, 75 motivated sequence pattern, 433–435, 435t motivation, 436 motives, 29 Motley, Michael, 322 movement, towards friendship, 207 MTV, 301 multilingualism, 166–167 multiracialism, 33 multitasking, 307–308 music, 135 nascent friendship, 207 Native Americans, 328, 343 Navajo language, 99 navigation, in romantic relationships, 211–212 negativity, 68, 178–179 neglect response, to conflict, 185 Nepal, 147, 161 The Netherlands, 349 neutrality, 183 neutralization, 203 New York Times, 5 noises, 10, 14 non-Hispanic whites, 8 nonverbal communication case study, 143–145 cultural differences in, 122–123, 125, 128–130, 140 improving, 139–140

principles of, 123–130 relationship-level meaning in, 126–128 types, 130–138 verbal communication and, 123–126 by women, 127 norms cultural, 156–157 of feminine communication, 123, 127, 140, 165–166, 215, 278 of groups, 236–237 in mass media, 301–302 novelty/predictability, in personal relationships, 203 Nunes, Mark, 295, 305 Obama, Barack, 132 Obama, Michelle, 431 obstacles, to listening, 79–83, 86 O’Donnell-Trujillo, Nick, 278, 282 Ohanian, Hans, 230 One Survivor Remembers (documentary), 325 online research, 344–346, 345f openness/closedness, 203 oppression, 19 oral communication, 371 oral traditions, 328 Orbuch, Terri, 187 organization, of perception, 30–33 organizational communication, 13–14 case study in, 293 diversity in, 286–287 external environments of, 276 guidelines for, 286–290 key features of, 274–276 personal relationships, 289–290 team changes in, 287–288 organizational culture, 13 communication networks in, 285–286 gender in, 14 policies of, 284–285 rites and rituals, 280–282 stories of, 278–280 structures, 283 vocabulary, 277–278 orientation, 182, 334–336. see also sexual orientation Ornish, Dean, 6 outline, for public speaking, 371–373, 372t, 373–376f, 417–418 overt conflict, 184 Pacanowsky, Michael, 278, 282 pakikisma, 237 paralanguage, 137–138 paraphrasing, 89, 356 participation, in diversity, 165–166

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Licensed to: iChapters User
INDEX

523 qualifications, personal, 139–140 qualified language, 116–117 qualifier, 428 qualifying words, 20 quality circles, 253 quality improvement teams, 253 questions clarifying, 312 listening and, 86–87 rhetorical, 383, 413 quilt metaphor, 164 quotations, in public speaking, 354–357 race, 8. see also ethnocentrism gender and, 61 mass media bias with, 299 multiracialism in, 33 personal identity from, 59–60 as social communities, 152 socioeconomic class and, 62 racism in children, 166 environmental, 136 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, 306 Randolph, Alan, 258 rape, 161, 351 Rather, Dan, 75 Rawlins, Bill, 206 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, 346 Reagan, Ronald, 106 reasoning fallacies in, 440–443, 444t Toulmin model of, 427–429, 428f rebuttal, 428–429 reciprocity, 187 recognition, 177 red herring arguments, 442–443, 444t reference works, 346 referent power, 236 reflected appraisal, 59 reframing, 205 regulative rules, 103, 201 for groups, 227–228 in organizational culture, 284 rehearsing, 12, 393, 394, 396 relational culture, 211–212, 213 relational dialectics, 202–205 relational listening, 88–90 relationship-level meaning, 4, 126–128 relationships attribution in, 34, 35 communication rules in, 103, 104 conflict in, 184–187 critical thinking in, 18 diversity in, 192–193 flirting, 32 gendered idea of, 150–151 hypothetical thought in, 111 “I-Thou,” 12 mind reading in, 43–44

particular others, 58–59 passion, 200 pathos, 424f, 425–426, 426t patterns demand-withdraw, 104–105, 105f interaction, 235–236, 235f in marriage, 188 in media, 311–312 in public speaking, 374–382, 433t, 434t, 435t peers, 54–55 Pennebaker, James, 110 The People & the Press, 332 perception checking, 44 cognitive ability effect on, 40–42 communication and, 35 communication and abstraction and, 42–43, 43f culture’s effect on, 37–39 defined, 28 discrimination, 37, 38 influences on, 30, 36 interpretation, 33–35 labels, 42, 50, 57 language and, 108 in marriage, 43 organization, 30–33 person-centered, 41–42 physiology’s effect on, 36–37 selection, 28–29 self-, 29 social role effect on, 39–40 subjectivity of, 43 symbols to organize, 109 “perpetual linkage,” 306 personal constructs, 31 personal growth, 174–175 personal identity attachment styles and, 53f case study, 71–72 culture and, 58, 59–61 describing, 108 family influence on, 50, 52–54 by gender, 60 name and, 156 peer influence on, 54–55 racial, 59–60 self-fulfilling prophecy in, 56–57 sexual orientation and, 60 society’s influence on, 55–56 socioeconomic class and, 61 personal knowledge, 346 personal relationships. see also romantic relationships challenges in, 215–216 commitment, 200–201 context of, 202 evolutionary course of, 205–206 long-distance, 5, 210, 216

organizational communication, 289–290 relational dialectics, 202–205 rules of, 201 social communities and, 202 uniqueness, 200 personal rituals, 281–282 personal stories, 279–280 person-centered perception, 41–42 perspective, 41–42. see also social perspectives dual, 112–113 internalization of, 58–62 understanding, 89 persuasive speaking, 326, 329–330 case study, 446–448 common ground in, 439 credibility for, 405, 429–432 defined, 422–423 ethos and, 424–425, 424f, 424t, 425t fallacies in reasoning with, 440–443, 444t guidelines for, 438–444 informative speaking vs., 402–405, 403t logos and, 424f, 427 motivated sequence pattern for, 433–435, 435t organizing for, 432–438, 433–434t pathos and, 424f, 425–426, 426t sides of issues in, 436, 438 Philadelphia (film), 299, 325 photographs, 357–358 physical appearance, 131–132 pie charts, 357, 358f piercings, 133 plagiarism, 356 policies, of organizational culture, 284–285 policy focus, 262–263 Poole, Marshall Scott, 275, 284 positive visualization, 389–390 positivity, 68 Posner, Barry, 258 Potter, James, 311 power, 127–128 sources of, 236 structure, in groups, 234–236 PowerPoint, 359 practice, public speaking, 395–396 pragma, 213 predictability, 203 prejudgment, listening and, 81 preoccupation, 80 preview, for public speaking, 385 privacy, 203, 285 problem-oriented communication, 182 problem-solution pattern, 434t procedural communication, 239, 240t, 241

progress, change, and speed, 238 project teams, 250–251 prototype, 30 provisionalism, 181 proxemics, 134–135 PSAs. see public service announcements pseudolistening, 83 psychological responsibility, for romantic relationship, 218 public figures, 298 public opinion, 332 public service announcements (PSAs), 438 public speaking, 11, 15 audience analysis, 332–333 case studies, 339–340, 365–367, 399–400 cause-effect pattern in, 381–382, 434t communication apprehension with, 387–390 comparative pattern in, 380–381, 434t comparisons in, 353–354 conclusion for, 385–386 delivery styles, 390, 391–396, 393t demographic audience analysis, 332–334 as enlarged communication, 322–323 evidence for, 350–361, 352t, 358f, 360t, 362f, 404 examples, 352–353 interviews, 346–347 introduction for, 25–26, 382–385 library and online research for, 344–346, 345f organization for, 370–382 outline for, 371–373, 372t, 373–376f, 417–418 patterns in, 374–380, 433t personal knowledge in, 346 presenting, 390–395 purpose of, 326–330, 328f quotations in, 354–357 rehearsing for, 12, 393, 394, 396 research for, 343–350 role of, 321 scholars of, 16 situational audience analysis, 334–336 statistics in, 351, 352t steps in planning, 331t surveys, 347–349, 348t thesis statement for, 330, 330t, 383–384 topic choice for, 324–326 transitions in, 386–387 visual aids, 356–362, 358f, 360t, 362f, 412f, 415f puffery, 313 punctuality, 136 punctuation, 104–105

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Licensed to: iChapters User 524 relationships, continued talking about, 152 values, 6 women in, 39 remembering, 78–79 repetition, 411 research, 20–21. see also evidence case study, 365–367 checklist, 363 conducting, 343–350, 348t credibility of, 350–351 online, 344–346, 345f resistance, to diversity, 163 resonance, in mass media, 300–301 resources, of group, 230 respect for diversity, 165 in verbal communication, 115 responding, 78 responsibility, 34, 34t, 217–218 responsiveness, 126–127, 139 résumés, video, 305 resurrection processes, in romantic relationships, 214 retention, 78–79, 87–88, 410–412 revising communication, 210 reward power, 236 RFID. see radio frequency identification tags rhetorical questions, 383 involving audience with, 413 Richmond, Virginia, 387 Ridley, Carl, 185 risk, uncertainty and, 238–239 rites, 280–282, 291 rites of integration, 281 rites of passage, 280–281 rituals, 281–282 Rocky Mountain Institute, 135 Rogers, Edna, 182 role-limited interaction, 206 roles, 206 in organizational culture, 283 social, 39–40, 63 Rollie, Stephanie, 212 romantic relationships abuse in, 218–219, 219f case study in, 223–224 controlling communication in, 182 defined, 106–107 deterioration processes of, 212–215 emotion words in, 110 equitable, 216–217 escalation, 208–211 evolution of, 208–210, 208f eye contact in, 127 long-distance, 5, 210, 216 love styles in, 213, 213f in mass media, 301 navigation in, 211–212 negotiating safe sex in, 220 reframing in, 205
INDEX

self-disclosure in, 175, 176, 209 space in, 134, 135 at work, 289 Rusbult, Caryl, 185 Ruth, Babe, 65 safe sex, 220 Sawyer, Keith, 230 sayings, 153, 154 Scarf, Maggie, 211 Schütz, Astrid, 35 scope, 34, 34t, 295–297, 297f Scott, Craig, 241 scripts, 32, 52, 78 Second Life, 304 secure attachment style, 53 segmentation, 205 selection, 28–29 selective listening, 77, 84 self. see also personal identity; self-change defined, 50 development of, 50 enhancement of, 64–68 internalization for, 58–62 multidimensionality of, 57 as process, 58, 64 self-acceptance, 66, 189–190 self-change acceptance for, 66 commitment to, 64 context for, 67–68 goals for, 65–66 knowledge for, 64–65 self-concept. see personal identity self-disclosure appropriate, 192 in Asian culture, 193 closeness and, 175–176 interpersonal communication, 173–174 personal growth and, 174–175 in romantic relationships, 175, 176, 209 self-esteem, 12 self-fulfilling prophecy, 29, 56–57 self-indication, 29 self-introduction speech, 25–26 self-perception, 29 self-reference, 163 self-reflection, 111–112 self-sabotage, 67–68 self-serving bias, 35, 45 self-talk, 12 senses, 29 separation response, in personal relationships, 203, 205 sexism, on Internet, 304 sexual harassment, 161 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 220 sexual orientation domestic responsibilities with, 218 heterosexuality, 50

marriage and, 63 in mass media, 299 personal identity and, 60 socioeconomic class and, 62 Shannon, Claude, 9, 9f Siegenthaler, John, 313 Sierra Club, 325 silence, 138, 177 Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth (Bollier), 315 similarity, 209, 212 situational audience analysis, 334–336 skills training, 390 slang, 87 Slatcher, Richard, 110 slides, 360t slippery slope fallacy, 442, 444t Smith, Anna Deavere, 81 Smith, Raymond W., 440 smoking, 436 social climbing, 235 social communities. see also culture communication’s relationship to culture and, 153–162 within culture, 148–151 culture and conflict and, 186–187 gender as, 150–151, 152 improving culture’s communication with, 162–166 Internet-based, 153, 304 personal relationships and, 202 race as, 152 social comparison, 54–55 social hierarchies, 38 Social Intelligence (Goleman), 5 socialization, 59 socialized roles, 39 social media, 14–15 altered conceptions of space by, 303, 305 blurring of production and consumption by, 303 case study, 318–319 defined, 295–296 multitasking with, 307–308 stalking through, 219 supersaturation from, 306 understanding, 302–303, 305–308 visual thinking with, 308 social perspectives changeability of, 63–64 construction of, 62 evolution of, 63 generalized other, 59–62 particular others, 58–59 variability of, 63 social rituals, 282 social roles, 39–40 social support processes, in romantic relationships, 214

socioeconomic class gender and, 62 personal identity and, 61 race and, 62 romantic relationships and, 209 sexual orientation and, 62 Sorenstam, Annika, 388 space, 127–129, 150 proxemics, 134–135 in romantic relationships, 134, 135 social media effect on, 303, 305 Sparks, Glenn, 300 spatial patterns, in public speaking, 376–377, 433t speeches to entertain. see entertaining speeches speeches to inform. see informative speaking speeches to persuade. see persuasive speaking spontaneity, 182 Spooner, John, 285 sport-related terms, 278, 279 spyware, 315 stability, 33–34, 34t, 207 Stafford, Laura, 216 stalking, 218–219 standard agenda, in group discussion, 261–266, 262f standpoint theory, 38 Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 156 star patterns, in public speaking, 377–378, 433t static evaluation, 117 statistics, 351, 352t status, 136 in groups, 229 social climbing for, 235 terms of address for, 278 STDs. see sexually transmitted diseases Steele, Rayford, 296, 313 stereotypes, 19, 20, 109 defined, 31 gender, 304 listening with, 77 stonewalling, 188 storage, 213 stories, 278–280, 353 storytelling, 328 “Strangers May Cheer You Up, Study Says,” 5 strategy, 181 study teams, 13 superiority, 183 supersaturation, 306 supervisors, 14 surveys, 347–349, 348t sushi, 161 symbolic abilities, 105–112 symbolic activities, 17 symbols, 4 as abstract, 101 ambiguity of, 100 as arbitrary, 98–99

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

INDEX

525
Wade, Carol, 18 waning, of friendship, 208 warrant, 427–428 war stories, 279 Watergate, 284 wave patterns, in public speaking, 378, 380, 433t Weaver, Warren, 9, 9f websites, for media literacy, 315 Weisinger, Hendrie, 191 Wellstone, Paul, 335, 336 West, Candice, 123 Wikipedia, 313 Williams, Gregory Howard, 149 Williams, James Anthony “Buster,” 149 Wilsonline, 345 Winans, James, 322 women. see also femininity clothing of, 124 discrimination perception by, 37 empathy for, 112 expressive language by, 150, 212 listening style of, 77 as mothers, 202 names of, 156 nonverbal communication by, 127 paralanguage of, 138 rights of, 60, 63, 297 socialized role of, 39, 63 touching, 131 violence against, 218–219, 219f Women’s Rights Convention, 156 Wong, Norman, 436 Woods, Tiger, 33 working outline, in public speaking, 371 Worktrack, 285 World War II, 99 Yoshimura, Stephen, 187 you-language, 114, 139–140 Young, Stephanie, 51 Young Presidents Forum, 252 Zorn, Ted, 14, 289

defined, 106 evaluating with, 107–108 hypothetical thought through, 109, 111 interpretation of, 102 to organize perception, 109 self-reflection through, 111–112 symbolic abilities, 105–112 synergy, 230 systematic desensitization, 389 systemic, 3 Tang, Siu Wa, 125 Tashiro, Ty, 214 task communication, 239–240, 240t task groups advisory groups, 252–253 brainstorming groups, 251–252, 252t case study, 271–272 decision-making groups, 253 decision-making methods, 258–261 focus groups, 251 project teams, 250–251 quality improvement teams, 253 task rituals, 282 Tavris, Carol, 18, 34 teams, 226 changes, 287–288 defined, 227 project, 250–251 quality improvement, 253 study, 13 virtual, 241 teamwork, 13 technology, 37 age of users, 296 logging off from, 306 speed and, 239 teams and, 241 ubiquitous computing, 306 telecommuting, 241, 275 television. see mass media terminal credibility, 431 terms of address, 278 territoriality, 128–129, 134–135 Teven, Jason, 430

thesis statement for informative speaking, 405 for public speaking, 330, 330t, 383–384 Thomas, Clarence, 343 thoroughness, of groups, 230 time, 136–137 for group process, 228–229 “time out,” 191 time patterns, in public speaking, 374–376, 379, 433t Timmerman, Erik, 241 tolerance, 164, 238–239 Toller, Paige, 204 topical patterns, in public speaking, 377, 433t topic choice, for public speaking, 324–326 totalizing, 106 total quality management, 253 touching, 127, 131, 150 Toulmin, Stephen, 427–428 Toulmin model of reasoning, 427–429, 428f Towne, Neil, 78–79 transactional models, of communication, 10–11, 11f transitions, in public speaking, 386–387 translation, 102 Trice, Harrison, 280 “ubiquitous computing,” 306 uncertainty certainty, 180 risk and, 238–239 tolerance for, 238–239 uniqueness, 200 “uppers,” 68 U.S. (United States) Census Bureau, 33 Constitution, 321 cultural values of, 159 demographics, 8 equality in, 238 eye contact in, 82, 122, 123, 125, 129, 163 multiracialism in, 33

norms, 156–157 regions of, 157 uses and gratification theory, 297–298 Valentin, Escudero, 182 validation, 187–188 value questions, 262 values cultural, 7, 128–129, 153–154, 156, 157, 159 mass media, 301 of minorities, 278 personal, 4–5 professional, 6–7 relationship, 6 Vazire, Simine, 110 verbal communication abstract language, 116 case study, 120–121 demand-withdraw pattern, 104–105, 105f effectiveness in, 112–117 I-language, 113–114, 139–140 nonverbal communication and, 123–126 principles of, 102–105 qualified language, 116–117 respect, 115 symbolic abilities, 105–112 Veroff, Joseph, 187 Vertical Limit, 256 video résumés, 305 violence in mass media, 300–301 in romantic relationships, 218, 219, 219f Virginia Tech, 294–295 Virtual Library, 346 visual aids, 356–362, 358f, 360t, 362f, 412f, 415f visual delivery, 390 visual thinking, with social media, 308 vocal delivery, 390 Vocate, Donna, 12 voice, 137–138 voice response, to conflict, 186 voting, decision-making by, 259–260 “vultures,” 68

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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