Free Essay

Counseling

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By janacky
Words 5596
Pages 23
CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN MALAYSIA:

DEVELOPMENT AND TRENDS

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Quek Ai Hwa
University of Malaya

Career Guidance and Counselling in Malaysia: Development and Trends

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Quek Ai Hwa
Education Faculty, University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

This paper extends a comprehensive presentation of career guidance and counselling in Malaysia by addressing development and trends, which may have implications for Asian counsellors. Attention is drawn on career guidance development in Malaysia which spanned over four decades of practice starting with its introduction into the educational system and progressing as a social service in the Malaysian society. Discussion proceeds onto the modernity impact of society on career guidance together with reviewing factors like policy legislation aimed at legitimising counselling practice including career counselling to-date in Malaysia. Given the prevalence of information technology (IT) and rapid changes in labour market conditions (including work culture as well as structure) brought about by science and technology (S&T) in many Asian countries including Malaysia, it is relevant to discuss some of the challenges to Asian career counsellors in general and with special reference to Malaysian counterparts. These challenges include preparedness of counsellors to handle career cases in societies which are in transition from production oriented to technology driven and knowledge economies. Accompanying these cases are associated issues (including erosion of value systems and lack of responsiveness to change) impacted by increasing leverage of S&T on individuals in their workplace and at home. Current trends (like integrating living and learning in work) and the future of career counselling which have implications for Asian and Malaysian counsellors are also discussed.

Key words: Career guidance and counselling, development, policies, trends, future practice.

Introduction

The essence of career guidance and counselling is human development. To the extent that human development is concerned with human well-being then it is not surprising that in Malaysia, career guidance originated in the school system. Retaining this repose in schools, it is reported that career guidance (Llyod, 1986) was initiated in Malaysia as far back as 1939. On a general note, the strengths of guidance services were found to offer potentials for meeting student problems (Tan, 1979) resulting in student well-being. This recognition is documented in the Report on Vocational Education, 1938 which emphasised the necessity of guidance services (Federation of Malaya, 1955) in schools. Maintaining that guidance services are essential in schools, the subsequent years (till the commencement of the Counsellors Act 1998) saw guidance services including career counselling emerging as helping services in the educational system (Quek, 1999a; 1999b; 2000a).

Development And Trends

Following the above perspective this discussion addressess career guidance and counselling as part of mainstream counselling in Malaysia. This approach to career guidance and counselling is reflective of the contemporary development and trends of counselling in Malaysia, namely:

• the introduction of guidance services • the consolidation of guidance and counselling • the emerging counselling profession

Introduction Of Guidance Services

Even though career guidance was broached as early as 1939, however, its launching in schools only took place in 1967. In summary, guidance services actually started in school settings by public policy effected through the Ministry of Education (MOE) in its Service Circular, KP5209/35/4(4) which called for all schools (primary and secondary) to have their own guidance teacher (MOE, Malaysia, 1964). According to Abdul Latif (1984) it is reported that MOE in its directive to schools, Surat Pekililing Pentadbiran No. 3/67 in 1982 amended that each secondary school was to have a Career Guidance Teacher starting from 1983. Thus, in 1984 directives were sent to schools by MOE, concerning the setting up of a counselling room and other basic amenities so as to enable the Career Guidance Teacher to conduct smoothly guidance services.

In the context of school settings, guidance services were considered as appropriate educational services (MOE, Malaysia, 1968) since schools presented suitable premises for Career Guidance Teachers to assist students in making intelligent decisions and effectuate copability. This ensuing trend was characterised by the establishment of career clubs in schools and the practice of compiling inventories of students through keeping cumulative record cards including disseminating of career information. The Career Guidance Teacher also handled cases of social psychological problems, career problems and educational problems (Chew, Lee & Quek (Eds.), 1995)

Even though by 1985 each secondary school had a Career Guidance Teacher and a counselling room, more needed to be done to improve the guidance services in school settings. According to Amir Awang and Latiff Mirasa (1984), among the various difficulties encountered in the provision guidance services were a shortage of trained counsellors and a lack of proper facilities. In addition, the Career Guidance Teacher also had to perform teaching duties and much of the guidance services had to be rendered during off-school hours.

Additionally, in the early 1980s, the above problems were also found in other public educational institutions like Counselling Services Unit of MARA schools, the University of Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia (Abdul Halim Othman, 1984; 1999; Suradi Salim, 1994).

In summary, in the early 1980s, guidance services including career counselling were practised with wide variations. This means counselling was conducted by counsellors who had various types of training; the ethics also varied among counsellors; the performance among counsellors were quite different and the nature of services termed as counselling also was not uniform among counsellors in school and non-school settings. For instance, in the Department of Social Welfare, counselling was conducted by Welfare Assistants or Officers who were not counselling specialists. In addition, these Welfare Assistants or Officers were bound by the Ethical Code of their Department (Mohamad Hussein, 1994). On the other hand, the School Guidance Teachers at that time followed the Code of Ethics of the Malaysian Counselling Association. Elsewhere, in the private sector, career counselling was limited

Given the above scenario of the early 1980s, it seemed that career counselling was like a type of folkway practice. As such, the career counsellor could be any personnel who had some, little or no professional training in guidance and counselling.

• Consolidation Of Guidance And Counselling

In the lack of personnel with specialised training to implement the guidance programme, teachers were appointed as counsellors in schools. Prime emphasis of MOE was placed upon their in-service training and seminars regarding what to do and how to do it in the conduct of guidance and career services (Mohamad Hussein, 1994; Quek, 1992; 1993). However, from 1985 onwards, witnessed public policy and MOE making concerted efforts in consolidating guidance services. In retrospective, their efforts were in tandem with the formulation and implementation of the Industrial Master Plan in 1985 which produced the foundation for the anticipated accelerated industrial development (Quek & Soon, 1995). The public strategies adopted in this Plan catalysed the transformation of the Malaysian economy through diversifying the industrial sector to include a broader base of heavy industries and resource-based industrials. As a precursor to high technology and knowledge-based industries in 1983 was established the Malaysia Incorporated by the Malaysian government. These strategies were anticipated to speed up relevant industrial and commercial activities of the business sector so as to keep pace with development of the public sector in attaining national development goals (Quek, 1994a; 1996a; 1996b). This trend towards supporting and sustaining national development meant consolidation of public strategies to address the management of economic advancement and related social psychological problems that arise from changes in the economy. For instance, the need to focus on social issues and problems arising from the fast growth of the economy so as to ascertain that ethical and moral impairment did not hamper the development of the young in society (Quek, 1997).

This posited more comprehensive efforts through public policy to improve the educational system. Thus, guidance services in schools also received public attention and intervention. For example, in 1984 was established the Guidance and Counselling Unit within the School Division of MOE. This Guidance and Counselling Unit then proceeded to introduce guidelines on the practice of guidance and career services in schools.

This Unit formulated ten (10) prescribed roles for guidance and counselling teachers in the secondary schools. These roles included Student Record; Individual Inventory; Informational Service; Group Guidance; Counselling; Placement, Referral and Consultation; Parental Conferencing; Resource Coordination and Evaluation. Reinforcing this trend of consolidating guidance and counselling services by the government through MOE, was the renaming of the Career Guidance Teacher to that of School Counsellor. Implicit in this new nomenclature was the accompanying expectation of the School Counsellor to conduct not only the prescribed roles more effectively but also to handle drug-abuse problems and increasing numbers of disciplinary cases among students.

In the context that counselling results in better human well-being, the 1990s witnessed the establishment of counselling units in various government and non-government institutions outside school settings. For example, in 1990, the Central Bank Malaysia set up the Counselling Unit in its Personnel Department at its headquarters. It is noted that career counselling undertaken dealt with cases of salary, promotion, financing, employment problems, job transfers and other aspects of career and placement (Kamarudin Hassan, 1994), Another instance is the Malaysian Armed Forces, which saw counselling as important in assisting military personnel deal with issues and problems in their personal and military capacities in duty performance and daily living. Career counselling is also carried out by the establishment of counselling units in the army. In other instances, the Welfare Officers also conducted career counselling as part of their duties in social work.

Regarding that counselling initiates and helps sustain human development which contributes to developing a caring society, a pivotal measure was undertaken by the Malaysian government to establish in 1992 the Counselling and Psychological Unit in the Civil Service Department at Kuala Lumpur. This gives official sanction that counselling including career counselling is not the caveat of the School Counsellor. Official recognition is given for the first time to the needs for counselling by individual other than students. These other individuals include civil servants, members of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and quasi-government personnel and a host of other public servants.

With official endorsement given to counselling by the Malaysian government, the 1990s witnessed more students, civil servants and other individuals wanting counselling including career counselling. It is reported within schools settings, counselling was preferred to the other guidance services by students (Quek 1996a; 1994b; Suradi Salim, 1994). It is observed that the career counselling sought by students were on academic and vocational problems. Career guidance also dealt with cases largely associated with educational and career information needed for decision making by students (Suradi Salim, 1994). It is noted that in the business sector, career counselling tended to be given lowest priority. In some forms, career counselling was handled by the human resource personnel (Quek & Soon, 1995; 1998; 1999). On a voluntary basis, some guidance and career services are conducted as community services by NGOs like the Befrienders, and counselling centres of various religious organisations and the Public Services Department of the component parties of the ruling National Front (Barisan National) in Malaysia as well as woman’s organisations.

Responding to the needs for more and qualified counsellors to conduct guidance services including career counselling, the 1990s witnessed concerted efforts attempted to train counsellors. Primarily, the public sector played an active and principal role in training counsellors. This is seen through the efforts of the Teachers Education Division (of MOE), the Welfare and Home Affair Ministries, the Prison College and public universities. On the part of the Teachers Education Division of MOE, through its counsellor education programmes at the Specialist Teachers Training College, Kuala Lumpur, the selected teachers undergo a one year specialist programme; whilst the in-service vacation course and short-term programmes produced teacher-cum-counsellors to service public institutions. At the same time, MOE also sponsored graduate teachers for counsellor education at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia to produce counsellors with Diploma in Counselling.

At the tertiary level, the University of Malaya at Kuala Lumpur, trained its first batch of counsellors in 1978 when it enrolled students for Masters of Education programmes in guidance and counselling in 1976. Since then the University has mounted counselling programmes including the Bachelor of Counselling (in 1998) , Masters of Counselling (in 1999) and Ph. D. in counselling.The University’s Centre for Continuing Education has also programmes for counsellor education. However, the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia since 1993 also offers counsellor education at first degree and post-graduate levels. Similarly, Universiti Putra Malaysia in 1981 started a first-degree programme in guidance and counselling and began its Masters programme in 1987. Other public universities also helped to train counsellors including the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, the Universiti Sains Malaysia and more recently in 1997, the Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

In sum, these counsellor education programmes offered by the above public universities fulfilled some fundamental requirements of counsellor training (Lloyd, 1986; 1987; Quek & Soon, 1998; Quek 2000a; 2000b). Rephrased, it is found that these programmes in counsellor education (degree, diploma or certificate) were related largely to the general areas of guidance and counselling. Additionally, these programmes also included practical learning (practicum) and generally had a relatively sufficient duration like a minimum of a year of full-time attendance. More importantly, these counsellor programmes were largely designed to train counsellors including school counsellors and career counsellors to meet the prevailing needs of schools and society.

• The Emerging Counselling Profession

Implicit in the multiplicity of counsellor education programmes is the conferring of various qualifications (degree, diploma and certificate) to successful candidates to practise counselling for the years preceeding 1998. Indeed, this accentuated the variations in the level of competence of counselling practitioners including those involved in the training of counsellors. This was because in 1998, there was no professional regulation on what constituted minimum competence level for certification of counsellors (Quek, 2000c; 2001)

The enactment of the Counsellors Act 1998 (Act 580) in Malaysia posted a landmark in establishing counselling as a profession. Pivotal in the emerging counselling profession is certification and licensing of counsellors including career counsellors. Implicit in the concept of certification is the determination of the standard of counselling training programmes, the qualifications for eligibility to be registered as a counsellor; the prescribing of ethics; the regulating of fees charged as remittances for counselling services and the ruling on the types as well as the levels of counselling accessible to the Malaysian society. These considerations were first assigned to the National Counselling Council and lately undertaken by the First Board of Councillors. Among the responsibilities of the Board are “to oversee…(and) regulate…counselling services” in Malaysia (Counsellors Act 1998: 12). The rationale of monitoring and regulation of counselling practices (often referred to as certification) is to protect the public from incompetent counsellors and fraudulence (Quek, 2001). As in other professions, the licensing and registration of counsellors also aim to protect the public from wrongdoing and misconduct (Quek, 2001). The power of certification and licensing of counselling practitioners also carries the authority to accept or to deny entry into counselling and to disbar incompetent practitioners from counselling.

Future Directions

As afore discussed, career counselling to-date in Malaysia comes under the jurisdiction of the Counsellors Act 1998 (Act 580). As such, the Act is binding on career counsellors in Malaysia. Therefore, procedural matters regarding standards of training, qualifications, ethics, types and levels of counselling practices, which are determined by the Board of Counsellors, would also apply to career counsellors. For counselling including career counselling to develop as indigenous to Malaysian culture and reflecting the characteristics of a profession, certain dimensions have to be considered. Some of these dimensions for the future of career counselling are presented below:

• Following standards of practice

Currently, the Technical Committee on Counsellor Training and Education, of the First Board of Counsellors is assigned the task of studying the various programmes of counsellor education conducted among public universities in Malaysia. This committee is to recommend to the Board of Counsellors suggestions to enchance counsellor education in Malaysia. Details of this study are compiled in a report which is to be released to the relevant bodies in the near future. It is reminded that the need to produce more counsellors should not compromise the quality of counsellors. In this direction, it is important for designers and educators of career counselling programmes to acquaint themselves with the procedural requirements to assist their counsellor trainees to attain professional competence for certification and registration. This would ensure uniformity in the standard of career counsellor preparation. Additionally, following the ethics as established by the Counsellors Act 1998 and enforcing the Act in the practice of career consultancy would further enchance professionalism in counselling.

• Propogating a professional culture

Practising career counselling as a profesison requires more than a mechanistic blend of qualifications acquired through training. According to Arbuckle (1965), a competent counsellor has to reflect and analyse the purposes underlying counselling as a professional service. Rephrased, a qualified career counsellor has the philosophy and theory of counselling to outline the rationale for counselling actions. It is found that philosophy and theory of counselling enable the career counsellor to handle unusual cases, novel situations, unfamiliar incidents, awkward encounters and contrasting individuals. In this direction, it is essential for a career counsellor to understand the fundamental purposes (‘why’) of one’s professional conduct in counselling (Arbuckle, 1965). To do this, it is important that a career counsellor understand the nature of human beings including values, norms and attitudes which influence human behavior. According to Boy and Pine (1968: 164-165), a career counsellor has to have a clear “concept of man” so as to assist clients in ‘self-clarification’, ‘self-understanding’ and ‘self-actualisation’.

• Promoting public understanding of career counselling

Career counsellors have to help members of the public understand the concept of counselling as embodied in the Counsellors Act 1998. This means that counselling is not the folkway practice as was rampant in the local society prior to 1998. The public needs to be informed also that counselling is no longer the caveat of the School Counsellor as was before 1998. In this direction, career counsellors can help educate the public on counselling as a profession by giving talks, organising seminars, conducting workshops and participating actively in road shows. In this direction, the myths associated with counselling are dispelled. For instance, to dispel the myth that career counselling is solely advising on career matters.

• Developing an integrated approach

Empirical evidence (Amir Awang & Latiff Mirasa, 1984; Quek 1996a; 2000a; Suradi Salim, 1994) repeatedly report that most individuals who want career counselling are also preoccupied with social psychological problems. However, these individuals use the façade of a career problem to build rapport and develop a counselling relationship. This enables the client to size up the counsellor as one who is workable or not in developing a counselling relationship (Quek 2000a). In this direction, it is important for career counsellors to develop an intergrated approach towards a client which includes knowledge of a client’s interests, abilities, talents, values, attitudes and personality. In sum, the career counsellor needs to be sensitive to the client’s self-concept (and social psychological make-up). This means career counselling cannot be over-simplistic as fitting people to job specifications or vice versa.

• Broadening counselor’s roles

With increasing importance of information technology (IT) as well as information and communication technology (ICT), the concept of work, workplace and work culture have changed. This is because virtual technology has transformed Malaysian business as it has done to the rest of the world. New patterns of work take place, due to technology transform the Malaysian economy into the knowledge-economy. This means electronic commerce is increasingly bringing novel ways of conducting business through dot coms and e-mail. Such changes in work culture calls for training and retraining and unlearning of particular procedures at the workplace.

This direction calls for the career counsellor to understand the new labour structure, the ensuing work processes, the training and education of human resources, the changing work ethics and new techniques of human resouce management. Therefore, career counsellors need to broaden their roles to include career education and career consultation. And if necessary, career consellors may have to perform coordination (Arthus, 1994) roles. In this way, career counsellors gain mileage in knowledge, skills and resourcefulness for more effective career counselling in a K-economy.

• Attending to work and family life

Empirical evidence posits that the values and aspirations of one’s family life and their vulnerability to change need to be explored when attempting to understand an individual (Hoelter, 1983; Quek, 1993; 1994b; Super & Sverko, 1995). These considerations form the milieu that develop self-concept which then influences one’s academic and career aspirations (Chew, Lee & Quek (Eds.), 1995). The individual’s academic and career aspirations are also influenced by changes in society. For example, the establishment of the Multi-media Super Corridor (MSC) by the Malaysian government stimulated many technologies and start-up companies and greater attention is focussed on IT. These emerging technologies transformed work activities and family life. For example, at work, people make transactions through e-mail, e-banking, e-commerce, and at home, they surf the internet and do tele-shopping.

Additionally, with the current trend of dual-income families and smaller families, there arises copability problems of balancing professional life with family life and delegating to domestic helpers at home and at the child-care centres the task of bringing-up children. This direction calls for career counsellors to be more skillful in the areas of stress-management and psychological contracting which focuses on issues of dual career counselling and IT related problems ( like spending more time serving the net than with the family). Such infusion in career counselling tends to lead to success when people are assisted in integrating work and family life in this informational age.

• Understanding emerging demographic patterns

The informational age places a premium on knowledge and individuals with current professional and technical know-how are in great demand. For example, employees can feel secure in presenting a wide range of ideas but it is with certainty that employers’ collective expertise and business vision will then sift through these ideas so as to get the best ones for quality innovation. The outcomes for employees include satisfaction for those whose ideas are chosen and for those who do not get recognition for their work there exists disappointment and dissatisfaction. Therefore, career counsellors have to take note of the social psychology of employees which are present in the demographic patterns of contemporary work culture. Associated closely with the growing information industries are emerging demographic patterns in work practice associated with age and gender. Of late, businesses tend to employ younger employees, preferably those who are computer and technology savvy. The sentiment prevalent among businesses is that young people are more receptive to the changing conditions of production and marketing in business (Quek & Soon, 1998; 1999).

Additionally, it is reported that young people tended to be able to adjust faster to rapid work changes and they tended to have a mind-set compatible with work mobility. Also, the growing trend of more women attending public universities (from 55% for the 1997/98 intake to 56.8% for the 1998/99 intake to 58.3% for the 1999/2000 enrollment, New Strait Times, October 26, 2000), imply that more women want better education and probably enter into careers. This accentuates gender work issues related to individual careers and dual careers (Quek, 1999a). In this direction, career counsellors who are in the know about emerging demographic trends in Malaysia will tend to be more able to assist individuals to face the immense implications of psychological contracting and working out individual career strategies.

• Assisting government in advancing science and technology (S&T)

Career consulting does not occur in a vacuum. Effective career guidance and counselling takes cognizance of the current economic framework in the Malaysian society and government policies in the advancement of S&T and in particular information and communication technology (ICT) to ensure the emergence of the K-economy in Malaysia. Greater national productivity leading to a better quality of life is the hallmark of a culture, which is literate in ICT (Quek, 1994b; Quek & Soon, 1999). It is recognised that S&T and in particular ICT enable individuals in work and leisure activities to attain individual and national goals. In these aspects, the Malaysian government explicitly supports a science culture.

It is envisaged that with a ratio of 60:40, that is, enrollment 60 per cent science to 40 per cent arts students in university, there would be an indigenous pool of science personnel to conduct research and development in S&T as well as to frog-leap Malaysia to a K-economy. This calls for greater counsellor involvement than before in integrating counselling with consultation and coordination in career counselling. For example, a career counsellor who attempts to integrate consultation and coordination with counselling makes in roads into the counsellor’s expertise in helping individuals. For instance, S&T planners can use career counsellors for reaching-out programmes focussing on science and science- related careers as well as using S&T for enchancing well-being in the family and at the work place (Quek, 1996b). In addition, by working as a consultant and as a career educator, the career counsellor can help to establish linkages between training programmes and market demands for specialised skills which makes ICT and S&T relevant in career information, work placement, career planning and counselling.

It is noted that much of the decision-making related to career choice is done in the adolescent years that correspond with secondary school and entry into tertiary institutions. Therefore, career guidance and counselling for young individuals is crucial in terms of selection of options, types of courses to attend as well as psychological testing to determine aptitudes pertaining to education and work. The career counsellor who is knowledgeable about demand for education and the demand of the labour market and the prevailing government policies on S&T including ICT are better able to help young people to know more about themselves. In this direction, young people are assisted to choose wisely through knowing about themselves and their environment which is rapidly changing to assume a K-society.

Conclusion

The enactment of the Counsellors Act 1998 has made an effective surge forward in making counselling a profession in Malaysia. Through this policy, legislation, career counselling is accredited a profession. Notwithstanding this, practitioners of career counselling will have to act collectively in the direction of promoting and crystallising professional growth in career counselling. This means, standards of practices must be practised to propagate the professional culture in career counselling. Additionally, promoting public understanding of career counselling is anticipated to encourage people to accept and use career counselling as a professional service. Towards this attainment, more has to be done by practitioners to develop an integrated approach toward a client which will entail greater broadening of the career counsellor’s roles like integrating career education and consultation with counselling and attending to the client’s work and family life. As is true of other professionals, it is also recommended that incumbent and potential career counsellors will enhance already existing skills and also develop new skills to help clients cope with change catalysed by S&T in the Malaysian society. Towards this end, understanding emerging demographic patterns including those associated with age and gender will enable counsellors to assist clients to cope with various implications of psychological contracting so as to work out realistic individual career strategies. As discussed, earlier career counselling does not operate in a vacuum but is very context oriented. In this direction, it is anticipated that career counsellors will use their expertise such as incorporating consultation and coordination with counselling to assist the Malaysian government in advancing S&T and ICT among Malaysians.

The afore suggested future directions are intended to professionalise career counselling. More importantly, these future directions are Malaysian-based and are designed to develop career counselling to become culturally appropriate in theory and practice and in the Malaysian context.

References

Abdul Halim Othman (1984). Research in counselling and guidance in Malaysia: An exploration in a major educational institution. JURNAL PERKAMA, 1, 122-139.

Abdul Halim Othman (1999). Professionalisation of counselling in Malaysia. Paper presented at Regional Conference – Workshop on Cultural Diversity Issues in Counselling, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Abdul Latif Md. Ali (1984). Counselling in secondary education. [Kaunseling dalam pendidikan menengah]. JURNAL PERKAMA, 1, 13-19.

Amir Awang & Latiff Mirasa (1984). Guidance and counselling in Malaysian schools: A review and critique.Paper presented at Third Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Arbuckle, D.S. (1965). Counselling: Philosophy, theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Arthur, M. (1994). The boundaryless career: A new perspective for organisational inquiry. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 15, 295 – 306.

Boy, A.V. & Pine, G.J. (1968). The counselor in the schools: A reconceptualization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Chew, S.B., Lee, K.H. & Quek, A.H. (Eds.)(1995). Education and work: Aspirations of Malaysian secondary school students. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

Counsellors Act 1998 (Act 580). Laws of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Bhd.

Federation of Malaya (1955). Annual Report on Education, 1955. Kuala Lumpur: Art Printing Work.

Hoelter, J.W. (1983). The effects of role evaluation and commitment on identity salience. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46,14-47.

Kamaruddin Hassan (1994). Counselling in the banking sector - An experience [Kaunseling dalam sektor bank – satu pengalaman]. Jurnal PERKAMA, 5, 156-164.

Lim, H.K. & Menon, S. (1982). Socio-psychological perspectives on students in four secondary schools in Selangor. Paper presented at National Conference on Adolescents, Kuala Lumpur.

Llyod, A. (1986). The sources of citations for guidance and counseling articles. Jurnal PERKAMA, 2, 29-38.

Llyod, A. (1987).Counselor education in Malaysia. Counselor Education and Supervision, 26(3), 221-227.

Ministry of Education (MOE), Malaysia (1964). Appointment of Guidance Teachers [Perlantikan Guru Bimbingan], KP/5209/35/4(4). Service Circular, Educational Planning and Research Division (EPRD).

Ministry of Education (MOE), Malaysia (1968). Outline of guidance services. Kuala Lumpur: EPRD.

Mohamad Hussein (1994). Counselling in Social Welfare Service [Kaunseling dalam Perkhidmatan Kebajikan Masyarakat]. Jurnal PERKAMA, 5, 148-155.

New Straits Times (2000). Nasional, October 26, 2000.

Quek, A.H. (1992). Supervision in vocational and technical education: A perspective towards Vision 2020 [Penyeliaan pendidikan dalam latihan perguruan vokasional dan teknik: Satu perspektif inovatif menuju Wawasan 2020], Journal of Education, Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 36,76, 15-21.

Quek, A.H. (1993). Intrinsic motivation appraisal in vocational teacher education towards human resource development [Pendidikan perguruan vokasional ke arah perkembangan tenaga manusia menerusi pengukuran motivasi intrinsik]. Journal of Education, Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 37, 78, 48-55.

Quek, A.H. (1994a). Appraising tertiary education through interest item responses, Journal of Psychology, Malaysia, 9, 59-67.

Quek, A.H. (1994b). Malaysia Towards World Class Quality. First Prize Award, Quality Institute Malaysia and American Society of Quality Control, in conjunction with World Quality Day, 1994.

Quek, A.H. (1996a). Social psychological support services in home and school cooperation towards optimal human development through enhancing professionalism in education. In Proceedings of the 4th Malaysian Psychological Association National Seminar, Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1996, 106-109.

Quek, A.H. (1996b). Culture and schooling towards literacy in science and technology: Challenges and recommendations for educational management, Journal of Educational Management, Aminuddin Baki Insitute, Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 6(1), 46-56.

Quek, A.H. (1997). Counselling for development of family and society: Practising community oriented counselling through social psychology. Paper presented at Counselling Seminar of Department of Pedagogy and Educational Psychology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Quek, A.H. (1999a). Career of women in teaching and educational management in the context of school effectiveness. Journal of Educational Management, Aminuddin Baki Insitute, Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 9(1), 85-94.

Quek, A.H. (1999b). Identifying graduate employees’ generic competencies with implications for higher educational management. In Book of Abstracts, National Seminar of Educational Management in conjunction with 50th Anniversary (Golden Jubilee) of University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Quek, A.H. (2000a). Career choice and vocational fitness. Asian Psychologist, 2(1), 56-58.

Quel, A.H. (Editor-in-Chief) (2000b). Higher education Guide, 7th Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Sanon Printing Bhd.

Quek, A.H. (2001). Designing counselor education and training programmes for public tertiary institutions in Malaysia [Jenis rekabentuk dalam latihan dan pendidikan kaunselor di Malaysia]. Paper to be presented at National Seminar on Standardisation of Counsellor Education and Training in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Quek, A.H. & Soon, T.K. (1995). Manpower planning, career and education: A Malaysian experience. Paper presented at Innovation 2020, Third International Symposium on Technical Education and Training, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Quek, A.H. & Soon, T.K. (1998). Graduate employees’ generic management competencies and business preferences in Malaysia, In Abstracts of Malaysian Science and Technology Congress, 1998. Kuala Lumpur: COSTAM. 1998, S71.

Quek, A.H. & Soon, T.K. (1999). Human resouce management and business preferences in Malaysia. In Book of Abstracts of Malaysian Science and Technology congress, 1999. Kuala Lumpur, MOSTE & Others, 1999: A68.

Rosenburg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.

Suradi Salim (1994). Implementation of guidance and counselling services in Malaysian secondary schools [Tahap perlaksanaan perkhidmatan bimbingan dan kaunseling di sekolah-sekolah Menengah di Malaysia]. Jurnal PERKAMA, 5,1-40.

Super, D.E. & Sverko (1995). Life, roles, values and careers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tan, T.H. (1979). Emotional problems for adolescents, Journal Panduan MAVOGA, 1, 39-45.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Counseling

...Introduction to Counseling Written Assignment # 1 I. What is professional counseling? Discuss the most recent trends in counseling. Professional counseling is a service provided voluntary and confidential with the focus on the developmental, situational problems of individuals of all ages and culture. Professional counselors help individuals to make decisions and resolve conflicts. Counselors provide service on different settings like the workplace, schools, colleges and other places as well. They also provide this service to families, groups or individuals. The most recent trends in counseling are through the internet and counseling in the community. These trends cover different parts of the community like business, career centers, religious organizations, and local neighborhood comprehensive health care centers. For instance, many organization provide counseling assistance through an employee assistance programs (EAP), employment enhancement programs (EEPs), career development counseling within the companies and outplacement counseling (EAPs). Employee assistance program were created with the purpose of helping employees who have alcohol problems. However, the service of these programs has been expanded to provide counseling to employees in regards interpersonal and personal family problems that may affect their job performance. Career counseling centers were created during the 1990s to help individuals to explore career opportunities and receive basic...

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Counseling

...Briefly outline and describe the essential elements of a solution-based, short-term pastoral counseling strategy such as its goal-orientation; brief (i.e., number of sessions) and time-limited (i.e., length of each session) nature; basic tenets and guiding assumptions (briefly explain each tenet and assumption), essential interpersonal skills, and possible behavioral positions (i.e., attending, blaming, willing). The goal-orientation for the short-term pastoral counseling should be to get the counselee to focus on their own goals that they have for themselves, and not so much what others or the counselor has for them. The class presentation, Overview of a Solution-Based, Short-Term Strategy, presents that you should limit the counseling to four sessions of either 50, 60, or 90 minutes. These limits fit well within the examples that Kollar gives throughout chapters 8 through 11. Phase 1 – Getting the Present Story The main purpose of this phase is to intently listen to the counselee and gain a solid understanding of where they are coming from. The goal is for the counselor is to actively listen to the counselee. “Active listening mirrors or paraphrases back to the speaker what he has just said, thus confirming for the speaker that he has been heard.” (Kollar, 2011, p. 92) The chief aim to this counseling session is to develop an overall solid picture of the present state of where the counselee is coming from. The counselor’s role in this phase is as a listener and confidant...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Counseling

...OXFORD – PHILIPPINES INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL Salawag Campus, Cavite CAREER COUNSELING A WRITTEN REPORT ON GUIDANCE and COUNSELING Submitted by: JANET R. PINTO RAQUEL F. HERNANDEZ Submitted to: Dr. LUZ B. DASMARIňAS Professor CAREER COUNSELING I. INTRODUCTION Keeping a balance between personal and professional life is quite important for any person. At times we get so get stressed out owing to the work pressure that the momentum is somewhere lost. A such a phase of life it becomes very crucial to understand your work in a better manner become capable of making strong and righteous decisions. Career Counseling is one such practice that aids people by making a connection between passion to work, purpose to do a task and understanding and acknowledgement of work. Working atmosphere is different at different offices and different industries. It furthermore transforms as you grow in a position with evolution in ressponsibilities and tackling new individuals who may not be as supporting as your last associates. Career Counseling in such arenas help in building capabilities and leaves no stone unturned in ensuring that with your independence in doing a task and with the new found confidence, each task for you become a child’s play, thereby bringing satisfaction and contentment in your professional life. Also, increasing awareness and purpose for desired work is one aspect. It goes a long way in helping individuals in improving their standard of work...

Words: 2353 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Counseling

...from his or her own background plus any appropriate comments. The major points of this chapter (which could be covered in an instructor’s introduction of the chapter) are as follows: 1. Occupations, including counseling, develop because there is a need. 2. The need for such personal assistance - advice, guidance, counseling - has existed, and in various ways been attended to, over the ages. 3. Many of the well-known historical figures (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Charlemagne, Rousseau, and Thomas Jefferson) have expressed “counseling” points of view. 4. Psychology emerged as a field of study and psychiatry as a specialized branch of medicine in the late 1800s. 5. The development of programs of guidance and counseling in American education began in the years just prior to World War I. Frank Parsons is usually credited with much of the success of its early beginnings. 6. Parsons considered three factors necessary for the wise choice of a vocation. They were: (a) a clear understanding of self; (b) a knowledge of the requirements and conditions for success, compensation, and opportunities in different careers; and (b) true reasoning on the relationships between (a) and (b). 7. Other influences on the development of the counseling movement were: a. the development of standardized tests appropriate for assessment of intelligence and other characteristics of youth. b. the renewed interest in mental health as a result of Clifford...

Words: 3419 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Counseling

...Vision for the Future of Counseling: The New Consensus Definition of Counseling David M. Kaplan American Counseling Association Vilia M. Tarvydas The University of Iowa Samuel T. Gladding Wake Forest University Author Note David M. Kaplan, Professional Affairs, American Counseling Association; Vilia M. Tarvydas, Department of Rehabilitation and Counselor Education, The University of Iowa; Samuel T. Gladding, Department of Counseling, Wake Forest University. The authors wish to thank Jason Wilke for his assistance. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to David Kaplan, American Counseling Association, 5999 Stevenson Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22304. E-mail: dkaplan@counseling.org Abstract With the promulgation of the 20/20 consensus definition of counseling, there is finally profession-wide clarity as to what it means to engage in professional counseling. This article describes the development and discusses the implications of the definition: Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals. The 20/20 consensus definition of counseling has been endorsed by 29 major counseling organizations. Keywords: counseling, definition, 20/20, consensus, professional identity 20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling: The New Consensus Definition of Counseling For well over half a decade, the counseling profession has been actively...

Words: 4828 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Effective Counseling

...Characteristics and Behaviors of Effective Counseling Adam Dollen Characteristics and Behaviors of Effective Counseling So you want to be a counselor. Well, being a counselor is not necessarily about having the desire or education to help people. Being a counselor is about utilizing that desire and education in such a way to teach people how to heal (Erford, 2014). Effective counseling is not some award which is given upon receiving a degree from a university. Effective counseling is the proper usage of your characteristics and attained skills to bring out the best in your clients (Erford, 2014). Effective Characteristics Effective characteristics are vitally important to the success of the counselor. They are a means of motivation and connection with a client (Erford, 2014). Without such the counseling relationship is ineffective and the client is left in the same state of wanting as they were before they came to see you. Let’s briefly look at a couple of effective characteristics in order to see the impact they have on the counseling relationship. Characteristic One Most people enter the counseling profession for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the greatest reason for becoming a counselor is the desire to help people (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010). For one circumstance or another, their many experiences in life have led them to desire to seek out people needing help. This desire to help is one characteristic of being an effective counselor. In our case study it is...

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Counseling Form

...N C DBA ©2010 Army Counseling Online.com. All Rights Reserved. Content for indiv idual use o nly . Distrib ution is proh ibited PVT/E-1 NC individual use on ly . Distribu tion is proh ibited prohibited EIN C DBA ©2010 Army Counseling Online.com. All Rights Reserved. Content for indiv idual u se only . Distrib utio n is pro hibited MEIN C DBA ©2010 Army Counseling Online.com. All Rig hts Reserved. Con tent for ind ivid ual use only . Dis tribution is prohibited C DBA ©201 0 Army Counseling On line.com. All Righ ts Reserved. Conten t for individual u se only . Distribution is prohib ited - Took two military correspondence MEINC D BA ©2 010 Army Counseling Online.com. All Rights Reserved. Con tent fo r individ ual use on ly . Distribu tion is proh ibited MEINC D BA ©201 0 Army Counseling On line.com. All Righ ts Reserved. Conten t for individual use only . Distr ibution is prohib ited “SEE CONTINUATION OF COUNSELING” MEINC DBA ©2010 ArmyCounseling Online.com. All Rights Reserved. Content of this Counseling Statement For individual use Continuation of Counseling Form 10 Army Counseling On line.com. All Righ ts Reserved. Content for indiv idual u se only . Distributio n is prohibited MEINC D BA ©201 0 Army Counseling On line.com. All Righ ts Reserved. Conten t for individual use only . Distr ibution is prohib ited MEINC D BA ©201 0 Arm y Counseling On line.com. All Righ ts Reserved. Conten t for individual use only . Distr ibution is prohib ited...

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Effective Counseling

...their opinions. Counseling is the application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic intervention strategies, that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology. Thus counseling focuses on helping people make changes unlike guidance that focuses on helping individuals choose what they value most. Therefore a counselor is a person who gives counsel or advice. Counselors work in diverse community settings designed to provide a variety of counseling, rehabilitation, and support services. Their duties vary greatly, depending on their specialty, which is determined by the setting in which they work and the population they serve. Although the specific setting may have an implied scope of practice, counselors frequently are challenged with children, adolescents, adults, or families that have multiple issues, such as mental health disorders and addiction, disability and employment needs, school problem or career counseling needs, and trauma. Counselors must recognize these issues in order to provide their clients with appropriate counseling and support. As a counselor you need to have patience with your clients as they process the discussion. It may take them time to accept certain things and to move towards positive changes. Some people need to discuss something many times before they are prepared to make a move in any particular direction. Keywords: counseling, characteristics...

Words: 2063 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Christian Counseling

...A Review of McMinn’s Text: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Ashley Pasquale Liberty University Online Christian Counseling Summary Written by Mark R. McMinn, Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling (2011) contains a vast amount of information regarding the use of prayer, scripture and spirituality in counseling; beginning with the explanation of interdisciplinary integration versus intradisciplinary integration. Interdisciplinary integration includes the integration of psychology and theology in order to provide better counseling. Intradisciplinary includes both of those as well, but goes further to include spirituality within the scope of Christian counseling (McMinn,...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Counseling and Psychotherapy

...Counseling and psychotherapy models & theories Ariam K. Frezghi Liberty University Abstract Counselors and Psychologist have different jobs and strategies but both accomplish the same outcome at the end. The terms Counseling and Psychotherapy are often used interchangeably. Though they have similar meanings with considerable overlap, there are some important distinctions between the two. Counseling is generally used to denote a relatively brief treatment that is focused most upon behavior. Psychotherapy on the other hand is generally a longer term treatment which focuses on more gaining insight into chronic physical and emotional problems. The overall aim of the article is to restimulate research and theory on the relationship. Keywords: Counseling, Psychotherapy, theories, methods Introduction Counseling sometimes is a conversation or series of conversations between a counselor and client. Counseling usually focuses on a specific problem and taking the steps to address or solve it. It often targets a particular symptom or problematic situation and offers suggestions and advice for dealing with it. Problems are discussed in the present-tense, without too much attention on the role of past experiences. Though the titles “counselor” and “advisor” are often used like synonyms, counselors rarely offer advice. Instead, counselors guide clients to discover their own answers and support them through the actions they choose to take. Psychotherapy, like counseling...

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Resistance To Counseling

...Clients seek counseling for help with dealing with issues in everyday life, sometimes the client look to the counselor for relief from his or her issues. Some clients that goes to counseling are not so certain if they are willing to change or not. It is not unusual for some client to participate or cooperate with the counselor and the plan of treatment. Resistance is a technique a client use when he or she avoids or do not want to disclose any information about himself or herself to the counselor to make the counselor feel anxious. Resistance from clients such as talking to much, talking to little, being unprepared and etc. (Sommers-Flanagan & Sommers-Flanagan, 2017). When resistance derive from clients, they are usually in the stage where they are not interest to change or they have considered a temporary change....

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Education Counseling

...The educational process of counseling involves the counsellor providing information to employee about the nature of the problem, prevalence, likely causes, and ways in which the problem can be prevented. Through this process is where the counselor helps the employee by identifying the problem and tell the employee how to get help with "any personal problems that may affect your job performance." But, the counsellors do keep in mind that they have to be careful about making assumptions or asking questions about their personal problems. The employee is then assisted to come up with a plan to prevent the occurring issues at hand. This is then done through the (FOSA) action plan. FOSA stands for facts, Objectives, Solutions and Actions. In the facts process this is where by the counselor gives a factual account of the employees performance and behavior. Objectives is where by the counselor specifically explains how the employees behavior will need to improve and specify a time frame.this is where if the needed requirements are not met then the terms and contract of the employee are revised again. Solution is where the counselor documents how the employee plans to solve the problem. This is usually through the help of the counselor that the result of a clout ion comes to play. Lastly, action is the last procedure of the four, this is when the counselor identifies and describes the consequences for not achieving the objectives. This is now where performance or misconduct...

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Counseling Theories

...According to Foxhall (2008) "many children and adolescents are taking psychopharmaceuticals" (p1). With such a high number of psychopharmaceuticals being used in conjunction with counseling, it is imperative that counselors are educated about these medications. Counselors need to understand the medications their clients are taking in order to better serve the client. Counselor's who are educated on phsychopharmaceuticals can assist clients with important information related to the medications they are taking such as possible side effects, interactions with other medications, and general information pertaining to the medication. Counselors may be faced with many dilemma's when it comes to psychopharmeceuticals and their clients. Counselor's do not and cannot prescribe psychopharmeceuticals for their client's thus necessitating the need for the client to see a psychiatrist or other doctor when there is an indication that psychopharmeceuticals would be beneficial in the treatment of the client. Foxhall (2008) points out that most patients spend considerably more time with their counselor than with the prescribing physician (p.1). One ethical delimma a counselor might face would be dealing with a client who is on a medication that the counselor feels is not working or is not the right medication for the client. Due to the nature of psychpharmeceuticals, there are a number of medications that treat a variety of different illnesses. Since the counselor spends...

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Guidance and Counseling

...Republic of the Philippines University of Rizal System INSTITUTE OF GRADUATE STUDIES Rodriguez, Rizal Career Planning What is a Career? Career is an occupation or a profession, that one undertakes for a long period of his life time & derives monetary benefit from it. What is Career Planning? * Career planning consists of activities and actions that you take to achieve your individual career goals. * It is way by which one can achieve goals & ambitions successfully * It is a difference between success & failure which always leads to satisfactory results * It is a Vision Career Planning Process Career planning process is simple process of self analyzing, self upgrading & self improvement which leads you toward success. There are five steps to active career planning: * Self Assessment Self assessment revolves around the thoughtful consideration, reflection, and evaluation of your interests, personality characteristics, values, and skills through a variety of methods, such as the use of a whole host of career-related tools and instruments. * Exploration and Research The career planning component consisting of exploration and research is all about being in information gathering mode. This is the time to explore, collect, and organize all available resources to eventually begin analyzing them to see what top options arise. Pointers for Exploring Careers * Know more about the career of your choice * Nature...

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Christian Counseling Model

...As Christian counselors, it is vital for the long-term validation of our field of work to be respected by professional psychological institutions to provide empirical scientific studies of our treatment programs. Most of us will be lay counselors, some of us will move to become licensed in order to be allowed conduct professional counseling. However, professional psychological institutions base their counseling doctrine based upon empirical scientific research and study. Therefore, as Christian lay, and hopeful licensed Christian counselors it is imperative for us to also evaluate ourselves to the same standard as our professional psychological peers do as-well. To be able to prove that Christian counseling models are effective we must conduct...

Words: 421 - Pages: 2