Premium Essay

Critiques of Theorists

In: Social Issues

Submitted By nikkip88
Words 591
Pages 3
Frederick Winslow Taylor, also known as the father of the Scientific Movement, was born on March 20, 1856 in Germantown Pennsylvania. Before he was able to attend Harvard University, Taylor’s eyesight suffered severely from studying at nighttime that he had to delay his studies. After serving as an apprentice when his vision improved, Winslow began to work the Midvale Steele Company. While at Midvale, Taylor discovered that “production efficiency in a shop or factory could be greatly enhanced by close observation of the individual worker…”, which became the foundation of scientific management. Scientific management “is a field directly concerned with efficiency” and could also be applied to “administrators in American government and constitutional systems”. Taylor’s theory focused on: the most efficient way for the worker to complete the task, the employer providing proper tools, and good incentives for employee performance that resulted in a “machinelike routine”, which increased productivity. Economist Thornstein Veblen believed that “in dealing with the development and functioning of firms, [he] greatly appreciates the suggested scientific organization of labour and workshops, since it looks capable of increasing technical and general efficiency.” However, Alfred Marshall, a critic of Taylor’s system believed that the “human brain and flexible production systems must exhibit the ability to change, evolve and create” and allows the workers to solve complex problems in an evolving work environment. In Chapter 1, the Robbins/Judge text introduces readers to the organizational behavior model that “stakes out its parameters, and identifies inputs, processes, and outcomes.” This model relates to Taylor’s scientific approach to analyze the work process. Chapter 2 of the text also highlights that an effective selection model during the job selection process will improve

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Affect Theory

...ESSAY #1 – Politics of Affect Affect theory has recently become a burgeoning field of study. In the most basic of definitions, affect is the visceral force that is around the body, something that is not consciously known, yet it can influence our movements, thoughts, and the way one relates to other people and objects. Many theorist from a wide variety of academic disciplines have contributed to the field of affect studies. This essay will look at selected works of Nigel Thrift, Deborah Gould, and Ruth Leys to show how they have contributed to the development of affect studies. The essay will also aim to show how they might differ or agree on certain concepts within affect theory amongst other prominent affect theorist. Nigel Thrift is a leading academic in the field of human geography and has made significant contributions to the field of affect. His article, Intensities of Feelings: Towards a Spatial Politics of Affect, attempts to show that the politics of affect are central to the life of cities, given that cities are inhuman or trans-human entities and that politics is understood as a process of community without unity (Thrift, 2004, p. 57). For Thrift, affect is an object or subject of manipulation, and it is closely tied to power and how it operates, affective life and emotional life is the setting for operation of power. He states “…it is so crucial to address affect now: in at least one guise the discovery of new means of practising affect is also the discovery...

Words: 1802 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Political Economic

...RMIT University School of Management BUSM4176 Introduction to Management Your topic ie. Scientific Management has dominated work and work systems since the days of Taylor. However organisations have been moving away from it to focus on teams and employee engagement. Write a critique of “Scientific Management” describing the theory, its effect on management, the ethical implications and its sustainability. Introduction to your Theory or Practice (Criteria a – 10 Marks) Introductory Paragraph What is the theory/practice? In what context/time period has it been implemented? What forms has it taken? Key theorists? Briefly refer to examples. Impacting forces?. Provide an overview that you can further develop below. Provide a clear thesis statement at the end of your paragraph. Paragraph 2/3 etc. Provide a description of the theory and or practice? Referenced definition and discussion of terms? Principles? What are the key theorists writing in this field? What has been related research? In what ways has it manifested itself – past and present? Examples? What theories or practices have countered it? What factors have impacted on changes occurring? Influence on Management (Criteria b – 25 marks) How has the theory or principle changed management generally? What sort of practices/behaviour/tasks/styles/relationships/power/focus in management did this practice encourage? Culture/values/shaping...

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Is Rethink Revolutions

...results and situations; The three criticizes the "volcanic model" or theories of "explosive eruptions of mass discontent"; And five analyzes two comparative studies: States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and China, by Theda Skocpol (1979), and Reluctant Rebels by John Walton (1984). Finally, the book reviews the argument, the evidence and the conclusions of the work of two important theorists:...

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Classroom Management

...Classroom Management Theorists and Theories/Burrhus Frederic Skinner < Classroom Management Theorists and Theories Contents 1 Overview of Skinner's Theories of Classroom Management 2 Implementation of Skinner's Theories 3 Critique of Skinner's Theories 4 Questions for Consideration 5 References Overview of Skinner's Theories of Classroom Management[edit] The Theory Skinner believed that the goal of psychology should be practical (Lieberman, 2000). As it relates to education, Skinner believed the goal of psychology should be to find ways to make education enjoyable and effective for all students. His learning theory relied on the assumption that the best way to modify behavior was to modify the environment. Skinner was a proponent for many instructional strategies that modern day “progressive” educational reformers advocate for: scaffold instruction, small units, repetition and review of instructions, and immediate feedback. Skinner did not approve of the use of punishments in school, or as a behavioral modification technique in general, and based these opinions on his own empirical research that found punishments to be ineffective (Lieberman, 2000). Skinner himself advocated for the frequent use of reinforcement (i.e. rewards) to modify and influence student behavior. Skinner’s primary contribution to behavioral management philosophy has been from his research on operant conditioning and reinforcement schedules. An operant is a behavior that acts on the surrounding...

Words: 3051 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

George Seurat

...Term Paper 1st Draft Georges Seurat’s painting Models (Poseuses) is a rather large oil on canvas painting that can be found at the Barnes Foundation. The painting stands at 73 ¾ by 98 ¾ inches. It is thought that the painting was done somewhere between 1886-1888. Depicted in the painting is 3 models getting dressed, one is standing in the center looking at the viewer, the other to the right is sitting down putting on socks, and the other to the left has her back to the viewer. Strewn around the room are different articles of clothing and shoes, while in the background is a picture of another one of Seurat’s paintings, “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte.” Georges Seurat was a French neoimpressionist painter in the 19th century. Seurat was born in 1859 and passed away in 1891 at the age of 31, after dying of pneumonia. He was well known for creating the pointillist style of paining by using tiny dots of color. He used a method called divisionism, which is defined as “a systematic refinement of the broken color of the impressionists.” Some of his more famous pieces are Baignade and Un Dimance à la Grande Jatte (A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte), which is pictured in the background of Models, as mentioned earlier. Seurat is a very well known painter and his work had a great impact on the art community, and he is well recognized for his “influence in restoring harmonious and deliberate design and a thorough understanding of color combination...

Words: 1146 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Accounting History

...University of Wollongong Research Online Faculty of Business - Accounting & Finance Working Papers 2006 Faculty of Business The Critique of Accounting Theory M. Gaffikin University of Wollongong, Publication Details This working paper was originally published as Gaffikin, M, The Critique of Accounting Theory, Accounting & Finance Working Paper 06/25, School of Accounting & Finance, University of Wollongong, 2006. Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact the UOW Library: 06/25 University of Wollongong School of Accounting & Finance The Critique of Accounting Theory Working Papers Series Michael Gaffikin School of Accounting & Finance University of Wollongong Wollongong NSW 2522 Australia Tel +61 (2) 4221 3718 Fax +61 (2) 4221 4297 eMail The Critique of Accounting Theory Michael Gaffikin* School of Accounting and Finance, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 In previous papers (Gaffikin 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2006) the discussion has examined accounting as a science, with attempts to employ a scientific methodology; as a purely technical expression of economic theory, heavily dominated by research in finance; and as part of “law”, albeit law (regulation) heavily influenced by dominant economic and political ideology. That discussion revealed that all these perspectives...

Words: 9978 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Thomas Green: Power, Office Politics, and a Career in Crisis

...topic of the 1980s. A wide and diverse range of social theorists have argued that today's world is organized by accelerating globalization, which is strengthening the dominance of a world capitalist economic system, supplanting the primacy of the nation-state by transnational corporations and organizations, and eroding local cultures and traditions through a global culture. Contemporary theorists from a wide range of political and theoretical positions are converging on the position that globalization is a distinguishing trend of the present moment, but there are hot debates concerning its nature, effects, and future. Moreover, advocates of a post-modern break in history argue that developments in transnational capitalism are producing a new global historical configuration of post- Fordism, or postmodernism as an emergent cultural logic of capitalism (Harvey 1989; Soja 1989; Jameson 1991; and Gottdiener 1995). Others define the emergent global economy and culture as a "network society" grounded in new communications and information technology (Castells 1996, 1997, and 1998). For its defenders, globalization marks the triumph of capitalism and its market economy (see apologists such as Fukuyama 1992 and Friedman 1999 who perceive this process as positive), while its critics portray globalization as negative (see, for example, Mander and Goldsmith 1996; Eisenstein 1998; and Robins and Webster 1999). Some theorists see the emergence of a new transnational ruling elite...

Words: 1697 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Modern Uses of Theories

...Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow are both well-known psychologist and personality theorists. They both followed the work of Sigmund Freud and helped further Personality theories by adding their distinct studies and knowledge. Both of these Personality theories count on their individual strengths and add value to understanding personality. As with any type of theory, however, come limitations and critiques on scientific studies. Understanding personality in modern day has become easier after following the studies of our former personality Theorists (Feist, Feist & Rogers, 2013). Carl Jung is known for his analytical psychology study through his Psychotherapy Concepts. He created the concept of active imagination in order to connect the unconscious mind with the conscious mind. He believes that through imagination, dreams and meditation clients are able to uncover their unconsciousness into present thoughts through their storyline. The idea behind Active imagination is to uncover a client’s thoughts through indirect observation instead of a direct image of their desires. Another concept is Individuation which involves clients integrating their entire past experiences, whether positive or negative, in such a way that the person can leave it in the past. Therapists can achieve this through dream interpretation and Active Imagination. Accomplishing this results in a healthy, productive and emotionally stable lifestyle for the client. Jungian Psychology has developed over time and is...

Words: 1389 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Conflict

...fortunate Conflict theorists view inequality as wrong. Conflict theory sees social change as rapid, continuous, and inevitable as groups seek to replace each other in the social The social conflict theory often focuses on questions such as how does society divide its population, how do advantaged people protect their privileges or how do the disadvantaged challenge the system and seek change? One example of this would be Crime; Conflict theorists would argue that both crime and the laws defining it are products of a struggle for power. They say that a few powerful groups control the legislative process and that these groups ban behavior that threatens their interests. For example, laws prohibiting trespassing, and theft are said to be designed to protect the wealthy from attacks by the poor. But laws against such things as murder and rape are not clearly in the interests of a certain social class, the poor and powerless are much more likely than the wealthy to be arrested if they commit such crimes. Conflict theorists also see class and ethnic exploitation as a basic cause of many different kinds of crime. Much of the high crime rate among the poor, they argue, is attributable to a lack of legitimate opportunities for improving their economic condition. They would also be likely to point to racism suggesting that crime will disappear only if inequality and misuse in that system and in society are also eliminated. Social Conflict theory does not have many critiques that I could...

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

...wounded soldiers, using her great base knowledge and understanding about the cause and effect of disease and the influence of the environment in healing process, provided a major impact in healthcare and started the beginning of the nursing profession. Her satisfaction however did not end alone in taking care of her patients. She broadened the concept of nursing by research and studies on how to come up with more effective care using statistics, cases and data. Her dedication and the positive outcomes influenced many peoples around the globe and inspired the continuation of her great work. In 1859, Florence Nightingale published her views on nursing care in “Notes on Nursing”. The basis of nursing practice was based on this theory. 1960s Theorist Year Nursing Theories V. Henderson 1960 Basic Principles of Nursing Care I.J. Orlando 1961 The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship: Function, Process, and Principles. E. Wiedenbach 1964 Clinical Nursing: A Helping Art J. Travelbee 1966 Her theory is based on existential humanity , meaning humans are constantly faced with choices and conflicts and are accountable to the choices they make in life, as well as Interpersonal Aspects of...

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Content Priorities

...process of learning. | Conceptual Empiricist | Conceptual Empiricist curriculum is based almost solely on theory. Conceptual Empiricist, “…analyze current situations and suggest alternatives to current patterns and experiences that comprise most curricula.” (Ruck, Marlon 2012) | Conceptual Empiricist focuses more on current situations within the classroom which makes for a better classroom as a whole. They also are open to changing the lessons due to changes in the classrooms. | Conceptual Empiricists may lose sight of some standards since they are so open to change. | I like the conceptual empiricists theory because they are so open to change based on what really works for the classroom. | Reconceptualist or Critical Theorist | These theorists challenge the traditional views on...

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pros And Cons Of Deterrence Theory

...The proponents of deterrence theory, however, would critique the theory of differential association, as theorist might argue that by watching other people, we learn people’s behavior vicariously through the consequences that they endure. Therefore, people will not commit crimes because they will fear the consequences, which will dissuade people from committing crime or engaging in criminal activity. As a result, this theory would argue that interacting with people will not necessarily cause people to commit crime, but will actually deter people from engaging in criminal behavior as they will observe other’s behaviors and fear the consequences of their actions. For example, a 16 year old boy has an older cousin who is currently involved in criminal behavior. Through communication and interaction with one another as family members, the 16 year old will become exposed to his cousins behaviors, which will influence his actions as well. Their close interaction with one another will impact the 16 year old’s behavior as he will acquire his cousins beliefs and values through their close ties. Deterrence theorists will argue, however, that by observing his cousins behaviors, the 16 year old will become fearful of the penalties of crime and...

Words: 546 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...phenomenon such as how the elite in society dominate and control; the inequality between of race, class, gender, sexuality and nation. In this paper, I will refer to three theorists: Michel Foucault, Audre Lorde and Patrica Hill Collins to analyze their vision of the ideal society and what should it be like. Also, I will also mention what we should need to do to get there. Michel Foucault is the French philosopher and one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th Century. He wrote different kinds of books and the most special one is about a new way to view the prison system. In this book, he used discipline and punishment to lay out his thoughts on how the elite in society dominate and control the society. Foucault is an anarchist and dislike societal rules. He thought these rules affected on the human spirit. Foucault’s theories mentioned the nature of power and its functions. It means power controls knowledge and how it is used as a form of social control. He analyzed the word of power is easy to cause some misunderstandings with a mode of subjugation, violence or form of the rule. In his theory, he does not agree to use a general system of domination produced by other groups which affected the society. In his discussions on power and dissertation, they have influenced many theorists. Those theorists believe that Foucault’s analysis of power structures could help the strove against inequality. In Foucault’s society should not be constantly engendering states of power...

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Traditional Psychdynamic Theories

...Traditional Psychodynamic Theories Jay Owen Lynn Hagan December 7, 2015 Over time, many famous theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung compiled theories comprised of their theories of personalities. Traditional psychodynamic theories of personalities played a major role in contemporary psychodynamic theories of today. Each of these famous theorists, Freud, Adler, and Jung, contributed with their tenets of the psychodynamic theories of personality to explain how their theory explains how an individual’s personality is form. While each of these theories is an explanation of how an individual’s personality is form, each theory has its strengths as well as its weaknesses in its explanation. Each theorists, Freud, Adler, and Jung, have alternative theories of personality based on their “personal backgrounds, childhood experiences, philosophy of life, interpersonal relationships, and unique manner of looking at the world” (Feist, 2013, p. 7). Because of the different “experiences,” of these theorists, they used different data sets and their observations possibly skewed because of their personal experiences. Therefore, each theorist’s definition of personality could differ because of their personal characteristics, cognitive processes, and their belief in the nature of humanity (Feist, 2013, "What is Personality"). In order to understand Freud’s, Adler’s and Jung’s psychodynamic theories of personality, an individual needs to understand the definition...

Words: 1143 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Accounting Regulation

...people lobby for regulations that increase their wealth, or they lobby to ensure that regulations are ineffective in decreasing their wealth. 3: Private Interest Theory Stigler’s private interest theory – he argues that regulatory activity reflects the relative political power between interest groups. Interaction is with politicians who are not neutral arbiters but are like business executives or consumers - and are thus rationally self interested. Private interest theories favour producer groups as the most likely to become organised interest groups. Theorists believe that regulation does not arise as a result of a government‘s response to public demands – it is sought by the producer private interest group - and is designed and operated primarily for its benefit. QUESTION TWO –ACCOUNTING THEORY 12 * Normative theories Normative theories are prescriptive - they prescribe the “best” way to account. Normative theorists advance their own models to improve accounting practice. It focuses on true income (profit) for decision making. The major issue are the impact of changing price environment and the impact on income, assets, liabilities and equity. Normative theories are...

Words: 1607 - Pages: 7